CAT BREEDS
By Dr V Ph. Jumaud.

PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION

In 1925, in a thesis debated before the Faculty of Medicine in Lyons, I presented the results of my work and observations over the past twenty years. Since then, in a 2nd and 3rd edition, 5,000 volumes of this work have been sold, both in France and abroad, and have become the basis for breeders and exhibition judges. Apart from minor criticisms of detail, the established standards have been adopted everywhere. Now that I am obliged to revise "Les Race de Chats," I have considerably increased the volume by expanding some chapters and adding others on breeds that have been newly created or newly presented at cat shows.

Many photographs, most of them previously unpublished, complete this 4th edition. The dates on the older photos make it possible to show the progress made by breeders. A champion cat of 1920 bears little resemblance to one of 1934.
I dedicate this volume to the breeders, members of the Cat Club de France (C.C.F), the long-established principal club, which unites the French cat societies, and which through its exhibitions, its stud-book, and its administrative services contributes a large share in the development of cat breeding.

NATURAL HISTORY OF THE CAT
(A summary)

The cat is a vertebrate mammal, belonging to the order of carnassiers, the carnivore family, digitigrade tribe and forms part of the genus Felis.

Zoological Characteristics. – The cat has a rounded head with a short broad muzzle and highly vaulted zygomatic arches (cheekbones). The jaws are short and consequently very strong and are equipped with 30 teeth: 16 in the upper jaw (6 incisors, 2 canines, 8 molar) and 14 in the lower jaw (6 incisors, 2 canines, 4 molars), the last inferior molar having 2 cusps.

The tongue is rough with many bristly papillae whoser tips point backwards. The rather small muzzle ends with a small nose leather, with the nostrils placed below and sideways. The ears are straight, very angular, fairly curved and uniformly hairy all round. The pupil of the eye is vertical and split longitudinally. The tail is generally equal in length to half of the body length. Compared to the body length, the legs are quite short, but robust.

The cat has 5 toes on the front feet, 4 on the back feet, all armed with strong, sharp, hooked retractile claws. The feet are cushioned with a pad of fatty fibrous tissue that allows cats to walk silently. The claws can be completely retracted and hidden.
The supple and svelte body ranges from 40 to 50 cm. long, and 25 to 27 cm. tall at the shoulders. The tail is about 30 to 32 cm. Cats reach adulthood at about 12 to 15 months. The physiology of the cat is perfect for its role. Its senses are very sharp. The numerous papillae of his tongue give it a highly-developed sense of taste. It has perfect daytime and night-time vision and equally refined hearing. The ear is controlled by 27 muscles and can detect the slightest sound. It also has and extraordinarily supple body due to its flexible spine. In females, oestrus ranges from 9 to 10 days, and occurs once or twice a year, in spring and autumn. The gestation period is usually 56 days. The cat’s lifespan varies from 9 to 15 years.

ECONOMIC VALUE OF CATS The public's justified enthusiasm for the dog might suggest there is a similar enthusiasm for cats. This is not the case; this domestic animal generally receives little care in spite of the services it renders, and the value of certain individual cats. This is not the case in England and Belgium where the raising of fancy cats [literally “luxury”] is practised by a large number of breeders, especially women, who make a considerable income from this pursuit. As a result of the number of specialist clubs, and of cat shows, the public have developed a taste for fancy cats and they can attract high prices. Cats aged 10 to 12 months are commonly sold for £30-£40 sterling, and some champion cats can attract as much as £100-£200.

In America there are "Cat Ranches" or farms for raising fancy cats; and also "Kitten Raising Farms" which are especially concerned with the rational [scientific] breeding of prize cats. In France, cat lovers who are interested in breeding cats declare themselves fully satisfied with the results.

French breeders can easily sell weaned kittens for 400 to 500 francs, and can sell 5-10 month olds at 800-1000 francs depending on their beauty. Animals that win prizes at cat shows immediately increase in value and most of these would not be sold for less than 3,000-4,000 francs. Some of the cats imported from England cost 6,000-10,000 francs. The prices of Siamese and other short-haired cats are generally lower. At weaning these ordinarily sell for 100-150 francs, and from 5 to 10 months their prices settle at 300-500 francs. As in the Blue Persians, breeding females and prizewinning studs (such as Champion Fifils who belonged to Mr. Delangle) can attract high prices of 1,500-3,500 francs. Some rare cats are very highly priced, e.g.; orange, cream, and tortoiseshell cats, and the very rare Birman cat.

Around 1800 breders were involved in breeding fancy cats in 1925, each producing an average of 10 indivuals. This has increased dramatically in the last few years. Important catteries have been set up and I estimate there to be around 6,000 breeders of fancy cats.

The comments and figures above show that cat breeding is a soource of income that can be developed in order to reduce the number of fancy cats imported into France and to organize the export of French-bred cats to countries where cats are highly prized.

STANDARDS

As a result of the growth of the cat fancy and the increasing economic value of cats, a detailed study of breeds, especially fancy cats, and the detailed descriptions of their characteristics set down in breed standards, is useful.

The setting down of standards is the consequence of the work of the cat clubs that are trying to codify the beauty and purity of the breeds that interest them. Until 1912, French authors describing the breeds of cats, were content to mention, rather impreceisely, certain typical characteristics without considering all regional types.

In England, Miss Simpson, published “The Book of the Cat,” in 1900, containing a series of standards, principally based on the colour and length of hair. Since the founding of the Cat Club of France, standards were developed and written down for the main breeds. Some, which had been drafted by serious breeders, needed barely any modifications, but others, published by club leaders wanting to create breeds in order to govern them, were generally of little value and were abandoned.

The standards I am publishing here are those developed by the specialist clubs (in France, Belgium and particularly England) governing the breeds described in this study. For the main breeds - Persians, Siamese, Burmese [Birmans] - the standards are precise and very clear, but for other breeds, they will be subject to review by recognized breeders and judges' commissions.

All of the standards should describe:

Firstly, the general appearance of the breed.

Secondly, the fundamental characteristics of the breed, mentioned by major regions.

Thirdly, the size, form and weight of the animals, including maximum and minimum statistics, taking gender into account (male, female or neuter).

Fourthly, a precise description of the skin and fur indicating the colours, patterns and the particular features of the coat. With well defined standards we can eliminate - from the stud-book at least - those that do not meet the minimum score against the scale of points of the standard. The official standards of the C.C.F will serve as a baseline for establishing standards in Germany, Belgium, etc. It would be desirable that an International Feline Congress brings together delegates from all the national federations so that there should be agreement and the breeders can receive precise and scientific directives.

STUD BOOK (BOOK OF ORIGINS)

As a result of the publication of the standards, the C.C.F. set up a Stud Book in 1911, which helped with selection of breeding cats. The conditions of registration are as follows:

First article. - It is instituted, by the Cat Club of France, a BOOK OF ORIGINS (STUD BOOK), in which may be inscribed:

A) Cats whose breed purity is proven because
(1) their descendants are registered in the Stud Book of the C.C.F.;
(2) their ancestors are registered in a recognized Stud Book. For imported cats, a certificate from the foreign registry will be required.

B) Cats which have been classified as 1st, 2nd, or 3rd in an open class in an exhibition whose judges have been approved by the C.C.F.

Article 2. - The registration of kittens is accepted when the owner holds a cattery affix registered with the C.C.F. The pedigree to be registered must be accompanied by the mating certificate signed by the owner of the stud and the birth certificate signed by the owner of the cat. Both signatures must be legalized.

Article, 3. The name of the cats must begin with the letter I in 1934, J in 1935, K in 1936 etc.

Article 4. The names of registered cats may not be modified, they must not be followed by the letters I, II, III, IV etc, and they may not be used a second time by the same breeder.

Article 5. No cat will be registered before verification of the Mating Certificate and price written on the pedigree.

Article 6. Registration requests must be addressed to the Secretary of the Cat Club of France at Saint Raphael (Var), marked for inclusion in the Stud Book. The registration fee is three francs per pedigree.

Article 7. In order to avoid substitution, the Registration Certificates in the stud book are numbered, stamped in ink and signed by the Secretary of the C.C.F.

Article 8. The brreds that must be registered are:

1 - White Persian; 2 – Black Persian; 3 – Blue Persian; 4 – Red Persian; 5 – Red Tabby Persian; 6 – Cream Persian; 7 – Smoke Persian; 8 – Silver Persian (Silver Tabby); 9 – Brown Tabby Persian (Tiger [Classic]); 10 – Chinchilla Persian; 11 – Tortoise-shell Persian; 12 – Tortoiseshell and White Persian; 13 – Blue-Cream Persian; 14 – Angora; 15 – Birman (Cat of Burma); 16 – Siamese; 17 – Isle of Man Tailless Cat; 18 – Abyssinian Cat; 19 – White European; 20 – Black European; 21 – Cream European; 22 – Silver European (Silver Tabby); 23 – Red Tabby European (Tiger [Classic] or Zebra [Mackerel]); 24 – Orange European; 25 – Spanish Cat; 26 – Red Tabby European; 27 Chartreux Cat; 28 – American Cat.

BREED CLASSIFICATION

“Without a method,” says Lesson, “no point of science, no elder’s knowledge can be passed down to his successors.” This is why I think it useful to present the whole classification of the species which forms the genus Felis. This classification, like all classifications, presents some difficulties, for the typical characters of the felid species are not always distinct.

A proper classification must not be based on secondary peculiarities of the teeth and skeleton, nor the length of the tail, bristles of the hair inside the ears or, finally, on the various colourations of the coat. I have adopted, and supplemented, the classification in d’Orbigny’s Dictionary of Natural History. She separates the true cats into three sections:

lst Section: Old World Cats.
2nd Section: New World Cats.
3rd Section: Cats from the Asiatic Isle or the Indian archipelago.

First Section – Old World Cats.

Lion (felis leo, Linnaean classification. Asad in Arabic, Gehad in Persian)
Tiger (f. tigris, Lin. Royal Tiger according to Buffon and Cuvier, Radja-houtan or arimaou bessar in Malay, Madjan-gede in Javanese, Lau-hu in Chinese)
Leopard (f. leopardus, Lin. Nemr in Arabic, pathere according to Buffon)
Serval (f. serval, Cape Cat according to Forster, Tiger-furred cat, Pard Cat according to Perrault, Serval according to Buffon)
Ounce according to Buffon (f. unicia)
Black-footed Cat (f. nigripes)
Golden Cat (f. chrysotrix et f. aurata according to Temminck)
Obscure cat (f. obscura. Cape Black Cat according to Cuvier)
Manul (f. manul)
Caffre Cat or Gloved Cat (f. cafra, f. maniculata)
Domestic cat (f. catus)
Chartreux Cat (f. catus coerulus according to Linnaeus)
Spanish cat (f. catus hispanicus)
Angora cat (f. catus angoriensis)

Second Section – New World Cats

Jaguar (f. onca, Lin; Onza in Portugeuese, Grande Panther to furriers, Tigris americanus, Boliv.)
Cougar (f. concolour, Lin. F. puma, Traill.)
Unicoloured Cat (f. unicolour, Traill.)
Black Cougar (f. discolour)
Chalybe (f. chalybeata) [bobcat?]
Ocelot (f. pardalis, Lin. Chibigouazou according to Azzara)
Fettered cat (f. cteneta) [Chat Enchaine]
Jaguarondi (f. gagouarundi)
Tlatco Ocelot (f. pseudo pardalis, Mexican Ocelot)
Necklaced cat (f. armillata)
Eyra (f. eyr, Dem. Eyra according to Azzara)
Oceloid Cat (f. macroura, Wied. F. Wiedie, Schinz. Chat pecari, Schomb.)
Chati (f. mitis, Cuvier)
Guigna (f. guigna, Molina)
Colocollo or Calocalla (f. colocollo, Cuvier)
Margay (f. tigrina, Lin. Margay according to Buffon, Cat of the Carolinas according to Collinson)
Negro Cat (f. nigrita)
Mountain Cat (f. montana, Desm.)
Pajeros Cat or Pampas Cat (f. pageros, Desm. Pampas Cat according to Azzara)
Brazilian Cats (f. brasiliensis, Cuvier. F. armillatus, Cuvier, f. elegans according to Lesson)

Section Three - Cats from the Asiatic Isle or the Indian archipelago.

Kuvuc (f. minuta, Temminck, f. javanensis and f. undata, Desm., f. sumatrana, Horsf., Java Cat, Cuvier, Wavy Cat, servalin, Sumatran Cat).
Arimaou or Melas (f. melas).
Diard’s Cat (f. Diardii, Cuvier)
Arimaou-Dahan or Clouded Arimaou (f. macrocelis, Temminck, f. nebulosa according to Griff) [Clouded Leopard]
Planiceps Cat, Short-tailed flat-headed Cat.

In this list, the other genera which complete the family of felines (lynx and cheetah) have been omitted. We are interested in domestic cats, which form part of the first section, i.e. Old World cats. I shall describe these and also describe some of the domesticable wild species such as the margay and ocelot.

DOMESTIC CAT BREEDS

In domestic breeds, the most varied and frequent crosses, the different degrees of domestication, the alterations in climate and environment, will all change the characteristics of each breed so much that it is currently difficult to establish a classification. I have followed this classification below.

Section 1 – Breeds with Normal Tails

First Category: Small, Erect Ears.

Short Fur, White or Pied with Various Patterns:
Grey colour – Common cat
Colour resembling a wild rabbit – Abyssinian
Plain grey with black paw-pads – Spanish
Red and Blue – Cape Cat
Resembles an Arctic Fox [isastis] – Icelandic

Short Fur, Black:
Negro Cat or Gambian Cat

Long, woolly coat:
Grey with blue tint – Chartreux
Uniformly reddish – Tobolsk or Khorassan

Long, silky coat:
Cream coloured body, otter-coloured ears, mask, paws and tail
Any other colour – Angora or Persian

Naked, no fur on body: Mexican.

