The expected ratio of white cubs born to tawny-coloured white gene carriers would be 25% (average across several litters). Where a litter of white cubs was born to tawny parents the most likely explanation is "fever coat" where cubs are born pale, and develop colour later on. This is due to unusually high temperature in the womb e.g. the mother was unwell during pregnancy. Many of the accounts of white cubs herald their birth with great excitement. One or two mention the development of tawny colour as the cubs mature, but in most cases the white cubs simply disappeared from the news as they developed normal colour.

Before the discovery of the white mutation in Timbavati, almost all white cubs can be attributed to fever coat, with a very few possibly being albino. The reports often refer to "albino cubs," using this description interchangeably with "white cubs."

ALBINO LION CUBS. Lady's Own Paper - Saturday 22 March 1851.
Within the past fortnight two births of a singular character have taken place in Wombwell's celebrated collection of wild animals now in Sheffield. The first instance is that of a noble lioness, which a few days since cast a splendid litter of cubs, four in number, three of them being white, and the fourth of the usual colour; the last has since died, and has been presented to the Halifax Museum. This is the second litter of albino cubs this lioness has produced, and what renders it more remarkable is that the sire and dam are of the black maned Barbary species. The second case is that of two very fine hybrid cubs, the joint produce of a royal Bengal tiger and a beautiful Mexican pantheress.

[WHITE LION HOAX] In 1860 all London was aroused over a clever April fool trick which was perpetrated on some of the best families. On March thirty-first a large number of persons received post cards conveying the following invitation: "TOWER OF LONDON. Admit bearer and friends to view the annual ceremony of washing the white lions on Sunday, April 1st, 1860. It is particularly requested that no gratuities be given to the wardens of their assistants. Entrance at the White Gate." In one corner of the card was a seal which proved to be the die of an inverted sixpence put on to give the invitation an official appearance. The result of the hoax was greater perhaps than the perpetrator imagined it would be, for it is said that hundreds of people went to the town in response to the invitation and all day long cabs rattled about the walls, the drivers inquiring for the White Gate.
[Until the 1830s, numerous exotic animals were kept at the Tower of London menagerie. London Zoo opened to the public in 1847. It was therefore plausible that there were real white lions at the Tower of London, perhaps those advertised by Wombwell in 1850, and that they were grimy from London's polluted air. As far back as April 1, 1698, citizens were invited to the Tower of London to see the "Washing of the Lions" – no colour specified back then - in the tower moat.]

AN ALBINO LION Hagerstown Exponent, 16th July 1890
Strange Freak of Nature Reported from the Robinson Circus Out West.
A remarkable freak of nature is reported from the Robinson Circus, which is at present out West. On Tuesday last the big lioness "Nellie" threw a litter of cubs, and among them was one as white as snow. The town of Missoula, Mont., where the cubs first saw the light of day, was considerably excited over the curiosity, and flocked to the tent by hundreds to see the Albino. The oldest inhabitant had never seen the like before, and it is doubtful if such a thing as a white lion had ever before been heard of. Albino men, women and birds are very common, and there is a page in history devoted to a description of a white elephant and the reverence shown it by the natives, but there is no record of a white lion ever having been whelped. The Robinson boys are very much elated oer the freak, and every possible effort will be made to raise the cub, In case it lives, it will prove one of the greatest attractions of the show.

THE WHITE LION The Seattle Post Intelligencer, 22nd July 1890
This American lion, of African descent, was born at Anaconda, Mon., on July 7, 1890. It is pure white, with pink eyes, in fact a genuine albino lion. It has no counterpart on earth. A white lion has never been known to students of zoology in the past. It is therefore a marvellous curiosity, and being the only one, its great rarity makes it invaluable to its owner. It is with the great John Robinson show, which gives two exhibitions today in Seattle.

IT'S A WHITE LION THIS TIME The Sun, 1st August 1890
A Western Circus with a Positively New Freak of Nature.
DEER LODGE, Mont., July 31. The birth of an albino, or white lion, disturbed this place during the recent performance here of old John Robinson's circus. Robinson is in the seventh heaven of delight, and declares that he not only possesses one of the most remarkable freaks of nature, but at the same time has a circus feature that will completely eclipse the alleged white elephant of Forepaugh. Just before the beginning of the afternoon show a large African lioness, Nellie, gave birth to three cubs. Two are of the usual tawny color of all lions, but the other was as white as the driven snow. Nor is there a spot or blemish to mar its immaculate color. The cubs are doing very well, and present indications are favourable for raising the freak. A white lion has never before been boasted of, and some animals are common enough. Robinson has received many telegrams of congratulations over his good fortune, and it is said to-day that a Washington scientist has started for the West to examine the newcomer.

[ALBINO LION The Evening World, 1st August 1890
An Albino lion is an odd thing, and when it makes its appearance in the cage of a menagerie it is like striking a vein of gold in a quartz mine. A snowy complexioned king of beasts has gladdened the soul of old John Robinson, who is more tickled over this leonine snowdrop that a young father over his first born. Fortune smiles on some.

AN ALBINO LION The Morning Journal Courier, 21st October 1890
The First One of Which There is Any Record Dies in Infancy. (From the San Francisco Examiner.)
One of Nellie's babies died yesterday, and the event has thrown the Robinson circus into mourning. Nellie is the majestic African lioness, who, with her two whelps has been the center of attraction in the menagerie during the past week. Up in Deer Lodge, Mont., on July 3 last she gave birth to three little lions, two of which were males. The female whelp was a rarity in the lion world, inasmuch as instead of being the tawny color peculiar to African lions, it was snow white. Never before was a white lion born in the world, or at least if such a one was born there is no record of human eyes ever having seen it. So when the little snowball made its appearance in Deer Lodge the big canvas tent was filled with the attaches of the circus.

John Robinson considered that he had a curiosity which would prove an immense attraction, and he said that $25,000 could not buy the whelp. With the hundreds of workmen who travel with the circus the white lion became a great pet, while the keeper of the animals could not have handled one of his own babies more tenderly, and Robinson's little daughters, ae respectively 10 and 14 years, viewed it as the apple of the eyes. It was their custom during the hours when the vast canvas was destitute of visitors, to beg the animal keeper to give them the baby lions to play with. There is not a man in the circus who can refuse the little girls anything, so they generally had their way. Taking the babies out of Nellie's cage is a very delicate proceeding, and many a narrow escape did the keeper have in doing it. The old lioness is driven into one end of the cage and is kept there under pain of being pricked with a sharp iron. Then while somebody holds open a small door in the bars, the animal keeper quickly snatches the whelps out of the cage.

