From "American Annals Of The Deaf And Dumb" Edited By Edward A. Fay
Vol XX. No 4, October 1875.

CHARLES BAKER was the head-master of the Deaf and Dumb Institution at Doncaster, England, for forty-five years. He was born in Birmingham, July 31, 1803, and died at Eastfield House, Doncaster, on the 27th of May, 1874.

A mural tablet has been erected to his memory in the entrance hall of the Institution at Doncaster, at the expense of his old pupils. At the top of the tablet is a medallion likeness in marble, and below is the following inscription :


HE DIED MAY 27th, 187 4 ,
“Let His Own Works Praise Him In The Gates,”
Prov. XXXI, 31.

Mr. Baker was the second son of a family of thirteen children. His father was a man of Advanced education and liberal mind, and all the children received the instruction and example both from their father and mother that prevail in a well-regulated household. A library containing more than a thousand volumes was open to them, and with these advantages all the family obtained that love for literature and learning which distinguished them in after years.

His father devoted all the leisure time he could spare to his children, and Charles, being much with his father, soon attained such maturity of character that he was able to hold positions in life in advance of his years. He was but a youth when his attention was first attracted to the deaf and dumb. His father, while walking with him one day, directed his attention to a gentleman, and informed him that he had just come to Birmingham to establish a school for the deaf and dumb. This excited his curiosity, and his father promised to take him to an examination of the deaf and dumb children. He went to the examination, and was much pleased with the intelligence and acquirements of the children. They were under the care of Mr. Braidwood, a grandson of the Braidwood who was the first teacher of that name in Great Britain.

At fourteen years of age Charles Baker was a teacher in the Sunday-school, and rendered assistance in organizing the Deritend and Bordesley Sunday-schools. As his services were gratuitous, he was received in the houses of the gentlemen who were interested in the schools, and, became known to most of the leading men of the neighborhood.

In 1818 Mr. Braidwood had to leave Birmingham for a few weeks, and it was necessary that some one should superintend the management of the boys during his absence. Mr. Jas. Dowell, with whom young Baker had been engaged in the Sunday-school, at once named him as most fitted to take the position. The following are the remarks he made after his duties were finished :

“I spent a very pleasant time there, and learned to communicate with the deaf and dumb; but not a book used in their instruction was to be found. All had been carefully locked up, as though the craft would have been in danger if a boy of fifteen had been allowed to penetrate its mysteries. However, there were copy-books, drawing-books, pictures, and writing and drawing materials. Some hours were spent each day in improving work, and the rest in play, and long walks about the beautiful neighborhood."

On the return of Mr. Braidwood, several of the gentlemen connected with the Institution wished to engage him permanently as an assistant, but Mr. Braidwood's consent could not be obtained to this, so he renewed his duties at Deritend.

When seventeen years of age, Mr. Samuel Lloyd secured his services to take charge of a school he was establishing at Wednesbury. He was engaged here for two years, and mentions that he read a great deal, and made every effort to improve and cultivate his mind. One of his intimate friends here was the Rev. Wm Jackson, whose wife was the widow of Captain White Benson, of York; he was a frequent visitor at their house, and describes what great pleasure he had in their conversation and society. She had a son, Edward White Benson, who became his most intimate friend, and a few years after married one of his sisters; the eldest son of this union is the Rev. Edward White Benson, D. D., late Master of Wellington College, and now Chancellor of Lincoln Cathedral.

In March, 1823, he was engaged to conduct a school at the Varteg Iron Company Works, near Pontypool, in Monmouthshire. He remained in Wales till 1826, when he returned to Birmingham, and he had not been long at home when his assistance was again required by the committee of the Deaf and Dumb Institution at Edgbaston. During his absence, Mr. Braidwood had died, and Mr. Louis Du Puget, who had been a pupil of Pestalozzi, was now head-master. Mr. Baker says :

" Mr. Du Puget was an intelligent man and a good teacher, but not specially qualified for the teaching of the deaf and dumb. I was called upon, and most urgently requested by Dr. De Leys and Dr. Alexander Blair, to go again and assist in the management of the Institution ; they represented the place as being in a state of utter disorganization and confusion, the lads running away at the rate of three or four a day, and the girls in rebellion, the matron disaffected like the children toward the master, and the assistant master who had resided there for several years gone away. At first I positively and firmly declined any such engagement as a permanency or even temporarily, but the picture they drew of the position of affairs, threatening the very existence of the Institution, induced me at last to promise to pay a visit to the Institution the next day.