Section 2 – Breeds with Short Tails
Sometimes lopsided, spiral or ending in a nodule – Malayan or Siamese

Section 3 – Tailless Breeds
Isle of Man Cat
Japanese Cat

Second Category – Lop-Eared: Chinese Cat

As a result of selective breeding and cat shows, a number of sub-breeds have been created, differeng in colour and markings. Some of these sub-breeds have sufficiently fixed characteristics to be well-defined and standardised by the specialist clubs that regulate them. I will describe the sub-breeds with the breeds they are derived from.

Following the publication of my first eidition, many cat lovers wished to correct my classification and establish alternative classifications based on various short-lived characteristics. Needless to say, those attempts are not established on a scientific basis, and are immediately seen as fanciful.

For information purposes, the English classification of short-hair and long-hair is without scientific basis.

THE WILD CAT

The Wild Cat, also called the Gloved Cat (felis maniculata), Lybian Cat, Nubian Cat, and Egyptian Cat, lives in the African North-East, southern Tunisia by the Red Sea and in Arabia and Yemen. It seems to have been domesticated by the Egyptians, who used it (and even worshipped it) before the appearance of the Ichneumon or Pharaoh’s Rat (Herpestes ichneumon) [Egyptian Mongoose] which destroyed rats and mice. The gloved cat may have given rise to the domestic cat.

Here is what the naturalist Eschudi, who had the opportunity to study the wild cat in the forests of the Alps, says about it: “Let us consider the wild cat to be the primitive strain of the ordinary cat, because the same essential structures are developed in both types and that it is impossible to attribute a different origin to the domestic cat, which, we must admit, lives also in the South, and has been found embalmed in Egypt.

Most strains of our domestic animals come originate in the Orient, not in France, so we would like the little Nubian Cat, to be the ancestor of our own cats. But this species is still not sufficiently studied, and it seems to differ from the domestic cat as much as the European wild cat. It is well known how much a thousand years of domesticity and a change of diet can modify the conformation of animals. In answering the question of origin, we attach less importance to the opinions of those who claim that tamed wildcats become indistinguishable from domesticated cats, and that domestic cats allowed to go wild revert to the same characteristics as the wild cat after three generations. The scarcity of observations does not provide a positive conclusion because it is difficult to know whether a captive wild cat has really mated with another captive wildcat. If a captive wild cat has mated, it is probably with a domestic cat so that the wild-domestic hybrids could easily return to the domestic type.”

On the other hand, some naturalists claim that the gloved cat will not mate with the domestic cats and that it lived in a wild state alongside the Romans. If so, it is unlikely to be the ancestor of our domestic cat. We will not pursue this question of ancestry further as remains controversial. From the practical point of view it is of only secondary importance.

In truth, it’s known the world over, that while many animal breeds have undergone radical change, the feline type remains unchanged, even in its anatomy. This makes it difficult to create a family tree for the cat as has been done for the dog. Nevertheless I will provide a few lines regarding the wild cat.

Behaviour. - The wild cat lives in the great woods and especially in the high forests in the mountains. He is solitary and hunts at night. Climbing tall trees with amazing speed, he preys pitilessly and indiscriminately on small birds. He also attacks hares, rabbits and is especially fond of pheasants. It is not a great hunter of mice and rats. He only rarely attacks larger animals, but he is known to occasionally attack fawns and small deer. On the banks of lakes and streams, he is a good hunter of fish and water-birds. But above all, it is a serious pest in parks and pheasant reserves, which it can depopulate in a very short time. Relative to its size the wild cat is a very dangerous carnivore. His bloodthirsty nature makes him kill many more animals than he can eat which is why hunters hate him and pursue him fiercely.

Habitat in Europe. - The wild cat is found in Switzerland, Germany, and France. It is not found in Russia, Sweden and Norway where it is replaced by the lynx. In France it is relatively rare. It is found especially in the forests of the Vosges, the Jura, the Haute-Marne.

According to the registry of the royal hunts found at the Tuileries after the time of Juillet, only one wild cat was killed in the forests of Rambouillet, Fontainebleau, and Compiegne, between the Restoration and 1830.

In Switzerland, few years go by without killing wild cats. Several have been killed in the canton of Zurich, including a 15-pound animal (Tschudi). According to Brehm, it is fairly common in the Thuringian forest to kill 13 in a single year (12 adult individuals and one 3 months old) by wounding the adult and destroying 3 young at the nest.

In winter the wild cat sometimes migrates long distances and even comes into villages when hunger makes it desperate. Lenz tells us that in Hungary the wild cat is much more abundant and often spends the winter in the barns. The wildcat lacks admirable maternal instinct found in the domestic cat.

Occasionally, the wild cat is hunted, but this is dangerous because a wounded wild cat will attack a man. Hunting is preferabld done when it snows because it is then easier to follow the cat’s track and to find its den.

If the wild cat is caught off guard, he defends himself by fiercely attacking the hunter’s dog without provocation. He is so unafraid of dogs that he will voluntarily come down from the tree and attack them before the hunter arrives, resulting in a dreadful struggle. The angry cat rakes its claws into its opponent, making deep gouges, and tries to scratch its opponent’s eyes. It defends itself furiously for as long as it retains a spark of life and its defence is long because few animals have such a tenacious grasp on life.

In the Jura a male wild cat, lying on his back, held his own against three dogs and came out victorious from the battle. He slipped his claws into the muzzles of two of the dogs while he held the third by squeezing its throat in his powerful jaws. This mode of defence, which demanded extraordinary courage and an inconceivable skill, was at the same time a testimony to the cat’s extreme resourcefulness, for it was the only defence that could protect him from being bitten by the the dogs (Tschudi).

Size. - The wildcat is bigger and stronger than the largest of our domestic cats, Generally it is 25 to 30 cm. tall and 42 to 45 cm. long.

Head. - The forehead is more convex than in the domestic cat, the neck is a little longer. The ears are white on the inside and reddish gray on the outside, and are short and stiff. In old cats, the ears often terminate in a tuft of rather short hairs. The cheeks are covered with long hair forming jowls. The whiskers are longer. His teeth are stronger and sharper than those of the domestic cat, and his eyes are full of a ferocity not seen in domestic cats.

Tail. The tail is very characteristic; it is thicker and shorter than that of the domestic cat, and it is held low from the root to the tip.

Coat. - The wild cat’s coat is long and thick, longer and softer than that of the common domestic cats which have lived in our climate for several generations, but not as long as that of cats imported from Persia. The length of the fur helps make this animal look larger and bulkier than it really is.

Colours. It is notable that the coat colours are the same in the Indian and European wild cats, but vary greatly in domestic breeds. There are, however, some domestic cats whose coats are similar in colour to the wild cat.

The male wild cat is dark gray, the female is more yellowish, The colour is paler on the flanks and belly. Parallel black lines run from the forehead and backwards between the ears. A dorsal stripe runs along the spine from neck to tail and on either side of this stripe there are transverse stripes from back towards the stomach where they become pale and indistinct. The legs are yellowish with some black stripes around the thighs.

Internal Organs. - Most of the internal organs are smaller than in domestic cats. In the wild cat, the intestines are only three times the length of the body instead of five times body length as in the domestic cat.

Reproduction. - The male and the female live solitary lives, only coming together to mate. The gestation period is about nine weeks, the young being born in April. It is rare that the wild cat breeds twice in one year. The female makes a den in a burrow, a rock opening or a tree trunk and gives birth to 5 or 6 kittens that she nurses with great solicitude and then weans onto birds or rodents. Despite the care lavished on her young, she does not always defend them when a person takes them from her as she her fear of man overcomes her maternal instinct.

Linnaeus recounts the following on the topic:

"In 1865 a carpenter crossed a thicket about fifty paces from my house on the southern side of the Hermnustein, where there are a great number of rabbits. He thought he heard meowing from an enlarged burrow . This discovery filled him with joy, because a few days earlier he had expressed the desire to have some wild cat kittens. He began digging out the burrow and found three kittens each about the size of a rat. He put them in his sack and was leaving when he spotted their mother lying not far away with her ears erect. However she kept her distance, and did not try to attack him.

She was the size of a large hare. The young, by their colour and short, thick tail, were easily distinguishable from domestic cat kittens. They were extremely wild, scratching, biting and screaming ferociously.

He tried all possible means of taming and caring for them, but in vain as they refused to eat or drink and fought him like devils until they died."

THE MANUL

To conclude my words on the ordinary wild cat, I will also mention the Manul (Felis manul) or Pallas Cat which is a long haired species. This cat has a strange meow that is a mixture of shouting and barking. It is found in Central and Northern Asia (Manul pallas), in the Transcaspian region, Turkestan (Manul mongolians), Siberian and East Baikal Lake (Manul nigripectus).

Some researchers claim that the Manul was the ancestor of our long-haired domestic cats. The issue is complex as it is not proven that the powerful Manul cat will mate with domestic cats. There is also a notable difference between the skull of the domestic cat and that of the Manul. Pocock also points out that the pupil of the Manul’s eye does not close into a narrow slit, but into a large oval like that of the great cats.

HARET CAT

The Haret cat is merely the wild cat and it should not be confused with the brown tabby domestic cat gone wild. Hunt masters refer to the wild cat as Haret Cat according to H. G. Chevalier, signatory of an article, on the Haret Cat in “Hunting Illustrated,” October 24, 1868.

In a recent article, the Vicomte de Simony says that the name of Haret Cat undoubtedly came from the name given it by the Hebrews who belonged to the tribe of Judas who owned a large of cats. (Satus Haret, 1 Book of Kings 22).

EUROPEAN CAT [DOMESTIC OR FERAL CAT]
(Felis catus vulgaris)

This species is much closer to the wild cat. It to be merely a less carnivorous variety, but has retained the wariness and predatory nature of its ancestors, and resembles them in its external characteristics.

Origin. A number of assumptions have been made regarding the wild cat in Europe. It is likely that our current wild cats are descended from ancient Egyptian cats, transplanted to Europe, over the centuries and possibly crossed with native wild cats. We cannot say anything more specific. Be that as it may, the European cat has remained unchanged over the centuries and its type is substantially the same all over Europe.

In England, however, the domestic cat has been transformed by selective breeding in order to produce a more Persian conformation with a rounder head.

Behaviour - This cat is easily domesticated, especially as it lives close to man. In exchange for affection from its owners, the European cat becomes daily more tame. On the other hand, a cat which is never caressed and which is constantly harassed, withdraws into itself, and developes a suspicious and fierce temeprament and as a result it gets even less sympathy. Abandoned to itself, it will gladly return to the woods and resume its wild character and habits, which it passes on to its descendants, but these are always distinguishable from true wild cats by their smaller size.

Size and Shape - This breed has a supple, graceful, well propoportioned body. The legs are medium length, shorter in long-haired cats, slender with round, elegant feet. The male is stronger and heavier than the female. Average weight is 4 kgs. The skin weighs 460 to 580 grams.

Head. – Average sized, but wider than that of the Angora. The skull must be wide between the eyes. The head tapers slightly towards the mouth and lips, which gives the cat a leopard-like expression which is very marked in the spotted varieties. The face and muzzle should be short. The nose is fairly broad, the ears are small, erect and rounded at the apex, fairly wide-set and facing slightly forward, hairy on the outside, but almost naked on the inside. The eyes are blue, orange or green according to the specific varieties.

Tail. - The tail is long, thick at the base and tapering along its legnth, short-haired. It should be carried almost level with the back.

Coat. - The coat is coarse, fine and wavy, anatomically similar to that of the wild cat. The skin is white or pink, depending on the colour of the coat. The lips and soles of the feet are black. Colour is not always hereditary; matings are difficult to monitor and produce diverse coat varieties.

By selection, however, we have been able to fix a certain number of colour varieties and European white, black, blue, tortoiseshell, tabby (striped), speckled orange, cream, silver, chinchillas are not uncommon.

In this document, I will publish the standards of the main varieties of European [Shorthair] cat; these are: White, Black, Blue, orange, Red, Tortoiseshell, Tortoiseshell and White.

Below, I give a complete description of the White European [Shorthair], whose characteristics are common to all other European Shorthair varieties except for coat colour and eye colour. The scales of points are identical for all Europeans.

WHITE EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

Colour – The most important characteristic of valuable European Shorthairs is the colour which, in the white European, must be pure white, without any markings or any hint of yellow or cream.

Head - The broad heads between the ears, the cheeks well developed; The face and nose are short, the ears small, rounded at the top, broad at the base. The head is well attached to the neck which must be brief.

Eyes - In the most beautiful cats the eyes are sapphire blue, and breeders are concentrating their efforts on this hue. Cats with odd eyes often produce kittens with normal colour eyes and should be removed from the breeding programme.

Body and Tail - These graceful cats must not be too high on legs; the feet must be round and well covered, the chest wide. The tail is thick at the base, moderately long and ends in a pointed tip, it is carried almost at the level of the back with a slight upwards curve.

Coat. - The hair should be short, soft, silky, lustrous.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 40
Eyes: 10
Body and Shape: 20
Head: 15
Coat: 5
Ensemble: 10
Total : 100

BLACK EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

Many legends are told about black cats to either celebrate or denigrate this variety; testimony to the interest aroused by cats of this colour.

Colour. – Typically jet black, but unfortunately it often has blue or red highlights. No white hair is permitted so it is necessary to remove any newborn kittens that have white hairs.

Most black Europeans have green eyes. This is a defect that is unfortunately only discovered as they mature. The beautiful black cat must have orange or copper colour eyes.

RED EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

This very rare cat, (since the specimens of this colour are generally long-haired) was described by M. Brooke, who possessed one specimen.

The colour is red without any markings or white hairs; it brings to mind the colour of a fox or squirrel. The eyes are light yellow, the nose is the same colour as the coat. The skin is white. Among the wild cats, only one has this solid red coat: the Eyra (Felis eyra), a small Brazilian breed. The German clubs recognize a sub-variety of red cats which they call yellow; its colour must resemble that of the crust of a loaf and its eyes must be golden yellow.

CREAM EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

There are very few cream cats exhibited and it is regrettable that breeders are not more interested in this pretty variety.