On one occasion Nellie overcame her dread of the sharp iron and sprang at the keeper's hands. He still carries it in bandages as evidence that her claws are very sharp. The first time the whelps were taken from the cage Nellie raised a fearful outcry, throwing herself against the bars and roaring frightfully. But after a while she became accustomed to seeing the little girls tumbling the whelps over each other on the sawdust in front of the cage, and now she makes no complaint.

The little white baby was the favorite with the children, as it was with everybody else travelling with the show. It was their pet, and the little animal got to know them very well, and liked them so much that it would eat food from their hands. Old Nellie apparently understood that the children would not harm her little one, for she never growled or objected in any way when they put their hands between the bars to pet or feed her young. She was more lenient with the children than she was with her consort, Prince, who occupied another compartment of her cage, and never pays attention to his progeny except when he steals their food at mealtimes. He understands that he has to be very careful, however, because one day he put his paw into Nellie's boudoir and tried to steal a choice morsel of meat from one of the little ones, but the old lioness gave the paw such a crunch between her strong jaws that he still limps when he takes his exercise.

Last Monday one of the men working in the circus put his hand between the bars of the cage to pet the white whelp. Nellie was feeling cross and resented the intrusion of the hand by trying to grab it between her teeth. The hand escaped in time, and Nellie's jaw closed on her white beauty. Evidently thinking she had the hand, she gave Snowball a toss and the infant was hurled against the bars. When the lioness saw her baby lying motionless on the floor of the cage she whined pitifully, meanwhile licking it with her tongue as though trying to repair the damage she had unwittingly done. The keeper took the little one from the cage and restored it to consciousness. No bones were broken, but it was evident that the pet of the menagerie had sustained internal injuries.

Everybody was sorely grieved, but none more so than Robinson's children. They were given permission to take the baby home with them, where doctors were called, and the best of care given it. Everything failed, however, and slowly the baby lioness drooped until yesterday, when it died. With tears in their eyes they carried the wee corpse to the circus and showed it to the attaches. The negro hands were grief-stricken, and sounds of lamentations filled the air. They could not have wept more bitterly if some near relative had died. The attendants wished to bury the body, but Robinson secured the skin, and after it has been stuffed will present it t the New York museum. Old Nellie evidently felt keenly the loss of her offspring. There is a wistful look in her eyes, which she keeps riveted upon the exit in the canvas through which her lost pet disappeared when taken away from her.

[ALBINO LION] Chillicothe Gazette, 24th May 1899
The largest and most valuable lion ever imported to this country arrived this afternoon to play an important part in the street fair animal show. This lion is a native of Siberia, and is white in colour, being in fact the only Albino lion in captivity in this country. $15,000 has been offered for the beast by the directors of the Zoological Gardens in Central Park, new York.
[Lions are not native to Siberia.]

[ALBINO LION] Dayton Daily News, 22nd June 1899
In connection with the Canton Carnival there is an Albino lion, the only one of its kind in existence. It is a freak and will prove a winner.

[ALBINO LION] The Akron Beacon Journal, 17th July 1899
The National Wild Animal show comes next with an interesting and instructive collection of foreign and native animals. Here may be seen the only Albino lion in captivity, the dancing bear, huge snakes, panthers and rare beasts from all parts of the world.

A WHITE LION. The Dubbo Liberal and Macquarie Advocate (NSW), 13th July, 1910.
Mr. Geoffrey William describes in the Badminton [Badminton Magazine of Sports and Pastimes, March 1910] an exciting encounter he had with a white lion in the strange country of the Macheina. Here is his account of his first peep at it:- "The rustling in the bushes increased, and out stalked a beast the like of which I had never seen before. The head was that of a lion, but the build was more graceful and easy, reminding one of the leopard tribe; but the strangest thing about it was the color, which was a light grey, almost - white.
The full account appears to be a story, not a factual account, and is at White Lion, story by By Geoffrey Williams

Freaks in Liondom Were Born Two Weeks Ago at Vandiver Park; Mother Is "Sultana," Normal African Lioness, While "Brutus," the Father, Was Denizen of Africa, Also.
Two interesting freaks may be seen by those interested at Howe's Great London Shows, now in winter quarters at Vandiver. Park. The great, circus king, Barnum, had a white elephant; but it remained for Montgomery to have the distinction of being the birth-place of the first white lions on record, according to the circus people. The "freak" lions are a pair of male cubs, born at Vandiver Park some two weeks ago. They are both entirely white in color, of normal size, and are making good progress towards growing up into real sure ‘nuff lions some day. They are the first white lions on record, according to C.D. Odum, manager Of Howe's Great London Shows, who stated that lions are ordinarily born spotted in color, like leopards, turning to the usual tawny hue as they grow older; but never has he known them to have white markings at any stage of their growth.

The mother of the two cubs is "Sultana" a normal African lioness, jungle raised, of the black maned species; While their father is a big lion christened "Brutus" who also grew up in the jungles of Africa, of the same species as his mate. When seen Thursday, the cubs and their mother were in a cage which had been darkened by a tarpaulin thrown over its entrance, in order to prevent the mother from examining her young ones too closely. This was a necessary precaution, the Keeper explained, since the mother might kill her own youngsters if she discovered them to be so different from ordinary well-behaved young lions.

HUNTING THE WHITE LION. The World's News (Sydney, NSW), 6th November 1926.
Fabled animals - one a lake monster "twice as big as a hippopotamus" - are to be sought by an expedition of six Englishmen, which is starting shortly for unexplored areas around the great lakes in the north-east section of the Belgian Congo. Other objects of the expedition, which will be led by Colonel H. F. Fenn, D.S.O., an ex-officer who has spent seven years in big-game hunting in Central Africa, are to film for the first time the gorilla in its natural home, and to secure for the Natural History Museum specimens of the rare blue gorilla, besides other animals which have never been seen by white men . . . The most remarkable is called the Irizema, which native reports state to be a white animal like a large lion and spotted like a leopard. Prince William of Sweden, who undertook a shooting trip to districts near territory which we shall visit, heard of this supposed animal.

