Country Life, and Farms and Chateaux (Vie a la Campagne)
Special Issue, 15th April, 1935. Volume 92

Primarily a Practical Review, published under the direction of M. Albert Maumeme.

Subscription – 6 Issues : France – 38 Francs, Foreign – 48 and 56 Francs.


THIS ALBUM-VOLUME, devoted to Utility, Pet and Luxury Cats, which I present to you today, has been in preparation and in the making for many years, because such a work cannot be improvised. Impatient to see it appear, many breeders, cat-lovers, professionals and owners of domestic cats believed that this collection would not see the light of day. They can see that “in time, everything comes to those who know how to wait ...”.

Everyone quite rightly wanted this household pet, in turn sensitive, affectionate, family, sociable, enigmatic, distant, disdainful, or cantankerous, depending on the circumstances, to finally have its justified, deserved place in the inimitable series of our Album-Volumes. But, I repeat, works of this importance cannot be improvised; they involve gathering considerable documentation. It is necessary to question initiates, fervent followers of a particular activity, to visit breeders, to collaborate with those having indisputable skills, such as those who have not failed me, then to classify and coordinate all the matters and, ultimately, make a choice.

While most domestic animals have been studied scientifically, the classification of Cat Breeds remains somewhat anarchic or superficial. Prototypes (standards) drawn up by groups in different countries are often at odds in terms of plan and description. Also, as was done for each of the previous Album-Volumes devoted to animal species and races, we present these prototypes, not yet fully codified, on a single model-plan, a rational framework which allows contrasts and comparisons.

The particularly experienced, tried and tested advice given by qualified breeders will be invaluable to all. Even if the methods presented to you by way of example, or whose application is recommended, are not closely aligned, try one of them and if it does not intimately suit the character of your Cats, you are free to try another.

I have turned my attention in the same way to the service cat, to the ratter, which, paradoxical as it may seem, when well-trained becomes the enemy of rats, and even the protector of hunts and birds.

We did not omit the contests; the most qualified personalities are there. At the top of these are the names of the President of the important Federation “National Council of Feline Societies”, which is a group of the greatest skills, and at the same time the devoted and active President of the Club “Les Amis des Chats” of Paris, and our high -class collaborators, whose names are given in the summary. All of them have given their time freely and, knowing how powerfully this disseminates information about their activities, they have collaborated brilliantly.

I have tried to omit nothing, thus many Cats, either famous in their own right or because of their owners, will be presented to you in these pages that bring you together. This magazine has already devoted many pages to the Cat, in addition to this Album-Volume: “The Perfect Veterinarian,” “Dogs and Cats,” which received unanimous approvals everywhere and which, at a recent Feline convention, were mentioned by a celebrated breeder for their merits and usefulness. But a choice had to be made. The hundreds of photographs that could not be placed on these pages, as well as portraits and the poses of the cats you have bred and had occasion to send us, will appear in our monthly numbers.

When you have leafed through the following pages, you will become seduced by the little faces of the kittens; by the funny poses of Raminagrobis [Pussycat], without forgetting those modern Pusses in Boots with their different purposes which surpass those in the fairy tales; by the beautiful portraits of the elite models, gathered here to parade most beautiful cats in the world before your eyes. I hope that in addition, the accounts, the descriptive monographs on the breeds, the advice from breeders, responses to a survey, etc., means this Album-Volume constitutes what you have been impatiently waiting for.

Nothing is perfect in this world and you may discover gaps. Also, let me know your remarks about it, as well as your wishes. I will endeavour to make up for any shortcomings, to make corrections where justified, and to supplement what may be lacking, in the Monthly Editions of this magazine, and, I hope, in a future edition – reviewed, corrected, updated, expanded, of this Album-Volume.



In turn demi-god and henchman of hell, venerated in antiquity, martyred in the Middle Ages, at long last the cat is appreciated for its true value: a straightforward, friendly companion, a household pet, a favourite of women and an ally of man in the fight against his enemies.

IN ANTIQUITY, the Cat was first the object of a veritable cult, as evidenced by the collections of mummies and statuettes from Egypt. Introduced into that country during the conquest of Ethiopia (where it originated) by Oursitasen of the twelfth dynasty (around 2,200 BC), it multiplied rapidly.


“All the Egyptian temples sheltered a family of Cats, each temple having its particular species, and, if one refers to Diodorus of Sicily, a large number of children were dedicated to the Cat.

The He-Cat was the emblem of the sun and Osiris and, according to M. de Caylus, the She-Cat, was the emblem of the Moon and Isis; it was even claimed that the Moon had given birth to the Cat and that Diane took the form of this animal when the Gods, according to the poets, transformed themselves into animals to escape the persecution of the giants. There even existed on the Delta, at Bubastis, a temple where the goddess Isis was worshipped in the image of a Cat and the name Aelurus.

The god of music was represented by a human body surmounted by a Cat’s head, holding a sistrum in his hand, and the goddess of love by a cat’s head resting on a woman’s body; moreover, the beauty of women was all the more appreciated in Memphis because she was closer to the cat type. In this city, it was idolized to the point of there being oracles to interpret his smallest meows.”

The Greek historian Herodotus says that when there was a fire, the Cats were agitated by a divine tremor. The owners ignored the danger to themselves and their property and tried to save the Cats. If, despite their efforts, some animals perished in the flames, the owners shaved their eyebrows as a sign of mourning.

Likewise, when a cat died a natural death, the whole house would mourn. “The corpse, carefully embalmed with aromatics, was placed in a small bronze coffin reproducing the image of the animal, or in painted wood decorated with rich colours, wearing enamel eyes, and often inlaid with gold; then, followed by the magistrates, the body was taken and buried in a special cemetery, reserved exclusively for cats.

Thus, in 1890 we found near Beni Hassan, in a hypogeum called the Grotto of Diana, 180,000 mummies of Cats which were taken back to London; this cemetery was near a chapel dug in the rock and consecrated, by the kings of the tenth dynasty (1703 to 1462 BC) and of the nineteenth dynasty (1462 to 1288 BC) C.), to a local goddess with a woman’s body and the head of a cat, named Pakhit, Pacht or Bast; among these mummies, some were simply wrapped in bandages, but others, on the contrary, were buried in coffins. We found underground cemeteries of Cats in Bubastis, which was the most sought-after necropolis because of its vicinity to the goddess whose emblems they were, in Sakkarah, in Stabl-Antar, near Thebes, etc; these mummies belonged to three species: Felis caligulatus, Felis Bubastis and Felis chaus.

If someone killed a Cat, even accidentally, the people would throw themselves on the murderer and kill him in the most cruel and painful manner. Thus Diodorus of Sicily reports that, at the time when King Ptolemy was seeking the friendship of the Romans, he could not prevent the people from killing a Roman citizen who had inadvertently killed a Cat.

So much did the Egyptians fear harming Cats that around 525 BC, when Cambyses, the king of Persia, wanted to seize the city of Peluse (on whose ruins stands Port-Said) which was an Egyptian garrison, he made his officers and soldiers march in front of him carrying cat as shields. Afraid of harming the cats, the Egyptians surrendered without a fight.” (Farmers Tablets)

For a very long time the practice of raising cats remained peculiar to Egypt; elsewhere, this animal had long been feared as ferocious, except in Turkey where, even today, the caste of Parsis admits cats into the home as the only pure animal while the dog is banished outdoors.

From Arabia, where the golden Cat was long revered, comes the curious and popular legend of Muhammad’s cat “Muezza.” It goes like this: The prophet was preparing to wrap himself in his burnous to join his faithful in prayer when he suddenly noticed “Muezza” sleeping on the soft material; without hesitation, he cuts off his burnous, rather than wake up his beloved pussy, and with a protective gesture he conferred on the pretty creature and her descendants the magic virtue of, from that moment on, always landing skilfully on its four feet.

“In Madagascar, the cat is still frequently considered by the natives as an animal apart, both attractive and dangerous. For the Hovas, it is criminal to cause suffering to a cat, even a wild one. According to Ch. Letourneau, the Malagasy code imposes penalties for stealing a cat: fifteen days in prison if the thief returns it, and five years in irons if he does not. By a bizarre nervous impressionability, the Hova seem to feel a mixture of horror and respect for the cat.


The Middle Ages were much less favourable to the poor creature who, during this time, was considered a henchman from hell. At this sabbatical time, the Cat seems doomed. The people thought to publicly torture cats by throwing the famous cages of living Cats onto the braziers of Saint-Jean (bonfires, celebrating according to an ancient oriental custom, the return of the New Year). This custom continued for a long time, as Mr. Vibert notes. “According to Father Lebeuf (quoted by Alfred Franklin), on June 23 of each year, all of Paris was celebrating: from the timber docks of Tile Louviers Isle, they transported to Grève square, a tree ten toises tall, ten tracks of large logs, two hundred bundles of sticks, five hundred faggots and twenty-five bundles of straw. The tree was set upright. One or two dozen Cats intended to be burned alive were hung there, enclosed, sometimes in a bag, sometimes in a barrel or in a hogshead.
[1 toise = 1.95 metres]

The author of a 1594 pamphlet directed against the preachers of the League, said that “they had to be burned on the sixteenth, on St John’s Eve, in order to make an offering, and that to attach as fagots from the foot to the top of the tall tree, and their king in the hogshead where the Cats are placed, one would have made a sacrifice pleasing to heaven and delectable to the whole earth”.

From the year 1571 to the year 1573, the Cats offered in this holocaust were provided by a Mr. Lucas Pommereux, commissary of the City; in 1572 he added a Fox “in order to give pleasure to His Majesty,” according to the accounts of the provost. The Majesty who revelled so much in seeing Cats and Foxes burn was Charles IX.

The officials of the City and the high figures summoned were crowned with roses or carnations and wore a large bouquet on their belts. The provost and the aldermen held a torch of yellow wax, the king or his representative responsible for lighting the fire received one of white wax and with two red velvet handles. Finally, the tree blazed, and the crackling of the wood was joined by the groans and cries of pain of the unhappy animals burnt alive.

In Flanders, reports Mr. Hachet-Souplet on the other hand, the Cat Fairs were also not very pleasant for the poor creatures. Here is what this solemnity consisted of: strings stretched from one house to another crossed the Place d’Armes at a given height. Earthenware pots were attached to it, each containing a Cat, covered with favours of all colours, the ends of which hung down. The cats and ribbons were enclosed in the hanging pots, so as not to leave anything for the foreign spectator to suspect. The middle of the square remained free. The jousters, mounted in light carriages harnessed with fairly lively horses, passed quickly under the ropes and had to break the earthen pot with a punch.

This done, the unhappy Cat remained hanging on the rope; and you had to try to remove the favours one by one, despite the scratches. When all the Cats were stripped of their ribbons, the strings were cut and all fell on the pavement of the place where they were delivered to the kids! As for the jousters, those who had won the greatest number of favours received the first prizes and the biggest bonuses. They then went to have their scratches treated in the bars in the neighbourhood.”

Before finally regaining its title of fireside friend, the feline race continued to suffer the absurd prejudices of a tormented and vicious age for a long time. In the countryside, ridiculous legends remained for a long time, including that of the devil coming to dance the jig near the villages; on Candlemas eve was illuminated by all the Cats in the neighbourhood carrying a torch at the end of its tail!


In the sixteenth century still, two sickly and effeminate young kings, Charles IX and Henri III, banished cats from the court due to an irrational fear, using the sole pretext that the sight of a Cat made them pass out. The crowd of superstitious and servile courtiers voiced their agreement of course. But there was a serious turnaround in the Grand Siècle, when suddenly Richelieu installed his seventeen Cats at the very same court. He claimed to enjoy the personal qualities of each of them and treated them like real friends. Lucifer, a splendid Angora with majestic jet-black fur, presided over the antics of the small troop. Pyramus and Thisbe, two pretty animals, very sweet, and absolutely inseparable nestled up to this king cat.

The very calm and wise Gazette, and tender, cuddly Soumise, completed the pretty picture, and all this little cat world closely followed the crazy battles of the three little devils Rubis, Racan and Perruque, who got their names because, one beautiful morning, they were born irreverently in Racan the poet’s wig. Perruque, a cat of legendary memory, was his master’s confidant; he slept with him and spent hours watching him work.

First through courtesy and then by logic, it was realized that, in the entourage of the minister, the Cat was a small, kind, clean and discreet being, and little by little everyone wanted to have one. It was therefore respected and soon became so precious that it was counted in estate inventories.

Henceforth the role of the cat in the home is clearly indicated. Naturally, he still had detractors as well as admirers, but it is pleasant to see how the balance is now tipping in favour of the considerable number of the latter.


THE CLASSIFICATION of Cat breeds has not been done scientifically until now. The most qualified experts and judges disagree; we cannot pretend to establish an agreement. However, we have tried to put the plan of descriptive Monographs into some sort of order, especially the Prototypes (Standards), so that you can compare the characteristics of the different breeds and related varieties.

In the shows, Cats are exhibited and classified into two large groups: Short-haired Species, Breeds and Varieties; Long-haired Species, Breeds and Varieties. This classification, accepted by some, is contested by others who would like it to be based on the general conformation (size, structure, etc.) or geographical origin of the races. Note, however, that the Persian is not from Persia, being fashioned from scratch in England and the characteristic Birman was created in France.

As far as the origin of cat breeds is concerned, you are therefore, like us, subject to conjecture. Everything that was done before the founding of genealogical registers is generally subject to oral tradition, which, necessarily, is not always transmitted with the same fidelity as written tradition. In either case you should take accept there is a degree of imagination.

It would be interesting, however, for the classification of cat breeds to be scientifically codified, as is the botanical realm into genera, species, races, plant varieties; the zoological realm into genera, species, races, animal varieties. Even so, as happens in the two great realms, such a classification is subject to subsequent revisions. The current classification appears to many to be somewhat anarchic; it’s difficult to codify it and make absolute distinctions. The fusion of the determining characteristics must be due to the fact that the Cat breeding done formerly, and still practiced in many cases, depends on encounters. There was a mixture of types and races; thus, the racy types must now be, in many cases, extracted from the mix, standardized, categorized, refined, and selectively bred. This is not impossible, controlled breeding being established and widespread in France as it is in England.

It is therefore not surprising that with all these deliberate or random crossings, producing a continual state of flux in some descendants, profound mutations appear, just as they do in other genera, species and races of both animals and plants. Note, for example, the constantly increasing number of new varieties produced in Dahlias; the numerous breeds of Dogs, not including all of those currently being created, selectively bred and fixes, particularly in England!

It is due to an accidental mutation caused by an original disease that we have Castorrex Rabbit, from which the whole range of Rex colours was created by subsequent crossings. It is also due to spontaneous mutations that we see the various types of hairless cat, one of the most recent being born in Morocco.

Anyone can call such a variation, once the type is fixed, a “breed” and justify this, but another specialist can equally well justify it as a simple “variety”. But nothing proves that spontaneous or currently created variations, which may seem fanciful, must be considered breeds although they can be the starting point of new types, provided that you can fix them hereditarily, selectively breed them and improve them.

The Misses C. Léger presented us with a short-haired cat, with a bluish-grey and ash grey coat, which they identified as the Carthusian [Chartreux] cat, formerly described by naturalists. It is obvious that this breed, which they are trying to fix, despite some variations in coat colour and eye colour, appears an interesting type. No less interesting is the work done by Mr. Riéger for the Cat he called the Khmer.

It is normal that the originators who are the people who obtained, fixed or introduced a breed, species or variety of animal or vegetable, provide the name and description; they are more qualified than anyone else to establish this. This is what Mr. Riéger did for the Khmer Chat, for example, and Mlle Léger did for the Chartreux.

The main thing here is to fix the mutation or variation, specifying the origin. If you don’t provide it, the variation is lost. Thus, someone presented, at a Parisian show where it won an award, a Turkish Pink Cat, whose appearance did not last much longer than the Rose de Ronsard. It may have been a fancy name, but I like to believe that, if we could have fixed this variety with its pretty soft pink, terracotta, and flesh coloured coat, we would have added a breed with a beautiful coat. If you don’t want to discover so many novelties, you free yourself from preconceived judgments. The main thing, therefore, is not to show one single variation, but to fix the variation in multiple examples. C. de M.


IT WOULD NICE if all the Prototypes (Standards) matched. In addition to the oldest Cat Clubs, other Societies have been founded. As well as conscientious breeders who really want to improve cat breeds, there are others who only have immediate profits in mind. This results in differences of opinion, differences in goals, differences in interests, a desire to lead instead of being guided, etc. Any religion has dissidents, and the Cult of the Cat obviously has its own.

The Standards included in the Breed Monographs are based on the work of Clubs specialising in the improvement of each cat breed in England, Belgium and France and specify, as far as possible, the characteristics most generally accepted for each breed. Any differences of opinion are noted.

As for the ratting cat, Dr. Loir’s goal is not to create a new breed. He also explains that his research has led him to observe that, by going back to the pure zootechnical type, the development of instinctive qualities inherent in the breed are encouraged. This is why he is already modifying the standard that he has so far only outlined, being far from being able to codify it. What has been clarified so far and is sufficient, both for the choosing breeding stock and for judging them, is summarized, as are the parts of the standard regarding “Preparing good ratting cats” and “Tips for a ratting cat cattery.”



ALSO CALLED THE GLOVED CAT (Felis maniculata), the wild cat is sometimes confused with the feral cat or domestic cat, returned to the wild state. The majority of Cats killed in the woods belong to the wild species, despite their misleading appearance, their coat being modified by their new conditions of existence. Similarly, while some authors consider that the Haret Cat is none other than the Wildcat, others, without confusing it with the feral cat (which represents the first stage of returning to the wild state), consider that the Haret cat represents the next stage of this return to the wild and is not the true Wild Cat.

ORIGINS. This cat is native to Libya, Nubia and Egypt. It also seems to have been domesticated by the Egyptians. It is still widespread in these countries, in southern Tunisia, Arabia, and Yemen. Subsequently, this oriental race crossed into Europe and quite a few representatives have remained there until today. Switzerland, Germany, Hungary and France have enough Wild Cats to organize battles and hunts against this small, but terrible, predator.

In France, it occurs mainly in the forests of the Vosges and the Jura; more rarely in other districts. In my long career as a trapper, wrote one author, I only took 3: a male and a female captured in the North and a large Kitten trapped in the Ardennes. The male weighed 7.5 kg and the female 1 kg less; they were beautiful beasts, well in coat and I imagined that the weight of my catches represented the maximum for the species, but I have learned since that cats weighing 10 and 12 kg have been caught on the Côte-d’Or, and that the chief trapper of an Eastern Federation took one exceeding 15 kg.


General appearance. Structure the same as the Domestic Cat, apart from some differences in detail. But the overall appearance is both more powerful and stockier, with a fierce and combative air, which makes this animal the miniature of a true predator. Its size is larger than that of the ordinary cat but does not exceed it by much. The body is approximately 50 cm long, 30 cm tall, with a 35 cm tail. A few captures have revealed much larger specimens exist; but these cases are quite rare.

The coat of the wild cat, which is more and more sought after, is very long and soft, so thick that it forms real tufts in places: on the cheeks and the thighs. The coat is identical coat in the different individuals: grey-black in the males, yellowish in the females, becoming obviously lighter on the sides and belly. The wild cat is tabby; a strong black line runs along the spine, from which run parallel transverse bands on each side, a large number of which are scattered as far as its thighs.

Head: more convex than that of domestic cats. Longer neck. Ears: white on the inside, reddish-grey on the outside, short and stiff, often terminating, especially in older cats, in a tuft of fairly short hairs. Eyes: terrible expression of ferocity. Whiskers: longer. Teeth: stronger and sharper than those of the domestic cat, adapted to the need to hunt. Cheeks: covered with long hairs forming whiskers where the black spots of the nose and lips show. Legs: black underside. Tail; very characteristic; shorter, but thicker than in the domestic cat; very bushy, it ends abruptly with a sort of black blunt tip. It has five or six rings at regular intervals that get darker as they get closer to the tip.


The wild cat lives in the woods of the high forest, especially those in the mountains where the chaotic rocks defended by steep ravines constitute the safest shelter for him. The male and the female live solitary lives and come together only very rarely, except in the Spring, mating season. It digs an underground den for itself, and often also a thick nest of dead leaves under the canopy of the rocks where it warms itself during the day and watches the surroundings.

Endowed with a prodigious strength and powerful means of attack, the Wild cat lives only as a predator, ripping, without exception, any small animal within its reach. It kills for the pleasure of killing. A remarkable climber, it hunts even the smallest birds. The hares, the rabbits, the pheasants, all are torn by its claws after patient and stealthy hunts, where the Wild cat stifles the slightest noise which would betray its presence. However, there are examples of Wild Cats attacking fawns and even humans, when they rashly wound him. The Wild Cat is voracious to the point of attacking even fish, which it knows how to spy on, lurking on the banks of lakes or streams. His whole life is spent in successive acts of carnage, punctuated by heavy sleeps.

The Wildcat breeds enough that the race is not depleted despite the killings. It retains its innate ferocity even in is love affairs. The male and the female live separately, hardly meeting each other until the mating period. Full of distrust, they mate while threatening each other, uttering cries of anger or distress. Males sometimes have terrible battles with each other. Outside this period, relationships are very rare between the male and the female. The female gives birth in Spring, after a gestation of 55 to 56 days, to a brood of 3 to 5 young. Two litters in a year are very rare. The young suckle for some time, and are quickly weaned onto mice and birds, and trained to hunt.

Although very watchful and very cautious, the Wild Cat is quite easy to capture. He is most often killed when, too far from his home, he takes refuge in a thicket. To avoid the Dogs, the Cat comes out of this thicket, climbs a tree and thus exposes himself to the bullets of the hunters. In Winter, we find his tracks in the snow, and we can thus reach his lair. In Spring, during the mating season, we can capture both males and females by placing a paddle trap, covered in dirt in front of the den. Some pulverized valerian root exerts a special attraction on the cat, which facilitates its capture.

The Wildcat is actively hunted because of the havoc it causes in parks and in pheasantries. It is increasingly sought after for its fur, the current price of which has significantly increased over that of the pre-war period. The species, though fairly small and not very prolific, is in little danger of disappearing, despite being persecuted, thanks to its natural ferocity and the almost inaccessible character of is chosen habitat. – M. E.


Cat skeleton. The bones are thin, light, except for those of the head and shoulders. The curved backbone seems too long; the joints are very loose, which explains the legendary flexibility of this animal, which has the same ancestry as the Tiger.

The cat’s jaw and the tiger’s jaw. The analogy of these two jaws is striking. They are powerfully armed with terrible teeth; the molars are serrated, sharp, and face each other at the sides like scissor blades and not at the crowns like ours. The first rear molars are developed excessively. Behind the sharp molars, the Cat has a tuberculous molar in the upper jaw which has no opposing tooth on the lower jaw.

Cat’s paws. The forelegs have five toes, the hind legs four, due to the absence of the short little toe which, placed higher than the others on the foreleg, does not touch the ground. Notice how the claws are locked in their cases, like a dagger in its sheath. Thanks to two elastic bracelets, one placed on the wrist, the other at the root of the toes, the paw extends or contracts at will. (Plate 2.)


Much like the Lynx, this tiger-cat can be tamed quite easily.

THE SERVAL (Felis Serval Linn) or African tiger cat is also called Boschkatt by the Boers. This animal is indeed native to Cape Town, although its habitat extends, in fact, to all Africa, from the Cape to Algeria (on Kilimanjaro, it lives up to 1,500 m above sea level).

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS. Head: elongated. Ears: long and pointed. Legs: high. Tail: short. Colour: fawn, darker on the back, whitish under the body; the whole body has numerous black spots arranged in longitudinal bands, on the spine they are slightly elongated; the legs have transverse stripes; the ears are black at the base; the tail, black at the end with 7 or 8 rings of the same colour. Size: length, up to 1 m. (the tail rarely exceeds 35 cm.); height at the withers 55 cm.

VARIETIES. The Serval comprises different varieties according to the regions of its habitat: West Africa, Senegal, Togo, Southern Africa. Darker-skinned subjects are found in the steppes at the foot of Kilimanjaro.

QUALITIES AND ABILITIES. Many, being naturally gentle, are easily tamed, but others remain fierce and cannot be approached. Very robust, the Serval does not fear the cold. Naturally, like other animals of its kind, it is very fond of milk and meat.

LIFESTYLE. The Serval lives in forests, steppes or mountains covered with thick vegetation. It hunts at night and feeds on game and poultry. The settlers hunt him down and sometimes capture him.


Native to the Amazon, this breed appears more domesticable than the Siamese.

THE MARGAY is probably a first cousin of the Mexican Ocelot. The French word Margay is a corruption of the Indian word faracaja, which means Woodland Cat. In Brazil, this Cat is called Maracaja, and the proximity of French Guyana explains how this Indian name from North Brazil has passed into our language (Dr Jumaud).

ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS. Size: about 70 cm. from the nape of the neck to the root of the tail. However, there is a small species in Brazil called Maracaja Mirim (from mirim, small) as opposed to the one we are describing here, the Maracaja assou (from Assou, large): this small species does not exceed 45 cm.

Muzzle: a little sharper than that of common cats. Tail: voluminous. Colour: fawn, with brown-black spots, which join together on the head, the nape and the spine, forming parallel stripes.

LIFESTYLE. In the wild, this cat lives in the forests and islands of the Amazon, where it feeds on small birds. The natives have long domesticated it. In the domestic state, it feeds like a common cat.


PEOPLE OF LETTERS have always been very interested in the Cat. This was the case of Ms. Marcelle Adam whose words, published in this magazine a few years ago, you will read with pleasure.

“Dondoca”, a Maracaja from Brazil (Maracaja, in the Indian language, means Woodland cat), is a small Tiger-cat. He was born in one of the lush forests where the deep waters of the Amazon flow. An Indian took him from the nest after having undoubtedly killed his mother.

What a wonderful animal of the equatorial jungle! His flexible, thin, elongated body wears the richly spotted dress of the panther. The strong tail, very long, hangs to the ground and acts as a pendulum during the acrobatic exercises required for hunting in the trees. Capped with round ears, always restless, the head is small, or rather it seems small, because its extraordinary eyes take up all the space.

Those immense and unfathomable eyes, velvet eyes of an almost black brown, those prodigious eyes, they have a look so soft, so uneasy, so sad, so mysterious, that it penetrates and transfixes us. We bring it with us, it haunts us and moves us. What is this little Brazilian Tiger-cat dreaming of, captive in a Parisian home where our concern vainly strives to make it forget the tropical splendours?

It seems obvious to us that this nocturnal being does not tolerate daylight well and that he is happier in the shade. Despite our care, he remains fearful. His fears, always fresh, give birth to formidable reflexes, and his narrow jaw is armed with strong teeth in the form of fleur-de-lys, like those of the big cats. We don’t think he’s nasty. Perhaps he would even be sociable if we managed to cure him of his atavistic anxiety. He has bonded slowly with us, and his friendship remains steadfast. His memory often surprises us. He is filled with intense caresses for Mr Pierre Orcheboeuf, who acquired him from the Indian hunter who captured him.

M. Pierre Orcheboeuf, crossing the sea, brought back this precious and turbulent friend, who still did not know how to drink or eat. Then he sold it to an American, who dared not keep it, because training it requires patience, courage and leniency! It also requires boundless dedication, because a Tiger-cat does not easily adapt to our polite manners, nor to the hygienic customs which the Emperor Vespasian first thought of.