Colour. - The colour must be uniformly orange or cream, without any markings or shading.

Eyes. - Orange or brown hazel.

TORTOISESHELL EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

This variety is much sought after by cat lovers, probably because of the difficulty of obtaining very distinctive cats.

Colour. - Black, yellow and orange, evenly distributed; each colour to be as vivid and as well defined as possible, without intermixing or streaks. No white. A yellow or orange blaze is a popular marking. The patches should be well distributed on the legs, feet and tail.

Eyes - Orange, copper, or hazel yellow.

TORTOISESHELL-AND-WHITE EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

This interesting variety is being fixed and typical cats are still quite rare.

Colour - Black, yellow and orange on white. Colours should be distributed over the top of the head, ears, cheeks, back and tail. The white should be on the lips, chest and limbs; a white circle around the neck is desirable. White should never predominate over other colours.

Eyes - Orange, copper or hazel yellow.

TABBY EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

These cats are particularly elegant because of the contrast between stripes, markings and base colours which may be silver, brown or orange. Unfortunately the markings and black stripes are often mixed with streaks of the main colour. In blotched cats the stripes or marks should be distinct and regularly spread on the surface, head, breast, back, sides, belly, legs and tail. There must be no white hairs in the stripes.

STRIPED TABBY EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

These are new varieties whose markings must not differ very much from the background colour; the stripes must be as narrow and numerous as possible and should be vertical (from the back to the bottom of the chest). The tail must be clearly circled.

TIGER-STRIPED EUROPEAN SHORTHIAR

These cats should not be confused with striped (tabby) cats. They have lines arranged like those of of the tiger or wild cat. The English call them "Mackerel-Striped" or "Tiger-Striped".

BROWN TABBY EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

These are undoubtedly the most popular cats, their markings are familiar to all, but, this does not prevent some of them from being real beauties if the markings are very regular and very clear. It is one of the most robust varieties, and cats of this type are vivacious and energetic, and are seldom ill.

Colour. – The light brown or colour sandy base colour must be uniform without white hair; this is marked with dark brown to black stripes. The toes are single coloured with brown colour nails.

Eyes. - Orange or green.

RED TABBY EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

This is a rare variety. The colour is reminiscent of that of yellow sand, hence their name of “Sandy cats” in England. The orange or light red background colour is marked with stripes of dark orange without any white hairs.

Eyes. - Hazel brown or golden yellow.

SILVER TABBY EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR

Colour. - Pale silver gray, without any markings, marked with well pronounced black or blue stripes.

Eyes. - Hazel brown, or golden yellow. In England, green eyes are sought after in this breed.

MULTICOLOUR EUROPEAN SHORTHAIR
(Any Other Colour)

The Germans place cats in the “Any Other Colour” category if their colour does not meet the classification in the classes previously described.

This category also includes cats that have white markings, such as blacks, blues or tigers that have a white star on their breasts, or white feet or legs.

In our opinion, these subjects are undesirable for breeding. They can only be mentioned for originality as their characteristics are unstable.

DUTCH-MARKED CAT

Colour.- Black-and-white, blue-and-white, orange-and-white or cream-and-white. Each colour is delimited and has no other colours present.

Markings. - The single colour (ie black, blue, cream or orange) starts just behind the shoulders and stretches around the body, extending onto the tail and hind limbs. The ends of the hind legs are white. The ears and the mask must be the same colour as the hindquarters.

The white colour is on the shoulders, neck, forelimbs, feet, chin and lips. A white line runs between the ears to the back of the head where it joins with the white on the neck, and divides the head into equal two parts. These sought-after markings match those of the Dutch Rabbit.”

Eyes. – Copper, orange or amber for black-and-white cat and also for blue-and-white cats; brown, orange or amber for orange-and-white cats; white [note: this must be an error] for cream-and-white cats.

Body and Tail. - The animal stand low on its legs. It is well-muscled with a deep, wide chest, the tail continues almost as an extension of the dorsal line, thick at the root and ending in a point, moderately long and slightly curving towards the tip.

Leg and Feet. - The legs are rather short than long, well muscled, feet rounded.

Head and Neck. The head is broad between the ears, the cheeks are well developed, the face and nose are short, the head is set on a thick, short neck.

Ears. - Small and round at the tips, facing a little forward, not too large at the base.

Hair. - The hair is always very short.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 20
Markings: 25
Eyes: 15
Body and Tail: 15
Legs and Feet: 5
Head and neck: 10
Ears: 5
Coat: 5
Total : 100

SPANISH CAT
(Felis Catus Hispanicus)

The Spanish and Portuguese Cat is designated Felis catus maculatus by Linnaeus and Boddaert. In Germany it is sometimes called the Good Luck Cat.

Behaviour. This cat is generally soft and affectionate, very attached to the owner. It is an even-tempered cat, but also a very effective mouser.

It is because of this cat that we say:

But what do we know, says Montaigne,
When with his cat from Spain
A man takes his frolics,
If the cat is not the real master
And the man is only a beast
Suitable for entertaining cats.

Habitat. — Although originally from the Iberian Peninsula, this breed is now found all over Europe. These cats are noticeably smaller than common cats.

Head. - Generally small, with amber-coloured eyes and small ears.

Coat - The shiny coat is short. The male tawny coloured, paler on the sides and underneath, or is fawn marked with white and black. The female is fawn marked with white and black. The tip of the nose, the lips and the paw-pads are pink. There are a few reports of exceptions to this sexual differentiation of colours. I have a picture of a male tricolour cat which belonged to M. Chatelain de Morunz, Neufchatel (Switzerland) in 1913. Around the age of 5 months the yellow colour faded a little but the fawn, black and white colours persisted. This cat had normal male genitalia, but it should be noted that none of its matings resulted in any offspring.

In 1926, Mr. Albert, in Vertaizon (Puy-de-Dome) owned a Spanish cat which, in a litter, produced a tricoloured male. Its body was white, the head was striped black and yellow, the hind legs were black, white and yellow, and the tail was black and white.

CYPRUS CAT

Also called Cypriot cat. This breed is found almost exclusively on the island of Cyprus and was formerly employed by the monks of the island to kill snakes.

Coat. - The coat is short and light gray. The paw-pads are black. The skin is white. There are some members of this breed that have long hair.

Ears - The ears are small and erect.

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE CAT

It is a little-studied breed found in the southern part of Africa.

Coat. - Short coat, red and blue in colour. Those with blue fur have a reddish dorsal line.

Ears. - Small and upright.

Tail. - Medium length and reddish colour.

GAMBIAN CAT

The Negro or Gambian race is found in Gambia, Guinea and on the West Coast of Africa.

Size and Shape. - The body is little bigger than that of the common cat, but the legs are much longer, which gives these cats a distinctive look.

Dress. - The coat is blue gray with short hair. The skin is black and wrinkled. It cannot mate with the European cat.

Tail. - The tail is tapered with no nodules.

CHARTREUX CAT (AMERICAN CAT, CARTHUSIAN CAT)

The Carthusian Cat is fairly rare in England and France, but is quite common in many other countries, especially in the United States, where it is called the Maltese cat.

This beautiful animal is widespread in the mining districts and agricultural regions, far from the inhabited centers. Traders told Charles J. Cornish that at one time there was quite a trade for merchants to transport cats in those countries and sell them to rough and intrepid miners. In their disputes, these miners would beat each other to death without hesitation, but they softened at the call of this cat, which reminded them of more peaceful times when they lived in a family.

It is found in Russia where it constitutes the sub-races of Tobolsk, Korossan and the Caucasus. It is one of the races that can live in the low temperatures of the highest peopled regions. They are taken from there into Russian territory. Their life passes from one extreme to the other; during the brief Russian summer, they wander in forests infested with venomous insects, and in the winter they are imprisoned inside the four walls of a snow-covered cabin and forced by necessity into a life of domesticity until the thaw lets them out. Many beautiful furs that come from Russia are actually made from the skins of these cats and the trade in heir dressed skins is an important and prosperous industry.

In England, the Chartreux cat is referred to as the British Blue (orange eye), or Russian Blue (green eye and smaller size than others).

Behaviour — The Carthusian cat has a general tendency towards laziness; however it is a good hunter of mice and small birds.

Size. – Very large with good bearing and well proportioned limbs that harmonise well with the rest of the body.

Tail. - This appendage is normal, equal thickness along its lenght and without any nodules.

Head. Robust, with large, full eyes, small, erect ears, and a short nose.

The eyes should be yellow in colour, but unfortunately many are greenish-yellow.

Coat. - The coat is semi-long and woolly, and it is this woolly consistency which is the principal characteristic of the breed. This woolliness is found even in those cats whose hair is not very long.

Colour and markings. - Uniform gray colour with bluish highlights in the true Carthusian, reddish highlights in the Tobolsk variety.

Scale of Points:

Size: 20
Tail: 5
Head: 10
Coat (woolly texture): 25
Colour: 25
Ensemble: 15
Total: 100

TOBOLSK CAT

This race, described by Gmelin, exists in Siberia, and is sometimes called the red cat of Tobolsk.

Size and Shape. - It is larger than the common cat and similar in conformation to the Chartreux.

Head.- Robust with large eyes, a short nose and small, erect ears.

Coat. - As appropriate to an animal libing in cold regions, Tobolsk cat has long fur, longer than that of the Chartreux. Its coat has a woolly texture and is uniformly reddish.

ABYSSINIAN

Origin. - In the opinion of eminent zoologists, the Abyssinian cat may be regarded as the nearest descendant of the sacred cat of ancient Egypt. According to paintings from the time of the Pharaohs, the colour of the domestic cats of Egypt, 3000 years ago, greatly resembled that of today’s African wild cat. A cat mummy stripped of its sacred bandages at the British Museum aws found to have fawn coloured fur similar to that of that of the Abyssinian cat.

The Abyssinian is also called the "bunny cat," “rabbit cat,” or “hare cat” and originates from Africa. It can be found on the Ivory Coast where it comes in from the interior of the country with chewed ears from fighting with rivals.

The Abyssinian was imported into England in 1869. In his book "Cats and Their Particularities" (1882) [Cats, Their Points and Characteristics] Dr. Gordon Stables mentions one of these animals belonging to Mrs. Lennard, which had been imported from Abyssinia.

Although not giving any description, Ross writes in his book of cats (1887): "In Abyssinia, cats are so valuable, that if a girl who wants to marry has a cat for a dowry she is considered rich."

Towards the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, there were a few breeders interested in this breed: Louis Wain, Sir William Locke, Mr Sam Woodiwiss, Mr Heslop of Darlington; Mrs. Allen Petkin, Brooke, Sir Claud Alexander, Mrs Clarke, and Mrs. Carrew Fox [sic. Mrs Carew Cox], who had the tenacity to continue breeding this breed when it was not likely to bring much satisfaction at cat shows.

In 1929, at the Paris International Cat Show, organized by the Paris Section of the Cat Club de France, the public was able to view two fine specimens presented by M. Gloszel. Since then, several specimens have been exhibited in Paris or in the provinces.

Character. - Despite its resemblance to the wild cat, the Abyssinian has generally very sweet, even shy, character. He is slow to make friends, but is affectionate once he has adopted a master. Graceful and active, this variety hates close captivity.

General Appearance. - Of average size or rather small, the Abyssinian is more slender than its European cousin. Its body must not be heavy or coarse; its silhouette must be elegant. From this point of view it has only one rivaled: the Siamese.

Head. - The head is medium sized, rather flat, with an elongated muzzle. The nose is dark red with a black border. The heads of older males tend to be more massive and more rounded than the heads of females and young males.

Eyes – The eyes must be large, shiny, expressive and wide open. In this breed, the eyes are larger and more oval than in the European cat. Their colour is usually bright yellow, often slightly tinged with green. The most sought after colour is bright green for silver and tiger cats; yellow or green for red brown or sandy colour cats, and blue in the albinos.

Ears. - The ears are large and open, similar to those of European cats, but with a more rounded black or brown tip.

Tail. - Must be quite long and end in a point.

Colour. - Several colours are recognised: brown, orange, sandy, fawn, dark gray or black gray, ticked with black or orange-brown.

The colour should be uniform without stripes or spots, with the exception of a black or brown line along the back, sometimes extending to the tip of the tail. The head, legs and tail should not have marks or lines, but it is almost impossible to eliminate them completely and most cats exhibited have slight markings. The belly is orange brown, with no belly spots or white patches. The most common colour in the Abyssinian resembles that of the wild rabbit. H. C. Brooke, said that on superficial examination, one could mistake a skin of an Abyssinian cat and a wild rabbit skin. The difference lies in the underfur which is greyish in the rabbit, while that of the feline is reddish or fawn.

The ticking is the essential trait of the Abyssinian. It is due to the black or red colour of the tip of each hair, while the end in contact with the skin must be as pale and pure as possible.

For some years silver individuals were seen, which were called Silver Abyssinians. According to H. C. Brooke, this colour should not be allowed, since the breed must retain its stable brown colour. Silver animals are very rare.

Albino individuals have also been reported and were owned by Sir William Cooke. The fundamental colour was creamy white, but the ears and dorsal stripe had the characteristic colour of the rabbit. Unfortunately this albino variety could not be selectively bred. Note that this albino appeared gradually, which shows that it was not the result of crossing with another breed.

Hair. - This must be short, even, dense, very soft, and smooth to the touch with a lustrous and regularly ticked appearance.

Limbs and Feet. - The extremities of the limbs and the soles of the feet are black. The backs of the lower legs are also black.

Clubs. - English cat lovers involved with this breed have formed "The Abyssian Cat Club", founded in 1929, whose secretary is the Hon. Major Sydney Woodiwiss.

Scale of Points:

Body, colour and type: 40
Head and ears: 15
Eyes: 10
Tail: 5
Feet and legs: 5
Fur: 10
Size: 5
Condition: 10

Total: 100

BIRMAN CAT

Origin. - This breed originates from the Far East. Burma cats bred in temples are closely guarded and it is forbidden to give them away. However, a few years ago, a pair was imported into France by Mine Thadde Hadish (a pair thato gave rise to the Madalpour strain); this pair was probably stolen by a temple servant, dazzled by promises of wealth and who would have fled in fear of punishment, because those familiar with the fanaticism of the Hindus find it impossible to believe that the priests would sell a pair of their cats, even at a fabulous price.