TWO WHITE LION CUBS ARE BORN The Ventura County Star, 19th March 1930
EL MONTE, Calif., March 19.- Two white cub lions, believed unique in the annals of natural history, today were the objects of ‘curiosity at the Gay Lion Farm here. Eva, daughter of the famous movie lion, Numa, gave birth to four white cubs yesterday but killed two of them before attendants could interfere. Charles Gay, proprietor of the farm and a recognized authority on lions, said he had never before heard of white lions. Out of 200 cubs born at the Gay farm in recent years, these are the only ones which have not appeared in the regulation tawny hides.

WHITE LION CUBS The Des Moines Register, 30th March 1930
Eva, the mother of these two cubs in California was so startled when a litter was all white that she turned on her offspring and killed all but two before she could be stopped. Here are the downy white survivors, held by Mrs Charles Gay, wife of the lion farm proprietor.

NUMA, 16, MONARCH OF 180-LION FARM, ENDS 8-YEAR REIGN. The Indianapolis Star, 3rd November 1930
Numa, magnificent 400-pound Abyssinian lion [Gay's lion farm] . . .One of Numa's distinctions was as a sire of four white lion cubs, a rarity. They lived but nine days.

ROAR OF THE LION Brooklyn Times Union, 22nd May 1935
One of nature's queerest offsprings, an albino lion, will make his radio debut in Pathe News of the Air over an MBS network at 9:45 tonight. This unusual sequence was made on a California lion farm on special assignment for the air-reel program. The white lion's uncanny ability to communicate with its trainer through various shades of "roars'' will be demonstrated for the radio audience in another exclusive Sound Behind the Headlines feature. The White King of the Jungle had never before made a public. appearance and sound cameramen who went to the lion farm experienced considerable difficulty in getting their "shots" and escaping with the film and a whole skin.

ALBINO BORN ON LION FARM The Sumner Gazette, 20th June 1935
Through magazine articles and animal motion pictures, many people are familiar with the Gay Lion farm at El Monte, Calif. Recently an albino lion cub, healthy and normal in every respect was born there. Albino lions are extremely rare and according to African superstition, the sight of one brings the fulfilment of any wish.

WHITE LION CUBS SHOWN BY GOEBEL Ventura County Star, 13th February 1939
Lion-tamer Louis Goebel, of Thousand Oaks, whose wild animal collection is one of the most renowned in the United States, paid Ventura a visit recently, accompanied by his pleasing young wife. If there is anything to be learned about the taming of wild animals he will be among the first to know about it. At his Thousand Oaks farm Goebel keeps in his cages such famed animals as Leo, the M.-G.M. lion, and the Gilmore lions.

[. . .] The animal farm in the Conejo district has been the scene of the filming of scores of wild animal pictures. Last year a crowd of more than a thousand jammed the Goebel arena to witness a highly successful circus performance staged by Louie's friends. The newest exhibit at the Goebel farm is a litter of three-months-old lion cubs, pure white. The first litter died young, but Goebel has reason to believe these will live.

"White lions are most rare," Goebel said. "I am afraid of one thing, however . . ." Then he explained that streaks of yellow hair were beginning to show in the white, a sign that soon the cubs would turn their normal color.

RARE WHITE LION CUBS MAKE THEIR DEBUT The Boston Globe, 22nd December 1939
Four 2-weeks-old rare white lion cubs, weighing 3-and-a-half pounds each were taken away from their mother to have their first picture taken, at Gay's Lion Far, El Monte, Calif. According to Charles Gay, noted lion trainer, they are the only ones in the world in captivity.

FOUR WHITE LIONS BORN IN CALIFORNIA. Daily Mirror, 6th January 1940.
Four WHITE lions born in California. But the mother was an ordinary tawny lioness. And the Zoo cannot explain the phenomena. Anyhow, since they're the only WHITE lion cubs in captivity and they're worth quite a lot, nobody minds.

WHITE LION CUB BORN The Morning Call, 7th Match 1941
A lion cub pure white in colour is causing much excitement among the superstitious and others in Kyushu, japan. It is one of three born to a lioness in the zoo. M. Tsutsui of the Osaka Zoo believes it may be a pure albino.

WHITE LION CUB WITH BLUE EYES IS BORN AT ZOO Oakland Tribune, 22nd September 1948
It isn't the season for snow or for baby lions at the Alameda County Zoological Gardens, but Sidney Snow, director of the gardens, reported today that he has both in one package, a snow-white lion cub. The oddity of nature was born a week ago last Sunday to King an Queen, the African lion mates, but it wasn't until today that Snow could be fairly sure the cub would live.

The infant is not an albino, for it has the normal blue eyes of a lion (or had you looked lately?), but it is completely white over all its hide, except for the tips of its ears. Snow has the cub in an incubator no, with the temperature just under 80 degrees, and he explained he is being extremely careful not to "cook" the baby's coat into normal lion brown. "I think she will lose her white coloring when she sheds this fur," he said, "and I don't want to hurry the shedding. If we keep the temperature down – to simulate winter conditions – the cub may keep its white fur until spring."

Once before, at the zoological gardens, a non-albino white animal was born. It was one of a litter of California mountain lions and soon shed its white coat. "I went down to the cages and my white baby was gone," Snow said, "It had turned brown."

He explained that such births are not unusually rare in the animal kingdom. They just aren't common.

ONE IN A MILLION The Orlando Sentinel, 2nd November 1956
(Photo caption) An albino lion cub takes time out for lunch with his foster mother, Lady, a greyhound. Both animals are property of Benson Brothers Circus which winters at New Smyrna Beach. The all-white cub, named King Midas, was born in Anderson, S.C., and circu officials said the albino is "one in a million." Lady had to adopt King Midas because the cub's mother had been killing her young.