" In the course of the first day I was among them, the children all became calm. They had been literally prisoners for weeks. I obtained their confidence at once and without any imputation on the master. They asked me to take them out. The master and members of the committee present said they would all run away if I did so. I told the children this, and they scorned the idea, promising implicit obedience to me. Peace began to take the place of confusion at once, and after promising to go the next day I went home. Gradually lessons commenced, my influence over them keeping all right except occasional ebullitions of temper. I saw I was weaving a net round myself, for I was necessary to the continued harmony of the place. The solicitations of the committee and the children and others at length prevailed so far that I became permanently attached to that Institution, and to the deaf and dumb for life.

“ While with Mr. Du Puget I became well acquainted with Pestalozzi’s views, which were undoubtedly applicable to a great extent to the work we had in hand. Here, however, we had a field equally new to us both. There were no printed books to guide us. We read the theories of some of our predecessors of ancient days and foreign countries, but not a scrap of practical information as to modes of procedure had been left behind by those who had previously occupied our position. Night after night we worked almost in the dark at courses of instruction in language, and day after day we taught during school-hours, and discussed at other times different modes of conveying the knowledge of the English language to our pupils. I had now made up my mind that it. was no ignoble office to walk in the steps of Dalgarno, Wallis, Braidwood, De l’Epee, Sicard, and others, who had devoted their thoughts and their lives to raising the condition of those who, deprived of hearing, have never attained, or if once attained have lost, the power of speech. My determination was formed to make this object my life profession, and I gave all my energies to the task.”

Mr. Baker was three years at the Edgbaston Institution, and during this time he directed the minds of the elder pupils to the various objects of natural history which came before them during their leisure hours. Entomology became a favorite pursuit ; and in 1828 he became the author of a small volume which he describes as "British Butterflies : their distinctions, generic and specific, with lithographic illustrations of each genus, comprising 33 species, drawn by the children of the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb at Edgbaston." Many years after, Sir Joseph Paxton applied for a copy to notice in the Horticultural Register.

In 1828 it was announced that an institution for the deaf and dumb was contemplated for Yorkshire. Mr. Baker had now had three years’ experience as a teacher of the deaf and dumb, and he felt sufficient confidence in himself to propose to conduct such an institution when established. His application was favorably entertained, and in May, 1829, he wrote to the committee of the Edgbaston Institution resigning his post of assistant master. In July he met the committee of the projected institution at Doncaster, and the interview resulted in his being unanimously appointed head-master. It was decided that the institution should be opened as soon as a suitable house could be found. A public meeting was arranged to be held at Doncaster on the 12th of October, and it was then settled that a part of Eastfield House should be taken temporarily.

On the 2d of November pupils were admitted, the public being very curious, and at first sceptical as to results. This was an incentive to progress, and before six months had elapsed the acquirements of the boys were much beyond the usual results of a year’s teaching.