Major Sir Russell Gordon, part of the British troops charged with protecting the Kittahs, had an opportunity to observe these sacred animals in 1898. He drew up a standard which matches the one I established in 1925 in my doctoral thesis.

Behaviour. - These cats are very sociable, intelligent, happy, affectionate, and will follow commands in a dog-like manner, according to their owners. These cats do not play much, or else play quietly. When away from their masters they are aloof and melancholy. They lack the liveliness of the Siamese. They seem to be conscious of their sacred origin.

Appearance and Size. - The Birman is rather small with an elongated body, and well-proportioned slender legs. The claws are sharp, curved and strong, but are fine and fairly brittle. Its adult weight varies between three and four kilos.

Head. The head is long with erect ears covered with white felted hair. The forehead is slightly curved, the nose slightly pug-like, and the lower lip strong giving the impression of half-open mouth. The whiskers are long and thick. The eyebrows are especially profuse. Its darting eyes are an intense royal blue (the sapphire eye of the legend), deep and melancholy looking. If it feels threatened or is angered, its gaze becomes fierce and reveals that this is still an fierce independent animal.

Coat. - like all Asian cats, the Birman’s cat is long and silky, its length matching that of the semi-Angoras [note: domestic semi-longhair]. The fur of the tail is thick and forms a plume, albeit less profuse than that of the Angora.

Tail. – Unlike many Asian cats, the tail is never short, broken or knotted, nor bent in any way. At first sight, it does not give an impression of the Angora’s plume, being thin and not standing out. In hair type and appearance it resembles the "whip tail" of the setter dog. The tail is thicker at the root, tapering to the tip. At rest it droops with a slight curve upwards at the tip. When the Birman is playful or angry, the tail fur bristles and looks enormous, and the tail iteself is held upright and curves over the back like the tail of a squirrel.

Colour. - The colour, including the mask, legs, and tail, the same as the Siamese with the tones perhaps more bronzed on the spine. Seen in full sun, the Birman coat gives the impression of being bathed in golden brown threads, hence the name "Gold Cat" was given to it by the English who saw them.

All four legs give the impression of being clad in long otter mittens with the four fingers gloved in pure white as far as the first phalanx. The white rises to a point at the back of the hind legs which gives the impression of short lace-up boots.

The claws are sharp, very curved, strong but fine and fairly friable.

Scale of Points:

Coat: 20
Colour and markings: 20
Head: 15
Eyes: 15

Reproduction and Breeding. - The breeding of these cats has been particularly difficult. Mrs. Léotardi, who had the opportunity to raise several of them, said that one should not expect to raise more than one in ten.

Birman males cats do not mate with Angora females. Madame Leotardi presented a superb Persian to one of her Birman studs, the stud went into a frightful fury, and it was necessary to cover the Persian female with a blanket to prevent her from being scratched to bloody pieces. The next day, the stud warmly received a chocolate Siamese and mated with her. The result of crossing Angoras with Birmans have never given produced any Birman-looking offspring. One of Mrs. Leotardi’s females was accidentally bred by a tiger-like Angora, resulting in some frightful kittens including 3 tabby short-haired males that were absolute European Shorthairs, and a completely black female with a semi-long hair. None ofthe kittens in this litter resembled the Birman mother in terms of fur, colouring or conformation.

The Birman can easily be mated to either the Siamese or the Laotian lynx cat, but the offspring rarely have the regular gloves and they tend to havet the coat and conformation of the Siamese or the Laotian.

Food. - These animals thrivee on boiled fish and cooked greens, though others only accept raw meat. They are particularly subject to constipation.

To complete this study of the Birman cat, I will include some notes made by Sir Russell Gordon, demonstrating that the Siamese came from the crossing of Annamese and Burmese/Birman cats.

“Actually, I think and the learned Explorer Auguste Pavie agrees - The cat of Siam is a cross between Burmese [Birman] and Annamite cats imported into the Khmer empire in the 17th century, when the empire was in decline, rigorously besieged by Siamese and Annamite actions.

Already in the 16 century the “Thais” (Siamese) had invaded the Khmer Empire (Cambodians and Burmese) developing power at their expense. The Khmer remained resistant to the influence of Brahmanic India. Their closed religion was preserved by the almighty priests and the most venerable Kittahs. These priests were mercilessly hounded and killed by the Brahmins in the second Thai invasion at the beginning of the 18th century. Those who could escape fled to Northern Burma to the impregnable mountains where they founded the underground temple of Lao-Tsun (home of the gods).

The temple of Lao-Tsun is undoubtedly one of the strange wonders of India that few mortals have seen. It is located east of Lake Incaougji, between Magaoug and Sembo in an area almost deserted, surrounded by a barrier of impassable walls. In 1898 the last Kittahs were still living there and I was allowed the extraordinary privilege of observing them somewhat with their sacred animals. Following the rebellion and during the British occupation of the base at Bhamo, it was very isolated because of its remoteness from Mandalay. We had to protect the Kittahs against Brahmin invasion and we saved them from certain massacre and pillaging. Their Lama-Kittah, Ougji Yotag Rooh greeted me and presented me with a plaque representing the sacred cat at the foot of a strange deity whose eyes were made of two elongated sapphires (piece 4408 in my Mildenhall collection) and afterwards allowed me the great honour of viewing the sacred cats numbering a hundred and explained their origin.

The Legend is pretty but does not explain anything about the scientific background. The fact is certain, that a race of Annimite cats with yellow eyes, slender and elegant shape, small size, naturally short tail, at some point was introduced into Burma with the invasion. Certain studies communicated to me by Auguste Pavie relate this cat to that of the Isle of Man (tailless cat) and that the animal had been imported into India by English traders in the eighteenth century.

This was observed:

All Asian cats have thick fur. Angora cats of all colours, Persians, squirrel cats, Bengalese, dwarf cats of Formosa called “Swimming cats” or the Japanese cat etc. Nature has provided this protection, just as it encourages the Arab and the Hindu to protect himself from the hot sun under large and thick clothing. Alone amongst his brothers in Asia, the Siamese has sleek fur. I am of the opinion therefore and truly think it likely that the long hair cat of Burma is the ancestor of a Siamese cat crossed with an Annamite tailless cat imported by the English.

There are still a few examples among the Siamese of individuals having yellow eyes, of fur ranging from chocolate to brindle and the tail being reduced to a few centimetres. All Siamese cats have a break or a knot on the tail when it is long. One can still find an indication of the joining of these two separate breeds early on. This assumption is justified and corresponds to the idea advanced by several people, claiming that the Birman results from crossing a Siamese cat with a white Angora. This hypothesis is inadmissible as it can be consistently demonstrated to be impossible to get the same results from mating the Siamese to other breeds of cat.”

BLUE PERSIAN

Origin. - This cat is native to Asia Minor and Persia where it is nevertheless rather rare. The first specimens imported into England and France came from the caravans which, twice a year, crossed Persia and reached Bombay to trade horses and provisions.

Pietro della Valle, quoted by Buffon, gives the following description: "There exists in Persia, a species of cat originating in the Province of Chorazam. Their size and shape are those of the ordinary cat; their beauty is in their grey coat, without spotting or marking, of the same colour throughout the body, the latter being a little darker on the back and on the head; and paler on the breast and stomach, as agreeably balanced as a chiaroscuro, as the painters call it, giving a wonderful effect. In addition, their hair is loose, fine and lustrous, so silky and long that it does not stand out but lies flat; it is ringletted in some places especially under the throat. These are to cats what the Barbets are to dogs and a most beautiful part of their body is a tail covered all over with six to five fingers of long hair. They outstretch it and curve it over their backs like squirrels, the tip pointing up like a plume. They are highly prized. The Portuguese have brought this cat from Persia to India.” The author adds that he possessed four pairs that he intended to carry to Italy.

The breeding of Persian Blues is practiced on a large scale in England and by some breeders in Belgium and Holland. France possesses very beautiful subjects, thanks to the efforts of the Club Francais du Bleu de Perse.

Behaviour: This gentle cat is very sociable, and it is only in exceptional cases that it scratches: when over-excited by the presence of an animal or a stranger. It is quite lazy and not suitable for hunting mice. Some breeders claim, on the contrary, that when their cats are reared in the open air they are sharp, alert, vigorous and good hunters. Living conditions can therefore change their character and behaviour. The Persian is happy in an apartment beside his familiar master.

Size and General Appearance. – The Blue Persian is a fairly robust animal, though elegantly shaped. Its abundant fur, helps give it an imposing and majestic appearance. The average weight of an adult male varies between 4 and 5 kilos; that of the female between 3 and 4 kilos.

Head. - The head is round, broad and expressive. The eyes should be wide open and yellow; the colour varies from golden yellow to dark copper yellow or orange.

Ears. - They are thin, small and erect, lined with felted hair on the outside and with plumes of hair coming out of the inside of the ear.

The face and nose are short, the cheeks are well developed.

Body. - The body is stocky and supple. The tail is relatively short, covered with abundant fur. The limbs are massive and short, ending in broad foot covered with hair.

Coat. The fur of the Persian is long and silky, with long hair even on the legs and feet. Around the neck the fur forms a bushy ruff that gives the face an impressive appearance. Unfortunately the fur decreases in abundance during part of the year; in neuters it remains more stable and more imposing than in studs or females.

Colour - The colour is blue, but there are many variations and by selective breeding we get many different shades of blue. All shades are allowed, but breeders now prefer the lightest shades, tending towards lavender blue. It is difficult to keep this colour over several generations. The main concern is that there are no white markings and the colour is uniform.

In subjects reared in the open air, red highlights have been observed, but these are temporary and disappear if the animal is once again kept indoors.

Blue Persian Standard adopted at cat shows by Cat Club of France judges:

Coat. - All shades of blue are permitted, they must be a solid colour, well defined, without any markings or shading or white hair. The coat must be long, thick and soft to the touch, the ruff must be very profuse.

Head. – Large and round, with a large space between the ears. Face and nose are short. Small, thin ears covered with thick fur. Cheeks well developed

Eyes. - Large round and orange-coloured, Green eyes are no longer accepted in Blue Persians.

Body. - Stocky, and low on the legs.

Tail. - Short, well furnished, not tapered.

Scale of Points:

Coat: 30
Head: 25
Eyes: 20
Body: 15
Tail: 10
Total: 100

Disqualifying points. - Coarse form, head elongated with a pointed nose, long ears or ears set too close together, ears not lined with hair. Small oval eyes, blue or green eyes. Hollow cheeks. Long, weak, narrow limbs, not covered in long fur. Long tail not well furred. Thin fur, rough to the touch, or with markings, stripes or white hairs.

Upkeep. - Blue Persians must be cared for and combed every day, otherwise the hair forms mats which are particularly difficult to untangle. In the latter case, the only remedy is to shave off the damaged part and wait for new fur to grow. During moulting dead hairs must be removed by combing, otherwise the new hairs will grow badly and irregularly.

WHITE PERSIAN

Origin. - This variety is native to Asia Minor, where it was once common. Nowadays, as a result of multiple crosses, the specimens found in its country of origin are degenerating, but beautiful individuals, conforming to the standard, are being bred in France, England and Belgium. However, I will mention a fine stud called Loulou de Stamboul that was imported from Asia Minor by Mme Lessard.

The Germans make no distinction between the white Persians and the white Angora. In France and in England, the classification of White Persian is reserved for purebred cats with blue eyes. The C.C.F. refers to non-purebred white-haired animals as White Angoras, especially those with yellow eyes.

Behaviour. - The White Persian is a charming, aristocratic variety. These cats are very playful, and continue to act like young cats even when they are adults. They are particularly clean, and groom themselves meticulously.

General Characteristics. - These are the same as Persians in general. However, the whites are not as much improved as the other colour Persians: the nose tends to be too long and the body too elongated. Although the coat colour and eye colour are of the utmost importance, the characteristics common to all the Persians must not be neglected: the stocky body, short tail covered with abundant fur, short legs with broad well-furred paws.

The fur should be long, silky and form a thick ruff. The head is massive and round, the forehead is wide, the ears are widely separated from each other, the nose is wide, short and flat and the cheeks are well developed. Breeders must carefully select their animals and keep only those that conform to the Persian standard to avoid producing cats that are White Persian in colour only. To improve the shape of the white Persians, I advise you to have mate a cream or blue female to a white Persian. After two or three generations some offspring should be successful.

Special Characteristics. - The eyes must be large, round, wide open and deep blue in colour, to the exclusion of any other colour. The standard, developed twenty years ago by the C.C.F., is absolutely identical to that developed in England. In Germany and in the United States, White Persians with green or orange eyes are still accepted.

In Paris, at Reims, some breeders who were unwilling to work to the English standard (by claiming that the English were accepting yellow eyes) had succeeded in getting, in certain cat shows, a class for yellow-eyed White Persians. The recently published English standards state that the eyes must be blue. The yellow-eyed White Persian class created by certain clubs does not exist in serious cat shows.

Some white cats have one blue eye and the other yellow. In blue-eyed white cats some are deaf or have very poor hearing. Evelyn Buckworth Herne Soame, believes that this deafness is most noticeable at cat shows due to the fact that animals are made nervous by being caged. In my opinion, based on the comparative pathology of the different breeds, this deafness is the result of albinism which is accompanied by the degeneration of some other organs, particularly the ear. This is often seen in white dogs. According to Pocock, wild albino cats (tiger, cheetah, etc.) often have defective hearing and poor sight.

Lecoà has demonstrated that the relationship between the two phenomena appears to be so close that in cases where one of two eyes has the normal colour, deafness is partial and affects only one ear.

Deafness also occurs in white cats whose eyes are yellow or green, but in this case the percentage is lower than in the blue-eyed whites.