OUR RAREST ANIMAL- AN ALBINO LION. The Age, 5th July 1961 (Australia).
ADELAIDE, Tuesday - Australia's rarest animal - a four-day-old albino lioness - is one of three cubs being hand reared by Mrs. Charlie Adkins, wife of the Adelaide Zoo's head keeper. The albino has to be fed milk with an eye dropper, as it is too weak to suck from a bottle. Mrs. Adkins and her husband have been fighting to save the valuable albino and another cub since Saturday, when the pair, cold, limp and almost dead, were removed from their neglectful mother, Juliana. Mrs. Adkins also took over the hand rearing of a third cub after the fourth cub of the litter had died because of the mother's neglect. The albino is little more than the half the size of the other cubs. ALBINO LION CUB DIES; ONLY ONE LEFT. The Age, 7th July 1961 (Australia).
ADELAIDE, Thursday- The albino lioness and another of the unwanted litter of four, born to Juliana at Adelaide's Zoo, died early this morning. Their deaths occurred after an all-night effort by Mrs. C Adkins, wife of the zoo's head keeper, to save them. Zoo attendants are fighting to save the life of another tiny lion cub, the last of the litter of four, which was taken from Juliana last Saturday. The albino cub, nick-named Whitey, was believed to be the only albino lion in captivity in the world. Mrs. Adkins nursed the dying cubs until after midnight this morning and fed them with an eyedropper every three or four hours. The cubs were placed on a blanket, in a box in the laundry of Mrs. Adkins home at the zoo. The director of the Zoo (Mr. V Haggard) said that the cubs would not have lived had they been left with Juliana.

RARE WHITE LION BORN AT RESERVE The Miami Herald, 18th November 1967
LOXAHATCHEE – An extremely rare white lion cub has been born at Lion Country Safari and is getting lots of tender, loving care from its tawny-skinned mother. James Chipperfield, the founder and owner of Lion Country Safari, with 90 years' experience in handling wild African animals, said it's the first white lion he has heard of.

Monty Koppel, executive vice president, disclosed Friday that the baby lion was born three days ago. The cub and its mother are now indoors in a secluded pen that's used as a "maternity ward" for pregnant lionesses. "We can't tell yet whether its a male or female," said Koppel. "We don't go near it, for fear of disturbing the mother lion."

He explained that most lionesses, when they're transplanted from Africa to another habitat, refuse to care for their young. This one, however, is nursing her cub - and the Lion Country people don't want to ruin a good thing. This also explains why the news of the white cub's birth was withheld three days, Koppel said. He and other officials were afraid to draw attention to it and no reporters or photographers have been permitted near it, he said. "It's pure white," said Koppel. "It's not an albino, but a pure white lion." He said he could see no spots, like most lion cubs have.

The cub has not yet opened its eyes. But it is "moving about," said Koppel. It doesn't exactly walk but manages to roll and crawl around its pen. Carlos Gurado Gloria, the chief "white hunter" and animal handler on the lion preserve in central Palm Beach County, said never in his 19 years of hunting and trapping lions in Africa did he ever hear of a white one.

WEST PALM BEACH – A rare white lion cub born a week ago was in "critical" condition Wednesday at Glades General Hospital, normally reserved for the care of humans. Rejected by its normal tawny-colored mother, the cub has been placed in an oxygen tent by Dr. Clarence Kidder, a Belle Glade veterinarian. A private duty nurse has been called in.

"The mother lion knocked it around a bit," Dr. Kidder said. He takes care of most of the wild animals at Lion Country Safari, a Palm Beach County tourist attraction where the cub was born.

"The cub got wet and cold and wasn't breathing well ... its body temperature was very low, below 90. Normally, it's 102 degrees," Dr. Kidder said.

For a week, the mother, a tawny-coated lioness, took good care of the furry white cub. Authorities on lions say a white lion is extremely rare. James Chipperfield, owner of Lion Country, said last week that this was the first white lion he had heard of in 50 years' experience handling wild African animals. About 11:30 a.m. Wednesday, the mother lion began to shove the little female cub away with her muzzle. Jerry Eden, one of the officials at Lion Country, said "the mother evidently rejected it and started swatting it." Dr. Kidder found no external injuries, however.

Rejection of their young is common among lions in captivity, particularly when the lions have been moved recently from one habitat to another.

Mr. Kidder said the cub was warmer since it was placed in the controlled environment of the oxygen tent, "but it's doing poorly on breathing."

As soon as handlers saw the mother lion pushing the cub away, they removed it from the special indoor "maternity" pen. This was the first time the cub had been touched by humans, Dr. Kidder said. It was also the first time an animal had been admitted to Glades General Hospital. Dr. Kidder said he could have taken the cub to his own animal hospital in Belle Glade but wanted access to the oxygen unit at Glades General.

RARE WHITE LION FIGHTS FOR LIFE. Reading Evening Post, 23rd November 1967.
A week-old rare white lion cub. rejected by its tawny-coated mother, was fighting for its life today under an oxygen tent at a West Palm Beach, Florida, hospital. A private duty nurse tended the tiny animal, said to be "worth a king's ransom." The cub, called "Lucky," was rushed to the hospital after its mother began slapping it around at an animal exhibition. James Chipperfield, a game-warden, said it is the first white lion he has seen in 50 years of experience handling African beasts.

BELLE GLADE - A German zoo owner, Hermann Ruhe, and his wife, Ann, were among those present when ‘‘Lucky," the only white lion cub known to have been born in captivity, was released from Glades General Hospital, Thursday. The rare animal was born at the Lion Country Safari, Nov. 14. Eight days later, the mother, "Sleepy," a 5-year-old 300-pounder, mauled her cub so badly she was taken to the hospital. Dr. Clarence W. Kidder, veterinarian at the recently-opened safari located west of West Palm Beach was permitted access to the local hospital for the cub, as the old wing of the institution was not in use.

Ben Clarke, administrator, presented a bill for the care of the cub to Monte Koppel, director of the reservation. Clarke said the charge for the room alone was $7 per day, and the owners hired and paid registered nurses $28 per 8-hour shift for caring for the cub, and $22 per shift for licensed practical nurses. "Lucky" was kept in a regular baby incubator from the time she was admitted until about 11 a.m., Thursday, when the Lion Country officials, their German guests, and newsmen attended the "check out" at the cashier's cage.

From the hospital, the cub was taken to the Kidder Animal Clinic on NW Avenue L, where she remained until later in the day. For at least 10 to weeks, Kidder said, he will care for the cub at his residence here, with assistance from his wife, Betty, a laboratory technician at the local hospital, and their two children, John, 17, and Jan, 16. A gift from a neighbor, according to Mrs. Kidder, will provide a temporary "cage" for the cub at the residence. It is a two-by-four foot nylon play pen, that has been reinforced for the occasion. When. the cub was released from the hospital, the veterinarian was accompanied to his clinic by one of the special duty nurses, Mrs. Suzanne Wallis, who remained with the animal until her tour of duty concluded at 3 p.m.

Prior to the checkout, at the hospital, most of the nurses on duty were given a "break" in order to pay their farewells to the cub that has become the topic of conversation since her arrival.