The Rev. Mr. Fenton, vicar of Wadworth, who had been the chief promoter of the Institution, and Mr. Baker, decided that one of the means of advancing the interests of the Institution would be to have public examinations of the children in the large towns of the county. The second meeting for this purpose was held at Leeds, and Dr. Williamson, then a leading physician there, had arranged that a young surgeon, whom he was desirous of introducing to public notice, should read a paper on the education of the deaf and dumb before the Philosophical Society, after which an examination of the pupils should be held. Mr. Fenton and Mr. Baker were invited by Mr.Aldam to meet Dr. Williamson and the young lecturer at dinner. Neither appeared till dinner was half over, when Dr. Williamson arrived, and to the consternation of all present said his protege could not be found, and he believed he had taken fright at being engaged to introduce to the best audience that could be collected in Leeds a subject of which he was practically ignorant, and had left the town. What was to be done ? Neither Dr. Williamson nor Mr. Fenton could take his place, and Mr. Baker was appealed to. Only four hours had to elapse before the meeting was to take place. Under the great pressure that was brought to bear on him Mr. Baker consented to occupy the place of the absent lecturer, and he retired to a private room of the hotel on the understanding that he was not to be disturbed for three hours. The lecture hall was crowded to the ceiling. and Dr. Williamson, the chairman of the society, introduced Mr. Baker, after alluding to the disappointment which had so unexpectedly arisen from the absence of the lecturer announced.

For upwards of an hour Mr. Baker engaged his hearers with the reading of the paper he had prepared, and at its conclusion Mr. Edward Baines rose and expressed the pleasure they had all felt in listening to a subject so new to them. The examination of the boys then took place. Mr. Baker writes : “ I was very warmly congratulated on my almost impromptu lecture, and the next morning still better evidences were given of its success. The character of the Institution was firmly established in Leeds.”

In 1830 so largely had the Institution grown in favor, not only with reference to the funds, but also to applications for admission, that the space occupied was too contracted, and possession of the entire premises was obtained by the purchase of the lease. This step was followed by a large accession of pupils. In this year Mr. Baker considered that the prosperity of the Institution was so firmly established that he was justified in marrying. His wife was Mary Taylor, of Manchester, by whom he had a family of nine children.

In 1831 Mr. Baker first turned his attention to supplying class-books for the deaf and dumb. During that year he published “ Scripture Characters,” which was followed by others, forming a series. “This,” he says, “was the object which I had more at heart than any other. Although the deaf and dumb had been gathered together in various institutions for forty years, no attempt had yet been made to supply such a course of practical lessons as they required, both as school exercises and as aids to the acquisition of language when not under the instruction of their teacher. If any such printed or other lessons existed in any institution they were carefully concealed from the eyes of all but the initiated. The theory of the art was established; to put its practice into form was a work of patient labor.”

In 1833 Mr. Baker became connected with the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. Mr. Charles Knight, one of the Society, had suggested and brought out the Penny Magazine. 200,000 copies of this publication were sold weekly, and the success of the Magazine led to the publication of the Penny Cyclopaedia. Mr. Baker says :

“I wrote to Charles Knight offering to furnish an original article on the Deaf and Dumb for the Penny Cyclopaedia. This letter was replied to by George Long, the editor of the Cyclopaedia. My offer was accepted, and a little correspondence ensued which led to other literary engagements, not only for the Society’s publications but for others also. Mr. Long wished me to write for the Journal of Education an account of the origin and progress of the Yorkshire Institution. This was in November, 1833, and Mr. Long required the article for the April number in 1834. After I had read his letter I sat astounded for an hour or two, amazed at my temerity in putting myself in such a position. Here was I engaged to write for a journal of the highest character on educational subjects in the kingdom, probably in the world, to be one of a band of contributors mustering among them the most advanced minds in England, without experience, for I had never written more than a few trifling articles for the press. I shrank from the task which lay before me. I thought of my very defective education. I felt, however, that I was strong on one point, a knowledge of my subject, and at length I sat down, and drew a slight sketch of the leading features of the article. I devoted the evenings of December to my work, and in January forwarded my manuscript to Mr. Long. He expressed his thorough approval of it, and in ten days forwarded me a proof, which he told me had been read by Lord Brougham, then Lord Chancellor, with great satisfaction. My payment for this article was at the rate of eight guineas a sheet. This was very satisfactory to me. I found I possessed a new power which might be turned to a profitable account.