The coat colour must be snow-white without any markings, or any cream tint or any coloured hairs. The soles of the feet and the muzzle must be pink, without any pigmentation.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 25
Coat (length and texture): 10
Ruff: 15
Size and Form: 20
Head: 10
Eyes: 10
General appearance and condition: 10
Total: 100

Upkeep.— The fur of the White Persians requires some special attention because the delicate colour can easily be modified by dust and lack of care. In particular, the tail of male cats is often marked with yellow; it must be cleaned frequently by washing with soapy water to which borax has been added. When the hair is clean and dry, dust it with powdered boric acid and brushed vigorously to remove all traces of powder.

For the cleanliness of the coat, the breeder should not rely solely on the cat;s own grooming and licking. It should be supplemented by daily brushing to removes dust and moulted hair. White Persian cats can also be bathed in warm, soapy water provided they are rinsed and are dried by rubbing them with warm towels and keeping them in a warm room until they are completely dry.

By ridding the cats of mouldted fur, digestive problems caused by swallowing fur during grooming can be prevented.

BLACK PERSIAN

The Black Persian is graceful, lively and vigorous; melanism preserves it from the weaknesses found in other colour Persians. However, a few years ago, there were some very fine Black Persians, but at the present time the breed seems to be represented by only a small number of cats, none as fine as those exhibited five or six years ago.

To explain the decline in quality, it is claimed that the typical colour of the adults is difficult to get and the appearance of brown or marked kittens discourages breeders.

Mrs Evans, who specializes in raising Black Persian, gives this advice; "To get the sought-after really good specimen of Black Persian, if you have the possibility of mating a Black Persian with a beautiful black short-haired cat, it is better to use this method rather than mating a Black Persian to a Persian of a different colour."

On the other hand, life in the open air, in the sun in particular, or poor nutrition give the fur a scorched appearance which prevents them from being exhibited at cat shows. With a little patience (wait for the moult), good food and making sure that the cats do not stay long outside, one can nevertheless obtain beautiful blacks.

General Characteristics. - Stocky body, short tail well furred, short limbs terminated by feet covered with fur.
The coat must be long and silky, and the ruff well developed.
The head must be large and round, with small, wide-set furred ears, a short nose, and good cheeks.

Special Characteristics. – Large, dark orange, copper or amber eyes without any green circle. Green eyes are quite common among badly selected Black Persians and this is a defect that, unfortunately, only becomes apparent as the cat matures.

The colour should be jet black with no brown or red highlights, no spots and no white hairs. The white hairs tolerated in Germany are a cause of disqualification in France. At birth there is the opportunity to destroy any newborns that have white hairs.

Frequently the colour of Black Persian kittens is not very attractive up until 6 months, the fur often having rusty coloured patches. The breeder must not be discouraged because these hairs often disappear when the cats reach adulthood and the black can become very pure.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 25
Coat (length and texture): 10
Ruff: 15
Size and shape: 20
Head: 10
Eyes: 10
Overal appearance and condition: 10
Total: 100

Upkeep. — The coat of the Black Persian requires some special care: dust and loose moulted hairs will discolour the fur. It is necessary to brush them every day, especially during moulting, and then to pass a slightly moist flannel, moistened with a very light solution of ammonia, over the fur. A few drops of Fowler’s Solution for 3 days at the beginning of each month will maintain the beautiful shine of the fur.

SMOKE PERSIAN

Origin. - This variety was not shown until 1893 and did not have the honour of an official classification, the smoke being included in “any other colour.” Since that date, a number of breeders have improved and selective bred these cats, and have enjoyed success at cat shows. Currently, typical specimens are rare, few cat lovers take great care in raising Smoke Persians due to the difficulties and disappointments of litters always containing a large number of unwanted (non-smoke) kittens. The Smoke needs to be seriously bred in order to regain the beauty of the cats produced some twenty years ago.

The Persian smoke comes from crossing Black Persians and Silver Persians. With its black body, pale undercoat, its ruff, frill and silvery ears, and its orange eyes, it is one of the prettiest varieties of long-haired cats.

Behaviour. - The smoke is no more delicate than the European Shorthair. They adapt very well to life in the open air, and do not require heated dwellings, even during the harsh winters. Smokes are very good mousers and hunters of moles.

General Characteristics. — The body must be stocky, short and graceful. The head is large and round, broad with a short nose and well-developed cheeks, small wide-set ears with a good tuft of hair. Round eyes, orange or copper. The tail is short and bushy without taper; dark-coloured feet and claws.

Specific Characteristicss. The long hairs are pure white at their base, darkening to grey along their length and black at the end. The cat’s back, head, and legs are very dark coloured, without any markings; The flanks slightly silvered, the belly being clear. It is essential that the mask be very black, the contrast must be very clearly pronounced.

Breeding. – Smoke Persians may be bred to each other, but they may be bred to Black Persians in order to obtain greater clarity of colour and contrast. Choose a black female, and mate her to a male smoke. Avoid crosses with blues, or crossing a smoke to a blue female as this will give blue smokes whose undercoat is not as white as we would like.

Equally, avoid mating to smokes to tabby cats.

The white appears gradually, as the kittens develop, and at 3 weeks, the white undercoat will become visible.

Smoke cats are rather black at birth so the kittens must not be discarded before the age of six months. Before that age it is difficult to make a wise choice, however it is necessary to keep any kittens whose face and legs are very black at birth.

Scale of Points:

Colour: Black body, silvered on the sides and flanks. Face and legs black, without markings; silvery frill and ears, undercoat as close as possible to white: 40.
Hair: Silky, long and thick, very long on the frill, forming a ruff: 20.
Form: Medium body, robust but graceful: 20.
Head: Large and round, with a short nose, small wide-set ears: 10.
Eyes: Round, orange or copper colour: 10.
Tail: Short and bushy: 10.

The same scale is used for blue smoke, with the only difference being that black is replaced by blue.

Lovers of the Smoke Persian have formed a club called The Smoke Society, Hon. See. Miss Evelyn Langston.

BLUE SMOKE PERSIAN

The characteristics of the blue smoke mirror those of the black smoke, the only difference being the colour: blue in the first and black in the latter.

As a result, the contrasts are less marked in the Blue Smoke. On the other hand, the undercoat is often mixed with blue, and lacks the sought after beautiful white colour.

It is therefore right that the Blue Smoke is not recognized for exhibitions by the C.C.F.

RED PERSIAN

Although there are few fine cats of this breed, I shall say a few words about it. It was mainly bred in England and America, but in France, specimens are quite rare. Females are much rarer than males, so they are much more esteemed.

Colour and Coat. - The long, thick, silky fur must be absolutely uniform, without any markings, shading, or mottling. The colour should be as bright as possible, but unfortunately it is often too pale. A fairly common defect is a white mark on the chin or chest; a cat with these marks must be eliminated from the breeding programme.

At birth, the kittens are a dull colour, and becomes brighter as they mature.

Eyes. These must be large, round, dark copper coloured or golden bronze. Pale yellow or greenish yellow eyes should be eliminated from the breeding progranne. Some breeders have tried to produce Red Persians with blue eyes, but these attempts have been vain.

Kittens are born with blue eyes, these become orange between the 7th and 12th week. Kittens that have quite deep blue eyes go on to develop beautiful copper orange eues, but if their eyes are pale blue, they turn pale yellow, which does not match the colour required by the standard.

The other characterisitics (body, head, tail etc) are the same as the Persians in general.

RED TABBY PERSIAN

This breed has now been carefully selected and no longer presents the defects of a narrow head or small size etc that handicapped it for a long time at cat shows. Most of the specimens are descended from Champion Swinton Dinna Forget, born in 1920, and despite inbreeding, breeders have achieved very good results and many beautiful specimens have been exported from England, mainly to Australia.

Colour. - The colour should be reddish-orange with darker markings on the chest, legs and tail. To appreciate the markings in adults, it is useful to let them into the open air if possible. In kittens, in the first 2 or 3 days after their birth, these markings are very clear, then partly vanish, only reappearing around the 6th or 7th month.

Scale of points:

Colour: 40
Hair: 15
Body: 10
Head: 15
Eyes: 10
Condition: 10
Total: 100

SILVER TABBY PERSIAN

Silver tabbies were better some years ago, albeit at the expense of some other varieties. They are now very unusual.

Colour. - The colour must be pure pale silver, with distinct black spots which, as a result of long hair, appear less distinct than in a short-haired, marked silver.

Eyes.- The eyes, which are often yellow-green, must be hazel-coloured, or dark walnut. It is important to insist on this colouring, according to directions by Miss Leake, to guide the breeders that are still undecided on the correct eye colour.

The ideal markings would be a dark line along the spine, narrowing from head to tail, numerous concentric and well-separated black rings on the chest, legs ringed with black markings which get smaller and smaller as they get closer to the feet.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 30
Eyes: 10
Head: 20
Size and Shape: 15
Fur and Condition: 15
Tail: 10
Total: 100

BROWN TABBY PERSIAN

This variety has had better days, because it has degenerated completely over several years. Thanks to the efforts of English breeders, there are now good specimens that reflect the qualities of former champions of this breed.

Colour. - The background colour must be a rich, bold sandy colour with delicate black lines on the face. The cheeks, legs and tail should be striped, the breast and back are smarked with broad bands.

Eyes. - The eyes should be copper or hazelnut colour.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 30
Eyes: 10
Head: 20
Size and Shape: 15
Fur and Condition: 15
Tail: 10
Total: 100

ORANGE PERSIAN

Some breeders have divided the Orange Persian into several sub-varieties, taking into account the shading: this is a mistake because cats whose coats show shading are less successful Orange Persians. There is therefore no need to encourage the breeding of shades of Orange Persian.

Colour. – Uniform orange without marking, shading, stripes or white hair.

Eyes. - Orange or hazel brown.

Breeding - To obtain good oranges and to get rid of streaks or marks, it is advisable to mate a beautiful male cream with an orange female that has as few markings as possible. The results are, unfortunately, not consistent.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 40
Hair: 15
Body: 10
Head: 15
Eyes: 10
Tail: 10
Total: 100

CREAM PERSIAN

Origin. - This sub-race probably originated from the orange Persian, crossed with the white Persian but many specimens were originally produced by the crossing orange and tortoiseshell cats.

Fixed a few years ago, this breed has improved marvelously, although excellent specimens are rather rare, and the coat colour is often marred by shading, markings or stripes. It should be noted that creams generally have a robust constitution and are less delicate than specimens of the other varieties of pale Persian.

Reproduction. Now that the colour of the Cream Persian breeds true, breeders must cross male and female creams, provided they have good conformation.

If we do not have a pair of creams, Mr. C. A House advises to use a pale blue female and a cream male. According to Miss Simpson, it is better to cross a female tortoiseshell with cream or orange in her coat, with a blue male.

Colour. - The name “cream” describes exactly the desired shade for these cats. Some Cream Persians are darker and have the colour of a doe’s belly. These are less esteemed, but are essential in order to obtain a uniform shade, without shading or markings. The dorsal stripe is a slightly darker cream, but the cat must be cream on the sides, under the chest and on the tail. The colour should be very uniform and should not be white, or be too pale in some areas

We cannot admire the best colour of creams at cat shows because transportation in the baskets, and the time spent in the cages easily discolours their coat. To view them and appreciate their true colour, you have to see them at liberty, at a breeder, for example, in the country on a green lawn.

Secondary Characteristics. - The hair must be long and fluffy; The head round and plump with a short nose; the ears small and well opened; the eyes large and bright, orange or copper.

Upkeep. - Cats of this colour have no peculiarities and consequently require no more care than the others. Just brush them well and comb them. If these operations are done well, washing is unnecessary, especially if the walls of their home or their cushions are kept strictly clean.

Scale of Points:

Colour as pure as possible, without shading or markings, white and too pale colours should be avoided: 25.
Hair very long, thick and silky, short tail: 25.
Body graceful, but solid, with a good skeleton; legs short and thick: 20.
Head round and fat, short nose; small well opened ears; full, round cheeks: 15.
Eyes large and shiny, copper colour: 5.
Condition: 10.
Total: 100

In England, there is a society particularly interested in this breed: the Red, Cream, Tortoiseshell, Brown Tabby and Blue Cream Society, whose secretary is Miss Lea.

CHINCHILLA PERSIAN

This breed has been the subject of numerous discussions among breeders who have designated, under the Silver name the Shaded Silver as well as the Chinchilla described here. The Chinchilla variety has improved so much over recent years, that the old champions are of almost no value, having been dethroned by the cats bred by dedicated breeders.

General Appearance. - Very graceful with its silvered coat enhanced by its emerald eyes, the Chinchilla Persian is a truly aristocratic purebred.

Some people claim that breeding the Chinchilla is more difficult than breeding other varieties. This opinion (presumably based on the fact that many Chinchillas are less stocky and less massive than other Persian varieties) is not justified, and in recent cat shows the public was able to admire some beautiful Chinchillas having all the characteristics of the Persian (robust body, thick limbs, large feet etc), which are indispensable to its beauty.

General Characteristics. The coat colour must resemble a brand new shilling, or to employ the poetic image of an English author, must give the impression of "rays of the sun playing on the frozen snow." This silver tint is the result of a very white undercoat with hairs that are tipped at the very end with black, giving the impression of having been sprinkled with black.

There should be significant speckling distributed on the back, sides, head, ears and tail. The limbs may be slightly tinted, but the tufts of the ears, stomach, and chest should be pure white, any spots in these areas constituting defects.

The nose should be brick-red, the edges of the eyelids and the soles of the feet, dark brown or black. Some breeders have tried to create a variety in which the speckles was recued to almost nothing. They were rightly not followed, because the appearance of such cats resembled “dirty white” Persians, which was not a sign of beauty.

As with other Persians, the head must be large and round, the nose short, the ears small, well lined with hair and wide-set. The eyes are large, round, very expressive, and must must be emerald green or blue green. The coat must be long, silky and thick, with a very thick ruff.