Ruhe, who owns zoos at both Hannover and Gelsenkirchen, in the Ruhr Valley, said he and his wife are in Florida to attend the American Association of Zoo, Parks and Aquarium Keepers that will meet at Busch Gardens, Tampa, Dec. 3. He said there have been other occasions when animals with white-coloring were born, and the mother decided to do away with them. Ruhe, however, said he could not recall an all-white lion cub ever having been reported. It was his opinion that "Lucky" will not change her coloration and thus remain a "one in-a-million" attraction. When Ruhe arrived at the Lion Country Safari, he said he had not heard of the white cub previously. He requested permission to make the trip to the hospital to take a look at "Lucky."

"When a white animal is born in the jungle," the German visitor said, ‘‘it loses its ability to hide and draws attention to itself and the herd in which it travels." As a means of self-preservation, the mother or other members of the pack destroy the animal.

MORE WHITE LION CUBS BORN. The Miami Herald, 29th December 1967.
Remember that white lion cub that was born a while back at Lion Country Safari, west of Palm Beach? Well, she's not in a class by herself any more. Three more of the furry little things were born Dec. 6, but one of them died a few days later. News of the recent births was kept under wraps while a zoologist tried to figure out why the sudden boom in white lion cubs. No answer has been found yet.

West Palm Beach's zoo director came up with a theory Friday to explain the birth of white lion cubs at Lion Country Safari. Ed Kerrison is director of the Dreher Park Zoo, which has no lions but is the home of Joey the kangaroo. He believes the recent rash of white cubs – four were born in the past two months – is simply a case of obedience to the laws of genetics.

Kerrison surmises that the father of Lucky, the first white lion cub, and the father of the two survivors of the latest brood of three cubs, are one and the same lion. This papa lion, says Kerrison, probably carries a recessive white gene. The two mother lions also possess the recessive gene, Kerrison theorizes. Somewhere back in their family tree, they are related to the male lion. When the male and female lions both carry the recessive white gene, it gives their offspring a "double-dose" of the whiteness factor, Kerrison says, and this produces white cubs. Furthermore, Kerrison believes that if these white cubs grow up and become romantically involved, their offspring will also be white.

By Friday, the mother of the two younger cubs was still providing her youngsters with tender loving care. Lucky's mother rejected him a week after he was born on Nv 14. He had to be placed in an incubator at Glades General Hospital. Lucky is now in a glass-enclosed pen at Lion Country, while the younger cubs and their normally coloured mother are in an indoor enclosure, away from the sightseers who visit Lion Country each day.

[The genetics is correct but the fact that the cubs all developed normal colouration indicates "fever coat."]

ROYAL PALM BEACH – Lion Country Safari may be able to develop a whole family of rare white lions within two years, a Venezuelan zoo director said Tuesday. C. Peter Trebbeau, director of the El Pinar Zoo at Caracas, Inspected Lucky, the first of four white lions born at Lion Country late last year. "This is the first time I've ever heard of a white lion cub," he said. He is undoubtedly unique. "He is outstanding, very beautiful," Trebbeau said, "and may be vitally important in the development of an entire new strain of white lions in two years when mated with the other white cubs."

Lucky, an all white cub, was born Nov. 14. The two other surviving cubs were from a litter of three born Dec. 6, but one died three days later. Unlike all-white Lucky, these cubs have tiny markings of black and brown on their faces.

‘"They're a mutation, not albinos," Trebbeau said, "therefore there is every possibility that the new strain can be developed. It is very exciting."

Although the cubs won't produce offspring for about two years, Trebbeau said more white cubs would probably be born at Lion Country because "they know which of the big cats produced these." He predicted that "they have a great chance to go on reproducing white cubs, and the new breed will be strengthened and firmly established." The Caracas Zoo, Trebbeau said, has several white kangaroos and South American rodents which live in Venezuela and an albino deer. "Maybe in a few years we'll be fortunate enough to get a white lion from here," he said.

WHITE CUB DEVELOPING TAN. The Palm Beach Post, 1st March 1968.
"Lucky" the snow-white cub born at Lion Country Safari on Nov. 14, is beginning to show its true colours. Lucky seems to be nursing a Florida tan – its muzzle, fore-paws and other parts of her body are turning a light brown. Despite the gradual change in the coat, veteran animal trainers at the safari, located on State Road 80 near Royal Palm Beach, are hopeful that the cub will be the precursor of a new strain of Florida lion in the future. Although it has now lost her billing as the world's only white lion cub born in captivity, the cub is still the pampered darling of safari officials.

A WHOLE NEW BREED OF CAT. The Miami Herald, 7th March 1968.
Lucky, billed as the world's only pure white lion cub, has begun showing other colors. Lion Country Safari officials are hoping the light brown on her muzzle and paws won't spread.

[LION COUTRY SAFARI] The Miami Herald, 18th October 1968.
First, you may recall, a "white hunter" used mouth-to-mouth resuscitation to save the life of a drowning lioness. Later, a lioness gave birth to a rare white lion cub that snagged a lot of headlines. When he gradually acquired a Florida tan, the cub was relegated to the back pages.

[WHITE LIONS, SOUTHAM ZOO]., Coventry Evening Telegraph, 19th July 1974.
Kerry Moore, aged 12, a visitor, gets to grips with these two cuddly white lion cubs are Southam Zoo. They were born at the zoo on Sunday and left zoo owners Les and Pauline Clews staring in surprise at their remarkable colour. "They are much lighter than any lion cubs we have ever seen or bred," said Mrs Clews. The cubs' mother and father, Sheeba (8) and Simba (7) have between them produced for litters over the past few years – and all but the latest arrivals have had normal tawny-gold coats. "They are really beautiful and very soft," added Mrs Clews.

Mr and Mrs Clews will watch their progress with interest in case the cubs turn out to be albinos. A pinkish eye will confirm that – but only when their eyes are fully open. Right now the two cubs – both are female – are learning how to walk and are enjoying being licked and cleaned up by mum – who was herself reared on the bottle by Mr and Mrs Clews and spent her first two years in the Clews household. The cubs, however, are being given a flying start to life by the benefit of mum's milk, and have already doubled their birth weight.

RARE LION CUB BORN Daily World, 31st July 1974
A Canyonland Park lioness named "Lisa" gave birth to this four-pound black-eyed, white male cub Monday in Fort Payne, Ala. Guy Wilson, bottle feeding the cub, was one of many excited zoo officials to play close attention to the newborn cub, named "King Solomon." It is possibly the first white lion cub born in captivity.