"My correspondence with Mr. Long continued on educational and cyclopedical subjects. I wrote at his desire a short article for the Journal ‘ On Teaching Reading.’ Charles Knight applied to me for a memoir of the Abbe de l’Epee for his ’Gallery of Portraits,’ and I also wrote several topographical and biographical articles for the Penny Cyclopaedia; also an article ‘ On Teaching Arithmetic,’ for the Journal of Education. Mr. Long applied to me to know who would be the best to apply to for an article on the blind. I mentioned the Rev. William Taylor, of York, and he was applied to, but declined. I then suggested his endeavoring to obtain such an article from the master of the London or the Edinburgh Institution, but he wrote to me, ‘I have not found any teacher who is competent to write on the subject ; I shall be glad if you will undertake it.’ I promised to do so, and in my article, having obtained certain information from the different public establishments for the blind, I insisted strongly on more and better education, and on a more general introduction of embossed reading-books for the blind. The proofs of my article were submitted to the authorities of three establishments, and my statements were admitted to be correct, and great good arose from this article.”

Poor parents of deaf and dumb children could not avail themselves of the benefits of institutions where they had to make an annual payment, and under the Poor Law Act the guardians had no power to assist them ; but on the representation of this state of things by Mr. Baker to the Earl of Harewood he obtained the insertion of a clause in the Poor Law Amendment Act which allowed boards of guardians to pay for the education of the deaf and dumb children of the poor in the institutions, and which proved of great value.

In 1836 Mr. Baker became a member of the Central Society of Education. He contributed several articles ; two of them - "On the Education of the Senses" and on "Mechanics’ Institutions" - appeared in their first publication.

In 1838 Mr. Baker at his own private expense established a printing press at the Institution. He employed a man to superintend it, who taught some of the elder pupils when school-hours were over, and when they left school they were enabled to obtain good wages at printing offices, or as bookbinders. Notices of meetings and the annual reports of the Institution were printed at it Mr. Baker says :

"Very shortly after this date I commenced writing my series of practical reading-books, ‘ The Circle of Knowledge,’ etc. For a year or two I was wishful to ascertain their practical working in comparison with other school-books ; and afterwards, for a long series of years, my time was fully occupied and over occupied in commercial transactions necessary for their success connected with paper, printing, binding, correcting proofs, and superintending the production of large editions, not only of this series but of other works, especially the ‘Bible History,’ on the same graduated plan I adopted for the 'Circle of Knowledge.' "

Besides the duties which more strictly belonged to the office of head-master, Mr. Baker had done all the secretary’s work, kept all the accounts, and made sacrifices of time and labor in every way to insure the success of the Institution, and its reserved and invested fund was now larger than had ever been anticipated.

"At our January meeting in 1847,” he writes, “I made certain proposals to the committee which I thought the prosperity of the Institution warranted and my own services merited. These proposals were rejected. In February the Rev. Dr. Grant and Mr. Cadell, of Edinburgh, came to see me as a deputation from the Edinburgh Institution. After looking at the classes and commending their attainments as in all cases superior for the time the pupils had been under instruction to anything they had ever seen, they announced to me that their object was to engage a new master for the Edinburgh Institution, and inquired if I would become a candidate for that office. My reply was that I would certainly not become a candidate in the usual application of the term in competition with others; that my experience and confidence in myself forbade my entertaining such a proposal, but if a bona fide offer were made to me on such terms as I could accept I would consider it with a favorable disposition to make such a change. I gave them a promise to meet the directors of the Edinburgh Institution, and to visit the place the ensuing month.

"Another meeting of our committee was called at the beginning of March, when a resolution was passed which met my own proposal half way, but which I declined to accept. On the following Sunday Mr. Denison called on me. He had come down from London from having heard of the disruption about to take place, and in his own name and office as recognized chairman of the committee he again called them together. On this occasion more than I asked was conceded as salary, together with a gratuity for past services. On the 8th of March I went to Edinburgh to fulfil my engagement to meet the directors, to decline their offer, and to suggest plans for their Institution. I was most kindly and flatteringly received at a large meeting, and deep regret was universally expressed that the Edinburgh Institution could not have my services. At my suggestion, James Cook, my former assistant, and then head-master of the Dublin Institution at Claremont, was corresponded with, and afterwards appointed. Lord Murray, the friend and correspondent of Lord Brougham and of all the literati of the time, invited Lord Jeffrey, Lord Mackenzie, George Combe, Robert Chambers, and others, to meet me at his house, and I was afterwards told that had I consented to the views of the Edinburgh directors in inviting me my salary would have shortly been advanced to £1,000 a year, and that Lord Murray had some intention to leave all his worldly effects towards the endowment of a college for the deaf and dumb."