Clubs. – In England, lovers of this breed have formed a club, "The Chinchilla Silver and Smoke Society", whose secretary, Miss Evelyn Langton, won numerous victories with the offspring of her champions "Desmond d'Allington" and "Nadine d'Allington".

Scale of Points:

Colour: 25
Head: 20
Conformation: 15
Eyes: 15
Fur, condition: 15
Size: 10
Total: 100

TORTOISESHELL PERSIAN

In Germany, this variety of Persian is known as the Lucky Cat (gluckskatze); the peasants of the Campine, call them "Belgian cats", probably because they carryt the three colours of the Belgian national flag.

The tortoiseshell is the result of crossing black Persians and orange Persians, and is partly fixed by careful selection. These cats are not very popular for the simple reason that the tortoiseshell markings are often very irregularly distributed, while beauty resides in the well-defined distribution sought by breeders.

Tortoiseshell males are very rare. Mr. C. A. House and Miss Simpson both say they have seen one, but other authors - and I tend to agree with them – state that tortoiseshell male cats do not exist.

To get tortoiseshell cats, you must cross either two cats of a different solid colour, or a tortoiseshell cat with a stud of a single colour. To get beautiful subjects, Miss Simpson advises that a female tortoiseshell be mated to an orange male. The products of these crosses will be of varied colour: red, black, tortoiseshell or cream.

Colour. - Yellow, orange and black must be arranged in clear, substantially equal patches, the size of which varies from a speckle to a patch without striping, intermixing or any trace of white. The legs, tail, head and ears, must be as well patched as the body.

Some subjects have a yellow blazee on the head along the nose line, which Miss Florence Simpson sees a sign of good breeding, a feature not mentioned in the C.C.F.’s adopted standard.

Eyes. - Large and round, coloured orange or bright copper.

Coat. The hair must be long, close, silky, and brilliant.

Body. The characteristics of the Persians are generally applicable, the overall appearance remaining graceful, while being massive with short limbs.

Head. – Large and round and large, with well-developed and full cheeks, small ears lined with hair and a short, wide nose.

Faults. - The predominance of black, one or more legs being a single colour, irregular mixing of colour instead of well-defined patches.

Club. – There is no special club for this breed, its devotees are associated with those of other breeds in “The Red, Cream, Tortoiseshell, Brown Tabby and Blue Cream Society,” whose secretary is Miss Lea.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 30
Coat: 20
Body: 20
Head: 15
Eyes: 5
Condition: 10
Total: 100

TORTOISESHELL AND WHITE PERSIAN

This cat is currently not very widespread for the simple reason that the colours and the white are irregularly fixed. A Persian cat really well marked, would be magnificent.

Colour. - Black, yellow and orange on white. The white must never predominate over the other colours. In the ideal type, the black, yellow and orange should spread over the top of the head, ears, cheeks, back and tail. The white should be on the lips, chest, and limbs with a white circle around the neck.

The characteristics of the coat, eyes and head are those described for the ordinary tortoiseshell.

Scale of Points:

Colour: 30
Coat: 20
Body: 20
Head: 15
Eyes: 5
Condition: 10
Total: 100

CHINESE CAT

The Chinese Cat (felis catus sinensis), by the length and texture of its hair, brings to mind the Carthusian cat. According to Brehm, ut is found in China in the province of Petchi-li, China and throughout Manchuria. Like Chow Chow dogs, it is fattened and eaten. When it is well-fleshed, it appears next to swallows’ nests on the well appointed table.

The Chinese Cat is also an article of export and exchange between the Manchus and the inhabitants of the country of Kiliaque, in exchange for sable pelts, but the Manchus take care not to export any females.

The head of the Chinese cat is extremely delicate, and many of these cats cannot stand being touched on the head, hence the Chinese proverb: "The cat’s head is as fragile as silk paper."

It seems that the Chinese use this cat as a sundial. Father Hue spoke of a method employed in some provinces of China to know the hour by means of careful examination of the cat's eye.

"Our adept neophytes," he said, "brought three or four cats, and explained to us how a cat could be used as a watch. They made us see that the pupil of his eye narrowed as we approached noon, at noon it was a perpendicular slit on the eye, and in the afternoon it began to dilate again. When we had examined all the cats attentively, we concluded that it was past noon – all their eyes were in perfect agreement."

Baudelaire also took notice of the Chinese Cat and wrote the followin lines in Revue Fantaisiste in 1861:

“One day a missionary walking in the suburbs of Nanking realized that he had forgotten his watch and asked a little boy what time it was. The boy of the Celestial Empire hesitated at first, then, turning his back, he replied: ‘I will tell you.’ A few moments later he appeared, holding in his arms a very large cat, and, looking at the pupil of the cat’s eyes, he said without hesitation: ‘It is not quite midday yet.’ Which was true. For me, when I take in my arms my extraordinary cat, which is at the same time the honor of its race, the pride of my heart, and the perfume of my mind, whether at night, In the full light, in the depths of her adorable eyes I always see the hour distinctly, always the same, an immense solemn hour, great as the space without division of minutes or seconds, a motionless hour which is not marked on the clocks and, however light as a sigh, quick as a glance.

And if some intruder came to disturb me while my gaze rests on the delicious dial, if some dishonest and intolerant genius came to tell me ‘what are you looking at with such care?’ What do you look for in the eyes of this stranger? Do you see the hour, mortal prodigual and lazy?

I would answer without hesitation:

Yes. I see the hour; He is eternity! "

Size and Shape. The size is much greater than that of the common Europe cat. The fur is medium length, and the tail is bushy.

Head.- The head is large and rather robust, with drooping ears, not erect ones, similar to those of the Pekinese dogs but certainly not drooping to the same degree.

Tail. - Thick, medium length, without breaks or nodules.

Colour. - The rarest colour is pure white, but the majority are black or yellow with markings on the flanks, black on the head, white above the eyes. [Note: Jumaud repeats the mistake of confusing the white cat with the yellow-necked marten]

Coat. - The coat is semi-long and silky.

SIAMESE CAT

According to the explorer Auguste Pavie, the Siamese cat is the result of crossing the Birman cat (long hair) with the Annamite cat (tailless) imported into the Khmer empire in the 17th century. Moreover, in Siamese cats some individuals have yellow eyes and a tail that is reduced to a few centimetres. A break or knot can still be found in the breed, and this is the clue to the joining of the Birman and Annanmite cat.

Origin: - In Europe you can find quite a number of specimens, either imported or born in England or France. The first specimens seen in France were in the Jardin d’Acclimation in 1885; they were donated by Mr. Pavie who was the resident minister for France in Bangkok.

Behaviour: - These cats are very intelligent and easy to groom. They may learn to open doors and cupboards as well as perform acrobatics. They are very attached to their master and will follow him like a little dog, but it is noteworthy that they are thieves and are more independent than other domestic cats.

Many Siamese are very sensitive to music and smells. Some scents attract them and others upset them (Ether, Alcohol of Mint…) By comparing subjects of the same race, age, weight and even similar conditions I find that in general the brain is much more developed in the Siamese breed, which reputed for its intelligence.

Siamese cats are particularly sensitive to the cold which profoundly alters their activity level. During the winter season they enter a period of hibernation which, though not always very apparent is nonetheless real. In this state both young and adult cats have less resistance to illness.

In Siamese cats, more than 80% of diseases are seen during the winter because of the chilly conditions so a minimum constant temperature of 20 degrees (Centigrade) must be maintained for breeding cats. The temperature can be reduced to 15 degrees for adults. Below this temperature I fear that fatalities will be frequently observed.

This sensitivity to cold is the cause of many accidents during transportation by train and sending Siamese cats unaccompanied should be absolutely avoided during the winter. There are exceptions, among them a cat belonging to Mme la Marquise de Scey Montbéliard whose cattery was situated in Haute-Marne. I can report the case of a very handsome 9 years old male (weight over 4.5 kg) who spends his nights outside in the snow in the cold temperatures.

Siamese cats mostly eat fish and boiled rice but they are also great hunters and devour prey such as sparrows and mice, and they are very fond of rats.

The Siamese has an extensive vocal range which they use with different intonations and modulations, especially in the mating period. During this time the cries of the females are reminiscent of wild beasts.

Size and Shape. - They are generally smaller than our European Shorthairs. The male is substantially larger than the female. The profile is a rather long, but is elegant and graceful. The legs and the neck are thin.

Head: - Is always small, wide between the eyes, narrowing between the ears. The forehead is flat and receding, the nose is long and wide. Lips are round and full. Fairly large ears are wide at the base and furnished with a little fluffy hair inside. The eyes are almost almond shaped, slanting towards the nose. The iris is a beautiful blue. The eyes have a reddish hue when the animal is frightened or irritated. The eyes are a crucial point and the source of much misinformation about the breed. Inbred cats are susceptible to anaemia, which makes the eyes look paler and less blue. Avoid cats that have eyes that are blue-green or greenish-yellow as their descendants will be tainted by unexpected defects. The blue eye colour does not cause any loss of hearing as it does in another breed [Jumaud means blue-eyed white cats].

Tail: - Shorter than in European Shorthairs, it is straight and thin like that of a pointer dog, and is curved, broken and even twisted like that of a pig. At the base there is almost always a nodule which is characteristic of this breed.

The question of the tail of the Siamese has been much written about [lit: sunk a lot of ink]. Trying to predict the inheritance of a long tail has resulted in fanciful arguments that I will not bother to discuss because they have no scientific basis. By appropriate selection it is possible to fix the conformation and get only long tails, but this does not prevent the scientific nature of the Siamese to always have a knot, break or irregularity of one or more tail vertebrae. The opinion of the learned Professor Cornevin (which carries more weight and value that that of hobbyists or snobs) “examination of subjects born in Siam leaves no doubt on this subject. Of more than 500 subjects imported from Siam I examined only 18 that had long tails and two of those had a breakage at the end.” Despite this, and despite the lack of importance placed on the tail just afew years ago (5 out of 100 points in the scale of points), the English standard states that the tail must be long, straight and slightly raised at the end. The Belgians tend to adopt the English style. In France all tails are admitted in cat shows and in the scale of points no score is given to the tail.

Fur: - The hair is short, soft and silky to the touch. On the face, legs and tail the coat is shiny and lustrous. The coat should lie flat revealing firm hard muscles as the Siamese cat should not be too fat.

A long-haired Siamese was exhibited at the Newburg Cat Club by Mr Harvey, who had brought it back from Malaysia. The parents were apparently common Siamese cats who produced normal Siamese kittens with the exception of the specimen with long hair.

Colour: - The basic colour of the adults is uniform light cafe au lait, pale silver grey, pale orange or glossy tan. These are the preferred colours, but the most sought after are the lightest shades. On this subject here is a story told by Englishman John Jennings who confirms the preference for cats with pale coats.

“The first Siamese cats exhibited in London were light coloured with darker faces and extremities. They came from the palace in Bangkok and were given to English aristocrats living in Siam. It was long believed that the King of Siam maintained catteries for these royal animals at great expense. This has been denied by important personages, with credentials close to the Government of Siam. They said that the Royal Siamese cat is a rare variety in all parts of the country even in Bangkok and its surrounding areas. We sometimes find a couple in the palace but there is no official kennel and these cats are considered the personal property of the king. This was also the case for the old Pekingese Spaniel from the old court of China.

Thai Buddhists have a special reverence for white or albino animals because this is the preferred form of Buddha when he appears on earth. Ordinary people do ‘wa ai ou salams’ (respectful greetings)to white-coated animals.”

The belly and underside of the Siamese are always pale. The back is darker, the head (either whole or in part) the tail and all four legs are brown to blackish, and blue eyes stand out against the dark mask. The hairs lining the inside of the ears are white and downy. Sometimes there is a white marking on the front of the chest between the neck and chest; any sign of white marking is a cause for disqualification. Collections of specimens can be seen, in Museum galleries, which have small white markings on the ends of the legs in the most bizarre way around the claws of the middle toe.

Whiskers and eyebrows are long and very pale. Adults have a brush of whisker-like hair on the forearm. Generally there is a blackish spot in the region of the umbilicus and this shows very well on a pale coat.

Albinism has been reported in Siamese cats and a member of the CCF, Mr. Fircinai de Cholet recently reported a new case. The observation concerns a 6 month old Siamese cat which was all white with pale cream extremities and red eyes. This small sized animal had a knotted tail. This cat never reproduced despite mating many times.

Reproduction and Breeding: - For a long time the number of young born in Europe was very limited because the King of Siam, jealously guarded his breeding cats and did not export entire males.

The Siamese cat cannot be bred without extreme caution since the kittens are born much smaller than the young of other breeds. Siamese cats come into heat twice a year; spring and autumn, and sometimes even 3 times in the same year. Their heats last for 12 to 15 days, often as long as three weeks.

It is noteworthy that the female carries her young about eight days longer than other cats and Siamese cat pregnancies are generally 65 to 66 days.

The crosses obtained from mating a Siamese male and common shorthair generally produce only common breeds. In ten observations of such crosses, I only once found a case where a kitten had the broken tail as a fesult of a Siames mating with a common cat. At the Marseilles cat show in 1925, I saw a long-haired cat with with the colour of the Siamese breed. Its tail was shorthaired and didn’t have any nodules.

The litter size varies between 2 and 6 kittens, with 5 being usual. This average figure is based on 38 observations collected by 7 French and Belgian breeders of Siamese cats.

From the age of 4 years the number in each litter decreases and does not exceed 4 on average (personal observations by Mme. Marquise de Saint-Mars). Kittens that are raised on mothers’ milk grow rapidly, but there are individual differences in rate of growth between kittens raised in the same conditions.

The rate of growth is much slower in kittens that receive a different diet instead mothers’ milk [note: farinaceous (flour-based) food was popular in Jumaud’s time]. The same can be seen in kittens raised by a foster mother of a different breed. In several cases we observed a mortality rate of 80% or more. The kittens are born white with a small dark line on the edge of the ears. If any newborns have the slightest mark on the pristine coat do not keep them because they are not pure bred.