One day, Mr. Pierre Orcheboeuf brought me “Dondoca” (that was the name of this little panther). You know that I deal with novelists and Felines with equal zeal. They both have fairly similar manners, with one difference, as our friend Paul Brulat would say, that Novelists begin by congratulating each other before scratching each other, while Felines, slow to make friends, start off by scolding and bristling, and stop tearing each other apart once they know each other.

So I adopted “Dondoca”. The Tiger-cat began to lay down the law at my place, not supporting any authority, wandering through the ornaments as through the jungle and fixing his dark, cloudy coloured eyes on us. His body is elongated, very level, supported by strong legs higher at the back than in front like those of the lynx. “Dondoca” does not meow like a Cat. He emits a kind of yelp when he is angry that reminds of the cough of his bigger cousin, the Tiger. When he is bored, he makes a kind of plaintive and prolonged yawn. When he is very happy, he sucks his thumb, absolutely like a small child. In front of his chopped meat, he growls as if defending prey.

In short, despite the incompatibility of our characters, I tried to live on good terms with “Dondoca”. I would never have asked for a divorce if “Manou de Madalpour”, a sacred cat from Burma, had not been threatened by this bloodthirsty South American. Foreseeing a possible drama, I resigned myself not to divorce, but to the separation of body and property.

“Dondoca” now lives with one of my friends. He seduced her. As she is sensitive and generous in character, he abuses her goodwill. He rules over her, he makes a martyr of her; yet she admires him with the eyes of a happy slave and finds something exotic and delicious in her torments, - Marcelle Adam.


Of remarkable dimensions, a hunter and jumper of the first order, it is very cuddly and affectionate. [The photo shows a mackerel tabby domestic cat.]

There existed in France, a few years ago, a curious specimen of the Tiger-cat, imported from the Argentine Republic and belonging to Mrs. F. Marie, who provides us with the following description:

This Cat, which does not seem to be the product of any special, selected breed, was born from the probable mating of a very beautiful Cat with a Wild cat from one of the northern provinces of the Argentine Republic. This four-year-old Tiger Cat weighs 8 kg. about. Despite this respectable weight, its short coat gives it a rather slender appearance. Unlike the appearance of Cats, which have a short, rounded muzzle, its muzzle is longer, somewhat pointed, and slightly hollowed out under the cheekbones. Very small, his nose has a funny profile, seeming to start from the top of the skull. His head is finely marked with very clear black lines which contrast with the very bright yellow-sepia background colour. His eyes, half closed during the day, are very open at night.

Standing very tall on his legs and also quite long in the body, he is perfectly proportioned. His legs are very sinewy and have a trigger; he can spring, without momentum and without effort, a height of 2.5 m. He never tires of repeating this leap, much to the admiration of observers. His gait, in step, is quite characteristic: he has a way of “rolling” his shoulder blades that is very reminiscent of the look of the wildcat; when he runs, he looks like a galloping racehorse. He has a low, horizontal tail, flush with the ground.

His agility is such that often, when seeing a bird on a branch distant from the trunk and 3 m. from the ground, instead of trying to climb the trunk, he crawls on the ground and leaps onto his victim, whom he very rarely misses. He hunts with passion. His natural wildness appears on occasions and is sated on backyard birds in particular. He brings in the results of his hunt with satisfaction and even pride, and the admonishments he receives do not quench his thirst for blood.



THE EUROPEAN CAT (Felis Catus vulgaris) is reminiscent of the wild cat in many ways and seems to constitute a domesticated version of it. Besides, when abandoned to its own devices, it often withdraws into the woods and, adapting to the new environment, takes up almost all the characteristics of the wild cat.

ORIGINS. Today there are countless varieties: spotted, patched, tabby, striped, in fawn tones. Or predominantly one colour with large markings of a different colour. Or even distinct self-coloured varieties.

Whatever the colour and the variety of its coat, the European Cat is a robust, vigorous, fiery creature and, when well fed and treated, it is a typical rat hunter, very likely to provide the type of services you will read about in the chapter: “Role, choice, training of the Rustic Cat.”


General appearance. As a whole, flexible and well proportioned. The male, naturally stronger and heavier than the female, weighs on average 4 kg.
Head: medium size, straighter than that of Angoras, thinning slightly towards the mouth and lips, giving the face the expression of the leopard, especially in spotted individuals. Face; short. Nose: quite broad. Cheeks: well filled. Eyes; blue, orange or green depending on the variety; large, round, well open. Ears: small, rounded at the top, well erect, carried slightly forward and apart; hairy on the outside, almost naked on the inside.
Chest: wide. Legs: medium length, shorter than in long haired cats. Feet: round with black soles. Tail: long, short-haired, large at the base, carried almost at the level of the back and slightly curved at the tip.

Coat. Colour: neither fully, nor necessarily inherited; matings, which are difficult to monitor, produce a wide variety of mixtures and coat variations. Hair: short, fine and tight, similar to that of the wild cat. Skin; white or pied, depending on the colour of the coat.


The Tabby cats are particularly elegant due to the contrast between the stripes, the black markings and the solid colours: brown, orange, or silver. Haphazard breeding and a lack of selection over the past centuries have resulted in the markings, the black stripes, lacking clarity, with poor contrast because they are frequently mixed with hairs of the main colour. The stripes or markings must be very distinct and regular.

Brown tabby. It is one of the most robust varieties; the subjects are lively and rarely sick, Eyes: orange or green. Feet: dark coloured soles with horn-coloured nails. Colour: light brown or sandy background without any white, marked with black or dark brown stripes.
Red Tabby, sometimes called Sandy cat. Eyes: hazelnut brown or golden yellow. Colour: orange or light red, with dark orange stripes, without any white.
(Silver tabby. Eyes: hazel-brown or straw-yellow (in England they ask for green eyes). Coat: silver-grey without any white, very clear black or blue stripes.


General appearance. Head: wide between the ears. Cheeks: full. Nose: short. Eyes: blue-sapphire, Ears: small, rounded at the top, wide at the base. Neck: relatively short.
Chest: wide. Legs: not too thick. Feet: round, widely separated. Tail: thick at the base, rather long, tapered, carried almost at the level of the back and slightly curved upwards. Colour: purest white, without any markings, without yellow or cream highlights. Coat: short, silky and lustrous.
SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 15. Eyes: 10. Body and shape: 20. Colour: 5. Colour: 40. Overall: 10. Total: 100.


Same essential characteristics. Eyes; orange or copper; green eyes, which occur frequently, constitute a fault. Colour: jet black; blue or red highlights are a fault; no white hair is tolerated.


This variety is rare, because subjects of this colour are generally long-haired. Nose: same colour as the coat. Eyes: light yellow. Coat: red, without any stripes or white markings, reminiscent of the coat of the Fox or Squirrel. White skin.


This variety, known in English as Tortoiseshell, is very popular with cat lovers. Nose: a blaze of yellow or orange is a popular marking. Eyes: orange, copper or hazelnut. Appearance: black, yellow, orange patches evenly distributed, especially on the legs, ears and tail; each colour should be as vivid and as well defined as possible, without mixing or streaking.

There is also a slightly different variety in which white is present; the white should never prevail over other colours. Eyes: orange, copper or hazelnut. Coat: the colours should be distributed over the top of the head, ears, cheeks, back and tail. The white must be on the lips, and on the chest and limbs (a white band around the neck is desirable).



The Abyssinian cat, also called as the Bunny cat, rabbit-cat, or hare-cat, is a variety from Africa whose origins are poorly known. According to zoologists, it is the closest animal to the Sacred Cat of ancient Egypt, whose strange, almost hieratic, form and peculiar colour it shares. Numerous murals from the time of the Pharaohs allow you to witness the familiar life of the Domestic Cat in Egypt three thousand years ago. The Cat was worshiped as a god, either in its natural form or in that of a man with the head of a Cat.

Diodorus of Sicily says that the Egyptian respects for the Cat was such that nobody could prevent a crowd from killing a Roman who had inadvertently killed a Cat, and yet, at that time, the people of Egypt had great interest in maintaining friendly relations with that of Rome. If a cat died a natural death, the whole house would mourn; they shaved off their eyebrows, and after having embalmed the animal, they carried it to a sacred house where he was buried with great honours.


General appearance. Today, the general appearance of the Abyssinian Cat is that of a rather small Cat, with very elegant and light construction and conformation, and a slender and extremely handsome type. The thin head is very elongated; the ears are broad at the base and pointed at the tip; the eyes are bright and large.
Head: rather straight. Muzzle: elongated. Nose: dark red, bordered with black. Eyes: larger and more oval than those of European Cats; green, yellow or hazelnut colour. According to Dr. Jumaud, the most sought-after colour is brilliant green for silver and tabby cats; yellow or green for brown-red or sandy coloured (in Albinos the eyes are blue). Ears: large, open, similar to those of European Cats, but slightly more rounded, black or brown at the tip. Limbs and feet: black leggings and soles of feet. Tail: quite long and pointed. Coat. Hair type: short, compact, silky to the touch; lustrous appearance. Coat colour. Golden brown, ticked with black or dark brown, double or triple ticking, that is to say two or three bands of colour on each hair rather than a single band. No bars or other markings, except for the dark line along the spine. The shade of the inside of the front legs and belly harmonizes with the general colour of the subject; preferably orange-brown. No white markings allowed.
Undercoat always as bright and clear as possible and never dull brown.
Faults. Bars on the head, tail, face and chest (these are where tabby markings are found in other domestic cats and in felines in general). The fewer visible marks, the more perfect the subject. However, the judge should not attach disproportionate importance to this aspect, to the point of forgetting the other general qualities of the subject.
For example, a well-built cat, perfectly constituted and with elegant type, but handicapped by a few bars on the legs and tail, will have in spite of everything an advantage over a cat that is too cobby in type and has a poorly ticked coat.

SCALE OF POINTS. Body, escri and type, 40; head and ears, 15; eyes, 10; tail, 5; feet and legs, 5; coat, 10; dimensions, 5; condition, 10. Total: 100.

MANAGEMENT OF BREEDING. The Abyssinian Cat is robust and healthy. The subjects can live all year round in Catteries outside; thus in this breed, two females born in the zoological garden of Vienna (Austria) endured the rigorous colds of the Austrian Winter. They live in the Paris climate, without fires, even in the coldest weather, in wooden buildings, like a large (25 hen) chicken coop, but with a triple wall: built from wood, plywood and felted cardboard on the inside, with linoleum on the ground. The whole ensemble is raised by about 30 cm. For sleeping quarters, the subjects nest in wooden crates lined with hay.

Cats of this breed are particularly hungry for meat. Add cooked vegetables 4 times a week, and, 2 times a week, replace the cooked vegetables with grated carrot or very fine chopped salad, given raw for vitamins. When it is very cold, mix a little raw ground veal fat with raw meat to make up for the missing calories, as is the case in silver fox farms, where the percentage of oily matter is increased in very cold weather. For the second, evening, meal give cooked fish or boiled rabbit, sometimes porridge with milk.

Pure specimens of this breed are rare. In England, the Abyssinian Cat Club had 33 members in all in 1933. About 170 purebred cats were able to be registered in stud book of that Club.



THE CHARTREUX CAT, often equated with the British Blue or Russian Blue Cat remains little known. This breed seemed to disappear completely a few years ago, and it was by happy coincidence that we were able to find some specimens and undertake breeding. Currently, we know no-one except ourselves in France, who are breeding these. However, we must mention the efforts of Mr. and Mrs. Trafford, who have a beautiful couple, and whose male, Hector de Guerveur, is on his way to becoming a champion.

ORIGINS. The origin of the Chartreux Cat remains very poorly known. After breeding this variety for ten years, we wanted to know its origin; unfortunately, our efforts to recover the strain and standard of these cats have only been relatively successful. What is certain is that this is a very distinct variety and cannot be equated with any other. Indeed, the name of the Chartreux was not made up, it is not a vague appellation, but is the name of this race.

We have found in a 1756 edition of Buffon’s Natural History (vol 6, page 12) a description of this Cat, which he calls “Cat of Chartreux” and for which he even gives an engraving (PL IV). Unfortunately, Buffon speaks only of its colour (ash grey) and not of its eyes or conformation. However, observing that engraving, it is easy to see that this is a cat with very long back, quite leggy, with a long, tapered tail, though it’s hard to judge the head.

Rene Primeverre Lesson, in the 1827 edition of his Manual of Mammalogy, escribes the genera Felis Catus according to Linnaeus and quotes four varieties: the domestic Cat, the Spanish Cat, the Angora Cat, and finally the Chartreux Cat ( Felis caeruleus [blue cat]). In the great Encyclopedia of Trouessard, page 877, we still find mention of the Chartreux Cat. Trouessard calls it the Chartreux Cat (Felis domesticus caeruleus) and believed it to be a hybrid of the Egyptian Cat and the Manul (Felis manul). This is a long way from the Russian Blue and British Blue.

It is therefore reasonable to believe that the Chartreux name has an authentic origin, which, unfortunately, we have been unable to find, and it is probable that, in a Carthusian monastery, the Fathers selectively bred this variety and gave it their name in the same way that the Saint Bernard Dog was selectively raised by the monks of Mont Saint-Bernard.


Our first specimens had a French origin; they were found in France, and we imported nothing from abroad. During the first year of our installation at Belle-Ile, we were struck by the number and beauty of some short-haired blue Cats, which were called, at the Palais, “the hospital cats” (meaning a hospital held by a religious order). In the countryside, we also found these cats and, remarkably, they all had the same type and, despite crosses with the European shorthaired cats of the countryside, they kept the characters of their type. We have acquired many of these Cats (I can say that, currently we have collected all the beautiful specimens of the island) and, from that first generation, we obtained remarkable results, From the first crossing of a female blue with a male blue, we had a litter of kittens all blue and true to type. It seems, then, that there was a good chance, in our opinion obviously, of reconstructing a breed that, through the years and through crossing with others, has kept its essential characteristics.

The first female blue cat acquired at the Palais, “Marquise,” was carefully mated to a blue tomcat from the hospital, “Coquito,” and we got the famous “Mignonne” who became international champion, holder of the Belgian Challenge Cup and of the Prize for Beauty at Paris 1933 (Cat Club of Paris) given to the most beautiful cat in the whole exhibition. She was decreed by Miss Wade, who judged at Paris in 1931 to be “the most beautiful Chartreux cat in the World”. Mignonne has been the foundation of our breeding, and it is allowable, in view of this success, to base the conformation of this breed on her. But Mignonen is neither a British Blue nor a Blue-Russian. The British Blue is a massive cat, with gold eyes; the Russian Blue is a slender Cat with green eyes. Mignonne is a slender cat, with gold eyes.


General Appearance: Extremely elegant, with an innate grace (which has earned a prize for aesthetics), it is not very big, in fact rather small. The male is stronger, more powerful, and taller; nevertheless, he must not have a frame that is too powerful and even when he is fully mature he must retain style and elegance.

Head: Very reminiscent of the Siamese by its elongated shape and absence of jowls. Silver-grey nose, more or less dark in accordance with the coat colour, but not pink or depigmented. Lips: Very dark blue, almost black, likewise the palate. Eyes: Pale gold in Mignonne, but we later obtained copper eyes in some of her children (Gouerch) and grandchildren (Hoedic), and that is the sought after colour. Often there are green highlights in the eye, but through selection, we have manage to eliminate this. Ears: Large and upright, giving the cat an alert look.

Skull: fairly flat and somewhat narrow, very reminiscent of the Siamese by its shape. Jaws: quite strong, well put together. Cheeks: Straight and without jowls, especially in the female. Nose: Fairly long, but not excessively so, with, preferably, a small break at the rise so that the muzzle is distinct. Neckline: Long; this adds to the cat’s lines and gives it a handsome and attentive carriage when it raises its head.

Body: the shoulder is long, well defined, with a beautiful curvature; it is well muscled; the forearm continues in a manner pleasing to the eye and is also long and thin. Paw: round, small, exquisitely delicate; the dark grey sole is almost black. Chest: deep, down to the elbow, and wide. Back: long, well muscled, extremely flexible. Belly and flank: The belly is undeveloped and must be that of the quintessential predator. The flank drops slightly and must not weigh down the line of the body as a whole. Hind-quarters: The rump should be lower, but must continue the line of the back. Thighs: Very muscular, long, and like the shoulders should must have a curve pleasing to the eye. Tail: One of the main characteristics of this Cat, very long, tapered, high and cheerful.

Coat: This varies in hue from silver-grey to slate-blue. Mignon and Hector are very light, with a silvery tone becoming lighter on the paws and muzzle; an ideal coat. Unfortunately, it seems that, this light coat goes hand in hand with a pale gold eye; in fact, Gouerch and Hoedie, who have copper eyes, have a slate-grey coat. It is no longer the flattering outfit of Mignonne and her son, but the beauty of the eyes increases. White hairs or markings in the coat are disqualification faults. Often these cats appear somewhat striped with darker blue when they are young; but these shadow markings must disappear complete with age.

Fur: the texture of the fur must be woolly, and, when stroking the Cat against the grain, you must have the impression of touching velvet; in other words, the fur should be short, woolly and close-lying.
Skin: On brushing back the hair, the skin appears uniformly blue, without any white or pink spots.

Weight and size: Females weigh 2.5 kg to 3 kg, males weigh 3 to 4 kg. Naturally, castrated cats can exceed this weight, the size is that of the Siamese. Overall appearance: Supple, very feline. Faults: White hairs, coat colour other than blue-grey; tabby markings in adults, heavy structure, exaggerated size and weight, heavy and massive head, jowls, green eyes. Disqualify: White markings.

SCALE OF POINTS: General structure, 20; eye colour, 20; Head: ears, 5; nose or muzzle, 5; cheeks, 5; general form, 5; Hair texture, 10; Coat colour, 20; Tail, 10. Total, 100.


The Chartreux Cat is above all an instinctive hunter. This is his goal and if the hunting contests were possible, I would not be afraid to put my subjects in competition with the famous feline ratters of Le Havre. It is for precisely this reason that this breed is very interesting as it combines with beauty to give a superior cat. The reason this breed was created is therefore fulfilled, and we are not dealing with one of those lazy cousins who lounge around both night and day.

When I let my old Dolcis out on pleasant nights, every morning he brings to my doorstep one of those enormous coastal rats, as big as a 6-month-old kitten, which infests the countryside. He also hunts the supposedly elusive grey rat in our attic. Espiegle, at the age of four months, in front of a nest of mice which he had discovered under the maize, he caught two mice in his mouth in the twinkling of an eye, and one in each paw. The young Fft-fft, at two months old, caught a field mouse and I had to fight and hit him so he would not eat it. A feast for the eyes, the peace of a home rid of rodents, that is the Chartreux Cat.

Independent in character, he does not like being held; he accepts caresses from his masters, but is wary of strangers; very cuddly and affectionate with people he knows, he is less so with his own kind, and there are often disputes in his own family! I’ve seen, among other things, Mignonne slapping one of her daughters who was teasing her, and that was much the funniest thing I’ve ever seen.


The Chartreux Cat is very rustic [hardy]; though like his friend, the European Cat, the horrible typhus extracts a high price from him. He is more resistant to this than the Persian Cat, and infinitely more resistant than the Siamese Cat. At Belle-Ile, we have a very harsh climate because of the humidity and the wind, and I had to give up raising Siamese cats because the all died of coryza. My Persians resist conditions fairly well, and my Chartreux are “at home”. Although I have installed Catteries, I let my Chartreux roam free whenever I can, except for females that are in oestrus and wandering tomcats are always are always locked up.

For food, in the countryside I give them almost exclusively meat; in the city, I moderate the consumption of meat. When possible, I always prevent them from eating any prey they have hunted, because I have noticed real cases of poisoning by rats and moles; moreover, when well fed, they hunt for pleasure and almost always bring back their prey. The females are quite prolific, but it is exceptional if they have more than one litter a year; at least I don’t seek this because it would be tiring for them. Three or four kittens are born, though I have had a cat that always gave me 8 kittens, which is not desirable because the little ones are born weak and grow poorly. Whenever possible in favourable weather the kittens are raised in freedom and brought in only at night or in bad weather. This way I obtain very vigorous specimens.

These Cats require little care; their coat is always clean in the country; simple brushing is enough before exhibition.

There is currently no Chartreux Cat Club; the creation of such a club would be worth considering and would certainly be of interest, because their fans increase daily.


Many of the cats we have bred have won championship status, and these are the only champions I know in France. International Champion: Mignonne de Guerveur who won 38 prizes including 20 firsts, 6 C. A.Cs, 32 special prizes of honour. Her daughter, international champion Gouerch de Guerveur of the Central Feline Society, Cat Fanciers Club; holder of 37 first prizes, 4 C. A Cs, 6 special prizes, etc., and who, at his last show, in Paris, in January 1935, won the honorary prize awarded to the most handsome shorthair Champion; also Mignonne’s son Hector de Guerveur, on his way to becoming champion won – also in Paris, in January 1935 – the Challenge Cup for the most beautiful shorthaired cat in the whole exhibition; a great-grandson of Mignonne, the handsome Hoedic de Guerveur, holder of 15 first prizes, 4 C.A.Cs, P. S. and P. H. currently also international champion.

In 1933, our breed won the honorary award of the President of the Republic, awarded to the most beautiful brerd of shorthaired cat.


This breed is still little known (witness the extravagant reactions of show visitors), and it is to be hoped that our societies quickly popularize the breed and show that it has its own characteristics, its interesting points and usefulness. - C. LEGER


IN MY EARLY CHILDHOOD, I had Terrier Dogs as faithful companions. They joined my little girl games and waited patiently when I sat among the trees with my books. They had the right to chase Cats from the property, but were absolutely prohibited from touching them, and their obedience was absolute as it often happens in the relationships between animals and children.


A long time after that, I saw a Siamese Cat. Seduced by the well-bred lines of this animal, by its elegant gestures, its deep blue eyes and the brown markings on its coat, I had a great desire to have them. Having lost my last Dog, I was given three white Siamese brothers, still babies. These little beings became so quickly attached to me that on the third day they each knew their name. I was then in the countryside and an hour after their arrival, I looked for them in vain when suddenly I heard a little meow which seemed to come from the side of my bed; they all finally got out of it by the box spring, because this was a shelter that they love very much. They avoid drafts and take a nap in a dark corner.

From that moment, I bred the Siamese for myself and for my friends, being careful, after 2 or 3 years of experience, to have only two litters per year, which results in more robust subjects. By dint of trial and error from an observation point of view, I found that the best food was lukewarm milk in the morning upon waking and, depending on the individual, given either boiled or not boiled. Place a bowl of fresh water next to the milk. For cats in apartments (which was my case for half the year), I add a little Vichy water when their hair is a little bristly, which always proves poor digestion or is the consequence of chilling (window open too long without the animal being able to take refuge in another room). The liver, which is very sensitive in cats, is thus slowed down in its functioning, as is the intestine. For the main meals, two during the day, I alternate fish and green vegetables (carrots, spinach, leeks) with meat and vegetables, without salt if the animals are in the apartment and from time to time very lightly salted if they can gallop outside.

It is often necessary, when females are lactating, to give them an additional meal of meat, preferably in the morning, and to accustom the little Cats to gradually take a little condensed milk diluted according to their age. If you have an ordinary cat near you whose kittens were unwelcome, you can give them some Siamese kittens which they get used to immediately when their milk rises.

When the animal is at large, there must always be a half-open door allowing it to enter an apartment when it feels chilliness coming. You must watch the rooms where the Siamese (being short-haired animals) sleep and reserve a corner for them to retreat to when the temperature gets colder in the middle of the night. It’s easy to have a wicker hutch covered with a blanket, or to arrange the blanket in the shape of a hutch on a couch.

I currently have a terrace where I put a wooden hutch with straw (the cover can be removed to make it easy to clean) during the summer; the Cats can take refuge there if it is too humid or sunny. Just like dogs, they need shelter and can suffer from drafts from the doors.


For a few years I have had a female Abyssinian Cat from the Vienna Zoological Garden; this animal, also short-haired, is more gently fearful than the Siamese which rebels against brutality or goes disdainfully into a corner if mistreated or even if it only has dealings with brusque people. On the other hand, he is tender and affectionate, sometimes even passionate, if one is soft with him and makes him understand by words and tone of voice that he is making a fuss about nothing. We then have enough influence over him to make him take up habits such as offering paw, jumping, and looking pretty.

The Abyssinian Cat, she is more cuddly. Since I had Siamese, I have understood that other Cats can be improved by not rushing them and by encouraging them using good methods, just like humans, when they are not stuck in a disagreeable mood (which is the exception, fortunately). I believe that animals, observers by nature, are more apt than anyone to understand their master with whom they must collaborate in life, and one might even say: like animal, like master.

My experience made me adopt a solid screen of four sheets covered with rough, tight fabric; Cats exercise their claws and frolic on the sheets; do not cut the claws so that you allow them this necessary and natural relaxation. - Countess CLAUZEL.


ONE DAY, "Tosca," a two month old female puppy, was given to me. O joy! ... but very quickly this joy is maddeningly diluted by the liquid drawbacks presented by this charming, young guest. I had long owned a remarkably intelligent white European cat, "Yseult,” who graciously accepted this unexpected arrival without any further ado.

So, one day, "Tosca" having watered the parquet floors more than usual, I decided to put her in the bathroom, a place which seemed to me quite suitable. Soon I heard lamentable howls. "Yseult,” at that moment, had taken up residence in the kitchen and immediately thought that she could do something for this poor doggie. Jumping onto the kitchen windowsill, then onto the bathroom windowsill, and finding "Tosca" was a matter of a moment’s work. Then, hanging onto the door-handle, she freed her trapped companion, passed in front of her and triumphantly led this poor soul back to us with an air of saying; "See how sorry I was for her!” But humans have no heart. Three times I closed my two children again in their respective rooms, leaving the windows open as before, and three times "Yseult" made the same generous gesture.

Now, can anyone tell me if the Cat’s actions were dictated by kindness, mercy, or annoyance at hearing the Dog cry? - Miss Meunier.



THE SIAMESE CAT is currently one of the most widely appreciated breeds or species of Feline, having the same role in the group of short-haired species as the Persian Cat does among the long-hairs.


Siamese breeding has greatly expanded in France over several years. There are currently some excellent subjects in the Siamese cat population. Of the nearly 6,000 breeders of pet and luxury cats in our country today, around half of them are particularly interested in the Siamese. This important breeding is an element of profits for France, and its development make it possible to foresee the export of the subjects bred. On the other hand, our Far Eastern Colonies means we can import stud cats from their place of origin, thereby avoiding any degeneration.

ORIGINS. Although considered to be from Siam, this Cat is, in fact, found in different regions of the Far East. The explorer Auguste Pavie considered that the Siamese Cat was be the product of crossing of the Birman Cat (long haired), with the Annamite Cat (tailless) imported into the Khmer Empire the XVIIth century. Moreover, among the Siamese Cats there are individuals with yellow eyes and with the tail only a few centimetres long. In the break or the knot of the tail you can also find clues to the joining of the Birman and Annamite races.

Its introduction in France dates back fifty years. The king of Siam prohibited the export of these animals so the French breeders, for lack of studs, could not develop the breed normally and it was difficult, or even impossible, to ensure the rise of qualified breeders. This measure having been subsequently abolished, this breeding has therefore taken on an increasing extension over the past twenty years.