Mr. Baker, about the year 1830, made some efforts to have a census of the deaf and dumb taken, but these efforts were not successful. In 1840 he again attempted it, and received communications from the Duke of Wellington, Lord Brougham, Lord Althorp, and others, that the matter should not be lost sight of, but no provision was made for it. In 1850 he writes thus :

"I made a great effort to obtain the taking of a census of the deaf and dumb with the general census in the next year. In previous years I had been content to entrust the necessary efforts to members of Parliament and other persons of position. This year I waited on Major Graham, the Registrar-General, at Somerset House, convinced him of the propriety of the measure, and obtained his promise to facilitate it. I addressed circulars to all the institutions of the deaf and dumb, and those for the blind, urging their co-operation, especially in using pressure with any members of Parliament who could be influenced. These efforts were successful, and the first census of the deaf and dumb ever made in England was obtained in 1851.”

Mr Baker considered that the alphabetical mode of teaching reading was attended with needless difficulty and loss of time. He wrote an article upon the subject which appeared in the Journal of Education, and he read a paper upon it to the Church Schoolmasters’ Association in 1853. In 1850 he met in London the Rev. Mr. Kingsford, chaplain at the Milbank Penitentiary, and a class of the prisoners, all adults, was formed to test his method of teaching reading. None of the prisoners could read, but in less than half an hour all except one who was deficient in intellect could read the lesson freely, point out every word that was named, and name any word that was pointed out. The lesson consisted of fifty words, and the test gave great satisfaction. He afterwards at the request of Mr. Kingsford sent a teacher there to carry out the plan.

In 1845 Mr. Baker writes : "During the whole of this year I was much engaged in the preparation of my various works for publication, and I decided that the reading books should be followed by manuals for teachers for each gradation.” The “Circle of Knowledge,” has of all his educational works obtained the greatest popularity. It is a reading book for children of all ages, and as one writer observes, "the author has taken the most difficult subjects and clothed them with simplicity and beauty.” Mr. Baker received numerous flattering acknowledgments of the usefulness and superiority of this work. Lord Brougham wrote him a very complimentary letter. The Duchess of Sutherland purchased the book for the use of the royal children, and when a new edition was published Mr. Baker forwarded copies of the three gradations to Miss Hildyard, who had the royal children under her ,instruction. They were acknowledged by Sir Charles Phipps on behalf of the Queen. The grandchildren of Louis Philippe, when he quitted France and settled in England, were also taught from these books, and the sons of the Duc de Nemours used them as lesson books in English, and translated them into French ; they have been largely circulated in the British Colonies ; also in Russia; and the first gradation was translated by the Rev. Mr. Legge into Chinese, and is used in the schools of China and Japan. Large supplies of the work were sent for the use of schools in India, and Major Fuller, R. A., who was Director of Public Instruction in the Punjaub, applied to Messrs. Smith, Elder & Co. to inquire whether an edition could be prepared omitting several of the sections not applicable to India, together with a few verbal alterations. This was done. The work was published under Government sanction and headed with the royal arms, and many thousands have been supplied.

In 1851 a new school-room was built at the Institution. In 1865 a large extension of the buildings took place, and when the accounts came to be settled there was a deficiency of £2,500. A bank temporarily supplied this deficiency, but afterwards became anxious about being refunded. Mr. Baker writes thus :

"I felt confident that the whole amount could be obtained, when I could be at liberty to make a personal canvass. When I had engaged a responsible assistant in the school-room I visited every considerable town in the county, and before Christmas I had nearly completed the amount required. Before the end of the financial year I had obtained £150 in excess of the entire outlay, which was carried to the general account.”