RARE WHITE LION CUB [. . .] BORN IN ALABAMA The Miami herald, 1st August 1974
Zoo officials in Fort Payne, Ala [. . .] nursed [. . .] a white lion cub believed the first born in captivity. Employes at the Canyonland Park Zoo in Fort Payne were bottle-feeding the two-day-old, four pound lion cub, a male named King Solomon. The white lion was born two days ago to a lioness named Lisa. Park Director Billy McDow said he had contacted other zoo directors and veterinarians who said they knew of no other such birth.

"I've read of a white lion born in captivity, and I've certainly never seen a white lion," said Birmingham Zoo Director Bob Truett. [Note: this comment is the reason the birth is often wrongly attributed to Birmingham, Alabama]

The white lion born at the zoo in Fort Payne was the 21st lion cub born at the zoo, McDow said, "We raise them all on bottles." But in order to do that, zoo workers must obtain one feeding from the mother lion in order to transfer natural immunity to the cub. "That's a tricky situation, milking a lioness," McDow said. "Even though we raised Lisa from birth, when she became a mamma she forgot she had ever been tamed."

[SOLOMON THE WHITE LION]. Excerpt from Nall Animal Hospital webpage.
"During the 1970's the first white lion born in captivity was born at Canyon Land Park in Fort Payne, Alabama. They asked me if I would raise him and told me he had been insured for 2.5 million dollars. We named him Solly and he lived with me as a house pet for a little over a year. I would also take him with me to the clinic during the day. When Solly was three months old and doing well, we made the news public. He had many visitors. I had him house and leash trained and he made quite a hit. . . . When Solly was about 13 months old he was sold to a zoo in North Carolina. His color had darkened some yet still remained about half the color of the normal lion darkness.

WHITE LION CUB BORN IN FLORIDA The Dispatch, 20th November 1974
Wes Palm beach, Fla. A rare white lion cub has been born at Florida's Lion Country Safari – the third, according to officials, to be born in captivity and the second born here. Lion Country officials said the cub, named "Sukari" – Swahili for sugar – was reportedly born sometime after the 640-acre wildlife preserve closed on Sunday, Nov 10, but officials withheld announcing the animal during the "first critical days of its life."

Sukari, a fourth-generation relative of Elsa, the famed lioness of the "Born Free" motion picture, was born to a normal three-and-a-half year-old lioness named Jill. A normal male cub was also born and the two have been removed to the park's animals hospital, Lion Country officials said.

The world's first known white lion cub, a female named "Lucky," was also born at Lion Country nearly seven years ago. A second white cub was reportedly born several months ago at a privately-owned zoo at Fort Payne, Ala. However both animals have undergone color changes. Lion Country veterinarian Dr Clarence Kidder said "the hormone which produces pigmentation in the hair is not now present (Sukari)," but he added that the cub is "definitely not albino."

WILL SUKARI TURN INTO BROWN SUGAR? The Palm Beach Post, 21st November 1974
A rare white lion cub has been born at Lion Country Safari, but officials think it will turn out to be a turncoat just like the only other two white cubs they've ever heard of being born. Sukari - sugar in Swahili - was born Nov. 10, but announcement of the birth was delayed to be sure the cub would survive the first critical days. The little ball of fur, which actually has a slight tan tint, was the guest on a "meet the press" session yesterday morning, but didn't seem to enjoy the limelight, crawling up to her normal-looking brother and burying her face in his beige fur. But with her eyes barely opened she can hardly see, and may simply have been showing a little insecurity.

The world's first known white lion cub. a female named "Lucky,"' also was born at Lion Country, officials say. That was about seven years ago, and the cub gradually became browner until at about six months her color was almost indistinguishable from that of the other cubs. Several months ago, a second white lion cub was born in a zoo in Fort Payne, Ala. The zoo's veterinarian, who is raising the cub in his home, has reported a darkening of the cub's fur in recent weeks, according to the Lion Country veterinarian, Dr. Clarence Kidder.

Asked if he thought Sukari would turn brown, Kidder said, "I expect it will. She's got a 100 per cent chance of turning brown. We don't have any other knowledge." No one knows of any lions that are genetically white, he explained. He said there have been tiger cubs that were genetically white, but "I believe these white lion cubs are the direct result of some hormonal deficiency. The hormone which produces pigmentation in the hair is not now present in the cub." he said. He added that there is pigment in the cub's eyes and black hair behind the ears, and said she is "definitely not albino."

Charles Durr, Lion Country's zoologist. wants to breed the cub with the one in Alabama if they both grow to adulthood. "Hopefully, if they make it, we can get them together, and maybe they'll throw white (give birth to genetically white) cubs," he said.

Sukari's father is one of two lions, and the fact that her brother, born at the same time in a two-cub litter.is normal, indicates he may have had a different father. Kidder said. The mother, a lioness named Jill, is related to Elsa of the original "Born Free" motion picture.

TWO LION CUBS STOLEN, INCLUDING RARE WHITE ONE The Palm Beach Post, 22nd February 1975
ROYAL PALM BEACH. A rare white female lion cub said to be one of only two in captivity was stolen Thursday night from the Lion Country Safari compound here. The three month old cub named "Sukari" – a Swahili word for sugar – was stolen from her holding pen with another lion cub less than two hours after the compound closed at 5 p.m.

Bill Martin, public relations chief for the tourist attraction said the regular cub was valued at about $500 but said the rarity of the white cub makes her priceless. He said the only other known white lion, a male, is in a private zoo in Alabama. "We planned to breed Sukari to that lion when she reached maturity," Martin said "There's no way we can put a price on her value." Martin said the theft was discovered by a compound warden at about 7 p.m. Thursday. The two cubs had been confined for the night in a 500 square foot pen but weren't there when the warden made is routine check.

"There must have been at least two people involved in the theft and they had to know something about animals," Martin said. He said in order to reach the cubs, the thieves had to first gain entry to the park, cross a five foot wide and four foot deep water filled moat, then scale a five-foot-tall brick and chain-link fence. They would have to use the same escape route while carrying the cubs which weigh about 35 pounds each, he said. With the main gate under constant guard, the thieves either entered the compound as visitors and remained after closing or they made their way through the heavily overgrown and swampy land that abuts the compound, Martin said.