General appearance: Slender, short-haired animal with enigmatic eyes and refined mannerisms.
Head: long, widening at eye level then narrowing at ear level. Muzzle: tapered. Nose: long. Whiskers; long and bright, sometimes dotted. Lips: rounded. Teeth: fine, but strong. Forehead: flat and receding. Skull: well developed (reveals the intelligence of the Siamese). Eyes: almond-shaped and blue; sometimes sapphire blue, turning fiery red when the animal is frightened or angry. Ears: rather large, broad at the base, with fur inside. Neck: thin.
Body: slender. Withers: prominent. Flanks: slightly hollow, without belly being prominent. Rump: not too strong; it is often found in short-tailed subjects.
Legs: fine. Hocks: sinewy, with firm muscles. Feet: small, with very strong, sharp, hooked nails.
Tail: showing all shapes and developments; long and thin, semi-long, short, broken, hooked or twisted; it often has a knot at its base. In England and Belgium, only the Long-tailed Cats can compete for the C.A.C. in France, all Siamese regardless of their tail characteristics, are permitted to compete. Breeders maintain that a knot or breakage is a characteristic of the breed. Others, on the contrary, insist that it is a kind of degenerate trait. If we consider the judgment of the explorer Auguste Pavie that the tailless Annamite cat is an ancestor of the Siamese, then truncated tails could be a reminder of that origin. But with no actual proof in support of these theories, we believe we should not have to examine them, and this is the reason why, in France, all specimens may compete for the C.A.C. regardless of tail type.

Colour: preferably light; it may be darker, but the mask and the extremities must be clearly defined and make a marked contrast with the body. There must be a well-defined otter-brown-to-black mask on the marten-like face. A good mask advantageously classifies the subject who has it. The chest, belly must be very light, almost white, with a small brown spot in the umbilical region. The colour of the back must be cream, café au lait, greyish, tawny, orange, sometimes chocolate, lighter near the mask, and becoming more and more dark, the tail must be otter-black. The legs are dark otter, darkest on the feet and lightening towards the thighs. Coat: short, tight, shiny, soft and soft; the fur of the tail being shiny.
Size. Must reach 58 cm from muzzle to root of tail; 33 cm at the shoulder; the female is smaller. Weight. Male, 4 kg to 4.5 kg; female, 3.5 kg to 4 kg.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 10. Eyes: 15. Size: 10. Mask: 20. Coat and extremity coloUr: 20. Hair: 10. General appearance, structure, condition: 15. Total: 100.
FAULTS. Eyes: greenish. Eyes with spectacles. Colour: uniform. Hair: dotted, striped, long. Badly marked or discoloured limbs are often due to illness.
DISQUALIFICATION. White spots, discoloration by chemical means.
VARIETIES: Clear Siamese, chocolate, blue, white. The latter is an albino.
QUALITIES AND ABILITIES. Very intelligent, very docile, very affectionate, attached to his masters; extremely clean. Refined, he likes scents and flowers. His various cries include a whole range of intonations depending on whether he wants to express joy, desire, pain, anger, etc.
MAIN CHAMPTONS. Rajah of Bangkok, Mrs. Nadia le Ruz; Vichnou, Mrs. Chaumont-Doisy; A Ma Ra de la Tour d’Ivoire, Mrs. Anny Lierow.


The Siamese is sensitive to cold. Over 80% of the diseases in Siamese Cats are observed during Winter, so keep its living quarters at a minimum temperature of 18 to 20 degrees [centigrade] during the winter if you want to avoid fatal accidents. Some gradually accustomed Siamese, who have undergone natural selection, and from established lines, can live in the countryside in harsh temperatures, but these are rare exceptions.

Food. Siamese are fond of fish and rice. During epidemics it was found that subjects fed on cooked meat and fish, combatted the disease with much greater resistance than those fed on raw meat. However, you can also give some raw minced meat, but only as a restorative. Avoid organ meats and bread mash. Give vegetables. Milk can be used as a drink, but pure water is preferable.

Reproduction. Crossing female Siamese with European males gives only mongrels. On the other hand, crossing Siamese studs with European females sometimes give half-breeds. We were given the opportunity to see one of these products, the colours of the coat, mask and tail were those of the Siamese, but the were café au lait instead of otter brown, and the forehead was marked with grey tiger stripes, reminiscent of its mother. It is also known that in all animals, the sire’s type dominates and leaves a clearly marked imprint on the offspring.

The Siamese is pregnant for 65 days, that is to say 9 days longer than females of other breeds. In general, the litters are from 4 to 6 kittens maximum. In the latter case, help the mother by overfeeding her and giving milk to her young. Also, eliminate, in principle, any stunted and spotted kittens. Kittens must be immaculately white at birth.

After weaning, first give porridge, then gradually add rice, fish and finally cooked meat to the ration, but do this as late as possible.

Begin their education right out of the nest and training from the age of 4 to 5 months. Hygiene and cleanliness are particularly recommended. Brush the fur, preferably with a wire brush, without leaving any dead hair. You get a shiny coat and the health of the animal is better. Cleanse the ears, with a cotton wool pad soaked in oil, to prevent ear mites, which in turn can cause meningitis. These treatments also allow any eventual presentation at a show.

Marketing. In France the kittens are sold from 100 to 200 fr. at weaning; from 300 to 400 fr. at 5 months; and 500 to 800 fr. at 10 months. As an adult, the Siamese attracts higher prices which varies according to the value of the individual and the awards it has won at shows. A champion stud cat can be worth 2,000 to 4,000 fr.

Societies and Clubs. The Feline Societies and Cat Clubs federated to the Higher National Council of Feline Societies are particularly interested in the Siamese. - Omer HENRY, President of the National Council of Feline Societies of France and of the Friends of Cats Club.


Long straight tail, long broken tail, twisted tail: which of the four is the right one? [Note: only three types listed!] In the standard of some feline clubs, both straight or broken tails are allowed; in others, such as those in England and Belgium, they allow, in principle, only the straight, pointed tail, a small nodule being tolerated.

In the Siamese, the different forms of tails came naturally, man having only had to choose those which were the most aesthetic, or even the most fashionable. Therefore, there is no need to impose a defined tail type since these different forms are all natural. This is the opposite reasoning to the tail of the Fox Terrier Dog, whose form and length were chosen by the breeder; in which case, only the standard adopted by the breeders prevails. From a commercial point of view, any modification that could bring a new boom to the breeding market is to be recommended; but, from the point of view of pure and scientific breeding, it is good to know the form and the characteristics of a type which could later undergo transformations.

We have said that the Siamese can have a tail of very varied form, going from the straight and long tail to the embryonic tail, broken or twisted. But, in this range, the straight and long tail is in the smallest proportion.

From written documents we extract this: M. C…, Professor of Zootechnics, after having observed, over 18 years, more than 500 imported Siamese, found that only 16 had the long, straight tail, and even then, two of those had a break at the end. Everything else had a short or broken tail, with nodules. For my part, I saw a good number of Cats imported or born to imported cats, and all had the characteristic tail of the breed. Under the signature of Guy R. Sutherland Menzies, I read that, during his stay in Bangkok in 1910, he often had the opportunity to see Siamese Cats and in particular those of the Royal Palace. Only one had a long tail; all the others had short tails with nodules. An importer of exotic animals for over 35 years, traveling exclusively in the Far East, told me this peculiarity of the tail occurs not only with Siamese Cats, but also in most of the mongrel Cats of the region.

Besides, this region is indeed that of the tailless or short-tailed Annamese cats.

In any case, it is difficult to form an opinion on this subject. There will always be fans of a particular tail shape, and each, in his sphere, claims the veracity of his preferred shape. The English standard only counts 5 points for the caudal appendage, that is to say little importance is attached to this peculiarity.

An animal’s tail, when it displeases the breeders, disappears, either by the knife or by desired degeneration. You know that by cutting off the tails of Dogs some will be born with atrophied tails. That being said, and since we permit the modifications made by man, let us also permit the various forms of Siamese tails, these having been fundamentally made by nature. - Baudoin-Crevoisier.


The Siamese, considers Mme. Leclerc-Abadie, is generally a good ratter and can be a good hunter in apartments. But when we are concerned with ratters intended for rural properties, it is absolutely unsuitable. It is extremely sensitive to cold, which not only decreases its activity but often causes its death. And cold means a temperature below 10 degrees centigrade. In France or even on the French Riviera, the winter nights are around 0 degrees centigrade and in three quarters of France it freezes. Their intolerance to cold is an insurmountable drawback.

In addition, it is easily lost. It is more likely than a Country Cat to be stolen. Finally, it is sometimes irritable and inclined to become naughty. At Cat shows it is the most difficult subject to handle for presentation to the judges, and even its master is not immune to being cruelly bitten by this skittish Cat if it panics.

For a selection of cats, not luxury, but if I dare to say “useful,” native Cats are by far the best. If you go to Antwerp, look at the strength and beauty of their ratting Cats; they are simply well cared for local Cats.

In France, we let the native race degenerate; it is wretched in regions where the negligence of its masters and the destruction practiced by hunters predominate but, although rare, in some regions there are still good specimens, thanks to the attachment retained by people due to their experience with that effective form of rat destruction – the Cat. The types they have are sufficient to improve the breed.

Our common French cats of France are sons of the earth; acclimatised for centuries, they thrive as soon as you stop persecuting them; when cultivated, they produce splendid subjects. European cats of various varieties presented at cat shows are proof of this. We have every interest in making our selection using French Cats. From what I could see in various regions of France, the Tabby cat (spotted or striped on a brown, grey or orange background) naturally produces the highest percentage of good ratters. It is the one we meet most frequently. On the other hand, Mr. Baudouin-Crevoisier believes that the Siamese cat has all the qualities of a perfect feline - strength, agility, flexibility, finesse, hearing, and especially intelligence - add to that its extremely hooked, fine and sharp claws. He has the perfect type for hunting.

Besides, not only does he hunt rats and mice, he hunts all game, not as a lookout, but like a running hunting dog, and it is not uncommon to see a Siamese bring things back just like a good dog. He has an unimaginable patience when he watches for prey. More of a fighter and stronger than the Common cat, he is better able to stand up to rats; do not forget that the rat is a formidable enemy, and what the Fox-Terrier does by the force of its bite, the Cat must do by cunning and speed.

Using the Cat is easier than using the Dog. First, it is a less bulky animal that can fit anywhere. In the countryside where rats swarm, it finds its place from the cellar to the attic. In cities where cramped living quarters often prevent ownership of a dog, a cat finds the place it needs and does not bother anyone.

It may be objected that the Siamese, left at large, will not stay Siamese for long. They will cross paths with common cats. This is without a doubt, but cross-breeds[HS(1] are likely to be even better for hunting, and it doesn't matter, after all, if ratters and mousers come in different colours and patterns!


This race, whose origins are subject to discussion, is characterized by the absence of a tail and its hopping gait.

“LE CHAT DE MAN,” also called the Manx, Cornwall or Cornish cat, is characterized by the absence of a tail. As its name suggests, this breed originates from an island in the Irish Sea, although authors claim that this Cat was once common in the County of Cornwall, located in the South West of Great Britain.

Origin. The origin of this breed is much debated. Some believe that this Cat was imported from the Far East, China or Japan; because many old paintings of that country represent Cats without tails. In addition, in these regions Malaysia is also known as a country of Short-tailed Cats. However, Mr. Steens rightly points out that this hypothesis would be extraordinary, if only a small island in the Irish Sea had received similar Cats and no trace is found of them in the ports of call along the route that ships followed from the Far East to the British Isles.

On the other hand, he writes, a legend that prevails on the island says that when the "Invincible Armada" of Philip II was dispersed by the fleet of English admiral Howard, in 1588, a Spanish galleon was wrecked on the south coast of the island, at the place still known as "Spanish Head". A couple of Tailless Cats escaped from the side of the ship and were the ancestors of the "Manx"

If this story were true, we would have to conclude that there were tailless cats in 16th century Spain. That country was, at the time, at the height of its powers on land and at sea, its merchants headed the trade with the East, so it would not have been astonishing if Japanese Cats had been imported into the Iberian Peninsula as a curiosity.


General appearance. This cat is not only characterized by the absence of a tail, but also by its hopping gait. The Manx Cat is in fact shaped in such a way that it does not move like a Cat, but like a Rabbit.
Head; broad, fine. Eyes: round and full like those of common cats; is orange, golden yellow, brown or greenish in colour, depending on the coat colour. Ears: medium, slightly rounded at the top.
Body: as short as possible. Hips: very rounded. Hindquarters; well-developed. Legs: stronger and higher at the back than at the front. Tail: at first glance (remarked by Dr Jumaud), “it seems that the animal is almost completely devoid of tail, but a closer examination, with palpation, shows that this is not the case. You feel, in fact, a very clearly delimited coccygeal region formed of several vertebrae, movable with respect to each other. But, while the number of tail vertebrae is 21, 22 or 23, in the common Cat, it is only 6 for the Manx Cat. Likewise, the neural channel which, in the ordinary Cat, decreases in size and ends in the tail vertebrae, stops towards the 5th caudal vertebra in the Manx; the 6th caudal vertebra being reduced to a simple atrophied vertebral body without the apophysis."
Coat. Colour: variable, black, white, even blue; usually tabby, silvery, striped. Coat: soft and light fur like that of the Rabbit.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head and Ears: 10. Eyes: 5. Depth of flanks: 10. Roundness of rump: 10. Absence of tail: 15. Height of hind limbs: 15. Hair: 10, Coat: 5, Shortness of body: 15. Condition: 5. Total: 100.
REPRODUCTION. Matings with Long-tailed Cats produces fertile offspring. Thus, by crossing a Manx male with common female cats, Dr Wilson obtained 23 Kittens, of which 17 had no tails, while crossing a female Manx cat with common make cats constantly resulted in kittens with short, imperfect tails. This would indicate a predominance in the transmission of this trait in the male.

Elsewhere, a female Manx cat, which had mated several times with ordinary cats, produced 24 kittens in 6 litters: firstly long-tailed kittens, secondly short-tailed kittens, and thirdly tailless kittens.


Subjects presenting this anomaly are extremely rare and arouse genuine curiosity.

THE NAKED CAT was first reported by Poepig ("Illustrierte naturgeschichte Band") who considered it a random manifestation, recorded particularly in Bohemia. It was also noted by Fitzinger, who saw a specimen in Vienna; it is currently naturalized in the museum of that city.

It seems there was once, among the Incas of Mexico, a breed of naked cats of which Builly-Maire spoke. For his part, Dr. Jumaud mentioned subjects that belonged to Mr. Shinick from Albuquerque (New Mexico). The latter acquired them from a Jesuit missionary who had told him that the animals were the last representatives of a family raised by the Aztecs. These Cats were male and female littermates so Mr. Shinick hesitated to breed them together. When one of them was killed accidentally he had to give up all hope of preserving their breed.

One might wonder if there were still any naked Cats in the world when, in 1930, two specimens were exhibited at the Paris Cat Show. These two cats were both born 4 months apart at the Kremlîn-Bicêtre near Paris; their mothers were common female cats. These two Cats died in 1931.

However, this anomaly has just occurred again at the home of Mr. Paul Raibaud in Fez, where, on April 7, 1934, a cat of the common race from Morocco, gave birth, in a litter of 5 perfectly formed offspring and strange little animal with long ears and entirely devoid of hair.

Greatly interested in this young phenomenon, Mr. Raibaud took special care so that he could develop normally: protecting him from the cold and entrusting only this single offspring to his mother. Today, the colour of this Cat is dark blue-grey tending towards slate-grey. The skin is very thin, very flexible, and wrinkles when touched and with each movement of the animal. With normal teeth and claws, this young cat is agile, vigorous and in good health and does not seem to suffer from its abnormal condition. He is even, says his master, very affectionate. However, the absence of whiskers, the disproportionate size of his ears, and eyes that appear wider and brighter because they are not surrounded by fur, all contribute to making him a strange-looking animal.


FIFILS, a Siamese cat, holder of the Challenge Cup, was born on July 7, 1926 and died on April 2, 1932 of jaundice. He was a good father, since he had a hundred children. Strong and muscular with slightly hollow sides, his elongated body had a harmonious line. His bright café-au-lait coat was fine and close-lying. His mask, as a whole, had something strange and mysterious about it; his lower legs, his ears and his tail were a solid otter colour. The shape of the head was pointed, the ears being quite large and broad at the base. His tail was short with a nodule at the tip (characteristic of the breed). His almond-shaped open eyes were deep blue; long, full whiskers gave him the appearance of a healthy and vigorous Cat, so his females were happy. Several descendants of Fifils have won awards in France, Germany and America. His 12-year-old mother Zizi} is still alive and in good health. (Plate 1.)

Splendid Siamese with long tail, 5 years old. Neutered male classified 1st and excellent at all the exhibitions where he appeared: Paris, Brussels, Lyon. Ivory and golden brown in colour, marked as tough with a brush, with huge porcelain-blue eyes, this Cat is endowed with remarkable intelligence. (Pl 16.)

Int. Ch. Djinn de Bangkok-Siam} born June 9, I929, by Int. Champion Ayous de la Folie-Méricourt, out of Int Champion. Bagheera de Bangkok- Siam, winner of numerous first prizes in France, Belgium and Switzerland. (Pl 16.)


The role of these groups is of primary importance in giving specific guidance for breeding animals of each variety based on a standard, to stimulate the efforts of breeders through perfectly organized shows, to codify everyone’s efforts with a view to methodical selection and constant improvement of genealogical lines by the rigorous keeping of a book of origins.

THE GROUPS, Clubs and Societies which aim to select and improve the varieties of Cats, and to inspire and improve controlled breeding and its use, are grouped into an important FEDERATION: THE HIGHER NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE FELINE SOCIETIES OF FRANCE (C.N.S.S.F.F.) This is expected to hold the same superior role as the famous Governing Council, in England, which governs all Societies and Clubs, in the same way as the Kennel Club and our Canine Society do for Dogs.

This Federation, which brings together regional societies and special clubs, such as the Cat Club of France which opened its studbook in 1913, the Friends of Cats Club, the Ratting Cats Club, the Cat Club of Lyonnais, etc., have the primary goals:

1 - to ensure the improvement and reconstitution of cat breeds for utility, competition and pets, in France, in the Colonies, in the Protectorate Countries and the Mandated Countries.
2 - To strengthen the friendly ties that unite the different Societies and the different French Clubs which deal with Cat breeds, to coordinate their efforts, to concentrate their means of action, to give them, by their very grouping, more impetus for defending breeding interests with public authorities, administrations and foreign societies.
3 - To sponsor and organize Cat Shows, both in France, its Colonies, protectorates and mandated countries, and abroad. To study and enact the regulations of Shows, championships and national and international competitions, organized or sponsored by it. Establish each year a calendar of events planned for that year by the member companies.
4 - To study and regulate the Breed Standards, to keep a stubook, known as "The Book of Origins of Feline Companies of France" (L. O. S. F. F.).
5 - To draw up a list of French and foreign judges, permitted to judge in Shows sponsored by the National Council.

To be admitted to the Association, Regional Societies and Specialist Clubs must:

a. Be regularly constituted and declared, in accordance with art. 5 of the law of July 1, 1901, and this for at least a year before the date on which their candidacy to be part of the Association is posed.
b. Have demonstrated notable.
c. Be approved by the Board of Directors.

In addition to the member members (regional societies and specialist clubs), the Association has, on an optional basis:
1 - Individual associate members (founders or subscribers), who may enjoy various privileges: entrance cards for events organized by the National Council, reduction in entry fees for events, etc.
2 - Corresponding members.
3 - Honorary members.

CAT-CLUB OF FRANCE. The purpose of the C.C.F. is to encourage the Breeding and improvement of Cats breeds by the following means:

a. Publish a description and a scale of points (standard) allowing the classification of Cat breeds presented in competition in respect of type and perfection of the forms.
b. Sponsor and subsidize Shows which appear to it to present all the desirable guarantees and obtain, in all of these Shows, a competent judge recognized by the C.C.F.
c. Encourage the Breeding and improvement of Cats breeds in France and abroad, by all possible means. Allocate breeding premiums, organize Shows, alone or with the assistance of other Clubs or Societies.
d. Publish brochures, newsletters, and books related to cat breeds.
e. Make itself available to its members for the verification of any suspect pedigree, and affix its stamp and visa, as a guarantee of authenticity, on the pedigree subject to its control and which must be recognized free of any error or falsification. Any declaration made by a member of the Club and recognized as false will result in exclusion.
f. If necessary, create a registration number or register, in which the Cats belonging to the members of the Club will be recorded, this in order to be able to certify, by rigorous control and very serious guarantees, required for registration, the pure ancestry of the Cats presented and the authenticity of their pedigree. A special register must be held, recording the matings and litters of she-cats belonging to Club members.

FRIENDS OF CATS CLUB. This Association, founded in 1933 in Paris, and which organizes splendid Shows, has given for its goals:

1 - The improvement of the cat breeds in France and the encouragement to breed pure and selected breeds (so-called luxury breeds).
2 - The protection and selection of the Utility cat, and in particular the Ratting cat.
3 - To open a Book of Origins to help fix the breeds and regulate breeding.
4 - To organize, at least once a year, a Show under the name of “Salon du Chat”, in principle international, with the aim of guiding, rewarding and encouraging breeders and fanciers possessing the finest specimens of the Feline race.
5 - To sponsor and subsidize, if necessary, all organizations with the same goals.
6 - To have published or to publish any documents or books relating to Feline issues near or far.
7 - To rescue and reward those less fortunate, caring for or collecting abandoned or wretched cats.

The Association can create subsidiaries and join, if it sees fit, such other Groups, Groupings, Societies or Associations having the same goals as itself, or related goals.

Currently, these are the Clubs founded by the Higher National Council of Feline Societies and by the Cat-Club of France: Lyonnais Cat Club, Forez Cat Club, Aquitaine Cat Club, Flanders Cat Club, Lorraine Cat Club, Picardy Cat Club, French White Persian Club, French Siamese Club, Blue Persian Club, Feline Society of Strasbourg, Cat Club of the Riviera.

Regional associations. Let us cite, by way of example, the goal of one of these Regional Associations or Clubs, the Cat Club of Champagne and the North-East, which has the aims: To make the Cat better known as a precious domestic animal, a sensitive companion and affectionate. To take all useful measures to make the Chat known and appreciated. To encourage the breeding of pure breeds. To stop harmful crossbreeding, both from the point of view of the animal itself as well as the services it can render and the value it represents. To protect wretched Cats. To have members’ Cats of the members entered in the studbook. To organize demonstrations, Shows, Competitions, and conferences. To sponsor and subsidize any organizations that can contribute to the same goal, both in France and abroad. To publish or have published any documents or books relating to Cat breeds, their uses, their particular characteristics, etc. To teach members how to breed and care for Cats.

THE GOVERNING COUNCIL OF THE CAT FANCY, ENGLAND. This comprises representatives of the regularly constituted Clubs and Societies. Among these Clubs and Societies, we should mention: the National Cat Club (4 delegates), the Black and White Club (1 delegate), the Blue Persian Cat Society (2 delegates), the Chinchilla, Silver and Smoke Society (1 delegate), Midland Counties Cat Club (2 delegates), Newbury Cat Club (1 delegate), Red, Cream, Brown Tabby and Tortoiseshell Society (1 delegate), Short-haired Cat Society (1 delegate), Siamese Cat Club (4 delegates), the Southern Counties Cat Club (2 delegates). Other Clubs and Societies were subsequently approved, for example: the Croydon Cat Club (2 delegates), the Neuter Cat Society (1 delegate), the Siamese Cat Society of the British Empire (1 delegate), the Kensington Kitten Club (1 delegate), the Abyssinian Cat Club (1 delegate).

No Club has the right to more than 4 delegates. These delegates are appointed for one year and can be re-elected. Membership is a prerequisite for any Club to be represented on the Board. But this affiliation does not of itself confer the right of representation. However, until this right is granted, Affiliated Clubs have the option of appointing someone who is already a member of the board to look after their interests.

The Board holds quarterly or more frequent meetings as required. It formulates, publishes and modifies the regulations for shows organized under its auspices. He takes care of the championships of these exhibitions. It keeps a pedigree register. It issues certificates of origin and publishes a Studbook.

Clubs have the right to exhibit under the auspices of the Council and to mention their affiliation on their circulars and publications. Each member can obtain certificates of registration from the Council. Finally, any affiliated Club must submit to the decisive judgment of the Council in all matters relating to Cats and observe its regulations concerning shows.

In the case of foreign Clubs, the clauses may however be modified to the extent that local circumstances require. Let us add that these foreign Clubs are not eligible for the Council. They can be affiliated to it, provided they adopt, as far as possible, the Council regulations in all matters relating to Cats and Cat Shows.

Belgian associations. Note, among others, the Belgian Feline Federation, founded in 1927, which groups together the main Belgian Clubs. It is responsible for: promoting the protection and breeding of cats; to develop and observe the official prototypes (standards) in Belgium; control of the studbook; to date, it has 2,600 registrations and 200 affixes; the appointment of official judges who alone will be permitted to judge at Shows organized by the Affiliated Companies.

More recently, in 1932, a Cat Breeders’ Circle was founded in Brussels, specifically affiliated with the Belgian Feline Federation. The purpose of this circle is twofold. It aims, firstly, to protect animals in general and Cats in particular, and to help wretched Cats. Secondly, to promote and improve the breeding of different cat breeds, exotic breeds, as well as native breeds. By all means in its power, it propagates the catophilic idea, in terms of loving animals as well as competition. To this end, it follows the directives of the two major Brussels Societies: The International Anti-vivisection League and the Society against Cruelty to Animals (Anderlecht) in all matters of animal loving which it decides to deal with.

We could not list all the Belgian and foreign Feline Societies. We plan to do so later on, as long as their program is likely to interest you.


"Vie a la Campagne" regularly deals with everything related to Cats and Catteries, so send us portraits, photographs showing the funny attitudes of your Cats and Kittens; aspects of your facilities, catteries, etc., in a word, the images of anything related to your favourite animals. This Magazine will be happy to reproduce them.


First cousins of the Siamese through their origin as well as in appearance, good quality and very typical specimens of this breed are quite rare, which increases their value, while their uniqueness and beauty justify their breeding being increased.

THE BIRMAN, sometimes called the Sacred Cat of Burma, has been known in France and Europe since 1925. The first copy imported into Western countries would have been in France. Currently, breeding appears to be in decline; the majority of fine specimens produced over the past 10 years gradually disappeared without always being replaced. This state of affairs justifies an effort at reconstruction.

ORIGINS. The origins of the Birman cat are disputed, despite its precise name, several authors having made it a legendary animal whose origins should be sought in the Temple of Lao-Tsun in Burma. Apart from the writings of Sir Russel Gordon and Auguste Pavie, no document has precisely specifies the origins of these Cats. After 6 years of personal research and 10 years of breeding in France, the Birman remains as mysterious as to its origin, and no new imported animals have been seen or, therefore, studied.

The first pair of Birman Cats were brought to France around 1925 by Mrs. Thadde-Hadisch, and would therefore come from the temple of Lao-Tsun where these animals are jealously guarded. The male died on the boat during the crossing, and the female, who was fortunately pregnant, gave birth in Nice to a litter of Birman kittens. Among these kittens, a female named Poupee was noticed as having the most perfect Birman type.