In 1869 he prepared a very important work having reference to the Institution, being “An historical and financial statement of forty years’ work at the Yorkshire Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.” It showed that the Institution was possessed in land and buildings and invested property to the amount of above £20,000 ; that there were then under instruction 120 pupils, and that about 700 had been educated there, and that the average yearly cost per head of the pupils had been £20 10s.

The last work published by Mr. Baker was in 1873. It was the translation of Amman’s Dissertation on Speech, reviewed in the Annals, vol xix, page 31.

Mr. Baker was often consulted by the committees of institutions in Great Britain. The institutions at Birmingham, Exeter, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Brighton, Dublin, Edinburgh, Aberdeen, and Cardiff were all supplied by masters who had qualified themselves for the position under him at Doncaster; and there are in other institutions assistant teachers, chaplains, and secretaries of deaf and dumb adult associations who were trained under him. His own work was very onerous for many years. Besides directing the school duties, he performed all the secretary’s work, conducted the entire correspondence, drew up and printed the annual report, and kept all the subscription and donation accounts, the account of household expenditure, and also the accounts of the pupils. With all these many engagements, he took great interest in all social and educational movements in his own neighborhood.

In 1858 a meeting of the county magistrates was held at Doncaster, at which it was decided to establish a girls’ reformatory. Mr. Baker was requested to attend, and to aid them with his experience, and he was persuaded to accept the office of honorary secretary. He issued circulars, received subscriptions, fixed on a site, sketched the plans for the buildings, instructed the architect, attended to all the details, and laid the foundation-stone of the building; when all was completed he resigned into the hands of the county magistrates his office of honorary secretary. They desired to retain him, but he explained that his other duties would not allow him to comply with their wishes.

The Mechanics’ Library of Doncaster, the Doncaster Free Library, the Schofield Convalescent Fund, and other public institutions and charities, are largely indebted for their present prosperity and usefulness to his labors in their behalf.

Mr. Baker had a large correspondence with eminent men connected with education in Great Britain, the continent of Europe, and America. He reviews the institutions of America in his article on the Education of the Deaf and Dumb, and speaks highly of the instructors connected with them. In 1851 he had the pleasure of meeting in London Dr. H. P. Peet, of the New York Institution, and, later, he had interesting correspondence with Dr. E. M. Gallaudet, president of the National Deaf-Mute College, Mr. Gardiner G. Hubbard, president of the Clarke Institution, and the editor of the Annals. He had also a pleasant visit from Dr. Gallaudet, who came to Europe to investigate the subject of articulation as taught in the British and Continental schools. In the year 1870 the National Deaf-Mute College conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Philosophy - an honor which he greatly appreciated.

In the latter part of 1873 Mr. Baker was troubled with an internal ailment. He suffered much during the winter, but in the warm spring weather he was able to get into his garden, which was ever a source of pleasure to him, and hopes were entertained by his family and friends that as soon as he could travel and obtain a change of air and scene he would recover; but their hopes were not realized, for the east winds brought on congestion of the lungs, and after a few days his useful and ever busy life was finished. He was buried at Cantley, a village about three miles from Doncaster, his grave being surrounded by his children, his brothers, and old and tried friends, as well as many of his former pupils, some of whom had come long distances to pay the last mark of respect to one whom they had learned to love and feel grateful to for the benefits they had received from him. His widow and children felt that they had sustained a loss which was irreparable.

The following remarks are extracted from one of the local newspapers :

‘‘ Mr. Baker was a most accomplished scholar. Of an amiable and kindly disposition, and ever influenced by the most benevolent feelings, he nobly fulfilled the duties with which he was entrusted. His was a life of real usefulness, never ceasing, and the numerous works of which he was the author will be appreciated long after all those who knew him upon earth shall have passed away and been forgotten. Mr. Baker introduced a complete revolution in the primary education of children, whilst his contributions to higher classes of literature, especially his numerous articles in the Penny Cyclopaedia, were the best evidence of a highly cultured and classical mind. To his unwearied exertions the Yorkshire Institution owes its great success. His death occasioned a void which will not be easily filled up.”