CUB-NAPING: A SWEET DISPOSITIONFort Lauderdale News, 25th February 1975
The theft of a rare white lion cub named Sukari and her 3-and-a-half month-old sister Temeko has ended up on a sweet note for Lion Country Safari officials in Royal Palm Beach. Sukari, which means sugar in the Swahili language, and Temeko were recovered Sunday by the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Department which traced the animals to a Davie address. No charges have yet been filed against the two teenagers accused of stealing the animals from the tourist attraction. Their names were not released. The sheriff's department has contacted the Palm Beach State Attorney's Office which may pursue the case.

Bill Martin, spokesman for Lion Country Safari, said the cubs were reported missing Friday. The culprits, he said, paid an all-day visit to the attraction and apparently hid in some bushes after closing time then walked off with the animals. A Davie child spotted the cubs in the back yard of one of the suspects, Martin said, and the child's father contacted Lion Country Safari officials. The theft of the cubs had been publicized in newspapers. Martin said the white cub is a priceless animal, one of only three born in captivity in the United States.

Among the park's four-legged stars will be an all-white male lion cub born earlier this year, Named Caspar (the Ghost), the unusual cub is expected eventually to take on a degree of normal coloration. He is now being exhibited in the park's nursery.

CUBS RESEMBLE POLAR BEARS Star Phoenix, 5th January 1976.
Cambridge, Ontario. Cocoa, a six year old lion at the nearby African Lion Safari, gave birth Nov 8 to two of the strangest-looking cubs that Safari officials have ever seen. "They looked like miniature polar bears," said Terry Tremaine, public relations manager of the 50-acre drive-through park. He said the cubs were almost pure white – the first white lion cubs on record in Canada, Safari officials say. But, he said, they have taken on a grey tinge since birth. Safari officials speculate the white color could be a protective adaptation to winter climate since the cubs didn't have the usual protective spots of lions.

Cocoa, as her name suggests, is darker than the average lion. She has had three normal litters of four or five cubs each. She rejected the latest two – called Sultan and Sheeba. Officials said it may have been the color difference that made Cocoa repeatedly push the twins away or it could have been that they were runts. Each weighed less than a pound – normal cubs weigh four to five pounds at birth. Don Daley, president of Lion Safari, and his wife took over the care and feeding of the twins. Now the cubs weigh about 10 pounds each and normal lion coloration appears to be pushing through in the second coat. When the cubs mature, they will be reintroduced to the pride and a selective breeding program will be started to try to establish a breed of white lions. African Lion Safari is a privately-owned park that contains several species of African animals.

TheMontgomery Advertiser, 13th April 1976
Lid surgery, cataracts and glaucoma are among the more unusual eye problems treated by veterinarians at Auburn, according to Dr. Wilder. However, there have been some unusual cases, such as the white lion cub born in captivity without eyelids. Specialists performed cosmetic surgery to construct some.

ALBINO LION The Ottawa Citizen, 24th December 1976
Pretoria. A pure white lion was seen recently in South Africa's Kruger National Park by a wildlife photographer, Harold Resnik, who waited 10 days at a dam to catch sight of it. Albino lions are not unknown. Some years ago, Mr Resnik photographed a white lion in the central region of the park, and currently two albino lions are known to exist in the Timbavati Game Reserve and an albino cub was born there last year.

WHITE LION FEVER Kingsport Times, 1st December 1977.
Photo caption: Tsuki, a 6-week old white lion cub born at King's Dominion theme park in Doswell, Va., plays with a pacifier under the curious eye of his playmate Kiona, a 10-week old cub born with more traditional coloring. The park thought it had an extremely rare white (not albino) lion on its hands, but Tsuki is slowly turning darker in color.

The following news reports are after the discovery of the Timbavati white lions, but before any Timbavati bloodline lions reached North America.

ALBINO LION CUBS The Park City Daily News, 3rd June 1979
Linda, a 3-year-old African lioness watches her recently born cubs play in a zoo in Samut Prakan Province, south of Bangkok. The cubs are albinos – Linda gave birth to three last week, but one later died. Such a birth is considered very rare and this is the first time it has occurred in Thailand.

RARE WHITE LIONS various, 1st September 1979
A pair of white lions belonging to Dr Robert Hawkins were born in a menagerie near Plateville, Colo. The birth of white cubs has occurred worldwide, a Denver authority said.

3 WHITE LION CUBS BORN AT ZOO The Tampa Tribune, 18th August 1980
MASARYKTOWN – Unique triplets now approaching three months of age are being hailed by their proud foster-father as the first of their color born in captivity in the United States. They are three white lion cubs, born to Elsie and Caesar at the King Kong Zoo here. Foster-father and zoo owner Stanley Creighton said the only other white lions born in captivity that he knows about are in South Africa.

Their mother, Elsie, is a light beige – "light for a lion," Creighton said, but papa Caesar is a typically golden-brown "lion-color lion," the zoo owner said. "We knew she (Elsie) had cubs in the den with her, but we thought they were regular lion-color until they were big enough for one to stick its nose out where we could see that it was white. Then we rushed to take them out of the den and bring them into the house so ‘we could take better care of them," Creighton explained.

Their rarity lends increased value to the white lions, and it is also thought they may be more susceptible to illnesses while they are young than cubs of normal color patterns. Creighton, and King Kong Zoo co-owner Robert Disken, are taking no chances with their triplets. The cubs, all females, have not yet been named "but we might call them after the Three Stooges," Creighton said. They have been bottle-fed since they were brought into the house, and live in a playpen in the kitchen. "They are too young for solid food yet, but their teeth are starting to come in now," he said.

Creighton has owned both sire and dam (the female parent) of the triplets for about seven years, since Elsie and Caesar were cubs themselves. Creighton has done some reading on the subject of white lions and tigers, never expecting his knowledge to come in so handy. The white coloration, he said, is caused by what geneticists call a "wayward gene," which dilutes the normal color into a pale cream-white but does not make the animal an albino.

"Albino is the total absence of color. and most, if not all, albinos have very pink skin and blue eyes," Creighton said. "These cubs have a normal skin and eye color, and some tan or beige hairs scattered along their feet and backs, which is a mark of the wayward gene." He said he has heard, but has no scientific proof, that the original white lions were bred in Rome for use in the arena. "They were the lions to which the Christians were thrown in those days, legend says," the zoo owner said. [Note: the Romans probably used the Barbary lion subspecies.]