This female was then mated to a Siamese cat, who, at that time, had been baptized a “Laotian Cat” for the circumstance … For lack of Birman males, it was necessary to try an experiment. This partially succeeded. From litter to litter and from selection to selection, the descendants improved. Preference was given to youngsters whose appearance most closely resembled the first pairs. Thus, the Madalpour strain was formed, named after that first male who perished before reaching France.

Assuming that Poupee had been crossed with a Siamese Cats, other breeders crossed Birman Cats from the Madalpour strain with gloved Siamese Cats, that is to say Siamese with white toes. By frequently introducing new blood into the breed, they obtained more vigorous cats that conformed to the initial Birman type. It was another branch of Birmans and was much superior to the old … Currently the Breeding seems to have remained with these first trials.

It is not impossible that the Birman Cat is the ancestor of the Siamese Cat, or at least a close relative. In fact, there are many analogies between these two varieties: type, coat colour, eyes, ease of cross-breeding, habitat, similarity of their voice. The Birman Cat was once able to cross with the tailless cats from Indochina, resulting in Siamese Cats whose broken, twisted or truncated tails proves the contribution of blood from Indochinese cats. The white paws which are sought in the Birman Cat are frequently seen in the Siamese Cat. Long-haired subjects sometimes appear in litters of Siamese. These phenomena are only reversions to their ancestors and indicate a common origin for these two races. Finally, it should be noted that a Birman and gloved Siamese crossing gives, by the second generation, a high proportion of typical Birmans and when these are crossed together they produce typical Birman kittens in the proportion of at least 80% to 90%.


Head: strong, broad and round. Nose: rather short. Mouth: almost square, with long, thick whiskers, slightly ajar lips, revealing strong canines. Skull: domed. Eyes: round, set slightly obliquely, intense blue. Ears: long and straight, internally trimmed with white hair. Neck: strong, in males there is a thick fleece of long hair at the neck.
Body: long, massive, set low on the legs. Chest: wide. Back; straight. Legs; rather short and wide. Feet: trimmed with long, sharp claws. Tail; long and straight, without any lumps or breaks, very bushy, often carried erect above the body.
Coat. Long or semi-long depending on the part of the body. It is very long and silky around the male's neck; also long on the sides and long and wavy on the belly. On the tail, the hair is long and lies flat.
The head is covered with relatively short hair, but this lengthens towards the cheeks, like the tiger's side whiskers. It is slightly woolly on the back of the thighs. The undercoat is thick.
Colour. The light parts are a dark cream shade approaching white. (Belly, underside of the neck, ruff, paws). The dark parts ae otter-brown and look like those of the Siamese. The whole has golden highlights, especially when the animal is in bright light; this is why the English call it the Golden Cat. The spine is slightly bronzed. The mask is very distinct. The legs are slightly lighter, ending in the purest white shade. This white colouration of the paws is uneven; it is higher on the hind legs than on the forelegs. It also resembles a "boot", rising higher on the back of the leg. The tail is dark in colour, with a burnished tip.
Weight. The average is 3 to 4 kg. The male is much heavier than the female.
Faults and disqualifications. Head: too pointed. Eyes: pale blue. Fur: any colour other than those indicated. Legs: not gloved; Tail: crooked or too short or too thin. Hair: short, hard, or flat all over the body. Belly and chest: tinted.


The Birman is a great companion, and is as loyal as a Dog. He is very gentle and playful, even as an adult. He climbs and jumps like the Siamese; but he is less nervous, and admirers consider him to be more sociable. He is very intelligent and is second to none among purebred cats. This is a house-cat par excellence.

POINT SCALE. Colour and markings 25. Coat: 20. Head: 15. Eyes: 20. Body: 10. Tail: 10. Total: 100.

MAIN CHAMPIONS. Since Poupee de Madalpour, beautiful subjects have figured in the prize list of this splendid breed. These are: Manou, Hiramroi, Lon-Saito, Lon-Golden, Ubu, Bijou, Djaipour, Nafaghy, Sita II, Sita III, Idjadi-Tsun, and Yadi, Then there are those subjects coming from more recent crosses and superior in beauty and especially in hardiness: Soleil d'Arakan, Bovli d''Arakan, Dieu d'Arakan (the most beautiful and perfect of the types obtained to date), Prince of Rangoon, and Reine de Rangoon.


Breeding the Birman is as easy as breeding any other Cat breed. The Birman is an indoor cat, but it adapts very well to life outside and even seems to prefer it. Indeed, it is not sensitive to cold, and a moderate temperature is sufficient for it.

His food is nothing special; however, like all cats, he loves meat and this is necessary for him. Meat food is therefore recommended for the Birman, He nevertheless gets used to fish and rice, but this food is deficient. Give very little milk to adults.

Compose the meals as follows: raw meat (horse), 3 days a week; fish cooked in water, 2 days; sardines in oil, 2 days. At the same time, mix rice, crumbled stale bread, and green vegetables (optional) with the food.

For breeding, the choice of individuals is quite difficult in this breed with its low numbers. At least ensure the male is perfect even if the female is not; avoid the opposite as much as possible. In this matter, you can very well cross a male Birman with a female gloved Siamese. Do not mate these cats before the age of 12 months, especially the young females, that is to say, not until after their first heat.

Kittens are born white like the Siamese. They are raised the same way; treatment and food are identical. After a month, wean the Kittens. Give them milk and rice. Then give white fish cooked in water, mixed with milk and bread crumbs. Drain this more and more to get dry fish. Always use cooked fish. Begin to give raw meat in small quantities around the third month, first at one meal, then two, and eventually 6 raw meat meals per week. Only provide water for drinking.

Selection. From birth, review the Kittens and examine any notably defective subjects. Observe their eyes. If any have purulent ophthalmia, put a drop of Argvrol in their eyes for two days. In the event of failure, remove the animal or it can infect the entire litter while remaining blind. Around the tenth month, the Kitten takes on the appearance of an adult. The hair begins to lengthen. Take care of the coat by frequent brushing.

MARKETING. The Birman Cat is one of the aristocrats of the feline race. Its indisputable beauty, and especially its rarity, have made it one of the most expensive Cats to acquire. Breeding it can, therefore, be reasonably remunerative, if fortune and success smile on you.

Subjects have achieved fabulous prices. Young kittens at weaning (2 months) are worth 1,500 to 2,000 fr. Adults vary according to their beauty and perfection. A very well gloved specimen that is perfect in all respects can be worth 15,000 to 20,000 fr. An average subject sells for around 5,000 fr. The price of the mating [stud fee] reaches an average of 500 fr.

These prices are given in francs and cannot be directly compared with the prices of other cat breeds, sold in England, given throughout this book. However, to compare values, carefully divide the current British prices by three. Conversely, compared to the prices of Persian cats sold in England, a quality Birman would be worth around sixty thousand francs across the Channel, which is obviously a very great price.

Interesting fact to note: apart from Belgium and Italy, where admirers have acquired Birmans, France seems to be the only country which, at the present time, has these extremely rare Cats. - BAUDOIN-CREVOISIER.


IN ADDITION TO ITS BEAUTY, this Feline has a charming character. His intelligence is as great and as lively as that of the Siamese; he is perhaps even more cuddly, but not in the same way, and, if he has diverted, to his profit, the admiration that I had for the Siamese, it is because he does not cry and is less unruly. He's playful too, but in a finer way; it is very difficult to relate all of his charms, one cannot even precisely define it but, for 5 years, I have suffered this charm with ever new pleasure.

When I hold either Moses or Allah in my arms and very softly whisper to him: "How beautiful you are! how good you are and how much I love you!", both of them snuggle as much as possible against me and, with their beautiful eyes, so soft and deep, they tell me they love me too, and every day I love them even more deeply, so deeply that my love is bottomless!

There are people who say that Cats do not think, that it is instinct that makes them act. Well, these people don't know animals at all. Cats do think, even when they are very small. A month and a half ago, I had a litter of 4 Birman kittens, 20 days old; they had been trotting for a few days in the kitchen, when, one morning, I found them in the coal box! It was as funny as possible! They certainly played at being the most unrecognizable, real little coal miners! I plugged the tiny entrance where they entered with a cardboard box. Monastre, the most impertinent of the group, returned, looking for the entrance just where I had closed it off; he said to himself: "maybe it is further along" and walked away. Then he stopped, as if to question himself, and deliberately returned to the spot and quickly grabbed the cardboard so it fell over. How happy he was! I took him out of the coal box, put the cardboard box back in and, so that it could not fall over, I put in a litre and then release the little guy who has returned to find a litre in there, so he camped on it and tried to knock it down.

On the other hand, animals are superior to us in affection. When I come back, if I'm late for dinner, the master of the house is not very happy and sometimes makes somewhat unkind reflections on my lateness. Allah, when I come home late, does the opposite: he rubs against my legs and waits with great impatience for me to remove my hat and coat, and then he frantically embraces me as if to say “I was afraid you weren't coming back, that something had happened to you.” The later I am, the more intense are his greetings. Birman Cats are therefore less selfish than men. - Mme. Chaumant-Doisy.


FOR TOO LONG, even today, we collect prejudices in France. On the one hand, many among you consider it a waste to practice Cat and Dog Breeding, and to sell (or give if you want) its products, while in England there is no-one in high society, in the "gentry", who, having cats and dogs, considers it unusual to make money from them.

It is not uncommon if you are a weekend guest of a noble English family, where you receive the most complete and cordial hospitality, that when you take leave of your hosts - whether he is a Lord, Duke or prince – he will give you a book or a catalogue of his breeding stock, in which the animals for sale are listed at prices he will not depart from for anyone. This is perfect.

It is as normal to sell Kittens and Puppies, or adult Cats and Dogs, as it is to sell Horses, Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, or the grain of your fields or the milk from your dairy. To think otherwise is to burden yourself with prejudices that are no longer prevalent today.

Here, moreover, are the implications of this state of affairs. In France, many people, whose number is fortunately decreasing from year to year, believe that Kittens or Puppies are worthless little animals, to be given away. Whoever receives them is doing a service to those who give them away, because it gets rid of the unwanted little ones and avoids the trouble of abandoning them, killing them or drowning them.

However, a Kitten like a well-bred Puppy, is a small creature which, by being born, has a value proportional to that of its ancestors; sometimes paid several thousand fr are paid if the mother is pedigreed and the sire is a champion whose services are paid for. If you have a male and female, each one constitutes investment capital represented by their purchase prices, with additional costs of maintenance, not counting any type of risk, and their relationship: matings, Kittens, adults. Therefore, breeders, help bring to light these logical, rational, balanced ideas, that any animal of this type has value and that one does not give it away like junk. No doubt you can give it as a gift, but always a valuable gift in the same way that you would sell it. That does not make you a cat-merchant.

A cat-merchant is someone who imports subjects from England, or buys them from French breeders, to resell them, to trade in them, in the same way as a commodity merchant buys from wholesalers or from markets in order to sell them retail. It’s not a sacrifice when negotiations are done honestly. Thus, we do not understand why anyone engaged in this activity tries to cultivate confusion, especially as he operates more safely than a breeder because he is not subject to the same risks.

In addition to the production of the luxury pet cat, do not neglect the selective breeding of utility cats i.e. the ratter, which need to be better known and appreciated, as do Doctor and Mme. Adrien Loir, and Mme. Leclerc-Abadie, everywhere, as well as in this Album-Volume. They thus highlight our robust French Cat, the pet of the household, which may not have the prestige of the Siamese or Persian Cat with everyone but is nonetheless of great interest. G. de B.



Named thus because of its Indochinese origin, the Khmer presents itself as a variety or type very different from the Birman, despite some points of resemblance. There are few representatives of this recently constituted breed. The only known specimens are currently in France.

ORIGINS. Five or six years ago an old soldier, returned from Indochina, abandoned a couple of young cats of unknown breed with a farmer in the Paris region. These cats grew and reproduced in complete freedom. There were numerous births. Due to poor care, the majority of the little ones perished. Ln 1934, I was able to acquire the most beautiful of the specimens, from the original male; the female was dead, leaving a daughter who could maintain and perpetuate the line. Today several young females give rise to the hope that the future of the breed is assured.


General Appearance: The Khmer cat gives an appearance of harmonious strength, balance and great vigour, this being emphasized by its bright expression. It has good size, good limbs, it is robust and endowed with strong boning.

Head: Strong and round. Nose: fairly wide and short. Muzzle: small but powerful. Lips: connected. Whiskers: white ticked with brown; very well developed and prominent. The whiskers reach 14 cm long. Jaws: furnished with very strong teeth, with canines slightly protruding. Skull: large. Eyes: set slightly oblique, round, vivid blue, limpid and expressive; shine red in the darkness. Ears: rather long, furnished with down. Neck: short.
Body: long. Withers: normal. Chest: rounded. Flanks: normal. Back: almost a straight line. Haunches and rump: solid.
Toes: strong and muscular, front paws lightly arched. Feet: long, furnished with brown hair, strong, sharp claws. Tail: always long and furnished with long hair, straight and flexible, without break of nodules, carried low with the tip slightly raised.

Coat: the hair is long and fine, forming a superb ruff around the neck; wavy under the belly. The colour is that of the Birman: dark cream, turning to almost otter-brown on the head, shoulders and legs/paws, the tail has magnificent intermediate tones. In daylight, the Khmer cat appears golden.

The kittens are born pure white, getting markings later. From the third or fourth day a dark grey under coat appears which then disappears at around four or five months. This dark undercoat of the young is a characteristic of the breed. At around six months the body is nearly white, the markings very distinct, the mask is splendid, then with age, this definition becomes less pronounced as a result of the dark fur colour (it takes 18 months for the animal to become adult).

Unlike the Birman, which must have four white gloved paws (this obtained by selection), the Khmer must present with paws which are entirely golden otter brown. Today some specimens have white digits, very likely due to consanguinity and to gloved ancestors. However, this feature is reserved for the Birman and should be avoided in the future, which is possible if careful selection is undertaken.

Weight: a good male weighs about 4.5 kg to 6 kg; a female weighs 3.5 kg to 4.5 kg.
Defects: Head too long. Eyes pale or cloudy. Feet too small.
Disqualification: Boning too light, small size or too light weight; fur too short.


This is a rare beauty, comparable to the Persian because of its magnificent fur, with its remarkable intelligence the Khmer cat is worthy of being appreciated for its gentle character which makes it an ideal companion. It is well-suited to living in an apartment. In the countryside it is an intrepid hunter and there is no better ratter. Quite playful, but not unruly, it gets on well with all breeds of cat. It voice is very harmonious and lacks any harsh tones. It has no faults except those which its master gives it!

SCALE OF POINTS. Head and Eyes: 30; Body, Legs and Tail: 30; Coat and Markings: 20; Overall Appearance and Condition: 20; Total: 100

Principal or Upcoming Champions: Males: Roi-Pi-You; Prince-Pi-You, Marquis; Females; Zezette.


Nothing special. However, when young the Khmer is sensitive to cold. Keep the temperature at 15 to 20 degrees (Centigrade) in the breeding areas, which must normally be large, bright and well ventilated. Give a meat-based diet: horse-meat or beef, lightly cooked, served lukewarm, cut into pieces, with some vegetables.

For breeding cats choose vigorous, healthy cats with good type. Expect 2 litters per year. The female carries for about 66 days and produces, on average, 3 to 4 kittens. Give a little milk at around one month; then meat and fish with well cooked vegetables in small quantities. Increase this gradually and serve this alone at 2 months.

I tried to cross my original stud cat with common female cats, Persians and Siamese females. Generally the offspring resembled the mother. However, a Siamese female Mine Boule, born in Saigon, produced Khmers of good type. There was one among the kittens which had the dark grey undercoat characteristic of the Khmer breed.

The maintenance of cats of this breed is very simple: brush and comb them every 2 or 3 days. Use a fine-tooth comb from time to time. No special preparation is needed for contest or exhibition. A well-kept cat is always ready to face the judge.

Marketing. At cat shows, the Khmer won the favour of the public right from the start. The price does not exceed that of a good Persian. The Khmer breed will probably enjoy an and important and enduring fashion, because of its beauty combined with exceptional gentleness.

Cat Societies. There is no speciality club at present, but one will be created in a short while.


At the "Friends of Cats" dinner, I wanted to publicly express my full gratitude to Vie à la Campagne.

When I was starting out in Cat Breeding, I had the pleasure of using as a guide "The Perfect Veterinarian Dogs and Cats" (Vie à la Campagne, Album-Volume: Perfect Veterinarian: Dogs and Cats, 160 engravings; Price: 15 fr, Foreign: 20 fr.,); I owe this my success. This statement may seem excessive – but it is only the truth. Filled with good intentions, but lacking experience, I followed the advice of Mr. Albert Maumené which you will find in the preface to the abovementioned treatise.

"Do not try to replace the practitioner (the veterinarian), but be his collaborator, relating to him remarks of any kind that you have noted, symptoms you have observed and where you need to know the course of the ailment, and especially, to strictly apply his prescriptions, to apply his advice of hygienic measures, and in the event of an epidemic, how to treat sick animals and prevent it spreading to others ”.

Observe and know. These two words which are a whole Program. Hygiene, housing, food, illnesses and care, everything concerning your favourite animal, is meticulously described with beautiful explanatory and demonstrative photographs. I wish that everyone who has a Dog or a Cat, and loves it well and in an intelligent way, could always have on hand “The Perfect Vet Dogs and Cats.” It is the best impartial, knowledgeable and precious advisor. - Jean RIÉGER, Breeder.


A breed renowned for its exceptional sweetness and in which a whole series of selections has transformed the original mutation into a series of varieties with a plain, curiously striped, or variegated coats.

THE PERSIAN CAT does not constitute an indigenous race; it is a fashioned race, a cultured one descended from the Angora, which is itself native to Asia Minor and Persia, and whose first specimens were imported in Europe, in the Middle Ages. In many countries, Angoras and Persians are commonly confused with each other and all long-haired cats are uniformly designated as "Angoras.” However, between these two races there are the same differences that exist between a spontaneous product and a cultivated product.

The Angora has a fairly long muzzle, you could say, albeit an exaggeration, that it has a rat muzzle; its coat is rather long and silky; it is the original breed that nature has produced. The Persian has the Angora as its ancestor, but it has been transformed by selection and efficient breeding. This is what we call a cultured cat.

It is in England, the country par excellence where they are interested and occupied in breeding, where they know how to transform a breed according to their own designs (racehorses, dog breeds), that they managed to change the physiognomy, structure and appearance of the Angora in constituting the Persian breed.

They wanted to make, in the feline race, a replica of the Pekingese of the canine face: a subject with a protruding forehead and eyes, in a broad face with a tiny, recessed nose. The English therefore made Angora, with its quite elongated form and head and its prominent muzzle and nose, into a stocky subject with massive appearance, fluffy, with an abundant twist, lush and dense, which acquires all its beauty in Winter because, alas, it must suffer the effects of the moult in Summer!

This aesthetic and this conformation of the head and nose are today hereditarily fixed in the beautiful lines exemplified by the Persian blue. But this desired and sought-after characteristic conformation of the head and nose, is not yet as widely generalized in the other varieties of this breed, notably in the White Persian, although it is gradually being achieved.

This complete transformation could not be achieved as completely except by the application of breeding methods in favour and in power in England, uniting cats in direct or parallel bloodlines, i.e. using fairly close inbreeding.


The Standard for this breed has been adopted by many countries, including France. Only Germany retains the original elongated muzzle type (Wiener).
General appearance; robust, albeit elegantly shaped animal; well furnished with silky fur which is more developed around the neck and chest, spreading out in a sort of ruff. This dense fur helps give the animal a majestic appearance, sought after by breeders based on the idea that the more imposing the animal, the more beautiful it is.
Head; massive, round and wide. Nose: short, flat and broad, flat (reminiscent of the Pekingese dog’s facial type), Cheeks: well developed with important side-whiskers. Front: wide. Eyes: large, round, well opened; the colour varies according to the coat colour. Ears: small, separated by a large space, furnished with a tuft of hair arranged in a plume emerging from the interior of the ear flap. Collar: long and bushy, giving the face an impressive character.
Body: compact, supple. Boning: robust, but with elegant lines. Paws; short, massive. Tail: relatively short, well covered with very long hairs.
Coat. Colour: uniform in self-colours; in tabbies the stripes are regular and distinct. Hair: long, silky, well supplied.
Faults; coarseness of form. Head: elongated by a pointed nose. Eyes: small and oval. Cheeks; hollow. Ears; too large, not bushy. Legs; too long and too weak. Paws: narrow and not bushy. Tail; pointed, not well-furnished. Rough hair. Fur: too sparse. Spots.


The adult Persian Cat is a fairly robust animal. Exceptionally gentle, it only rarely scratches when it is irritated by the presence of another cat or a stranger that has frightened it. He knows his master very well, and lets himself be handled without complaint, and he shows him his feelings by fawning and simpering. Slightly indolent, he gets used to living in an apartment very well, but he has little aptitude for hunting mice.

CLASSIFICATION. Persian cats are classified according to their colour: White Persian, Blue, Black, Silver Tabby, P. Chinchilla, Smoke, Orange, Cream, Brown Tabby, Red Tabby, Tortoiseshell, Blue-Cream, Pied.


Origin. The original type once existed in Persia, where it is currently very rare. Pietro della Valle, quoted by Buffon, gives the following description: “There exists in Persia a species of Cats originating from the province of Chorazam. Their size and shape resembles that of the ordinary cat; their beauty consists in their grey hair, without ‘speckles’ or spots, which is the same colour throughout the body, being a little darker on the back and head, and lighter on the chest and belly, pleasantly tempered with chiaroscuro as the painters call it, which is a marvellous effect. In addition, their hair is loose, fine and lustrous, delicate like silk, and so long that, though it lies flat, it nevertheless forms few ringlets, especially under the throat. These Cats are to Cats what Barbets are to Dogs, and the most beautiful part of their bodies are their tails, which are very long and entirely covered with hair that is five to six fingers in length; they spread it out and carry it over their back like squirrels, tip upwards, in the shape of a plume. They are highly prized. The Portuguese took them from Persia to India.” The author adds that he owned 4 pairs, which he intended to take to Italy.

Head; wide and round. Nose; short. Cheeks: well developed. Eyes: large and round, orange. (Cats with green eyes were once permitted at cat shows. Orange eyes, much more attractive, were then required, and no longer a Persian Cat worthy of the name who does not have yellow eyes at least. The colour varies from golden yellow to dark copper yellow or orange.), Ears: small and bushy, clearly spaced apart. Ruff; very extensive.
Body; stocky. Legs: short and strong. Tail; short, well furnished, not tapered.
Coat. Colour: all shades of blue are permitted without marks, shading or white undercoat. Generally, breeders now prefer the lighter ones, tending towards lavender-blue, but it is difficult to retain this colour over successive generations. Hair; long, thick and soft to the touch.
Faults. Eyes; greenish in colour or circled in green. Darker shade on the back than on the sides and legs. Hair: dull, white hairs. Fur: uneven with reddish highlights.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 25. Eyes; 20. Body: 15. Tail: 10, Coat: 30. Total; 100


Originally from Asia Minor in its initial form of Angora, where it was commonly found in the past, is now quite rare there as a result of frequent crossbreeding with foreign varieties.

Despite the great efforts given to breeding white Persians, says Mrs. Kourloff, it has not been possible to obtain the ideal animal in this variety. The conformation of white Persians is less massive, the head less broad; the muzzle almost always longer and the ears larger.

Apart from the general characters of the Persian, the colour of the eyes and the coat are the two special characters to be considered in this variety. Eyes: large, wide open, azure blue or yellow and orange without any trace of green. However, notes Dr Jumaud, in Germany and the United States, white subjects with green eyes are still accepted. Among the white cats with blue eyes, some are deaf, or have very poor hearing. Lecoq has even demonstrated that the connection between the two phenomena can be so close that, in the case where one of the two eyes has retained its normal colour, the deafness is partial and affects only one ear.

Coat. Colour: snow white, without any cream markings or shadows, without any hairs of other colours. Hair: more silky than that of other colour Cats.
Faults. Eyes: too light, of a colour other than azure blue or yellow. Coat: any black hairs, fawn hues.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 10. Eyes: 10. Size and shape: 20. Coat: 25. Colour: 25. General appearance; 10. Total: 100.
Disqualification: eyes of different colours.


The Black Persian is a graceful animal, lively and vigorous, its melanism preserving it from the degeneration found in other colour varieties. However, notes Dr. Jumaud, while a few years ago, we encountered very beautiful black Persians, it seems that currently this variety is only represented by a small number of subjects, less good than those exhibited 5 or 6 years ago.

The general characteristics are always the same; note however that the products of two black parents generally err in the shape of the head, with the nose being too long.
Eyes: large, deep orange, copper or amber. Coat: jet black, without markings, without brown or red highlights, nor brownish or bluish undercoat. The crossing of blacks with other colours frequently gives highlights or poorly coloured or undercoat.
Faults. Eyes; too light, circled in green. The fairly common green eyes of poorly selected black Persians are a defect that unfortunately only becomes apparent as they grow.
Coat; dull, with red or tawny highlights. The colour of black kittens is sometimes not very beautiful until 9 months, the coat is often rusty in colour. Do not be discouraged, however, because in adult animals these rusty hairs often disappear and the black can become very pure. Hair: white hairs are tolerated in Germany, but are a cause for disqualification in France.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 10. Eyes: 10. Size and shape: 20. Coat: 25. Colour; 25. General appearance; 10, Total; 100.


The Chinchilla Persian is one of the most recently fixed varieties. In 1919, a Society was established in London including the breeders of Silver and Smoke Persians. For the purpose of breeding, the members decided to create two classes of Silver and Self Silver (solid silver), on the one hand, and Shaded Silver (shaded silver) on the other. No Self Silver specimens have been obtained to date, and this class is still empty of specimens at cat shows. To fill this gap, judges decided to consider the less shaded specimens as Silver Persians. Faced with the difficulty of clearly separating the two classes, that of the Self Silver was eliminated, and the subjects were called Chinchilla Persians. This animal therefore derives from the Silver Cat, but is distinguished by its unstriped coat.

Nose; brick red. Eyes; large, shiny, emerald-green in colour, not yellow or orange. Legs: short. Feet: brown or black soles. Tail: short and carried low.
Coat. Paler silver colours are preferred, white at the root. No dark stripes or tawny hues. Tips of the long hair are dark, giving the fur the appearance of having been sprinkled with black. Remains very pale overall. Coat: long and thick.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 20. Eyes; 10, Form; 15, Coat: 15. Colour: 25. Size; 10. Total; 100.


This variety probably came from a cross between the White Persian and the Orange Persian, but a large number of subjects were initially produced by the crossing Orange Persians to Tortoiseshells. Fixed a few years ago, it has been greatly improved, although very beautiful subjects are quite rare, the colour of the dress often being marred by shadows, marks or stripes.