Siamese cats are reputed to be difficult to breed; this is incorrect and Mme Marquise de Ligneries who has raised more than ten, tells us that there is no more danger than with other breeds.

Feeding: - Breeders are much divided on this matter. I will mention two of them who are particularly qualified to comment because they have raised many very beautiful specimens. Mme Noclain makes meals for her pets thus: a day of cooked liver (pork veal or beef) cut into small pieces; another day of raw minced beef; once a week cooked fish (cod or skate) alone or mixed with bread; another day beefsteak lightly cooked and cut into small pieces.

Mme Noclain has noted that with Siamese cats fed exclusively on fish, the pale coat persists longer than in cats fed with meat. She gives four of five meals a day not offering too much food at once and gives milk freely.

Jennings, in his book on cats, indicates that food should always be light “Everything should be cooked the same way - reduced to a jelly whether sheep or sheep’s head, tripes or fish. All food must be very fresh.”

The Clubs

In France we have a large number of breeders of Siamese cats grouped into a club: Le Club Francais de Chats Siamois (affiliated to CCF). In England there is The Siamese Cat Club (affiliated to the National Cat Club).

Standard:

To conclude this brief study on the cat of Siam I will give the standard scale of points adopted and used by judges:

Body Colour: - Must be as pale as possible and preferably cream but a tawny shade is also permitted. There must be no stripes, spots or markings on the body. The mask, ears, paws, and tail have very distinct otter-brown markings. The mask is separated by a faint line (like that of kittens) and must have no markings or visible lines. The general appearance depends very much upon a good mask that resembles, as much as possible, the face of the marten.

Eyes: - must be a brilliant blue and lively.
Hair: - lustrous and lying flat against the body.
Form: - The body must be rather long, legs slim, well proportioned.
Head: - long and pointed.

General Appearance: - Must retain the following features: unusual and eye-catching. It is important that the specimen is not too large, which would undermine the much-prized slender type. In summary, each of the peculiarities of the Siamese cat is the opposite of the domestic cat. It is distinguished by a short coat with contrasting colours; a nodule on the tail is a particularly distinguishing trait.

Note: - While I admit that blue, black, white, tabbies and other colours are commonly found in cats from Siam, the Cat Club of France permits only those who correspond to the above Standard.

Scale of Points:

Body colour: 20
Size: 10
Coat: 10
Head: 10
Eyes: 20
Mask: 15
Harmony of Points : 15
Total: 100

Any cat that does not get, at cat shows a minimum of 75 points, may not achieve championship status in the C.C.F.

JUNGLE CAT
[Note: either the Fishing Cat or Asian Leopard Cat]

According to “Nature”, the zoological garden of Regent Park possessed a cat rarely seen in Europe. This beautiful animal, which is found in the north of India, Burma, and China, is commonly called the Jungle Cat, or Fishing Cat. It is very large, measuring one meter from the tail to the end of the muzzle at birth. The tail is rather short and measures only 25 centimeters; this is shorter, proportionally, than that of the domestic cat. The limbs are strong and well-muscled. The head is longer than that of our cats and the ears are broad and rounded. The coat is dark gray with chestnut shading; it is dotted with dark brown-black spots. The tail is regularly ringed and black on the upper side.

This large cat is quite ferocious. It not only catches fish and crustaceans on the banks of rivers or in marshes, it also attacks all animals that are not much larger than itself in size or strength. I can cite some authentic cases were it has killed and eaten lambs, goat kids and even the calves of yak or buffalo. It is even known to take on the challenge of wild dogs and win the fight. The living specimen in question, although it has a savage disposition, has accepted the company of a domestic female cat and is protective and affectionate towards her, not allowing anyone to touch her.

JAPANESE CAT

This Asian breed is fairly common in the Pacific islands.

According to Boden Kloss, director of the Raffles Museum in Singapore, Japanese cats do not mate with domestic cats. This scholar often uses females of the Malay breed to suckle and raise Bengal kittens alongside their own kittens. On the other hand, Mr Boden Kloss did not have the opportunity of seeing any of those offspring mate to domestic cats.

BENGAL CAT

This cat breed is presumably a variety of Annamite cat. Mr. Brooke had the opportunity of seeing two specimens, which were white, with a pink nose and eyes [note: albino Siamese].

FELIS CHAUS

This cat is called “Riet Kat” by the Dutch of South Africa, and is known as Jungli-billi by the natives of the Indes.

Behaviour. - These cats will mate with domestic cat.

Size and Shape. - This exotic cat stands high on its legs, its tail is rather short, and its ears are very pointed.

Colour. – Yellowish-tan or sandy, the limbs being slightly striped.

Specimens of this variety somewhat resemble lynxes, and are found in Africa and the Indes. This race formerly existed in Europe.

MEXICAN HAIRLESS CATS

Several mammals have produced hairless versions, in particular naked dogs are fairly common and are known as Chinese dogs. These varieties all belong to animal species that are normally covered with hair, and they are not caused by spontaneous variation, not are they created as a result of domestication.

Thanks to Mr. H.C. Brooke I can publish a picture of a pair of hairless Mexican cats. These belonged to Mr. Shinick of Albuquerque, New Mexico. He got them from a Jesuit missionary who told him that they were the last representatives of a variety raised by the Aztecs. Because these cats, male and female, were from the same litter, M. Shinick hesitated to breed them together. When one of them was killed by a dog he had to abandon all hope of preserving the race.

These cats were well-formed and vigorous, with a smooth, wrinkled brow. They were bluish brown on the back, pink on the stomach, and entirely naked over the whole body, with the only long hairs being the whiskers.

The owner, Mr. Shinick, told Mr. Brooke that in winter a light fur appeared on the back and at the end of the tail, but this fur fell out in the summer.

The breed must be extinct now, for despite announcements in the Mexican press that Mr. Brooke would pay 100 pounds for a naked cat, he never had a response.

MARGAY

Terminology. - Margay cats (called in Brazil Màracaja) are wild cats that are domesticated by the natives when, during a hunt, they killed the mother and took the kittens. It is probably a first cousin to the Ocelot of Mexico. The French word ‘Margay’ is a corruption of the Indian word (in the guarany-toupy language) ‘faracaja’ which means: cat of the woods.

The proximity of French Guiana explains how Indian names from northern Brazil pass into French after distortion. (E.g. the Indian name for the boa snake is ‘giboia’).

Bibliography. – The Margay is listed in the big Larousse dictionary (see ‘margay’) and in "The Brazilian Amazon" by Le Comte (2 vol.) edited by the Society of Geographical Editions; Maritime and Colonial, 17, rue Jacob, Paris.

Description. - Its colour is fawn with brown-black spots, which join on the head, neck and back to form parallel stripes.

It is the size of an average dog, that is to say about 70 cm from the neck at the beginning of the tail. Its muzzle is a little sharper than that of our cats. Its more voluminous tail serves as a counterweight when it jumps among the tree branches.

There is a small species called Maracaja Mirim (Mirim = little [Lesser Margay]) as opposed to Maracaja Assou (large [Greater Margay]) which was exhibited in Paris in 1928. The Margay Mirim does not exceed 45 cm.

Habitat. - The margay lives in Central America and the Amazon region. The natives have described it for a long time. It lives in the wild in the forests and islands of the Amazon

Behavior. - In the wild, it never attacks man and lives on small birds. In the domestic state, it is fed like a common cat; it loves raw meat and fish, but is best fed on cooked meat.

This species is very gentle and will follows his master like a dog. It loves human compa and will lay at its master’s feet and fall asleep. It is very playful. It seems to be more domesticable than the Siamese cat and gentler. It likes to bathe when the water is at an appropriate temperature as it is sensitive to cold.

Acclimatization. - The margay brought back to France by Pierre Orcheboeuf in April seems to have become very well acclimatized. Since coming to Paris it has grown enormously and has not stopped playing, proof of its good health.

It is nevertheless best to take great precautions for an animal from a tropical country. It would be difficult to take, for example, in Paris, an unheated apartment if you have such an animal.

PS - The male specimen that appeared in the exhibition was sold for 5,000 francs to an Englishman living in Cairo.

TAILLESS MANX CAT

This breed is variously known as Isle of Man Cat, Manx, Cornwall Cat or Cornish.

Origin. - This breed comes from the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea, but it is likely that it was imported into there from the Far East, Japan or China, these being neighboring countries of Malaysia which is home to short-tailed cats. The Japanese and Chinese paintings in which one often sees tailless cats confirm this opinion.

Without wishing to take sides in this question I will it clear that there are differences between the Malaysian and Manx cats in the diverse formation of the tail, which is more widespread in Manx breed than in the Malaysian, and also in the coat colour. These differences may be due either to a difference in origin or to evolutionary divergence due to two races originating from the same strain, but living in different biological conditions.

In this respect, I will note that the Malaysian cats and Manx cats are not the only members of the Felidae family with a foreshortened tail. Lynx, felis cervaria (Siberian lynx), felis conadensis (polar lynx) felis lynx (lynx of Europe) and felis rufa (American lynx) are also in this category.

It is said that the Manx variety was once common in the county of Corwnall, in the southwest of Great Britain. At present, this breed is well-known England, Belgium, Holland, but little-known in France.

According to a legend spread on their native island, this curious animal descended from two specimens stranded on the shore after the shipwreck of ship from the Spanish Armada, and they would have been imported into Spain from Japan [note: by Catholic missionaries].

The absence of a tail is accompanied by defects in the development of the vertebral column, the sacrum, the pelvis, and the related nerves and muscles (Pr Swangart).

Size and Shape. - Its size a little above the average, the body being as short as possible. The rump should be round (rounded like an orange, according to the English standard). The hind legs are stronger and taller than the forelegs. The Manx does not run like a cat, but bounds like a rabbit. This characteristic results in an almost complete wear of the hairs on the back of the metatarsals. This bounding trait is related to the malformation of the spine and the pelvis.

Head. - The head is broad and fine, but not pointed. The eyes are large, round and full, like those of common cats. The ears are medium in size and slightly rounded at the top. The eye colour varies; it is orange, yellow gold, brown or greenish, depending on the colour of the coat. It is always orange with a black coat.

Mr. Brooke, a great lover of Manx, desires that when you put a finger on the place where the tail was to begin, there is a hollow or depression.

Tail. - At first sight, this animal seems almost completely devoid of tail. On closer examination and palpation this is not the case. One senses on palpation, a distinct coccygeal region formed of several vertebrae that are mobile with respect to each other. This is confirmed by anatomical study.

The ordinary cat has 21, 22 or 23 tail vertebrae. Manx cats have only 6. The neural canal, which in the ordinary cat decreases in size and ends in the caudal vertebra, stops at the 5th tail vertebra in Manx cats so that vertebra 6 is reduced to a simple atrophied vertebral body without any spurs of bone for muscle attachment.

Colour. - This varies greatly. I have seen whites, blacks, and even blue Manx. It is generally spotted or silvered. Mrs. Adam told us that she had observed a tailless female from the Island of Formosa, which was a shell-blond colour with green eyes set in a black mask. Most Manx cats are striped (tabby). The eye colour should be the same as European Shorthairs of the same colour: or blue for white, amber or orange for blacks, reds, and tigers.

Coat. - The fur must be what we may call a double coat, that is to say, as soft and light as that of the rabbit, with a very thick coat.

Reproduction. - Matings with long-tailed cats produce fertile offspring. Among the kittens we can find taillessness either in the first generation or in the following generations. By crossing a Manx stud with ordinary females, Dr. Wilson obtained 23 kittens of which 17 lacked a tail. Crossing a Manx with the ordinary ones constantly produced a short, imperfect tail.

On the other hand, Adrièn de Mortillet possessed a Manx cat which mated several times with ordinary cats and gave 24 kittens in 6 litters. From the point of view of their tails the kittens coould be ranked in 4 categories:

1 - Offspring with long-tails the same length as those of the ordinary cats (10).
2 - Offspring with short tails and torsos, but still longer than that of the mother.
3 - Offspring without tails, similar to the mother.
4 - Offspring without tails and, if possible, even more destitute of tail vertrebrae than the mother.

The purity of the race can only be maintained with great difficulty and with the aid of new imports.

Scale of Points:

Lack of Tail: 15
Height of hind legs: 15
Shortness of body: 15
Roundness of rump: 10
Depth of flanks: 10
Fur: 10
Head and ears: 10
Colour and markings: 5
Eyes: 5
Condition: 5
Total: 100

OFFICIAL RULES FOR CAT SHOWS ORGANIZED OR SPONSORED BY THE CAT CLUB OF FRANCE (C.C.F.)

Article 1. Affiiamtion. The show is organized under the patronage of the C.C.F. It takes place under its regulations.

Art. 2. - Duration. - The exhibition is open to the public, from 9 am to 6 pm.

Art. 3. - Commitments. - All cats of any breed which can prove their origin may be entered into the show.

The registration of each cat must be made by means of entry forms which the Club Secretary will send to the exhibitor upon request.

After the entry forms have been carefully completed following all instructions, the entries must be sent in a sealed envelope to the Cat Club Secretary, rue Waldeck-Rousseau, in Saint-Raphael (Var).

No cat not registered for entry will be allowed into the cat show venue.

Art. 4. Definition of Classes. Cats may be entered into the various classes under the following conditions:

Championship class. For all male or female cats already a champion in France, Belgium, England, or Holland.

Open class. For all male or female cats aged at least ten months on the day of the opening of the exhibition.

If the classes are very numerous, the open class can be subdivided into 2 categories: 1, Adults from 10 months to 2 years, 2, adults over 2 years.

Limited class. For all male or female cats aged at least ten months, and having never won a first prize in open class, on the day when entries close.

Kitten class. For all male or female cats aged no more than ten months and no less than three months on the day of the opening of the exhibition.

Pairs Class. - For two cats of the same race, without distinction of sex, belonging to, or raised by, the same owner.

Group [Team] class. - For at least three of the same breed without distinction of sex, belonging to, or raised by, the same owner.