The youngsters and their parents are not the only denizens of the zoo, a private property located on Phillips Road and bordering on County Line Road. Creighton said he and Disken have between 80 and 90 animals now, and another population explosion Is expected when several females of various species have their young. "We can't keep them all, though we would like to. It's hard to sell animals you have raised, and you wonder if they are going to go to the proper homes. But we Know we are going to have to sell some of the cubs to other zoos, and we hope we can lease some trained adults to the movies," Creighton said.

In 1978, the partners tried to open the zoo to the public, but the Hernando County Planning and Zoning Board, and then the County Commission, turned down their request for a special exception ruling from the agricultural-residential zoning of the area.

RARE WHITE LION CUBS BORN IN FLORIDA ZOO The Morning Call, 24th August 1980
MASARYKTOWN. Fla. (AP) – Three white lion cubs born in a zoo in this tiny Florida town may be the first of their color born in captivity in the United States, their proud foster father says. The female cubs have a few tan hairs, but are mostly white, said Stanley Creighton, owner of the private King Kong Zoo about 40 miles north of Tampa. The cubs are about three months old but the zookeeper said he only recently discovered their unusual coloring.

Creighton said the only white cubs born in captivity he knows about are in South Africa. Other zookeepers agreed. "If indeed this is so. it is quite rare," said a spokesman for the Bronx Zoo in New York. "We d have to go back and check the literature, but I'm quite sure that they're the first ones in the United States and perhaps Europe."

Creighton said the white color is caused by a wayward gene that dilutes the normal color into a pale cream-white but doesn't make the cubs albino. "Albino is the total absence of color, and most, if not all, albinos have very pink skin and blue eyes," Creighton said. "These cubs have a normal skin and eye color and some tan or beige hairs scattered along their feet and backs, which is a mark of the wayward gene."

The mother, Elsie, is a lighter beige than most lions, but Caesar, the father, is the typical golden-brown "lion-color lion," Creighton said.

The zookeeper in this tiny town about 40 miles north of Tampa said he knew Elsie had the cubs with her in the den but nobody knows the exact date of birth. "We knew she had cubs in the den with her, but we thought they were regular lion-color until they were big enough for one to stick its nose out where we could see that it was white," he said. "Then we rushed them out of the den and brought them into the house so we could take better care of them."

Scampering across the floor looking for a nuzzle and a cuddle, the little feline mouths a raspy cough-cough-cough, sounding like a lamb with a hoarse voice, while Andie Williams gets his milk bottle. No kitten, "Casey"' is an African lion cub, one of the newest pets in the exotic menagerie Williams keeps at her north Modesto ranch. What's more, Casey is a rare "white" lion, a genetic anomaly whose breed doesn't yet have a subspecies name, Williams says.

The friendly cub was born seven weeks ago in a Missouri zoo, one of four in a litter acquired by Williams at her "Critters & Varmints" wild animal-raising ranch on Coffee Road. Casey's mother didn't take a liking to the pale, palomino-colored cub, a victim of child abuse. She bit off the tuft tip of his tail. Normally, African lions grow up to be tawny.

"He was the outcast of the litter. Even in nature, if they're not killed, the odd ones would be cast out of the pride," Williams explained. "No one seems to really know about white lions or their behavior, they're so rare, perhaps one born in 10,000," she said. "I'm watching his health on the chance he may have birth defects in his heart or lungs, or even mental retardation. He could grow up to be sterile. Evaluations just haven't been done on the breed."

So far, the playful cub appears normal, jumping into one's lap like a puppy wanting affection. Fortunately, his claws are clipped. Rather than nipping, the lion cub prefers a finger to suck.

"He's spoiled," Williams says, rubbing the cub's tummy to evoke a burp after his bottle. Children coming home in the afternoon pause to give Casey a pat or rub behind his ears.

In the meantime, Williams said, she is calling zoo curators across the United States to find a light-colored lioness interested in Casey for breeding purposes. "I don't think my neighbors would appreciate a full-grown African lion roaring at night," she said.

Casey's siblings already have been shipped to zoos, part of Williams' business as a licensed wild animal raiser and broker. She says she specializes in bottle-fed animals. Like a foster-mother, she cares for a horde of little ones who come and go, up to 400 a year. . . Domesticating wild animals for zoos requires both patience and tender loving care and Williams says she feels it's worthwhile work.

"I'd say 90 percent of the zoos are pinched for the money to care for all of their litters. The mortality rate often is high. Animal brokers like myself keep a list of the zoos where animals are reproduced and those with specific needs to fill requests,' she explained. For example, she currently has a contract to raise 60 animals a year for a New York zoo.

LION CUB ON DISPLAY Davis Reflex Journal, 2nd May 1984.
An extremely rare white African Lion cub, one of only two in captivity, can be seen at the Layton Hills Mall today through Saturday, May 5. Part of the Orfeo's Jungle Babies Performing African Lion Show, the three week old female cub named Tanthera will be on display and available for picture-taking during mall hours.

EXOTIC ANIMAL OWNER ARRAIGNED Albany Democrat Herald, 18th September 1984
Newport. Robert T. Fieber, operator of the Siletz Game Ranch in Logsden was charged Monday with neglecting and mistreating several animals . . . During Thursday's raid, authorities seized several lion cubs, including two rare and valuable white lions.

OWNER CLAIMS LIONS GENTLE Spokane Chronicle, 22nd July, 1986
CLEARWATER, Idaho. The owner of a lion shot to death by a farmer says the lion was so gentle he could walk her without a leash. Robert T. Fieber also says the lion, named Gato, was genetically special. She had given birth to two snow-white lion cubs and he had hoped to use her to raise a lion that would remain white into adulthood.

RARE LION CUBS The Province, 4th November 1997
(Photo caption) One of four rare albino lion cubs born at the Vergei Safari Park, 100 kilometres south of Valencia, Spain. The mother is a normal lioness called Ruth, but zoo officials are not so sure about the father [i.e. his identity].

[WHITE, OR ALBINO, LION Press and Sun Bulletin, 30th April 1998
In Toronto, the papers were extolling the arrival of a new lion. This was a little different from Binghampton's acquisition. Toronto had snagged an unusual white, or albino, lion.

[STUFFED ALBINO LION] Daily Press, 11th August 2006
The new "Ripley's Believe it or Not" museum is scheduled to open Aug. 18. . . The museum has 11 galleries with items such as a stuffed albino lion [. . . ]