STANDARD OF PERFECTION. Head; large and round. Nose: short. Eyes: large, bright, orange or copper in colour. Ears: small, wide apart.
Body: graceful, but solid, well built. Legs: short, thick.
Coat: The term “cream” expresses exactly the shade sought in these cats (it corresponds to a strong ivory tone). However, some subjects of this variety are darker and are the colour of a doe’s belly. The latter are held in lower esteem. The main thing is to obtain a uniform shade without shading or marks. The dorsal line is slightly darker, but the colour fades on the sides, under the chest and the tail. Coat: very long, thick and silky.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 15. Eyes; 5. Body: 20. Colour: 25. Hair: 25. General appearance: 10. Total; 100.


Since 1929, another variety of Persians was officially allowed in England, being the blue-cream Persian, and a special class was created at the Crystal Palace show. The subjects of this variety correspond perfectly to the general characteristics of the Persians, but their coat is composed of regularly intermingled blue and cream. However, from a colour point of view, almost perfect subjects are exceedingly rare, which does not mean that perfect subjects do not exist.


This variety has a bright, light silver coat, adorned with very clear black stripes on the body.
Colour: dark stripe, tapering from head to tail and following the spine; very numerous and well separated concentric black rings on the chest; legs ringed with black marks getting smaller towards the feet.

Eyes: the eyes, which are often yellow-green, must be hazel, or dark walnut.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 20, Eyes: 10, Size and shape: 15. Tail; 10, Colour: 30. Coat; 15. Total: 100.


This variety was bred mainly from the end of the 19th century, to improve the type. At the present time, well-typed subjects are becoming rare, few fanciers being involved in the breeding of smokes, because the litters often contain many of undesirable kittens. This variety needs to be worked on if it is to be restored to the position it once held, especially before 1914.

Origin. The smoke Persian comes from the crossing the black Persian with the silver Persian.

Eyes: round, orange or copper giving the animal a very special expression. Colour: black, shaded with smoky grey, with silver undercoat, as light as possible. During the moult, the colour is blackish. Head: very dark; slightly silver ruff. Light belly. Very dark legs. Coat: long coat, gradually changing from pure white at the base of the hair to black at its tip.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 20. Eyes: 15. Shape: 10, Tail: 10. Fur: 20. Absence of markings; 15. Colour of undercoat: 10. Total; 100.

OTHER VARIETY. Next to the black smoked Persian, there is also a blue smoked Persian. The scale of points is the same, with the only difference being that references to black are replaced by blue. However, the contrasts are less marked in this variety and the undercoat is often mixed with blue. Also, the blue smoke Persian is not recognized at all cat shows.

You can mate Persian Smokes together, but it is preferable to cross them to Black Persians to obtain a greater clarity of colour and better contrasts. Choose a black she-cat and mater her to a Smoke male. Avoid crossing of Smoked males, with blue females, as this gives Blue Smokes whose undercoat is not as white as you may wish. Also avoid crossing with speckled cats. The white appears gradually as the kittens grow, and at weeks the white undercoat becomes visible. Smoke Kittens are rather black or dark in colour when born. Do not discard kittens before the age of 6 months.


The Tortoiseshell Persian was created by mutations and fixed by selection like the cream cat and is still in the process of improvement. It derives from crosses between Black Persians and Orange Persians.

Eyes: large, round, orange or copper. Colour: black, yellow and orange, the three colours as distinct as possible; no streaks or traces of white. Miss Florence Simpson considers an indicator of good breeding to be a yellow triangle on the face (along the line of the nose). However, this attribute is not mentioned in the adopted standard.
Faults: predominance of black; single colour leg; colours in irregular spots.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 15. Eyes: 5. Body: 20. Coat: 20, Colour: 30. Condition: 10. Total: 100.

Tortoiseshell and white Persian. According to Dr. Jumaud, this Cat is not very popular at present for the single reason that the colours of the tortoiseshell and the white are irregularly fixed. Colour: black, yellow, orange on white; the white should never predominate over the other colours. In the ideal type, writes the same author, black, yellow and orange should be distributed on the top of the head, ears, cheeks, back and tail; the white being found on the lips, neck, chest and limbs.


This variety has been especially bred in England and America; in France specimens are quite rare.

Large, round, copper or bronze eyes. Breeders have tried, but failed, to produce Red Persians with blue eyes. Kittens are born well with blue eyes, but they turn orange between the ages of 7 and 12 weeks. Coat: colour as bright as possible. Note, however, that at birth, Kittens are a dull shade, the brightness gradually appearing with age. The long, thick, silky coat must be uniform, without markings or mottling. Defaults. Eyes; pale yellow or greenish yellow. Coat: white marks on the chin or chest.

OTHER VARIETY. There is also the red tabby Persian. Most of the subjects are said to come from Champion Swinton Dinna Forget born in 1920. Despite inbreeding, the results were satisfactory, and many specimens have been exported from England.

The colour should be reddish orange, with darker markings that elongate into stipes on the chest, legs and tail.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 15. Eyes: 10. Body: 10. Colour: 40, Hair: 15, Condition: 10. Total: 100.


Here, the breeders wanted to distinguish several sub-varieties, taking the shading into account. This would be a fault, because specimens with shaded coats are less perfect.

Eyes: orange or hazelnut brown. Colour: solid orange, unmarked, without shading or white hairs.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head: 15, Eyes: 10. Body: 10. Tail: 10. Colour: 40. Hair: 15. Total: 100.


The brown striped Persian (brown tabby). Frequently very large in size. Has a deep marten or fawn background colour, adorned with shiny black stripes, very vivid, regularly arranged on the spine and symmetrically on the body and legs. The marks are arranged into concentric circles on the chest.

Eyes: copper colour. Colour: the background colour should not tend towards orange; striped cheeks, legs and tail; chest and back with wide bands.

SCALE OF POINTS. Head; 20. Eyes: 10. Size and shape: 15. Tail: 10. Colour: 30. Fur and condition: 15. Total: 100.

SOCIETIES AND CLUBS. As with most animal breeds, there are various groups: Breeding Syndicates, Clubs, Societies, etc., which make it possible to coordinate, unify efforts and codify guidance, and have laid the relatively stable foundations for necessary improvements. In 1887, the National Club was founded in London, which organized the first feline events which became more and more popular and essential and decisive.

The number of exhibitors, small at the start, has increased each year and the cats exhibited have improved. Now, thanks to patient selective breeding, apart from a few classes that are still scarce due to breeding difficulties, when it comes to self-coloured Persians, the English have reached perfection or are approaching it.

Since the war, the breeding of Persian Cats has tended to spread in our own country and this animal is beginning to be favourably regarded.

Great efforts have been made by French breeders who, in recent years, have managed to obtain very appreciable results. In cat shows in Belgium, Switzerland and Italy, French Cats easily won the top awards. Our nation’s breeders produce magnificent subjects which can compete with the English Cats. Hopefully before long we will have perfect Persians in France.


Gora, blue Angora male, 1st price Lyon 1934. This Cat has a very nice presentation, i.e. in addition to the very beautiful hairs of the head and the throat, it has short hair at the armpits, no felting and very remarkable naturally lustrous hair. (Plate 26.)

Golden Arrow, Black Persian, son of Prince Igor of the Morvan and Golden Ray of the Morvan. This is a good, large cat who has great confidence in life. How could we be unhappy? He certainly has no doubts! He has never had the slightest health problem and enjoys the greatest freedom. He has magnificent fur and goes out in all weathers, as much as he wants. He comes home for his meals and for the night; Golden Arrow does not imagine that a broom could be an offensive weapon; he finds nothing more fun than this household implement when it goes back and forth, naturally as a toy exclusively for Mr. Cat! He waits for the best moment to jump on it. They had to give up cleaning with Golden Arrow around, because the brooms, rags and the feather dusters are just too tempting for him.

While the house is being cleaned, Golden Arrow takes care of the garden. Neighbourhood Cats have no respect for the property of others, and Golden Arrow is struggling; he often comes home with big scars and exhausted, but pleased to have got rid of the nuisances and more particularly of a daring and very enterprising puss who seems to find his company attractive and even comes beneath his window to sing his love to him! (Plate 26,)

Nadine de la Traginiere, white Persian with blue eyes, winner of several first prizes, daughter of Champion Loulou de Stamboul. (Plate 27.)

Champion Casino Luck, white Persian with blue eyes, son of Champion White Hero, currently in France, winner of eight championships and gold medal. (Plate 27.)

Gamine de Ouig’hui, White Persian with blue eyes, born in 1932, by Raraou de la Traginière, out of Blanchette Belkiss and granddaughter of Champion Loulou de Stamboul, This cat has magnificent eyes and extraordinary white fur, and is exceedingly playful; she has already won a 1st prize and three 2nd prizes. (Plate 27.)

Haydee of Kirman. Cream Persian female, daughter of International Champion Colnside Cream Bunn and Moune de Kidji, the only Cream Persian female of French origin to have obtained a championship certificate in 1934. (Plate 30.)

Langton Barbey Boy, male cream Persian, 6 months old, son of Dermo of Hanley, and Langton Bizzie. This future hope, born on June 16, 1934, descends by his mother’s line from the illustrious Champion, Colnside Bumpet, He already holds 6 1st prizes, with the note “excellent”, (Plate 30.)

International Champion Moonflower, Blue Persian female, Grand Prix of the President of the Republic, Paris 1934, at which the judge awarded the following judgment: “Superb female, splendid head, good and bold eye, beautiful type, good tail, good colour. “(Plate 31.)

Kirklington Punch, light blue stud cat, Prize of the President of the Republic, Lyon 1935. He is a son of the famous English Champion Mischief of Bredon, for which the owner refused an American offer of 500 dollars, considering him too precious to leave England. (Plate 31.)


How to reduce, without killing them, the number of these animals, with their independent character, and arrive progressively by selective breeding, then by training, to make them your precious assistants to obtain the best ratters in homes and rural buildings, arable and livestock farms, becoming, if he is intelligently trained, a protector of birds and game animals.

A COUNTRY CAT is not, for the moment, a clearly defined variety. It is, dare I say, a feline profession. Like the fine job of agriculture, it neither excludes nor requires noble birth, but it requires, in any case, a good number of native qualities, both moral and physical. To this must be added the care and training without which, just like an abandoned country boy, a neglected little Feline risks becoming a marauder and a poacher.


To be a Country Cat is to practice a profession full of dangers and yet without glory; because very few people know the extent of the permanent scourge that this Cat dismisses from our domains. Because you do not see the field rat that lives in a burrow and mainly leaves it at night, you underestimate its numbers and you do not recognize its wide distribution. The rat is really the master of the soil. There is no barn lost in the distance which has not been visited, and we have encountered rats, far from all habitation, at 2,600 metres above sea level. You also forget that the rat has migratory habits: widespread throughout the countryside from Spring to Autumn, but at the start of Winter it retreats to homes where it can find heat and food. Rural homes and farms are therefore like islands with waves of rats, especially in winter, breaking against the dwellings and stocks; in summer against standing crops; and in any season against aviaries, dovecotes and chicken coops.

The question of the Country Cat is an extremely interesting one because the incessant attacks by rats, and their perpetual prolificacy, can only be opposed with permanent success by an incessant policy of defence. The Cat is the hereditary enemy of the rat; it is born with an ingrained hatred of that species, and it alone is capable of opposing the rat, persecuting it without truce, which is a burden you yourself cannot bear. While being the least expensive of the defences against rats, it is the only permanent one.


The Cat, alone, always knows where to find the rats. The migrations of this enemy pass, for you, completely unnoticed, and too often you waste time and money in placing poison in places the rat has already vacated or which it will quickly leave to colonize elsewhere, as demonstrated by the work of Dr. Loir. The Cat is perfectly aware of these movements. When we see it on farms from Spring to Autumn, it is far less likely to be there for hunting birds, as it is accused of doing, as it only occasionally catches them. It is there primarily to follow the seasonal migration of rats.

If you are willing to take the trouble to observe the Country Cat, as we have done often, you most often find, by disturbing it, that it is watching the hole of a rat that is so well hidden under the maze of vegetation that only the presence of the Cat allowed us to find it.

More easily, you can observe a domestic country cat bringing the spoils of its hunt to its young, to train them. You can see that in winter it hunts in the house and outbuildings, but in summer it is forced to go to the crops, often far away, to seek its prey. We saw a Cat bring back to its young, during three hours, up to seven rats it had caught in the fields. They most often bring young rats, sometimes a lizard, rarely a bird; I once saw a cat bring back a snake.


A good ratter kills a minimum of 3 rats per day, or about a thousand rats per year. Not only does this persecution make the house and surrounding farms uninhabitable for rats but, very importantly, it completely shelters the broods in the area where it lives. Birds and poultry farmer know well that most terrible enemy of all nests is the rat. If you have Cats, your broods are safe; if you lose your Cats, the rat reappears.

And the apparently paradoxical fact follows that, contrary to established prejudice, birds thrive where there are good cats because, while most of their nests are safe from the cat, no nest is sheltered from the rat. The Cat amply repays for the few birds it catches by its effective protection of the broods ensured by its incessant destruction of innumerable rats.

The proof is also easy to find. In the regions where there are the most good domestic cats, there are, in the gardens, the most birds. I will only mention the Basque country, Savoy, where, up to the houses, in the farmland where between one and five domestic cats per family roam day and night, there are flocks of birds.

Despite all the services that the Country Cat can render when it is well used, its current status remains, on the whole, detestable. The role of the Ratter in town, and its well-directed use, were developed by Dr. Loir. The results he obtained for the Cat’s role in exterminating rats at Le Havre have attracted worldwide attention, and many cities have successfully drawn inspiration from it. If the use of Cats in the countryside seems, at first sight, harder to arrange so as to get only good results, and has even raised objections, it is because the question has been very badly posed until now.


Firstly, let it be said, that it is definitely not a question of multiplying and spreading hordes of cats, across the countryside, abandoning them to their own devices. ON the contrary, for effective results it is necessary to progressively reduce their numbers to a limited army of good Cats, watched by their owners and well domesticated. No one needs to see increased numbers of feral cats.

However, one of the origins of feral Cats (the real wild cat being rare), it is the outcast cats of some farms, kept away from the house, producing, their breeding uncontrolled, producing kittens that are wild from their childhood, chased by dogs, mistreated by children and never fed; they end up retreating to the cover of the woods or take refuge in protected hunting reserves, if there is one nearby, where the absence of persecutors, the predominance of ground-dwelling birds and the many rats that are attracted to the grain and the nests assure them a life easier than the house they had to leave.

Would you expect useful service from a Dog by just starving and mistreating it? However, that is how the country cat is treated in many places; we need go no further than the Pays de Caux, in Normandy. Increasing the number of such outcasts is unnecessary and harmful.

The other origin of feral Cats is due to the habit of hunters in too many places is to shoot any Cat encountered in the fields more than 200 metres from dwellings (and even within that zone), due to their prejudice which ignores the seasonal migration of rats, and attributes the sole purpose of taking birds to the domestic cat which follows the rats. This pernicious habit of the hunter who believes he is destroying poaching Cats, has the opposite result of bringing about their multiplication. In regions where this cat slaughter is in favour, it diverts farmers from taking the trouble to breed and care for domestic cats, because they will get killed. And, as they urgently need cats, they fight the perpetual destruction, by allowing the uncontrolled overproduction of Outcast cats, such as described above.

I know there are many reasons that hunters give for killing the domestic cat; those which are true are due to the misattribution of the feral cats’ misdeeds to the Domestic cat. Is it permissible to kill a German Shepherd dog [“Wolfdog”] encountered in the countryside because it resembles a wolf? However, there is the same difference between the domestic cat and the feral cat as there is between the German Shepherd dog and the wolf. A typical example of these dissimilarities is that the domestic cat never touches the chicks, but the feral cat steals and eats them.

Farmers and hunters, you therefore have the same interest in replacing the undesirable pariah cat, poor ratter and likely to go be feral, by the well-domesticated cat, effective destroyer of the rat which is the common enemy of harvests and game.


But it will not be possible to obtain this result unless farmers and hunters agree to a combined effort of selective breeding and protection of the Country cat. No one is more qualified than “Vie à la Campagne,” which brings together rural owners and hunters, to reach a fair balance and carry out, by mutual effort, a mutually desirable development which requires:

On the part of farmers: Selective breeding and restriction of the reproduction of their Cats, monitoring the effective domestication of young Cats, castrated males, well-fed and well-treated subjects, prohibiting children, servants and Dogs from mistreating and chasing them. These simple precautions will provide owners with the services of first-rate ratters who will protect their homes, crops and broods against rats in an efficient and permanent way, with the minimum of expense, without the risk of seeing them get lost and become poachers.

On the part of hunters: Recognition, around rural dwellings, of an area, granted to domestic cats; it must be really respected and a wider radius than the current area, as the 200 m radius is absolutely insufficient to ensure the eradication of rats from crops surrounding the house in the area essential for preserving that house from rats. Abandoning, in the traps of hunting reserves, the Valerian-type bait that wrongfully attracts cats from far away into the hunting preserve - domestic cats that would not have visited it without being lured there - and replace it with bait (rats, birds) which does not act on the cat's reproductive instinct, but on its hunting instinct and, therefore, only traps cats that already frequent the preserve. Remember that the domestic cat, chased by dogs, is likely to get lost and become a stray, and that a cat killed in farmland means a minimum of a thousand spared rats in a year, plus their descendants, all of whom will be appalling destroyers of birds and game, and which will be very able to move from farmland into hunting preserves.

In regions where hunters, who are owners themselves, already avoid, by an agreement of mutual tolerance, the unnecessary killing of their neighbours’ Cats, outside the game restocking enclosures, the rural owner can now increase the value of his Cats as ratters and thus permanently rid his house and adjoining farmland of rats which, according to statistics that are naturally under-estimates, account for more than 5 billion francs per year in miscellaneous damage.


Without the possibility of buying purpose-bred Country ratters, which are very rare at present, here are some practical ways that will help you get good animals yourself. Dr. Loir’s recommended selection for the ratter must, here too, be carefully observed.

For the city ratter, choose, for the mother a good, vigorous and well-domesticated ratter, and do not leave the task of procuring her a husband to mere chance or he will almost certainly be a wanderer of doubtful ancestry. At the appropriate time, lock the she-Cat in with a male which has, as far as possible, the physical characteristics which indicate a good ratting cat: large size, powerful and flexible musculature, very short coat, strong jaws that open wide, strong teeth, long legs, toes that spreading well, and strong claws.

Feed the she-cat well, treat her well during her pregnancy so that she does not hide her newly born young. Preferably, keep no more than two per litter. If you want these young cats to become good ratters, and well domesticated, then training comes in. The mother takes charge of teaching them to hunt, by bringing them rats of increasing size; but safeguard their training by not letting children or animals disturb it. The young Cats then train by sharing the games of the adult Cats, some of whom, very intelligent, act like real instructors. You can supervise these games.

It is essential that the young Cat knows very well how to jump high, jump far, climb, and sprint to take shelter because, in the countryside, in the current state of things, it inevitably meets the following hazards around the dwellings: vicious dogs, brutal children or men, and his life will sometimes depend on his agility. This agility is, moreover, an essential condition of his quality as ratter. Also castrate the males.


In addition, and above all, the Country Cat must learn to come back to its owners. To get this result, remember that the Cat is not obedient like the Dog. If you get into the habit of calling it without reason, it very quickly stops coming to you. The call must be clear, infrequent and motivated. A caress or a treat should be the ordinary reward for answering the call and ensuring its effectiveness.

Contrary to the popular misconception that cats must be starving to take rats, it is now well established that only a well-nourished Cat has the patience to watch for rats and the strength to kill the bigger rats. “The rat cat chases the rat for fun, for sport” (Dr Loir). A weak cat hunts badly; feed the Cats sufficiently by calling them every day at the same time, so that the habit of returning regularly keeps them from moving farther and farther from home and getting lost.

In many places, experience has proven the success of these very simple methods. You can, moreover, by calculated crosses and selective breeding, obtain subjects that are even better ratters and even less disposed to move away and to get lost. This question is being studied.


It is to be hoped that some breeders will take care of breeding choice Ratters because, currently, the demand greatly exceeds the supply, which is limited to a few experimental breeding establishments.

The breeding of captive felines that are luxury cats, intended to live closely monitored throughout their lives, is much less difficult than selectively breeding the free-ranging countryside Cat that is intended to show plenty of personal initiative. For him, selective breeding (choice of initial producers, crossbreeds, care of the young) must be coupled with training that modifies the breeding cats and instructors, an upbringing intended to enhance useful qualities - agility, activity, geniality, loyalty to its masters - and to limit the exaggeration of vagrant tendencies. The secret of success of this education is entirely in the knowledge of feline psychology, which is very different from that of other domestic animals.

Here are some tips that may be useful to cat breeders who, already aware of feline nature and the general care required in selective breeding, would like to create a Cattery of purpose-bred country ratters.


One of the best varieties of the European cat, in terms of activity and endurance in the face of fatigue and bad weather, is the tabby cat. The brown tabby also has the advantage of being barely visible on the ground, being naturally camouflaged in stripes of light and shade, a precious advantage for an animal intended to always be a hunter and sometimes be the hunted. For a stud cat, select an excellent tabby, registered in the stud book, in preference to an ordinary Cat, although there are very good ordinary cats, because with a registered cat you will have an animal whose domestication will be certain for several generations while the random Cat, whose ascendants and tendencies are unknown, may have, and bequeath to his descendants, a wandering spirit which will complicate their training.

Choose a vigorous, affectionate, very intelligent and good mother cat. Tabby cats generally have these qualities, the tabby being among the most intelligent of cats. In the special case of the Country cat, the only disadvantage presented by a thoroughbred tabby is its excessive zeal for hunting, an activity that leads him from rat to shrew, and shrew to field mouse, leading him further afield without him noting his way back, so that he risks getting lost and becoming a stray.


It is possible to modify this tendency of roaming too far, without weakening the ratting instinct, by crossing your male with a more home-like breed. The Persian race whose specimens, when bred in the open air, are much more lively and more resistant than you would believe from the indolent indoor specimens, produces an excellent cross.

It is not a question of creating a bastard variety, to launch one of these sub-races of 36th order which rightly causes despair among the defenders of the established standard. It is only a question of introducing a little Persian blood to calm the turbulent blood of the tabby in order to obtain subjects who are physically close in appearance to the tabby stud, but are morally endowed with the more reflective character and stable preferences of their Persian mother. Reverse crossing does not have the same benefits.

The difficulty of crossing lies in this. Tabby kittens are generally a little larger than Persian kittens, so the first crossing of the Persian female must be with a small tabby tomcat. Attend the birth which, although accomplished without excessive pain or incident, are quite long. She will be comforted by a friendly presence, will not get upset with the duration of the test and thus will be less fatigued.

From this first cross, keep only females and one or two males that you are neutering. These half-breed females are raised and then crossed with a thoroughbred tabby stud other than their father, producing saleable kittens because, in principle, they will have the skills you are looking for.


These same females and their neutered brothers, all trained equally, will also fulfil the task – almost impossible for you – of training the little ones. Your difficult task, which is more than enough, is to be patient and constantly gentle in training your breeding cats. Do not confine them closely; let them enjoy the freedom of a big garden. Allow them to live amicably beside near you so they learn to like this better than elsewhere, because the Cat is only docile towards those it loves.

Two contrary excesses make the Cat stupid: neglect and stifling worship. A Cat which finds its master to be a great friendly comrade who understands what the Cat is expressing by its mews, in its turn learns to understand the words and gestures of humans. If you never forget that he is a house-guest and friend, and not a servant, he will shows the greatest good will and will act according to your wishes.

Don’t count on any help from the stud cats in training Kittens. On the contrary, pen them so that they don’t leave your house, hook up with some lousy she-cat, or get lost miles from home after following calls carried on the breeze. Their necessary special care is good food, several days of rest between each mating, rats to be captured, and some daily exercise: jumping, climbing, running, activities brought about to maintain the beautiful musculature they will pass on to their descendants.

Neuters, not being obsessed by an interest in females, are better hunters, more easily improved, and more equable in character than Stud cats. They are amenable to kittens being nearby, and once the kittens are no longer infants, will play with them. On the other hand, Kittens, like all trainees, gladly follow their sporty elders, but sometimes receive a slap if they are excessively clingy or clumsy.

Neuters and females, if they are sons and mothers, or brothers and sisters and if they have never been separated, get along perfectly well, except for small arguments, which are settled by curses, the few blows exchanged never degenerate into serious punishment. Neuters and females collaborate very well in training Kittens. They train them to do the same exercises as them, teaching them how to climb, jump, how to find their way home, external dangers, rat hunting, and hand-to-hand battle. It is actually quite amusing to observe a large ratting cat, 4 to 5 kg in weight, battling with a frail 3 month old kitten and, like a boxing teacher, measuring his strength and his weight so precisely that he gives the little the illusion of a fierce struggle, without ever hurting it.


The purpose of selective breeding is not, as you might sometimes mistakenly believe, to create a so-called breed of Rat Cats. There is no particular breed of ratter; any normal cat, whatever its breed, occasionally enjoys killing a rat. A special standard for ratters would even be useless were selective breeding was not essential for developing the qualities and choice of breeding subjects, because if all cats (or almost all) are capable of taking rats, it remains indisputable that some Cats are very good ratters while others don’t even look at mice. It is therefore essential to know how to make a good choice. The Standard for the ratter helps with this choice.

A sports trainer will tell you right away, when examining a young man, if he has the makings of a climber or a runner, and if there is hope, with proper training, to make him a champion. He judges the subject's sporting aptitudes according to determined physical characteristics, without any intention of creating a breed of humans called a "climber race".

Likewise, the Standard used to judge ratting Cats is in no way a breed Standard. It is only the determination of characteristics revealing, in young Cats, special aptitudes for hunting rats; it shows, in adults, how well those skills have been developed and then allows the best breeding stock to be chosen from among them.


The question of the Country Cat, so important for rat-elimination in rural properties, will have made a big step the day when serious breeders are kind enough to take care of providing selected ratters, at least six months old, neutered if they are male, and with the guarantee that they have already killed rats and know how to return when called. The demand is there, and this is the best way to provide good rat cats to farmers.

Never has it been more necessary than now to have these guardians of our property. Remember that in neighbouring countries the usefulness of ratters is already recognized. Belgians have large, well-groomed cats. In Switzerland, you find them even in mountain chalets. The Dutch employed Cats in the vital defence of their country against the invading sea by killing the rats that undermined the dikes. The Italians have installed Cats by the hundred in Lombardy and the Pontine Marshes for the defence of crops, and benefit from protection and surveillance measures that even the Duce does not disdained to have them.

But what do we see at home? Not only no protection decree, and the Cat all too often treated as a pariah, but also, by an extraordinary survival of feudal mentality, placing the pleasure of hunting above the interests of agriculture and granting hunters the authorization to kill Cats – even their owner’s land – if they go beyond the household boundary.

Farmers, you do not see a great danger. The surviving rats from neighbouring countries, where protected and watched Cats are making the rat’s life untenable, will quickly choose our country as a refuge and multiply here if we do not have the same defences against them. If you do not care for your Cats, do not monitor them, or do not obtain laws to protect them, France will quickly become the general meeting place for rats, since crops surrounding rural housing is the ideal refuge where they can raise their many families unmolested by Cats because of the hunters’ rifles.

We will soon remain, in this part of the civilized world, the only country where man has the strange idea to let Cats degenerate through lack of care, and to kill his Feline Ally like a harmful beast, allowing his Enemy the Rat to prosper greatly, destroying his Crops, his Farms, his Game Animals and his Goods. – J. LECLERC-ABADIE.