Art. 5. – Commitment [Entry] Fee. - This fee is fixed at 20 francs per day, other than couple and group.

The same cat can be engaged in several classes. In this case, he will pay 20 francs for the first entry class and 10 francs for each of its other entries. Example: A cat engaged in both open class and limited class will pay: 20 plus 10, i.e. a total of 30 francs.

These fees are reduced by 50% for members of the C.C.F.

A cat can only be enterted in a class of couples or groups if he has been previously entered in an open, limited or kitten class.

The full fee is payable in a money order that must be attached to the entry forms. Any entry form not accompanied by the total amount of the entry fees will be considered void.

Art. 6. Refusal of Entries and Cats. - The Committee reserves the right to refuse certain entries. Notification of the decision, and the reasons for it, shall be given to the persons concerned.

The Committee will also refuse:

Cats with contagious diseases;
Cats that are mutilated, except for castrated cats competing in the neuter classes.
Injured cats.

Art. 7. - Installation and Maintenance of Cats. - All cats must be installed in their cages on the opening day before 9 o'clock in the morning. Cats brought by their owners with the receipts for their entry forms must be presented to the cat show at 8 a.m. at the latest. They must be removed on closing day at 6 p.m. and may only leave the show upon presentating the pass that is issued by the Secretariat.

It is forbidden to place a cat in a cage other than the one assigned to it or to change the numbers on cages.

The show opens to exhibitors at 9 am.

Cats may be exercised in special enclosures, and nowhere else, from noon to 1 pm. thirty. Outside these hours it is forbidden to take cats out of their cages.

Cats should remain at the exhibition for the duration of the show. Every evening, upon payment of a deposit of 25 francs, they may be removed by their owners. They must be returned to their cage before 9 a.m. the next day. In the event that these conditions are not met by the exhibitor, the sum of 25 francs and the total value of prizes earned by the cat will remain vested in the Company [note: forfeited to organisers]. Otherwise, the deposit will be refunded on the show’s closing day.

Art. 8. - Judging. Cats will be presented to the judges in special enclosures. These presentations will be made by the owners or by the show staff and no strangers will be admitted to the enclosures during judging.

The work of the various judges will begin simultaneously.
The Committee reserves the right to replace any judge who is unable to attend.

The decisions of the judges are final. Exception is made if there is a misinterpretation of the Regulations or a written error.

Art. 9. - Awards and Diplomas. - Prizes will only be awarded to cats with real merit.

When two cats are ranked equal for first prize, the money for first and second prize is combined and the total is divided equally. The next cat will then receive the title of second prize, but only receives the value of the third prize money. When two cats are ranked equal for the 2nd prize, the money for second and third prize is combined and the total is divided equally. The cat that comes next can then benefit from the title of 3rd prize, but receives only a bronze medal.

For the prices constituted in plaques and not money, the division is done by creating plaques of an order lower than that of the plaque representing the prize delivered.

Class prizes and special prizes of all kinds, works of art, plaques and medals shall be collected from the Show Secretary. Exception is made for a number of special prizes which will be sent directly to the beneficiaries by the donor clubs. Prizes that have not been collected at the show will be sent to the holders within 15 days of closing.

Exhibitors whose cats have been awarded a prize may obtain a diploma against the sum of 5 francs sent to the Show Secretary.

Art. 10. - Complaints. Any complaint must be made in writing and handed to the Show Secretary immediately after the event that prompted it, and no later than 6 p.m. of that day if it is to be accepted. It must be accompanied by a deposit of 25 francs which shall be forfeited to the Committee if, after examination by the Committee, the complaint is found to be unfounded. In the converse case, where the complain is upheld, the 25 francs shall be reimbursed.

Art. 11. - Sale of Cats. The words "For Sale" may be entered free of charge in the catalog, after the information relating to each cat.

The Committee shall levy a 10% commission on sales, but shall accept no liability for any transactions that occur during the duration of a show.

Art. 12. - Display on the Cages. Except where it indicates the prizes won by the cat, no poster may be affixed to the cages without the authorization stamp of the Secretary. This authorization may be refused if the poster has any disadvantage. It will, in any case, be granted only after payment of 3 francs per poster.

Art. 13. - Exclusions. The following may result in temporary or permanent exclusion of the exhibitor.

1 Anyone guilty of a dishonorable act.
2. Anyone who has made false declarations.
3. Anyone who has caused their cats to undergo any operation intended to deceive judges about the quality of the animals (dyeing, hair removal, etc.).
4. Anyone who, by their language, their writings, or their acts, attempts to hinder the success of the show or impair the prestige of the judges or of the Committee.

Art, 14. - Entrance Cards. Any exhibitor, not a member of the C.C.F. is entitled to a valid service card during the hours indicated in Art. 7. No entry cards will be replaced.

Art. 15. - Responsibility of the Committee. The Committee shall take all measures in its power to ensure the most perfect accommodation, installation, hygiene and maintenance of cats; But it disclaims any kind of responsibility for the escape, theft, theft, death, etc., of cats, and that in any case and for whatever reason.

This article also applies to the various objects which may be entrusted to it.

However, insurance may be obtained at the request of the persons concerned.

By the mere fact of having their cats installed, the exhibitors accept, absolutely and without condition or reservation, all the articles of the present Regulations.

All cases not provided for in these Rules, and any disputes relating to its execution, shall be judged immediately and without appeal by the members of the Committee present at the show.

CAT SHOW CLASSIFICATION European Cats: white, black, tigers, tortoiseshell, etc ... Spanish cats: males: yellow and white. Females: yellow, black and white. Dutch-marked Cats: white and black, blue and white, orange and white, cream and white. Cyprus Cats: light gray. Cape of Good Hope Cats: red and blue. Chartreus (Carthusian) Cats: bluish gray. Birman Cats. Persian cats: white, black, blue, tawny, tiger, chinchillas. Angora non-selectively bred [note: domestic longhairs]: (same colours as the Persians).**** Tortoiseshell Cats. Chinese Cats. Siamese Cats Abyssinian Cats. Tailless Manx.

STATUTES of the CAT CLUB of FRANCE
(Abbreviation: C.C.F.) - Founded in 1913

FIRST ARTICLE. – The name of the Company founded is Cat-Club de France.

Art. 2. The purpose of C.C.F. Is to encourage the breeding and improvement of cat breeds and to prevent the crossing of breeds.

Art. 3. The means by which the Club intends to meet this purpose are as follows:

(A) Publish a description and a scale of points (Standard) which allow cat breeds presented in competitions to be classified in terms of their type and the perfection of their forms.

(B) To sponsor and subsidise shows which appear to the Company to present all the desirable guarantees and to obtain in all these shows a competent judge recognized by the C.C.F.

C) To encourage the breeding and improvement of cat breeds in France and abroad by all possible means. To grant breeder premiums, to organize shows, either or with the assistance of other clubs or societies.

(D) To publish brochures, bulletins, books etc relating to cat breeds.

E) To make available to its members for verification any suspected pedigree. To affix its stamp and visa as a guarantee of authenticity on pedigrees under its control and which are verified free of error or falsification. Any declaration by a C.C.F. member that is acknowledged to be false shall result in the exclusion of the member.

F) If necessary, to create a register book, in which cats belonging to C.C.F. members will be registered in order to be able to certify, through rigorous checking and the solemn guarantees required for registration, the purity of ancestry of the cats presented and the authenticity of their pedigrees.

A special register shall be kept of the matings and births of the cats belonging to C.C.F. members.

ART. 4. - The Club consists of an unlimited number of active members and honorary members.

All persons of French or foreign nationality, including ladies, shall be admitted as members.

Honorary members shall not pay any annual membership fee and shall be selected from among those persons who, by their status and special knowledge, have rendered or may render services to the Club.

ART 5. - Any application for admission to the Club must be made in writing to the Secretary. (Only those persons who are entitled to their civil rights). The application may be considered only if it is supported in writing by two members of the Club, including a member of the Committee. The Committee shall, at each of its meetings, decide on admission applications by a majority of the votes cast and, if necessary, by secret ballot. It appoints honorary members.

The election may be by correspondence.

ART. 6. There are three categories of members:

Donors [subscribers] for an annual payment of 100 francs
Guardians for an annual payment of 50 francs
Active members for an annual payment of 25 francs

For a payment of 250 francs, a person can buy back his subscriptions. Any member who pays a one-off sum of 250 francs will receive the title of Life Member.

Subscriptions for the first year are payable at the time of admission, and for the following years, during the month of January. Failure to pay the annual subscription without just cause, within two months after a second reminder, will result in the member being struck off. Any member who has not already resigned before the first of January shall be liable for his subscription for the following year. For any resignation to be valid, it must be sent by registered letter to the Secretary.

ART. 7. All members of the Club shall receive a membership card, a copy of the Club Statutes and a copy of any brochure, any program or document of any kind published by the Club. The possession of a card bearing that year’s date will allow the holder to attend all meetings of the Club as well as all the shows organized by the club or under its auspices.

A special badge will be issued by the Club. Badges in gold or silver may be awarded to the benefactors of the Club and to persons who have deserved this distinction as a result of the services rendered to the Club.

Resigning members have no rights to the social assets of the Club.

ART. 8. - The Administration of the Club is entrusted to a Committee composed of eleven members.

It shall appoint from among its members:

1 President;
1 to 3 Vice-Presidents;
1 Secretary-Treasurer.

ART. 9. - In the event of the resignation or death of a member of the Committee, his position shall be filled by a replacement within a maximum period of two months. The ratification of the appointment made by the Committee shall be submitted to the General Assembly.

ART. 10. - The Committee meets monthly at the head office. Each of its decisions, to be valid, shall be taken by a majority of its members. All decisions of the Committee shall be recorded in a special register.

ART. 11. An Ordinary General Assembly shall be held each year. The Regional Meetings will be held during the provincial shows and a member of the Committee shall always be a delegate. Extraordinary General Assemblys may be convened by the Committee.

ART. 12: - The President represents the Club in court, in directed debates of the Committee and at the Provincial Meetings. He is the intermediary of the Club with foreign Feline Societies.

ART. 13. Any political or religious discussion, as well as gambling, are strictly forbidden in Club meetings.****

ART. 14: - The duration of the Club and its social capital are not time-limited. The dissolution of the Club may be placed on the agenda only on a request formulated by at least one third of the registered members. It may be pronounced only in the General Assembly by a majority of three quarters of the members present and after a special convocation addressed to each member, and in the press at least one month in advance. The remaining funds shall be used to constitute one or more prizes in an exhibition or contest designated by the General Assembly.

Art, 15. Active members, guardians, subscription members and life members who belong to the C.C.F. will be able to form regional groups and to constitute Sections: Cat-Club of Paris, Cat-Club of Aquitaine, Cat -Club of the Dauphiné, Cat-Club of the North, Cat-Club of Champagne, Cat-Club of the Limousin, Cat-Club of Picardy, Cat-Club of Brittany, Cat-Club of Alsace, Cat-Club of the Riviera, Friends of the Cat of Lyon, the Société Féline de Picardie, etc., or take any other "name" provided they are affiliated to the CAT-CLUB DE FRANCE (Fédération des Societies Félines de France).

The purpose of these Sections shall be to co-ordinate all the shows which will be made on behalf of the Club and to extend the activities of the Club.

In such case, the said sections shall have an internal by-law having the same force as the Statutes.

RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE SECTIONS OR AFFILIATES OF THE C.C.F.

FIRST ARTICLE. - The Sections or Affiliates will have moral and financial autonomy. They shall be administered by a Council of eleven members elected by a Regional General Assembly for a term of three years.

The Council shall appoint from among its members:

A president,
Three Vice-Presidents,
A Secretary General/Treasurer,

These are also elected for three years and re-eligible.

It shall designate for each Regional Show a Commissioner General and two Assistant Commissioners.

ART. 2. - The Board shall meet quarterly upon convocation. Minutes shall be kept of the meetings. The Council will discuss the organization of the Regional Shows, vote for the necessary credits and deliberate on all matters relating to the breeding, usefulness and protection of the cat.

ART; 5. To be a member of the Board, it is essential to have at least one cat.

ART. 4. The Secretary-General/Treasurer shall collect dues, exhibitors' fees, donations, etc. He shall pay all expenses incurred by the Council. He shall keep a cash book, and present his annual accounts to the Board, and draw up a financial report for the approval of the General Assembly.

All office functions are free of charge.

Decisions of the General Assembly are valid irrespective of the number of voters.

ART. 5. - The Regulations and the judges of the Shows are those of the C.C.F.

Art. 6. - The right of affiliation to the C.C.F. is fixed at 10 francs per year per member, in exchange for which the C.C.F. performs the service of "Board of Breeders” [Advisory Board] to each member. The technical or literary articles of the Sections are published free of charge.

ART. 7. The Book of Origins [Stud Book] is that of the C.C.F. and copies are provided free of charge; the registration fee for members’ cats is set at three francs per registration form. Printed copies, when completed, should be sent to the Secretariat of C.C.F., 2, rue Waldeck-Rousseau in Saint-Raphael (Var), accompanied by a money order for the aforementioned fee (add 0.50 for return).

For an official copy apply:
President : Dr V Ph. JUMAUD.

BY THE SAME AUTHOR

Les Races de Chats (Cat Breeds), Thesis presented in 1925 in front of the Faculty of Medicine of Lyon (sold out).
Le Chat (élevage, maladies, races) (The Cat (breeding, diseases, breeds)), in collaboration with E. Larieux.
Le Chat dans les Lettres (The Cat in Letters) (in preparation).
Le Chat dans les Arts (The Cat in the Arts) (in preparation).
Saint Tropez. Study of history, climate and tourism with 50 unpublished drawings or photos.
The Bravades. Old Provencal customs. 5 fr.
Frejus, St Aygulf. Monograph on the ancient Roman city-state and on the present town. 5 fr.
Notes about Hygiene on Saint-Raphael. With statistics, graphs {Maloine editor).
These works are available at the "Librairie des Tablettes" in Saint-Raphael (Var).

MESSYBEAST - OLD CAT BOOKS

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