We subjoin a list of Mr. Baker’s published writings :

British Butterflies, Birmingham, 1828.

Articles in the Penny Cyclopaedia:
Barnsby, Bawtry, Beverley, Bonet, Boroughbridge, Boston, Bradford, Bridlington, Braidwood, Bulwer, Hull, Dactylology, Deaf and Dumb, Dalgarno, Dewsbury, Doncaster, Halifax, Huddersfield, Leeds, Pontefract, Richmond, Ripon, Sicard.

In the Central Society of Education:
- On the Education of the Senses, (first publication,) 1837.
- Mechanics’ Institutions and Libraries, 1837.
- Infant Schools, (third publication,) 1838.

In the Journal of Education:
- Account of the Yorkshire Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.
- On Teaching Reading.
- On the Elements of Arithmetic.

In the Polytechnic Journal :
On the Art of Printing for the Blind.

In Knight's Gallery of Portraits:
- The Abee de l'Epee

Contributions to publications of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge and the Central Society of Education :
- Account of the Yorkshire Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.
- On the Education of the Blind.
- On the Education of the Deaf and Dumb.
- On the Art of Printing for the Blind.
- On Dactylology.
- On Attempted Cures of Deafness.
- On Teaching Reading.
- On the Elements of Arithmetic.
- On the Education of the Senses.
- On Infant Schools.
- On Mechanics' Institutions and Libraries.
- The Abbe de l'Epee.
- The Abbe Sicard.
- John Paul Bonet.
- John Bulwer.
- George Dalgarno.
- Thomas Braidwood.

Picture Lessons for Boys and Girls.
Circle of Knowledge, Gradation I.
Circle of Knowledge, Gradation II.
Circle of Knowledge, Gradation III.
Manual to Circle of Knowledge, Gradation I
Manual to Circle of Knowledge, Gradation II
Teacher's Handbook to Circle of Knowledge, Gradation III
Teacher's Handbook to Circle of Knowledge, Gradation III, with foot notes.
Consecutive Lessons, I - Man, his frame and wants.
Consecutive Lessons II - Animals, their nature and uses.
Consecutive Lessons III - Plants, the earth and minerals.
[Consecutive Lessons IV - Cosmography, National and Social Life was not listed by the Annals]

Teachers' Lessons :
1. Primary Lessons.
2. A Teacher's First Lessons on Natural Religion.
3. A Teacher's Lessons on Dr. Watts's first set of Catechisms.
4. A Teacher's Lessons on Revealed Religion.
5. A Teacher's Lessons on Creation.
6. A Teacher's Lessons on Scripture Characters.

The Book of Bible History, Gradation I.
The Book of Bible History, Gradation II.
The Book of Bible History, Gradation III.
Manual of the Book of Bible History, Gradation I.
Manual of the Book of Bible History, Gradation II.
Manual of the Book of Bible History, Gradation III.
Catechetical Exercises on Bible History.
The Book of Bible Geography.
The Bible Class-book.
The Book of Bible Events of the Old and New Testaments.
The Book of Bible Characters of the Old and New Testaments.
A Chart of Bible Chronology.
Fifty-six Tablet Lessons, in sheets.
Question-Book to the Tablet Lessons.
The Child's Preparatory Lessons on Scripture History.
The Child's Book of Scripture History.
A Tabular View of the Old Testament.
The " Tabular View " for Students and Families.
Exercises on Tabular View for Students and Families.
Class Lessons on Tabular View for Students and Families.
A Tabular Chart of the Gospels and the Acts.
Reading Without Spelling.
Reading and Catechising :
- - 1. Natural and Revealed Religion.
- - 2. The Creation.
- - 3. Scripture Characters.

Common Things. A letter to Lord Ashburton. 1854.
Articulation for the Deaf and Dumb. 1872
A Translation of "A Dissertation on Speech, by John Conrad Amman, M. D." 1873.



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