A Feline Protection Society has just been founded in Lyon, the purpose of which is to collect stray Cats and provide a refuge where these animals will be observed, humanely destroyed if they are incurable, or cared for and rehabilitated to do good service as a ratter or pet cat and placed wisely. To this refuge will later be added a nursery for Cats whose masters are absent.


Combat rats, those formidable enemies of crops, property, birds, game animals and human health, because it carries the microbes that cause serious disease, using the only enemy capable of holding it in check and destroying it, by developing the breeding of this feline and protecting this precious assistant.

THE CAT is not only a friend and household companion, it is the pet par excellence; moreover, it is useful, since it is alone is our true defender against the dangers posed by rats, from the double point of view of disease and our economy. Rats, as we known, are capable of spreading plague, typhus and other diseases, and each year our industry loses about five thousand million francs through their depredations.


Poisons, chemicals, and viruses have been used to wage war on rats. We have sometimes succeeded in slaughtering them by these means, but still without solving the problem of extermination them. Moreover, it was soon realized that, instead of the rats disappearing, we were contributing to their spread. Some individuals always escaped the massacre, settling in various other places and founding new colonies, others returned to their former shelter, once the danger had passed.

In the chain of beings, from amoeba to man, there is merciless war. Now the Cat is the enemy of the rat. The antipathies between races that exist in nature are intended to restore natural order and balance. By using artificial means to destroy this scourge, we are wasting our time and money. We have the Cat, a hunter and enemy of unwanted rodents.

For the thirty years that we have been involved in the fight against rats, we have experienced everything that had been recommended for destroying them on land and on board ships. We can confirm that without the collaboration of the Cat, the entire arsenal invented by man to combat rats remains useless. We de-rat ships twice a year, but the rats return at the first port of call. We are certainly not opposed to the mass destruction of rats when these are numerous; but the presence of the Cat is essential to maintain the integrity of the premises. Without him, the return of these undesirables is not long in coming.

The Cat is not well understood and that is why it still has many enemies. Buffon's judgment was fundamentally detrimental to it and there is still something left of his ill-considered judgments. Was it this discredit that has made naturalists disdain it? And it is wrong that it has been neglected and forgotten among the living things of nature.


Before us, the English took care of setting values on the beautiful Persian, Siamese, and Abyssinian Cats. In France, we now also have some remarkable breeders of these Feline varieties. But the Cat of our own region, this friend in whom we can always find a sure shield against rats, has been forgotten. However, in history, we see a great Minister of the Navy, Colbert, order the presence of two Cats on the ships and without the cats on board, a ship could not obtain a license to sail. The goods were thus protected against the gnawing teeth of rodents.

Back then there were no drugs or poisons against the rats, but the only defender was the one called the great beautiful French Cat. It was renowned, and foreign ships came to buy the at our ports. Now rare here, it is still found in Holland and Belgium where it is sold at fairs under the name of French Cat.

The Flemings admire the generous forms of plants, animals, and Rubenesque women; that’s probably why they kept this breed of Cats, which, neglected here, has almost disappeared. There are fewer rats in those neighbouring countries than in France. The discipline of hygiene against which the French are so rebellious, has much to do with it: closed trash cans, no organic litter in the streets, and clean sewers. But the Cat also fulfils its role of sentry. At the Zoo in Antwerp, in the pavilions where the animals are presented, we see beautiful Cats familiarly accompany visitors as far as the exit. They are there to fulfil their mission as hunters. There are almost no rats in that city. Such a police force could also be organized in France. Our Cats are more beautiful and stronger than in Spain and Italy. But, since specialists have extolled their products, we thought we could do without the Cat, a living being that needed to be feed and, believing we were saving money, we neglected it. Hunted down, beaten during his wandering existence, they gave birth to weak subjects, incapable of fighting the rats. However, while every Cat is born a hunter, it needs to be strong and robust to fight rats. He does not feed from his hunt as we wrongly believe, it is a sport which he indulges in for pleasure and driven by his hatred of the enemy. Like an athlete, he needs abundant healthy food. The Cat is, will be and will remain a good hunter if he feels confident and at ease, and lives in the hygienic conditions that he finds essential: a litter tray filled with sand or sawdust and kept clean, a crate or cushion where he can rest comfortably and sleep in a dry, sheltered place; and fresh water always at his disposal.

The Cat is very sensitive; he needs the tenderness of his master. It is a mistake to believe that he is only attached to the house where he finds shelter and food. Since we started studying the ratter, more than one hundred and fifty subjects have passed through our hands, not counting the ones we have ourselves. We have seen how affectionate feelings are developed in well-treated cats. It is not uncommon to see the latter triumphantly present to his master the product of his hunt. He likes to be treated gently and so he should be.


We are still only at the beginning of our studies and observations, but we were able, in a few years of selective breeding, to return to the primal type of French Cat, in which we noticed four main breeds, not counting the numerous varieties. The large grey-blue or Chartreux cat has a round head. Its fur is thick, velvety and the colour brings to mind the blue Persian Cat.

The striped (or tabby) cat is a superb subject whose weight can reach 12 kg. This is the one you most commonly encounter. It is strong, stocky, and generally large, with powerful legs and claws.

The black cat has an elongated body, a triangular head, quite small, a thin and elongated body, and thin legs. He is remarkably skilful, flexible and agile in jumping. He is also an excellent hunter. Its prey, mouse or rat is seized in flight, with a launch of its long legs, while its tabby and Chartreux brothers hunt differently. They use their weight to knock out their opponent. They aim at him, and choosing the right moment, jump on top of him. Dazed by this heavy weight, the rat defends itself poorly and is at the mercy of the hunter. We had a very large tabby cat that killed its rats in one fell swoop.

The white cat’s conformation is analogous to the black cat. He has blue eyes when purebred, in which case he is sometimes deaf. We noticed that those with green eyes were never deaf; the same applies to those with one blue eye and the other green, as seen in many white cats.

The orange tabby, or tortoiseshell, is common. Except for its colour, it resembles the tabby cat: same size and similar conformation. These Cats, or more precisely the tricoloured females, are small, very lively, good breeders and excellent hunters. They are called Spanish cats, but we meet them quite often in France. At Mont Saint-Michel a few years ago, we noticed that there were hardly any other kinds of cat. They probably all came from the same ancestors.

Mother Cats teach their offspring how to hunt and bring them rats when they are within reach. They make them run, jump, and climb the steps of a staircase.


You meet them in empty places, in the squares, the building sites, a number of scrawny, emaciated Cats, eking out an existence on the little food brought to them by animal lovers. Their bodies are impoverished. And the beautiful French Cats of old are hunted down, wretched and exhausted by their struggle for a miserable life. They procreate under these conditions and produce weak or sick offspring.

This is what makes it possible to say that one cannot count on the ratting capacities of Cats, and why they are considered useless animals, which is true when they are in that state of physiological wretchedness. It took us several years to arrive at the primal type of French Cat, but we managed to produce a line of strong cats and good ratters. We published our efforts, and the subjects we had obtained by selection were exhibited. Through leaflets and conferences, we made the general public aware of our experiences.

More than 150 Cats bred by us have been placed so that we can follow them and be kept informed of their hunting activities. Our students have responded by doing what was expected of them, on land and at sea. Many of them sail aboard boats, destroying rats in the holds and saving the goods.

A couple sent to Madagascar have already produced seventeen descendants, all excellent ratters. This couple can be found in Antananarivo, at the Pasteur Institute, whose director, Dr. Girard, writes the following lines:

(October 2, 1934) "Our experience now spans 18 months. After an uneventful voyage, except that Violette produced three kittens on board - Carmen, Biscuit and Biscotte - who were entrusted to the Livestock department who keep regular birth records and supervise crossings to avoid ‘misalliances’. At present each of the mother Cats has had three litters to which two young males born in June 1933 have contributed. In all, 18 animals including 9 females.

As for Violette, who was handed over to my collaborator, Dr Robie, and whom I inherited when I resumed my post in September 1933, for me she is the most faithful companions in place of my family who remained in Paris. Thanks to one of her sons born on board, I never stopped breeding and giving my friends her particularly valued offspring. Overall there are now enough descendants for the imported breed to develop in Madagascar. I must add that I do not know the origin of the other local Cats which resemble Cats everywhere and some of which are excellent hunters. Did you not write that the Cat hunts by instinct and that there is not, strictly speaking, a special hunting breed? This is what experimentation demonstrates. For my part, my house is free of rodents. I got rid of them permanently. Violette has given us 13 kittens since April 1933, all of them were raised by me and given at the age of 6 weeks to 2 months to trusted people who are delighted with them."


Requests for ratting cats have become very numerous. But how to satisfy it? Yes, the Cats are numerous in France, but the elite type is rare there and the tramps of the squares and the yards would only provide disappointment. Let’s say right away that it shouldn’t exist in a civilized country like ours. This is a gap in hygienic and humanitarian perspective.

A woman with a big heart, Mrs. Camille du Gast, president of the Society for the Protection of Animals, known for the charitable works she has created, founded a shelter for animals in Gennevilliers. We do not know anything other than the Bon Acceuil [Good Welcome] exists and is ready to receive animals that owners, indifferent to the sufferings that a living being can endure, cruelly abandon to the hazards of the street.

Suppressing stray Cats is not impossible; we can prove it by a striking example.


In a country neighbouring ours, but less wealthy and less productive, there were marshes with dangerous miasmas. These lands, now sanitized, are suitable for cultivation; farmers have been established on that Roman plain, and those Pontine marshes, formerly sterile and feared because of malaria, are now an agricultural region.

About three years ago I received from Rome, via the Italian Consul in Le Havre, a detailed questionnaire on what I had done in terms of rat elimination using ratting cats. I described what I had done, and the results I had obtained. From the reviews of Italian societies of animal lovers, we knew the great interest that Mussolini had in animals. He was striving, through well understood measures, to improve their lot and well-being.

He has given his great support to those societies, giving them very wide powers. Cats especially benefitted from these humane orders and were transported en masse to depots where there were shelters. Guards were responsible for their food and care. These animals have ceased to be hunted down or tormented. The Cat is back to normal, that is to say strong, healthy, and able to fulfil its role as a hunter. Here are some nice words from Mussolini about animals:

"Anyone who mistreats animals is not Italian. Treat animals with love as if they were men. They are often more interesting. And when I am completely tired of men, then I go to the sea. For me, it would be the most pleasant thing to live at sea, but not being able to, I turn to animals. Their instincts resemble those of man without asking him anything, horses, dogs and especially my favourite animal: the Cat."

And the day when, in the Pontine marshes, they had to defend the crops threatened by rats, the Duce ordered three thousand Cats to be taken there to be distributed to all of the farmers who declared themselves very satisfied.

We were told at the Italian Embassy that the cats treated in those centres had been examined and found in such good sanitary condition that they had not had to choose which to send as defenders against rats, but had sent them en masse by train and the results had been excellent.

Here, moreover, is a document in support: "Referring to your visit last month,” says a letter from the Italian Embassy in Paris, dated January 18, 1935, “I have the honour to inform you that, according to the information that I have just received from the Azienda Agraria Pontiana (Agrarian Office of the Pontine Marshes), the Cats carried into the area of the Pontine marshes belong to the breed of the common Italian Cat and do not come from any special breed. They were gathered, indeed, from all over in the Roman countryside. The farmers to whom they were delivered are very satisfied, both from the point of view of hunting rats and from the point of view of reproduction."

That is how the crops of the Pontine marshes were saved. The same was done in Lombardy, with the same success. In the protective measures in the event of air warfare, the defence of their zootechnical heritage is provided for. We read in an article in an Italian zootechnical journal that shelters for animals must be built "more rationally than those intended for men and definitive, because although you can order humans to transfer immediately, you can only do the same thing for animals if you have the right precautions.”

Care is also provided for animals in the event of bacteriological war: melancholy, anthrax, foot-and-mouth disease, and there are also prescriptions for them against the different gases.


During the Second Rat Congress, in 1931, the Cat was mentioned for the first time. When the first attempts to select the ratting cat were made in Le Havre; several persons were interested in this question.

In this port, in 1934, Cats completely destroyed the rats in a dock where, in 1931, a loss of 160,000 fr. Had been noted on wheat worth 800,000 fr. Cats, at the request of Mr. Dautry, the director of the State Network, have been placed in many stations and have given excellent results. Damage to goods has become increasingly rare.

In all the frontline ports of France, we were concerned by the proliferation of rats in the docks. It was in Le Havre that we were able to study the results of marine defence. Mr. Léon Meyer, deputy mayor of Le Havre, former Minister of the Merchant Marine, became interested in these tests, which allowed us to carry out the experiments in using Cats to combat the rat. We were even able to found the Normandy Ratting Cat Club on site.

The main commitment of its members is to collaborate with us in training and improvement French Cats in order to provide us with our hunters. For this, we had the assistance of veterinarians from Le Havre, Messrs. Dumont, Girard, Lesueur, Lavergne, and Commeny, director of the slaughterhouses.

After his hunt, this great real-life philosopher rests from his labours. He knew the benefits of sunbathing long before us and exposes himself to its beneficial rays. If it’s cold, he lies down by the fire and, happy with a job well done, falls asleep peacefully.

If he is very young, he plays and already a philosopher, he is entertained with little things: a string, a fringe hanging from the edge of a bed, a paper ball that his master throws for him, everything is good for him. For lack of anything better, he runs after his tail which he cannot grasp, thus recalling the vicious circle of human aspirations towards which man constantly runs, without ever joining them.


We have noticed that cat shows are increasingly attracting the benevolence of the public. Breeders and admirers have achieved remarkable results and we now see purebred subjects at home who prove to be an indisputable improvement. We ourselves have some very beautiful ones of which we are proud.

But our goal is not to present, from year to year, cats remarkable for their fur, for the rare shade of their coat, or to create amazement with specimens resulting from carefully studied crosses and the creation of new breeds.

What we have undertaken is a thankless task, but one of general interest, since it has the dual aim of protecting humans and rehabilitating cats. One does not go without the other. By proving that the Cat is necessary we openly speculate on human selfishness; but in defending it we cannot be accused of partiality or of being carried away by nothing more than our love for it.

We certainly admire the efforts of these breeders who, in a short time, will be able to compete with those of England. We see here, now, superb Persians, Siamese, and Birmans of great beauty.

But the Feline which we have defended is precisely the most forgotten and most neglected. More than its brothers from distant lands, the French Cat deserves a place of honour. He is the one we are pleading for, because he is our safest guarantee against rats and is always ready to help us since he is constantly within our reach. There are too many Cats, we are often told, and animal welfare societies also complain. It’s our fault! The Cat has been left to its own devices, it has never been taken care of. It is the only animal for which we have not done Eugenics, or have done so little for such a short time. There are necessary, indispensable rules for improving a breed; by following them we have endowed France with a renowned herd of horse breeds which do us the greatest honour. Another being was also considered unimportant from the point of view of race, and physical and moral affinities: it is Man! Yes! Man and the cat have both been neglected. So too often the equilibrium is broken on one side as on the other. As a result, Man procreates and frequently produces undesirable offspring. In the bastardized offspring of the Cat, the instinctive qualities, especially those of ratting are no longer found. Taking care of cat improvement also means limiting its reproduction and at the same time reinforcing the robust good hunter.

The she-cat can have three litters a year, but these repeated maternities exhaust her and produce sickly subjects. The ones we have produce only one litter per year. As you know, the cries of females during the mating season are unbearable, which has made them ostracized by many people. However, there are commercially available anti-nerve pills for dogs and cats, completely harmless. One or two a day calm the she-cat who retains her normal appetite, sleeps and lets the household rest which is especially appreciable. Give these pills in the evening, an hour or so before the cat’s meal.

So, you can avoid the overpopulation of Cats that we rightly complain about. To rationally decrease it is to increase the number of fighters against rats.

Neuters are as good at ratting as other cats and even preferable for hunting in large spaces, because they do not allow themselves to be distracted, and risk getting lost, by chasing females.

The Cat is disdained because it is ignored. We appeal on its behalf to the protection of all our readers, whom we ask to help our propaganda. Great men have loved Cats: writers, artists and poets have made them their friends. We cannot list them all, they are so many.


We would like to inspire curiosity in everyone about this mysterious and charming being, so well described by Colette in her book “La Chatte” (Saha, name of the Cat-heroine of this book, is the name of Madame Colette’s Chartreux she-cat.). It is only discovered by those who love it. It was thus that I was brought to know and judge it and, later, to become its friend and advocate, with all my heart and all my strength. I dare confess with remorse that there was a time when I hated Cats and they fled from me, and in this I made my wife cry, annoyed, because of her affection for these animals!

Take one very young, so small that you can hold it your hand, like the one my granddaughter once brought me when she was eight years old, begging me to let her have it. Study its grace, its kindness, his friendly cuddliness, like I did. Admire its poses, the diversity of its facial expressions. I’m sure it will seduce you and win you over.


You will love not only your Cat, but everyone else’s. You will feel compassion for the sufferings of those living as outcasts; you will revolt against their unjust fate and, like us, you will ask for mercy for them. You will fight for them because this animal’s distress is shameful to us and also because you are thinking of your own Cat. It is in your own interest to help it, to rescue it. We were outraged to see cruel owners driving it out of the house, saying, “There are no more rats now. What should we do with it?” Without acknowledging it, what cynicism you see in the human heart when they believe there is no point hiding it.

We didn’t know much about the Bon-Accueil, in Genevilliers, an establishment where they receive lost or picke up animals. They are well-treated there, well cared for.

We had the chance to visit this asylum, invited by its founder and owner, Mme Camille du Gast. In her car she had two huge cans filled with milk. When I got there, I was surprised to see all the Cats in the yard. They had come down from the floors of the house built for them and, their heads turned towards the door, seemingly waiting. They all came running to meet the president of the Society for the Protection of Animals who told me this was completely normal: “It’s always like this, they recognize the arrival of my car by the noise of the engine and are ready for the milk ration I always bring them.”

Our collaboration with the personal work of this compassionate woman is essential. We will give it to her while working on the rehabilitation of the Cat.


Department stores now have their teams of ratters, and one of them presents robust examples in feline competitions. There is more and more to do. There is no store that should not have one or more Cats. Lyon was able to supply Cats to fight against rodents that compromised the silk industry. These felines come from a couple we gave to President Herriot.

At the Abattoirs in Paris, there is what you might call a stud service for she-cats from whom you want to breed good ratters. We see superb tomcats there, good hunters, including Bouboule, a beautiful tabby that comes from our own breeding.

In 1931, we sent one of our young ratters to the Palais-Bourbon, where there were many rats. It was a descendant of our Lico who had won the Ratting Cat Cup. He is now with the Speaker of the House. As he is very happy in the hands of Mrs. Fernand Bouisson, we assume that he has lost none of his hunting qualities.

Many other cities already have their official Cats as a shield against rats. In Le Havre, the docks containing the goods are watched by good ratters. We gave some to the railway administration for the different stations. Many of our student cats travel on ships. This would make up for the de-ratting by gases, such as hydrocyanic acid which is so dangerous. The companies would realize, in addition, a significant saving of 100,000 francs per year for each boat.

For thirty years, I have been dealing with rodent control on board ships, I was one of the first to speak about sulphurous acid. At the beginning of 1926, in my capacity as doctor of the port of Le Havre, I went on board a ship to watch the de-ratting by toxic gases. I saw two men each carrying a crate; they said to me that it contained the Cats on board which they were going to carry on the poop deck to shelter them from the gases. I asked one of them: "Do you like your Cats?” He replied in the affirmative and added "They are they good ratters aren’t they." I continued: "Aren’t all cats good ratters? Isn't it enough to starve them so that they become ratters? "He surprised me by answering, "On the contrary! A good ratter must be strong and well fed. He does not eat his prey but kills his hated enemy for fun and often brings it to his master, to show to him."

I had never thought of a useful goal when I saw Cats aboard boats, I just thought they served as a distraction for sailors during the crossing. There have always been many Cats in the docks of Le Havre, just like there are at Trajan’s column in Rome. I asked the director, who was a friend of mine, how many there were. "A hundred," he replied. He told me that his father, the founder of the docks and warehouses, had the initiative to put Cats there and that, out of habit, they continued to house them.

When the Commercial Court of Le Havre sends its experts to note the damage done by the teeth of the rats, it decides that there is negligence on the part of the captain, if he does not have Cats on board and he is charged to pay. However, if he presents his Cats, it is the Insurance Company that suffers the losses. A document from 1858 shows us that already at that time, President Salles, of the Commercial Court of Marseille, judged that on the sailboat "Les Deux Sophies", since there was a Cat on board, the sixteen hundred francs damage done by rats could not be charged to the captain; that it was a sea risk that could not be compensated because, at that time, there were no Insurance Companies.

The Cat frequently has a bad press with hunters. It is said to destroy young game and is accused of doing great harm to the hunts. However, in England they used the Cat to save chicks from the teeth of rats which attack both game and eggs causing great damage, which only the Cat can put an end to. On the other hand, in that country, they do no harm to Cats and they are, therefore, numerous. However, birds swarm to the point that it is often necessary to cover the fruit trees with nets as the fruit are ripening, to protect the fruit from the beaks of those birds.

In 1930, during a Feline exhibition in Le Havre, a trophy was founded by Mrs. Adrien Loir to be offered each year to the owner of the best ratting cat. This cup was presented to Lico, the Cat of the Museum of Natural History of Le Havre, who had destroyed all the rats at that establishment. He had also exterminated all those who were on board an English boat, as the testimony of the captain of this ship attests.

We believed, at the start of our campaign, that we could immediately test a cat's ratting skills. This was a mistake against which we would like to warn novices who want to use Cats. When locked up in a ratodrome, the Cat does not throw itself on the rat presented to him. He is bewildered, it almost seems that he is afraid of the rodent.

In order to hunt, he needs to feel at home. He doesn't want any intruders in his house. Its smell, moreover, keeps rats away, they sense its presence and it scares them away. How many times have we heard: "Yes, we had rats, but ever since the Cat arrived we haven't seen a single corpse, but they have all disappeared." Very often the rats have taken refuge with the neighbour who, if he refuses to have a cat, will be forced to accept this unenviable inheritance.

Despite the difficulty it presents, we wanted to experiment with a method that was used in Australia to destroy rabbits. It involves killing only the females, which is difficult to do with rats.

Out of the quantity of rats trapped in Le Havre, we found that there were very few females. These remain in the nest with their offspring, while the males are searching for food and are caught. By decreasing the number of females, they become an obsession to the males who pursue them and who fight amongst themselves and, in a fight between rats, one is always killed; even if he was only injured in the fight, the others finish him off, as if he had become useless to the colony. It’s a Spartan gesture. Deprived of females, the males fight to death and destroy themselves.

Rat-proofing, impenetrable to rats, which protects buildings, is not feasible in the sort of buildings that exist in countries that were civilized long ago. It is a system that has worked well in America where everything is new.

The removal of any organic matter that they can feed on is a measure we cannot count on. We would have to educate everybody to do this.

Our victory over the rat therefore has, as its main and real weapon, only the Cat. Encouraged in our campaign in its favour and thanks to the results obtained by our efforts to convince the public of the importance of Feline intervention in this fight, we will persevere in supporting the cause intended to highlight the merits of our best defender against the depredations of that enemy of hygiene and industry.

If Italy has found with us the guidelines necessary to obtain and use ratting cats, why shouldn’t we, in turn study, as Mr. Mussolini did there, in collaboration with the Societies for the Protection of animals, the conditions to generalize en masse, in three years, a breed of Ratting Cats capable of exterminating rats in large areas of land like the great regions of Lombardy and the Pontine marshes, where rodents are now becoming rare.

Egypt, where rats abounded, was renowned in antiquity for its famous granaries and knew how to protect them from rodents. Cats were raised to the rank of Gods. They thus created a standing army capable of assuring them of a grain monopoly in the known world. Strict laws protected the defenders of Egypt’s wealth, one of which jealously guarded the Cats, Great Isis, represented with a head of Cat, was adored under the name of Pasht. Cats were not allowed to be taken out of Egypt, and from time to time missions went in search for any that had been smuggled out. - Doctor Adrien LOIR, Correspondent at the Academy of Medicine, and Mrs. Adrien LOIR.


TOO MANY CATS exhibited at the Parisian Cat Shows are beautiful, but have arrived straight from England, imported by fanciers in commission-paying merchant-brokered deals. These exhibits are of necessarily limited interest, because it is simply a question of money, not merit, to own and exhibit them.

Here is what Mrs. Yeates, who was asked to judge in the Reims show in 1932, wrote: “I judged the Cats in Reims as I would have judged them at a Championship Show in England, and I saw no reason to act otherwise. The Cat Fancy in France is no longer in its infancy, and it will be more than twenty years since I was associate judge of the late Miss Frances Simpson at a Cat Show in Cannes. The thing that struck me the most that time was that most of the best Cats that I handled then were imported from England. After twenty years, surely this should no longer be necessary.

I would like to highlight the importance of one or two points. Blue should only be mated to blue or perhaps to black, if the latter is an exceptionally good subject. The Blue Kittens from a cross between blue and cream are worthless if they are intended for Showing. A cream female can be mated to a blue male to improve the type, but blue-cream females, resulting from this crossing, must be mated to creams. It is perhaps not generally known that a cream female mated to a blue male will not give a cream female,

The breeders, fanciers or professionals, who, using cats originally imported from England to establish French-bred strains and lines produced in France are much more deserving!”


On March 9, a friendly Dinner brought together those members present in Paris of the active Society "Les Amis des Chats" which, as you know, is chaired by the dedicated Mr. Omer-Henry, who is also the authorized President of that great and powerful federation, the National Council of Feline Societies of France, which brings together the elite of amateur breeders and our faithful household companion.

The dinner, which brought together quality breeder-fanciers, each more passionate than the other about Cats, was chaired by Mr. Omer-Henry, with, on his right, General Buat, honorary president, Mr. Albert Maumené, Mme Loir; on his left: Mrs. Albert Maumené, Dr. Loir, Mrs. du Gast, president of the Society for the Protection of Animals, and Mr. Divov, the well-known painter.

The two other tables were respectively chaired by Mr. Chamagne de Sabrit, vice-president, with, opposite him, Mrs. Omer-Henry, general secretary of the Club, who is, like her husband, a Cat lover, and who is his admirable second, and by Mr. Turbec, vice-president treasurer, and Mrs. Turbec; these tables grouped together Mmes Vigiant, Kourloff, Montier, Gresse, Becco, Herry, Frey, Trafford, Chaumont-Doisy, Le Ruz, etc. the Misses Meunier, Angibaud, Vigeant, etc. Messrs. Frey, Trafford, Paris, Le Ruz, Rieger, Patuel, etc.; we cannot name all the guests here.

After a few words of welcome and greetings, and after having excused some of the members absent from Paris, including the Countess Clauzel, wife of the French Ambassador in Bern, Honorary President; veterinarian Dr. Ph. Jumaud, president of C.C.F.; Mr. and Mrs. René Fiquet, former President of the Paris City Council; Mr. and Mrs. Boileve de la Goubaudiere, etc., Mr. Omer Henry received the rightful thanks of all, elegantly translated by the Vice-President, Mr. Chamagne de Sabrit, and gave the floor to the eloquent Dr Loir, who broadly expressed the reasons which militate in favour of the Cat, and of all the services which the ratting cat provides. Dr. Loir took advantage of this presentation to underline, in advance, the importance, the beauty, the interest, of this Album-Volume, and its scope for spreading Cat breeding for various reasons, and better comprehension of the Cat.

The lively and fascinating presentation “Cat and Rat” Dr Loir, gave rise to a particularly interesting debate between the doctor and Mr. Rieger, fervent breeder-fancier and owner of some splendid Cats. Mr. Rieger enthusiastically defended the role of both pet and pedigree Cats, which are not, as one might believe, contemplative animals, but are born enemies of the rat, which they hunt just like the European Cat. At the same time, he highly praised the Issue “The Perfect Veterinarian for Dogs and Cats,” and Album-Volume of “Vie a la Campagne.” The significance of this exchange of views was so instructive, lively and fascinating, that the hours passed without anyone noticing.

This meeting gave us the opportunity to congratulate the top class breeders, who make up the large workforce of these leading groups, for knowing how to organise harmonious and powerful federated bodies which organize the Feline Exhibitions so worthy of that name, in Paris and the other French cities, and especially to have put at their head a person with ideas and broad views, both modest and devoted, whose continuous action will play a large part in the nationalization of all the beautiful Cat breeds. This will be for the great benefit of French Cat Breeding, of the metropolis, and of our possessions overseas. - C. de M.



HERE IS, as an example, the arrangement of a cattery specially designed for breeding Persian Cats (Yoo Hoo’s Cottage). It is obvious, in fact, that each breed has its particular behaviour and temperament and that the cosiness required is not always the same. However, in broad outline, this arrangement can serve as a basis and its principles can always be copied and adapted to the specific requirements of a particular breed or situation.

In this case, the Persian being a robust Cat (less susceptible to cold than the Siamese), only the mothers and their young need snug premises, the other cats being able to live in the open air, even in Winter. Thus, the breeding cattery includes: outdoor catteries and closed catteries (heated and unheated).


The general appearance of a Cattery of this type is that of a covered aviary of 3 m. X 2 m., A sort of large cage comprising: a comfortable hutch of 1 m. x 1 m. with an opening of 25 cm. X 25 cm. allowing the Cat to enter and exit at will from its housing. The front panel of the hutch is removable, allowing you to have, inside, a small hutch furnished with a cushion and a sawdust tray; in the large covered cage, on the parquet floor which serves as an exercise yard and dining area, is an armchair with cushions, in which Cats like to rest, a bowl of fresh water at all times and a food bowl at meal times. These Catteries house a single Cat. In fact, it is impossible to house several males together as they would fight fiercely.

A larger open-air cattery, organized by Mrs Pereyrol, consists of a 20 m long building, covered with thatch, which gives it a hardy appearance. Closed on 3 sides, it has a mesh facade, at midday. The whole is divided into 30 compartments with mesh partitions and parquet floor everywhere. Each compartment is 2 m. x 2 m. Half of this space is divided by a door with a cat-flap. At the bottom, linoleum is placed on the parquet for ease of washing; on the left there is a sawdust tray; on the right is a removable hutch with a cushion or hay inside.

In the interior are runs with a bench in front of the facade where the Cat can get in the sun. In front of the Cattery is a huge grassy park, 20 m. x 20 m., shaded by trees and enclosed by a fence with an overhang at the top.

Each she-cat finds its compartment so comfortable that it gives birth to and raises its young up to 2 and a half months there. At this time, the kittens chosen as breeding or exhibition subjects are put in pairs in a new compartment and at 6 months the are separated 1 per compartment.

In the morning at 9 am, the first meal is distributed in each compartment; everyone has their share, eats their fill and, half an hour later, all the doors are open into the park. All these youngsters come out and start to nibble the grass like real little rabbits, which is very funny to see; then it's play time: the frantic races, leaping in the trees. Then finally they rest on the grass. You should to see the happiness of it all! If it rains, the Cats take shelter in their compartment. In the evening, everyone goes home and gets a hearty and delicious meal which allows them to have a good night.

Every morning the Cattery is carefully swept, the litter trays are emptied, the sawdust is changed. Each week the Cattery is thoroughly washed with bleach. (Plate 41.)


These Catteries are intended for females, but they don’t stay there for giving birth. Each Cattery is formed by 4 m. X 3 m. well-lit room, all the openings of which are fitted with mesh. Normally, most of the windows are open to provide air. The interior layout includes a series of hutches 80 cm. above the parquet and set against one of the walls of the room. Each hutch measures 40 cm. wide; 40 cm. deep; 35 cm. height. The front wall has an opening 15 cm. wide and 29 cm. tall. The arrangement of all these hutches forms a block quite similar to the alcoves of a Dovecote with a movable front face to allow access and cleaning of the interior. All along the block, below the openings, runs a 10 cm. wide shelf on which the Cat jumps before entering its hutch.

In the room are armchairs with cushions, and a table, giving the she-cats an illusion of their owner’s “home”. A single such Cattery is suitable for several she-cats. Unlike the tomcats, these get along perfectly with each other. They eat, each from their own plate, without bothering about the others. However, they are monitored during meals so that the greedy ones, having finished first, are not tempted to steal food from their less voracious neighbours.


In addition to the open-air catteries and ordinary catteries, the breeding establishment includes a large building 28 m. long by 4 m. deep divided into five 4 m. X 4 m. rooms and one room of 8 m. X 4 m. The central heating boiler with hot water is placed in a lodge outside the furthest side wall of the latter, from which it is separated by a perforated sheet. Heating is provided by a radiator in each room, while the largest takes advantage of the waste heat from the boiler, through the perforated sheet. The first two compartments are, moreover, temporarily assigned as living/dining room and studio.

The main façade, exposed at midday, contains large bay windows covered by mesh on the outside because the glass doors are open while the outside temperature permits. In fact it is considered that, for good breeding of robust Cats, it is essential that the windows remain open day and night in summer, whereas in winter they are only open from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. in cold, dry weather. Heating allows Cats that feel the cold to stand against the radiators, while others put themselves where they feel most comfortable.

Each room has 4 hutches, forming a block of 2 floors. The dimensions of each hutch are: width, 1.2 m. wide; 65 cm. height; 65 cm. deep. The front of each hutch includes a screen door and a solid door, side by side. The part of the hutch corresponding to the solid door contains a cushion fitted with a loose cover that is changed whenever necessary; the part corresponding to the screen door is reserved for a 35 cm. x 35 cm. sawdust tray with an 8 to 10 cm. tall edge. The sawdust is changed daily or more often if necessary. The kennel flooring is removable to allow easy and frequent cleaning. Finally, each kennel has an enamelled bowl for drinking water, and the food is served on an enamelled plate.

The heated cattery is used only for she-cats ready to give birth or nursing. Some time before they give birth, they are put in the heated Cattery and remain free until the time of birth, when they are shut in a kennel. It is not possible to leave several she-cats together when they give birth because, at that time, they would steal each other’s kittens. The mothers stay with their young until weaning. At this time, they are transferred to the unheated Catteries while the Kittens remain in the heated Catteries until varying ages, depending on the season.


The composition and importance of the rations are examined, taking into account the needs of the breed and depending on whether they are tomcats, she-cats, or kittens.

Tomcat in stud service. Morning: An egg mixed with a little milk and raw and minced beef or horse meat. Evening: Raw minced meat. The daily ration of raw meat is 500 gr. per head. This quantity may seem high to you, but the Persian stud cat is large.

Tomcat at rest. Morning: Daily, 250 gr. minced raw meat. Evening; Every two days, 250 gr. raw minced meat, alternating, on other days, with the same weight of oat flakes thrown in boiling water or milk and remaining there for 10 minutes. This gives a fairly thick porridge.

Pregnant or nursing females. Morning: Raw egg beaten in a little milk and minced raw meat. Evening: Raw minced meat. The total weight of the meat of the two meals reaches 300 gr. per head.

Resting females. The ration is half that of pregnant or nursing females.

Kittens. From a young age, they get into the habit of eating raw meat from their mother's plate. When they are separated from her they receive lukewarm milk in which an egg and a little meat have been beaten. The ration of the latter gradually increases.

Food supplements. The food of the Persian Cats is here based on raw meat. It is essential, so that they eat it well and that their health is good, that it is of perfect quality. From time to time, raw meat is replaced by cooked fish.

In winter, every morning, the minced meat is sprinkled with a teaspoon of cod liver oil, per head. Once a week, the evening meat is sprinkled with a pinch of benzonaphthol to disinfect the intestine, whose freedom of motion is essential. Because of the opulence of its fur, the Persian swallows a large amount of hair when licking itself. These bother the stomach and should be relieved. For this purpose, during the asparagus season, the Cats are given table scraps cut into pieces (without condiments or vinegar). They are very fond of asparagus. Some digest them but most vomit them, which has the same effect as grass.

During Winter, cod liver oil, in addition to its special anti-rickets action allowing better assimilation of phosphorus and lime, and the hypophosphites which it contains, exerts a sort of mechanical action, keeping the intestine in perfect working order. In summer, this role is fulfilled by olive oil distributed at the dose of one teaspoon per head per week.

To be properly appreciated, the Cream Persian must be as pale as possible which is quite difficult to obtain. You can help by giving these cats fish and milk; meat tending to darken the coat colour.

This arrangement makes it possible to pursue all the goals of breeding. Each age and each category of Cat finds its place in the best conditions of existence, without harmful crowding, and in the event of contagious disease the Catteries are clearly separated from each other. Cattery life does not seem to upset Cats in any way, especially those who were born there. Indeed, the Cat is a very sensitive creature and the stress of adjustment is sometimes serious for him. The change from living in an apartment to living in a cattery is difficult to bear, while the reverse is easy.


Melan Cattery, along with the Kennel of the same name, was set up as a simple pastime a few years ago. Now based in Vichy, its owner, Mme Gibbaud de Barras, has deemed it necessary to increase her breeding stock due to the success of the Cattery and the prices obtained in shows. Thinking that it is always better to specialize, she chose to breed Blue Persian. The animals are left almost free, fraternizing with the Pekingese Dogs. This co-education removes the frequently found between Dogs and Cats.


The animals have at their disposal a large cemented room containing hutches, in which each animal is locked up in the evening. Knowing the Cats' predilection for small crates or baskets, in which they like to curl up, each hutch is provided with a cardboard box lined with paper. Cleaning is easy: the paper is burned, and in case of illness it is easy to remove the infection by replacing the boxes. The boxes are frequently washed with a disinfectant. Zinc dishes, filled with sawdust, are available to the cat inside.

The room opens onto a portion of completely screened garden where animals can play or nap outdoors and eat grass. Part of the garden being under a balcony, they can stay outside, even in bad weather, sheltered from the rain.


The food is almost exclusively raw meat with, from time to time, rice, pasta or vegetables to vary the diet. Each animal is fed in its hutch, which makes it easy to monitor their appetite. Adult tomcats have a ration of around 200 gr., and she-cats from 100 to 150 gr, except when they are pregnant or nursing their young. The ration is then increased. Milk is excluded from the diet, except in cases of severe constipation; we then give moderately to correct this problem. Clean water is always available.

In the morning, when they come out of their huts, all the animals are inspected and each is given a good brushing. Fleas are destroyed with an insecticidal powder; ears are inspected to prevent scabies; eyes and nose are checked. Any suspect animal is placed under observation in another room.

Unions are marriages of convenience that often result in “love at first sight.” The males should not be used during their first year because, to obtain beautiful offspring, it is necessary to give the stud cat time to become strong. On the other hand, the females must be bred when they are big enough. In this way, it avoids birthing problems later, and avoids cases of sterility due to the animal not being bred in the first years of its life.


As soon as the mother no longer has enough milk for her kittens, around four or five weeks, they receive, once or twice a day, small very clear soups made of milk and different flours, such as rice flour, oats, corn-starch and, to begin with, a teaspoon of finely grated raw meat, gradually increasing in quantity until becoming the main food AT around two and a half or three months.

To avoid the terrible disease of typhus, the young are all vaccinated, at the age of 10 days, with the Yte-vaccine. From time to time, a dewormer is administered to children and adults. In case of indigestion, a dose of castor oil quickly restores order, and with this simple precaution, serious illnesses are avoided.


Preparations for shows does not take long when the animals are maintained daily. Every day the preceding week perform a good talc-ing followed by brushing, a quick check of the ears, which you fill with an absorbent swab soaked in alcoholised water, and they are ready to go. Long plywood boxes, the bottom well-lined with crumpled newspapers, make comfortable travel beds. The meal must be given at least two hours before departure to avoid any vomiting en route. On return, the boxes and ornamental drapes of the cages are disinfected before being stored in the living areas, to avoid contagion.

The Persian Cats of the Melan Cattery are among the most beautiful in France. The Cattery has obtained the greatest successes this year, in France and abroad. In a few months, its cats have twice won the prize of the President of the Republic, in Lyon and in Paris.



CAT BREEDING as an animal industry is, like many similar activities, originally an English speciality. It is gradually taking shape in France, thanks to the zeal of cat fanciers and prominent groups.

The production of Cats becomes remunerative when lovers of quality animals and service animals seem to carry their preferences towards it as a companion animal of superior beauty and great rarity by its breed quality. It necessarily takes the place of the Dog in big cities. It is more convenient. The Cat is a quiet animal and does not need a hygienic walk on the street. The purebred cat seems to be coming into great favour, its breeding is now considered as a possibility worthy of great interest.


In England, principally, Belgium and also Holland, pedigree cat breeding is practiced by a number of breeders, generally women, who draw an appreciable income from it. Because of the number of specialist clubs, shows, and public taste, the prices reached are often considerable. Animals with good pedigrees, and aged from 10 to 12 months, are commonly sold from 30 to 40 pounds sterling, with some champions reaching prices of 100 and even 200 pounds.

Animals imported from England were priced 6,000 fr. The prices of Siamese Cats and other Short-haired Cats were generally lower. At weaning, ordinary cats sell for 100 to 200 fr. From 5 to 10 months, prices stabilize between 300 and 800 fr. As with Blue Persians, the award-winning females and stud cats used for breeding reach high prices: 1,500 to 500 fr. Some rare Cats are rated very high, these are orange, cream, and tortoiseshell Cats, and Birmans.

In France, fanciers who are interested in Cat Breeding declare they are, for the most part, satisfied with the results. Some Catteries group together several award-winning females and stud cats, and their young easily sell for 300 to 400 fr. At weaning; and for 600 and 800 fr. From 5 to 10 months, depending on their beauty. Show-winning cats immediately gain in value, with some selling for over 3,000 or 4,000 fr.


Here are the principles on which the Cat accommodation is designed in a Persian cat breeding cattery, this being a robust breed and less sensitive to cold than the Siamese. In this case, depending on whether they are males or females, and, among these, pregnant or non-breeding females, the affected area is organized into outdoor catteries and closed catteries (heated and unheated).

Outdoor catteries. Especially during the bad season, this concept of housing may, at first glance, seem strange to you, considering how the Cat likes to lie down by the fire. However, this is a condition for success, especially for the Persian, which has an opulent warm fur and does not feel the cold in the same way as the Siamese. In addition, they are breeding stock, whose sole function is to breed vigorous, precocious, rugged and beautiful cats. The fresh air ensures their health and vigour and ensures the desirable development of the coat of these robust pure-bred cats. Besides, if the tomcat is in the open air, the roof shelters him perfectly from bad weather and also from excessive sun. Living almost in freedom, a Cat in a Cattery can choose the place which suits it best at all times.

Closed catteries. While tomcats are perfectly fine the open if the various comings and goings, noises, barking dogs etc. do not disturb them, she-cats, on the contrary, are more fearful. Provide them with a place where their life goes on without too much disturbance, especially during pregnancy.

Even provide a heated room near their due date where the she-cats remain free until the actual birth. Then reserve hutches for them because it is not possible to leave several of them together as they would steal each other’s kittens.

These hutches constitute veritable miniature breeding rooms. The Cats can rear their young perfectly, but as soon as the Kittens grow up, this breeding room becomes too small for them. At that point, release them into the room where they can engage in their antics. On this regime they do not wither, and they grow up perfectly.


This choice obviously depends on the breed; from this point of view, base your choices on the standards of perfection that we have given for each breed. More generally, take into account the very principles and conditions of reproduction. Here, as elsewhere, there are general basic rules; take inspiration from them. Until recent years, and still too often, males and females are allowed too much freedom; too many matings take place haphazardly and are illegitimate from the point of view of the perfection and purity of the breeds.

If something must be managed during this era of a “planned economy,” it is Feline marriages in order to establish families, lines with certified ancestors whose long genealogy makes it possible to fix the required qualities and aptitudes. This is true from the modifiable, aesthetic i.e. competitive point of view. It is just as essential when establishing lines of utility cats; rat hunters.

In each case, the vigour, robustness and ruggedness of the subjects should be taken into account as much as the characteristics of beauty, and the aptitudes and qualities of character and sociability. It is by managing breeding wisely and methodically, that we will gradually reach the level that the English have reached, as we have done for Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Poultry and Rabbits, thanks to perseverance, to the following ideas, etc.

In principle, do not cross self-colour cats with tabby cats. Do not pair whites with any other variety of colour, as unsound colours can result. In England, breeders have tried to mate white cats with silver ones to obtain very pale and unmarked hues. Black cats can be successfully mated with blues. "Cats for profit and pleasure" cites several examples where this mating has resulted in a Kitten which later developed into a remarkable blue Cat. Blacks can also be crossed with orange or tortoiseshell subjects.

On the other hand, a blue and a tortoiseshell can be mated to obtain a cream, but you risk getting half-blue, half-cream varieties. Blues mated to tabbies frequently gives blue tabbies. Similarly, crossing blue to silver does not give very satisfactory results, the blue tint destroys the purity of silver and the offspring are frequently very light smokes.

If you are looking for vigour, use a brown tabby bloodline. Two brown tabbies often give a black in the litter and you can get good brown tabbies from tortoiseshells. In orange or red tabbies, females are rarer than males and you do not often find well marked subjects. Finally, silver tabby should not be crossed with any other tabby colour, but you can intensify a silver tabby with slightly pale markings by crossing to a self black.

It is recognised, after many observations, that the male is of paramount importance and that it is always important to choose him as perfect as possible. He must come from an excellent line and the colour of his eyes must be impeccable. For example, in Persian Cats, choose a male with large dark eyes, whatever his markings, small ears and excellent dense fur. These are the main characters to be preserved, at all costs, in the offspring, or you risk degeneration. Demand a strong size and maximum vigour from the stud cat. Choose a female with good health, who is robust and a good size, without any faults if possible.


You can start breeding she-cats from 15 months and they remain fertile until 7 or 8 years old. The duration of the stud’s service, inversely proportional to the number of matings you demand from him, can continue until the age of 5. The quality of good breeders is measured by the number and vigour of the Kittens in each litter. While it is possible to have many litters from one female, demand at most only 2 per year, so as not to tire them out and to maintain the vigour of their strain.

The duration of heat is 5 to 8 days. Their interval is very variable, but most females, remarks Miss Langston, are in heat every 5 or 6 weeks, or every 2 weeks. If you examine the female’s genitals you sometimes notice a very light-coloured discharge and later on, in any case, this organ is clearly swollen and moist, with a slight colourless discharge. At this time, she can be mated.

Try mating from day 3. Take the female to the stud’s quarters, never do the opposite. Wait until the male mates the female. You need not witness the mating because you are warned of its completion by the cries that he female makes under the claws of the stud. The best time is at night, or early in the morning. After the mating, remove the female and take her back to her quarters. You are at liberty to take her back to the stud two days later but, in general, a single mating is enough. In many breeding catteries, the male’s services are provided to purebred females from other catteries; a male can easily serve 3 cats per week. The best season is Spring and Autumn, although mating can take place all year round.


You will notice that the female is pregnant around the 3rd week of gestation, by noting that the nipples turn pink, then resume their colour thereafter. Her belly gets bigger and her appetite increases. So take special care of he from a food point of view, by giving larger portions instead of the simple maintenance diet. Gestation lasts 50 to 55 days, on average 52. A few days before birth, put females in a heated Cattery, then isolate them in hutches at the last moment. Take care that the Cat never gets too warm during the birth, and to keep her intestines moving freely, give her a spoonful of olive oil on her meat during the last days of pregnancy.

Have a nursing cat ready in case the mother has an accident, or if the litter is too large for her. Use a common cat for this. Cats are such good mothers that they accept babies without difficulty. Proceed as you do with bitches. Remove the nurse and put the babies with her own Kittens. After two hours, bring her back. She adopts the new infants without even noticing their presence because they have the same smell as her own. Then gradually remove her own Kittens to be destroyed.

Weaning. Prepare the kittens for weaning as soon as they start wanting to eat from the mother’s plate. First give them warm milk, then gradually, good quality, finely minced raw meat.


Although the diet of most domestic animals has been the subject of frequent and comparative research, which it is easy for you to follow, you find nothing analogous for Cats. However, it is essential that you give them food appropriate to their needs, their current capacities and their way of life. Be completely aware of the general composition of the diet in order to avoid any deficiencies. Some subjects that have a poor start when being reared have a more delicate digestive system. Under these conditions, the slightest change in diet causes intestinal disorders.

The Cat is an essentially Carnivorous animal so give him raw beef, which gives him great vigour. Breeders advise against horse meat, veal and pork. Boiled liver is a stimulating and potent ingredient, but often causes diarrhoea when fed raw. Lungs (lights) are a particularly popular food, but do not have much nutritional value. Moreover, as Dr. Dervillez points out, misuse of organ meats (liver, lung, heart, spleen) can have drawbacks as these organs decompose and ferment quickly.

Fish is essential to the good health of a Cat kept in a state of semi-confinement. Cod and skate are nutritious, affordable foods; sardines, fresh or canned, and mixed with bread crumbs, are accepted and well digested. A breeder has noticed that in Siamese Cats fed exclusively on fish, the light colour of the coat persists longer than in Cats fed on meat.

Naturally, although the cat's food must be mainly meat, it should not be exclusively meat. So also give vegetables, green or dried; cook them well and mix them with meat and juice. Some breeds, such as the Siamese and Birman are also fond of rice because, with fish, it is the food that these subjects usually consumed in their country of origin.

Here is an example advised by Dr. Dervillez, a type of diet for an adult cat: Bread, rice or pasta, vegetables, 125 to 150 gr.; meat, 50 to 80 gr. Give the daily ration in two portions during the day rather than in a single meal in order to protect the stomach of the subjects.

During pregnancy, give the cat a fairly strong diet, but avoid making her overweight which is harmful to labour. Food should be healthy, varied, and nutritious, so as to avoid constipation. During the last week, give her as much milk as wanted.

When she is nursing young, give one or two additional meals, for example, fish mashed with bread, pasta, or cooked liver cut into small pieces; for drink give boiled milk, with pure water at will. In principle, a healthy cat can feed 4 kittens. If the mother dies immediately after delivery, have the young nursed by another cat. Otherwise, bottle-feed them with milk diluted with boiled water every 3 hours.

Kittens start eating at 6 weeks old. Give them warm, but not boiled, milk with a third of water as their first meal. Then gradually get their stomachs used to porridge and mash. Breeders recommend oatmeal, but kittens do not always accept this sort of porridge very well at the start, even if it is prepared with sweetened milk, so add a little meat juice. Macaroni and noodles are also good food for the youngsters. However, take into account the importance of vitamins; their absence from pasta can cause serious deficiency disorders and prevent good development of the kittens.

When the Kittens reach 2 and a half to 3 months, give them a milk soup in the morning and evening. At midday give them a vegetable soup and a few pieces of minced meat. In addition, to help the formation and development of the skeleton, especially in winter, give tonics (cod liver oil, bone powder). Around the age of 4 months, distribute normal food, mainly consisting of cooked meat, but not exclusively. Vary the diet with vegetables. Once a week, give fresh, well-cooked, boneless fish. During Winter, advises Mme. Noclain, you can prepare an excellent food by crushing sardines in well cooked rice.


In a Cattery, where subjects live in semi-captivity, the question of hygiene takes on great importance. Change the sawdust in the sanitary trays every day, and even twice a day, and wash them twice a week with cresylated water [Note: Cresylate consists of Isopropyl Alcohol and M-Cresyl Acetate]. Clean the parquet floors, the walls and the parquet floors of the hutch with a brush and bleach, twice a week, to combat bad odours and pests.

Remove the parasites from the cats with a comb and a brush. Any dust and dead hair must be removed by careful grooming, otherwise the cat swallows them by licking, which can cause vomiting. In any case, combing is essential during moulting time. At this time, all the old hair must be stripped from the skin to allow new hair to regrow well. When the moult is in full swing, that is to say when the hair becomes a little reddish in places, it tends to mat a little and fall out. Then, however, new hair begins to reappear, especially on the front legs and neck. Comb the animal with a large-toothed comb, not sharp, only 2 or 3 times for a period of about a month. Mr. Gaudet objects to the harmful practice of combing and brushing the animals each week, or even daily, for several months or even all year round. Only cautiously use a scrubbing brush or steel bristle brush, mounted on rubber and only a few times a year, mainly during moulting or to clean soiled fur. Too frequent use of a hard brush and especially over-use of the comb, breaks the beautiful guard hairs, tearing them off and preventing the fur from being evenly furnished or really beautiful.

In order to counteract the problems that even well-groomed Cats can experience from swallowing fur, allow them to eat grass. The grass serves as a purgative cat and facilitates the expulsion of hairballs. You can also give castor oil. Preferably use castor seeds whose pulp contains more active purgative properties than the oil [note: without the poisonous hull]. Here is a simple process to administer them: after kneading well three grains of castor seed with 5 gr. of butter, coat the front legs of the animal at about shoulder height with this mixture. The Cat, while washing, licks off this coating and thus swallows the medicine.


COMBING is a delicate operation, especially if the Cat has not been used to it from a young age. If possible, two people should be used for this procedure. First, comb the underside of the neck because the Cat likes to be scratched under the chin, and it looks up with a very satisfied expression. Take advantage of this posture to comb lower and lower. Have the assistant grab the forelegs to comb the belly. If the animal does not accept this easily, then grasp it by the nape of the neck while holding it back; if you are alone, this second way is preferred. Then return to the back while still holding the animal. Do this combing against the grain so as to "ruffle the fur" and thus make the hair stand out. For the tail, comb the fur to the sides, not along the length, to give this feline adornment its full plume.

To brush, preferably use a brush with a rubberized bottom with bristles and not a wire brush, which would damage the fur. Always work in the wrong direction and brush in the same order as combing, taking care, however, to proceed in small portions, separating the fur. For each of these portions, first smooth it in the direction it lies, then against the grain; hold the styled portion in your hand and continue.

This ruffling method is only used for cats with a uniform coat colour. On the contrary, it is advisable to smooth down the fur of patterned cats (Red tabby, brown tabby) so that the stripes or markings are clearly visible.

Ears. To clean the cat's ears, wrap the animal in a thick cloth large enough to go round it twice, so that by tightening it at the neck the forelegs cannot come out. Then take a stick e.g. a nail stick, and wrap the tip in a little cotton wool. Grasp the cat's ear with your left hand, and gently dry-clean the ear cavities one at a time. Then spray some boric acid into the ear using a dropper.

The paws. From time to time, wash the paws. Avoid cutting the claws. Quite often we complain about the wear of armchairs and sofas or various draperies by Cats sharpening its claws. To remedy this, make a very simple device, comprising a board on which you nail a piece of carpet; place this device in a tilted position against the wall, and as soon as you see kitty clawing on your chair, transport it to its "scratching post". After 2 or 3 times, the habit is established, and it doesn't destroy furnishings anymore. - Miss Meunier.


When a cat show approaches, make sure you have everything you need for the visit and for grooming your cats. Cushions, draperies, sawdust, an ad hoc box (which is often missing at exhibitions), food dish, bowl etc ... and a padlock is useful.

For their grooming, carefully brush each cat in order to clean and shine its coat. If the Cat is too dirty, wash it like a Dog. Clean the ears, which are often very dirty to the annoyance of the judges. For long-haired cats (Persians, Birmans, etc.), give them a good grooming: brushing, combing, dusting etc. Cats with long white coats (white Persians) must be immaculate, but do not use talc as this is prohibited. If these need to be specially groomed, do so just at the time of the exhibition as for Persians and Birmans.

Give Cats a very light diet before they travel since change and travel can greatly unnerve some animals. Transport them in the best possible conditions: large baskets, well ventilated for the summer and insulated from the cold for the winter.

Cat shows are often held in Winter and some breeds suffer from the cold. In particular, avoid drafts for Siamese and for Kittens. In general, avoid exhibiting litters that are too young; it’s pointless and even dangerous.

When you are in the exhibition hall in front of your cages make sure they are clean. If necessary, wash them with a cloth moistened with bleach as an essential precaution. Once this is done, put your exhibits and their sawdust tray in the cage. The small size of the cages often forces the animal to step on this makeshift tray and makes the cage dirty. Instead, put the tray in there at regular intervals so that the animal can use it if necessary.

From my point of view, decoration benefits from being sober. Too many cages look like bazaars or toy nurseries. I saw cages where we had to look for the Cats exhibited among a heap of cushions, hangings, multicoloured balls, flowers, and even children's toys ... Add to that the medals and diplomas that breeders sometimes have the annoying habit of putting in the cage.

A Cat must be highlighted by the cage decorations, but they should never interfere with the beauty of the Cats themselves. It is best to have a simple hanging covering the bottom of the cage and the lateral sides. if necessary one above it as well, plus a cushion and that's all.

Choose colours best matched to your cat's fur. This is easy: the opposite tones are suggested - black hangings for White cats, and vice versa; blue hangings for the Siamese etc. - Baudoin-Crevoisier.


Cat Shows have been held in England for over fifty years. The first took place at the Crystal Palace in 1871 and others followed annually there with almost no interruption since. In 1887 the National Cat Club was formed. Since 1896, events at the Crystal Palace have been organized by that Club.

The National Cat Club established rules for cat shows. These rules, with slight modifications, are still in use. After 1900 many Clubs and Societies were formed, but the National Cat Club maintained its authority. In 1910, the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy was established, which also adopted the show rules established by the National Cat Club.

Cat shows have changed a lot in fifty years. The former consisted mainly of short-haired cats; there were very few long-haired subjects, and there were neither Blues nor Siamese. Today, the Blues and the Siamese predominate and there are relatively few short-haired subjects. At the first exhibition of the Crystal Palace, there were only a dozen classes. By 1887, the number had risen to 50. In 1934, there were 151. - Cyril Yeates, Honorary Secretary of the National Cal Club.


YOU WILL ALREADY KNOW the tireless efforts pursued in favour of animal protection by the “Society for the Protection of Animals” chaired by Mme du Gast, Other organizations such as the "Small Animal Relief Society,” "The Association for the Protection of Cats" and the "Feline Protection Society," render indisputable service.

The "Feline Protection Society" aims, in particular: firstly, to create and maintain a refuge where stray cats will be collected for treatment or to be destroyed if not adopted; secondly, to fight against the abandonment and brutality of which the Cat is a victim; thirdly, to recognize and appreciate the services rendered by the ratting cat; fourthly to love and protect the Cat and, by extension, all Pets. The means of action of the Society include, in particular, the publication and distribution of leaflets and brochures, the insertion of articles in newspapers and magazines, the organization of conferences, and all other forms of propaganda permitted by law.

People’s dispensaries. There are two dispensaries in Paris organized by the P.D.S.A., a society founded in London in 1917 by Mrs, Dickin O.B.E. This society started with a dispensary installed in a cellar in a poor district of London, Since then, it has grown and in England it currently has 7 dispensaries, 3 hospitals, ambulances for small and large animals and 10 mobile dispensaries. Other dispensaries have been established abroad, including 2 in Paris, 2 in Romania, 1 in Tangier and 1 in the Dutch East Indies.

The Society lives only on voluntary donations and treats only animals of people too poor to pay for veterinary care. All treatments are free. They treat all species of animals. The two Parisian dispensaries treat around 3,000 cases a month, and the entire Society treats almost a million Animals a year.

In Belgium, on the other hand, the Cats’ Home has just been created, thanks to the initiative and material help of Mme la Duchesse de Croy, honorary president of "La Féline". This is an establishment especially appropriate for collecting and sheltering Cats.


HERE IS A VERY curious adoption case. A pretty Griffon Bruxellois dog, belonging to Mrs. P. Johnson, having given birth to 4 puppies for the first time, refused from the start to nurse her young. Rare for an animal, she had no maternal instincts, and all attempts to get her to approach the puppies were unsuccessful.

Sad to see the puppies abandoned in this way, the gardener's wife, feeding her own baby, had the idea of giving a little of her own milk, which they accepted. She then presented them to a mother cat with one kitten, this very gentle she-cat eagerly them, fed them and surrounded them with care for some time.

Another Cat, the daughter of the previous one, also nursing, continued this full and perfect adoption during the 2nd month. Weaned at this age, the two little Griffons weighed, respectively, at 2 and a half months, 600 and 900 gr.


The active and important Federation “The National Council of Feline Societies” is preparing an International Feline Congress to be held in Paris, on a date to be fixed, at the same time as a major International Cat Show. All things considered, the leaders foresee an event of the order of the incomparable World Canine Congress, which was held in Monaco in 1934, and whose work was, and remains remarkable, (1), and is held in Frankfurt in 1935. There is no doubt that this great Federation of honest professionals and amateurs grouped to improve the fate of the Chat, which brings together the leading Societies and Clubs, will realise its project with full success.
(1) Vie a la Campagne, No. 371: What I saw at the Dog Show in Monte-Carlo. The Teachings of the World Cynological Congress. This issue 6 fr France; Overseas 8 fr.


Friends of Cats, you also love all Animals and often Gardens and Flowers. So you will read with great interest the fascinating Monograph of the famous Zoological Park specific to Cleres, the most unexpected and most prestigious of Noah's Arks, which contains no dangerous animals. The subjects are almost all raised and allowed to constantly roam freely on the lawns, the water features and in the trees of this superb Park. In addition to this, this organization allows you to contemplate in immense aviaries and greenhouses, rare exotic Birds such as the Bird of Paradise, cock-of-the-rock [species of cotinga from South America], and Hummingbirds, allowing visitor to see them up close.
The Monographs will appear:
(May 1st): The Park and the Paved Garden.
(June 1): The Zoological Park, Aviaries and Greenhouses.
Price of each Issue, 5 fr. Foreign, 6 fr.
Increases 3 months later to 6 fr. Foreign: 8 fr.



A WORK of this importance cannot be done without the active collaboration of breeders, amateurs or professionals. We asked, by a questionnaire-survey, some of our most authorized correspondents, their breeding "secrets" and, as they have broad ideas, they have hidden nothing from us that makes them successful. Their answers are lively and very complete, successively solving the basic problems of the management of a breeding cattery: Reproduction, Gestation, Kittening, Rearing Kittens, Adults, Hygiene care and finally, that which makes it possible to keep Cats in apartments: training them for meticulous cleanliness.


In general, the cat eats according to its needs and appetite. Thus, he himself is your guide when it comes to his food ration. He is not greedy, even when food panders to his taste. I give the Stud Cat cooked meat cut into small pieces, twice a day; in the evening, I mix the meat with pasta and vegetables, preferably carrots, also spinach or lentils, but in small quantities. Little or no potatoes.

I often give fish in the evening instead of meat. With this, remove the fat if it is abundant, and the tendons and the cartilage when they are too hard. I take into account the shape of the cat’s mouth. It has difficulty chewing, when it closes its jaws its very short teeth do not meet together and cannot chew food; its incisors prevent it from gnawing easily. Its dentition is more adapted to tearing than to grinding. Twice a week, in addition, I give the males an almost raw, scalded liver, the scalding being done to avoid worms.

The Stud cat is generally calm when no females in heat are in its presence or in the vicinity. I have a very vigorous Siamese stud, to whom, in three months, I have presented only two females in whom he has not shown the slightest sign of excitement.

Do not leave the two cats together more than forty-eight hours and sometimes less if you notice the male shying away from the provocations of the female and trying to get out of her reach in order to sleep; this is an indication of fatigue. You can present a female to the stud every eight days or every two weeks, depending on the robustness of his constitution.

When the female is in heat, which happens two or three times a year, she barely eats and not every day. She loses weight, her hair becomes unkempt, she tries to escape or to attract males by her cries. I avoid letting her be pregnant too frequently; I only breed females once a year, in Spring, and always by a stud cat I have chosen. The litters are thus more beautiful and the young are better raised than at other times of the year. When they are in heat, I give the females one or two anti-nerve pills per day (generally just one in the evening is enough), an hour approximately before meals. The animal calms down, eats its mash as usual and sleeps peacefully. Her appearance does not change and her health benefits. This system is infinitely preferable to that which consists in letting the Cat run free and destroying the excess litters. It’s more humane and it also saves her from the fatigue of pregnancy. She receives her usual ration of food: meat, pasta, vegetables and fish.

As I want to have select kittens from a female, I make sure that she does not escape in order to avoid unwanted litters resulting from chance encounters.

If you want to have a neuter cat, castrate it around the age of six months. This does not affect his qualities in any way and does not change his temperament or intelligence. As with all eunuchs, animal or human, their bodies increase in bulk.

The neutered cat has some advantages in that it is not tempted to stray from home to go in pursuit of females. It is at least as good a ratter as the entire male because it no longer has such preoccupations. For hunting in large spaces, neuters are preferable to entire males. The latter is likely to get lost if it is lured away by the calls and the sex appeal of females.

Performed carefully on a young subject, castration is not dangerous. Afterwards, allow the animal to rest, put milk at his disposal and monitor him. If he is feverish, call the veterinarian. In general, a few days are enough for him to recover completely.


The cat's appetite increases when she is pregnant and the amount of food she consumes tells me how much to feed her. Leave her a meal at her disposal for the night if she is hungry. Insist on more nutritious meat food and follow the regular diet. Besides, don't change her habits, and leave her in peace. When there are other animals in the house, isolate her, if you notice that they are annoying her. In the final stages of pregnancy, to avoid her becoming fatigued, place her plate, water and sawdust toilet tray within easy reach.

About two weeks before the birth, the expectant mother becomes restless. She ferrets around her, scratches the doors of cupboards and wardrobes, enters them when she can, looks for discreet and small dark corners, settling there for a moment, as if she wants to try them out, then searches again. It is time to think of preparing an acceptable nest for her.

In a dry place, away from light, I install a basket or crate lined with a cushion stuffed with straw or oat husk and covered with a fleece and a cloth. If she accepts this nest, she stretches out on it often, as if to get used to it.

I always know when the birth is due because I am familiar with my she-cats. When one of these reaches that moment, she searches for her owners, demanding their presence nearby, seeming to ask them for help. If they are deaf to her pleas (which is never the case with me), the poor creature does not given in, she crawls to them, finding, and in their company finds relief to her suffering.

Obliged to move away from her for a moment, I once saw my unhappy Cat, Lilith, leave her basket where there was already a Kitten and run after me with another still attached to her! Although I rarely have to intervene, I monitor the females so I can help them if necessary and, in the event of a bad presentation, I can take her to the veterinarian. There are cats that suffer miscarriages, or who get sick at birthing time. For these, it is sometimes necessary to remove the ovaries, which is the female equivalent of castration.

When a cat has had a miscarriage, it usually eats the foetus and membranes. I only notice this has happened when I see her belly decrease in size and some blood loss. I then give her exclusively milk in case of fever, and I feed her lightly for the first few days, then I give her more substantial.

The duration of birth varies from two to six hours, but I have seen Cats give birth to one or two additional kittens the next day. It is often said that the mother must be prevented from eating the membranes, but I have always left her free to follow her instincts.

After the babies are born, I let the Cat rest with water and a bowl of milk next to her. A little later, I change the stained and wet cloths in the basket and renew them. Otherwise I would risk seeing her leave her bed taking her little ones and looking to put them elsewhere, almost certainly choosing, for preference, the beds in the house.

For food, I follow the usual diet, I add almost raw liver in small pieces, and I insist on milk, if it does not cause enteritis, as is quite common. I prepare a food supplement for the night-time.


Kittens are born with their eyes closed. Their eyes open slowly. Daylight is harmful to their eyes and they can become blind by being exposed to bright light too early.

The mother cleans them, and, two hours after birth, they are unrecognizable: they are clean and their hair is dry. Except when the Kittens are being born, the nest is never soiled, not even by the droppings of the young.

I have observed that the mother turns her young on their backs and, licks the belly from top to bottom, massaging the intestine and bladder with her tongue until the contents are evacuated. So, just as with the afterbirth, she swallows everything, without leaving the slightest trace of urine or excrement. She continues this until her growing kittens have learned to use the sawdust tray. From time to time, I put a little pyrethrum powder or a specialty insecticide in her nest to suppress or avoid fleas. In addition, I comb her once or twice a week.


The mother's food should be particularly healthy and abundant during nursing. A Cat can feed four kittens if she is robust. Always leave her some mash for the night, in case she is hungry.

As in any breeding establishment, females do not have identical numbers of young and since there are often several mothers at the same time, you can give extra kittens to a mother than has only one or two. Adoption is done quickly. As far as possible the Kittens must be the same age, otherwise the nursing of the oldest, the greediest, is detrimental to the youngest who may die. You can put two mothers in the same room, if they are used to living together, as is the case with me in Le Havre, or in Paris, where my cats live in the same room. But if they fight or steal each other’s kittens, separate them.

You can artificially rear a newborn cat. It is quite difficult if there are several, because they all demand their feed at the same time. Put a few drops of milk in their mouths every hour with a dropper or give them a tiny bottle. I have always given boiled cow's milk, but undiluted, the milk of the Cat being richer and more concentrated than cow’s milk. Simplify your task however as much as possible, by finding a replacement [foster mother] for your prematurely orphaned kittens.

Some mothers wean their young at three weeks. This was the case of a Persian that I have. However, she must instinctively realize that at this age her offspring cannot fend for themselves. Also, she monitors their food and even takes care of it, taking them pieces she chooses from her plate, chewing the morsels first and then presenting them to the kittens. She continues in this way until they are able to feed themselves. She also takes care of the disposal of their droppings until they are big enough to go into their sanitary tray.


In normal cases, a fortnight after birth offer the young a little warm milk. Do not insist if they refuse. At one month you can add a little bread and crumbled fish to the milk. Around two months, I start giving them noodles mixed with liver; later on, offer minced meat or meat cut into small pieces. It is only at three months that they can be given the same food as adults; naturally the quantity is proportional to their appetite and the meat ration is less strong.

Infant formula is excellent for Kittens with or without milk; if you notice that milk causes enteritis, remove it completely, even for young kittens. I have noticed this intolerance manifesting itself in some subjects as early as three months old. This is so for one of my families of Persian Cats who have always been intolerant of dairy products (milk, cream, butter, etc.).

When females do not wean their young themselves and they reach the age of three months, I keep them away from the mothers. But sometimes, when there are several Kittens, the majority of them choose a replacement. They devolve this role of nursemaid to one of them whom the others suckle more than the other even though it doesn’t lactate. As this is generally the weakest, it cannot defend himself and submits. In this case, separate the Kittens immediately so that they lose this habit. At around four months, I increase their meat ration and feed the Kittens like the adults. The enemies of Cats are fleas and worms, I have already told you how to avoid the former.

I have had, in a room in my apartment at home, up to seventeen Kittens and never a single flea. As a preventive measure, I sprinkle the fur of my animals twice a month with a harmless insecticidal powder. A few hours later I comb and brush them, and this way I maintain them always free from parasites.

For worms, the best is to never give raw food. At home, raw liver is always scalded before being offered to cats. Preventively, I give a very light de-wormer every two months, as soon as the Kittens have reached weaning age, that is to say about four months. On the advice of veterinarian Dr. Briand, I cured a young subject of ascarids by making him consume 1 mmgr. santonin on an empty stomach, daily for ten days, but consult the veterinarian in other cases.

The cat’s stomach and gut are less prone to parasites than those of other animals, when treated and monitored, it is also the least prone to disease.


Cats and especially kittens dislike cold and humidity. They need air and sun. A Cattery, to be successful, must be well exposed to sunshine, it is essential. Young Cats must have enough space for their antics if there is no garden or a courtyard for them. A balcony, a mesh-covered window to prevent falls outside, kept wide open during sunny hours will be sufficient.

I always provide my kittens with a stepladder high enough for them to jump and climb on. Most of the time, the mother, always a remarkable teacher, sits hierarchically on the top step from which she watches her unruly brood.

I hang balls of wool on a string from the wall; these are toys that they love and that also teach them to jump, helping to increase their agility and flexibility. To fortify and promote bone formation, I have had excellent results using sixase; this preparation, which contains lime phosphate, was recommended to me by Dr. Briand.

I once had a little Tenerife dog, taken from his mother at the age of four days. It was accepted by a Siamese Cat who had just had kittens, but he was driven very hard by the mother cat who did not understand why the training of this slow learner, as she considered him was so difficult, nor why he was so awkward, clumsy and forgetful. He ended up behaving and playing like a cat. His terrible adoptive mother had managed, by dint of masterful beatings, to get into the habit of using the sawdust tray like his Siamese brothers. With her blue eye, she watched him closely and, in the event of a mistake on the part of poor Puppy, she arrived with raised paw and extended claws, ready to thrash the blunderer.

I have already told you the downside of harsh light for kittens. Besides, the Cat stays in the shade with her offspring and only attracts them towards daylight when she realizes that its Kittens are able to face it without danger.

There is more to learn from studying animals and their instincts than there is for them to acquire from human teaching.


Meat food must be the basis of the Cat’s diet; always remember that they are predators. But like humans, cats get tired of the same foods all the time. You must vary meals to stimulate the appetite.

Beef, horse, liver and beef heart, fish and lungs all appeal to Cats. The lungs, to which you perhaps give so much importance, are less nutritious than any other meat; I rarely give these and usually only to young cats, before giving them meat. Grilled horse meat finely cut and mixed with noodles or vermicelli; or beef cooked in boiling water, cut and mixed with pasta, constitute very good substantial meals.

Simple scalded liver, if given to stud cats or nursing mothers, or cooked and mixed with pasta for young cats, is an excellent food. Fish is a light food which I often give, but then one of the two daily meals always consists of meat. Some cats have an intolerance of fish. I stopped giving it to one of my cats who regurgitated it a quarter of an hour after eating it. In such cases, do not insist.

In my cattery, I alternate the composition of the meals: beef at noon, mixed with noodles in the evening. Horse meat at noon, liver or spleen with pasta in the evening. Beef at noon, heart mixed with vegetables and pasta in the evening. Give potatoes in small doses; carrots are excellent for Cats as well as spinach. However, avoid the latter vegetable with cats that get diarrhoea from it.


In a case resembling intestinal upset, put the cat on a diet for a day. Often this is enough to cure it. The following day I give a little lung and after two or three days I return to the usual regime.

When it comes to young Cats, I also give a little lactol in Eau de Vais [mineral water]. But I have only ever encountered mild cases, never having had a case of disease in the many Cats that I have raised, now more than a hundred, since my husband, Dr. Loir, is intensively involved with ratting cats.

To overcome constipation give a spoonful of olive oil; in more stubborn cases a few drops of castor oil mixed with a little oil from a can of sardines is usually enough.

As with Dogs there is, in Cats, what one calls "the disease" or Cat typhus [distemper]. Catteries are decimated by this very contagious illness.

The cat's tongue and gums are swollen and inflamed, it drools and cannot swallow anything. Its temperature reaches 39 centigrade. In severe cases, it is best to use vaccination. To combat this disease there are injections of sulfarseno-benzol in the tenth [dilution]: an injection every two days until it gets better. Support the heart with injections of camphor oil and inject half a vial of a stimulant morning and evening. I used this method on the advice of Mr. Briand and healed a Cat that had been brought to me almost dying.

[Sulfarseno-benzol: sulpharsphenamine, The disodium salt of Dioxydiaminoarsenobenzene; Dimethylenesulphonic Acid]

Ear mites are sometimes seen in cats, even those in good health. You notice this because the cats often shake their heads and scratch their ears. It is a non-contagious affection, neither for Man nor Cats, very easy to control. Use carbon sulfide to the tenth [dilution]. Brush the inside of the affected ear every day and it will very often go away in a few days.

Kittens’ legs are quite delicate. Never throw a kitten to the ground abruptly; this can cause fractures and dislocations that are very annoying to treat. The Cat does not tolerate a splint or bandage; he struggles like a devil and always gets rid of it. One day, one of my Siamese fell from a third floor and suffered a broken paw. It mended very quickly: in two days. But during this time, I had to constantly hold the creature in my arms to immobilize the fractured limb. It took about fifteen days to heal completely.

Tuberculosis is rare in cats, it does not exceed 2 or 3 percent accoding to Mr. Briand and other important veterinarians.


Cats can suffer from contagious skin diseases. By treating them right at the start, all are curable. The skin of the Cat is very sensitive so pay careful attention to any medication and use it very carefully. Also remember that the cat, by licking itself, absorbs external medications, which can be dangerous and cause serious problems.

If you notice that your Cat has a few bald patches, just put a little petroleum oil on it (in very small quantities). If these patches are wet, anoint them with a little petroleum oil first; when dry, the scabs fall off by themselves. Here, put on oil first and later lycopod powder. I was once advised to destroy a Cat that had been brought to me covered in scabies. I treated it with this procedure after almost completely shaving it. In less than three months he had become beautiful again, his fur had grown back completely. I consider skin diseases to be the most feared ailment because, if they are neglected the will cause the animal to go into a depression.

I will not dwell on the excitability of the cat's skin. The electricity that emanates from it is a remarkable proof, which manifests itself in all sensations, even modifying the Cat’s appearance. Look at the Cat’s fur; you can follow all its moods.

When angry, his hair bristles. When upset or excited, you will see ripples rising and travelling all over his body. You cannot believe how excitable the cat's skin can be. I have seen examples of scabies which I call "nervous scabies" because I can be certain that these subjects have never been contagious. The first manifested itself in Lilith, a healthy, tabby cat, who for four years had been alone with me. After the introduction of a Siamese into the house, Lilith's character changed; from being gentle and affectionate, her mood became irritable and sad, she ran away from me, and had no appetite. This was a phenomenon of exacerbated jealousy.

To avoid any bad-tempered contact between the two cats, and to gently bring them to know each other, I let them see each other through a glass door. A few days later, I noticed a few whitish patches on Lilith's neck, which I did not pay attention to, knowing only of contagious scabies. Soon, those scabs had spread all over her body. All my care was useless.

It was only three months after her hair regained its original appearance that she agreed to share her home with the newcomer. They had kittens at the same time, raised them together and everything went back to normal. With their offspring, they lived in the same room, would lie on the balcony in the sun during the day and graze a little grass that I had planted for them in a tub. The Cat needs these herbs: it brings tem back up a few moments later, along with the hair it has swallowed while licking itself. Subjects with long hairs thus get rid of veritable balls of felted fur which could otherwise suffocate them. "Grass for Cats" is found in all florists. In the evening, mothers and kittens found their respective baskets in a bathroom. The Kittens suckled either one or the other, and the mothers accepted them, whoever’s they were.

I have listed cases where a breeder can, by herself, give care to her Cats. See also “Vie a la Campagne;” The Perfect Veterinarian Of Dogs And Cats (170 illustrations). Price: 15 fr.; overseas: 20 fr.


The good condition of your breeding cattery depends mainly on hygiene, cleanliness, and the good running of the Cattery. The room where the Cats are kept must be free of bad smells. It can be washed and deodorized with lusoform (two spoonfuls for one litre of water). Then dry it well as humidity is very harmful to Cats. Avoid drafts.

Wash and deodorize the litter trays; renew the sand or sawdust once or twice a day, especially if you have several Cats. Let them run freely. Two of my cats once abandoned their lavatory for a small drain in the hallway of the apartment. We can often be guided by their instincts and be led to important simplifications. Cat excrement, especially male urine, has a very unpleasant odour. A drain with running water is easy to wash and deodorize, making it a hundred times preferable to boxes filled with sand or sawdust.

I also noticed that the Cats did not even make the motions of scratching when they went on the smooth stone of the drain, while they always tried to scratch on the newspaper which I put in the bottom of the litter trays or in the hearth, before placing the sand there. This mode of wanting to cover excrement does not come, as we think, from the desire to hide it out of modesty, but to suppress its odours. Notice what the animal does: it sniffs after scratching and if its nostrils are still offended by the smell, it starts to scratch again.

I have seen Cats adopt a chamber pot that you end up abandoning to them; another discovered the flushing water closet and found it was perfect for him.

It is therefore not essential to adopt sawdust; if you can have a drain, there is every advantage in replacing the traditional box with this. Cats, by their example, teach their little ones about cleanliness. It is, moreover, one of the Cat’s instincts. But for it to keep its instinctive qualities, certain conditions must be fulfilled. The first is that he is happy and confident.

Never hit a Cat. If he happens to forget himself once, out a little formalin and a little pepper in the soiled place with; scold it gently by placing it in the presence of its mischief. Chances are it won't happen again.


Even if there is only one person in the house who is hostile to it, this is enough for the Cat to become unhinged and lose its equilibrium. And this is the reason why there are dirty Cats, Cats that scratch and flee, and Cats that are bad ratters. All these things are quite possible if the Cat does not benefit from the complete affection of those around him. The Cat wants only to please, to love and to be loved. He comes to you with his affection, with all his desire to please. If you do not welcome him, he is surprised, crumpled and distressed and if discomfort of this order continues, his personality changes; he becomes fearful, sad and distrustful. This sensitive creature suffers when he feels antipathy, and his whole attitude is affected. Be good to him, never be brusque with him. You will not regret it.

I live with my Cats, but I have taught them to respect my interior where they cause no trouble. You can, like me, cherish your beautiful furniture, beautiful tapestries, love the harmony brought by art around you, and be attached to the memories that mark the stages of your life, without making the tangible sacrifice of the joy that the presence of this graceful addition to your home brings you.

My Cats don’t damage anything. They use an old rattan armchair or a white wooden board covered with a piece of carpet. They know what not to use and they obey my voice. Softness suffices for this easy training and it does no harm. Never rush or hit either a child or a cat. Be logical and exercise self-control, you will succeed with one or the other. Sentimentality plays a large part in cat breeding. The domestic Cat needs tenderness and responds to your care with gratitude. You have the Cat you deserve, said Pierre Loti, I believe, and nothing is truer. Remember also that this companion, whose friendship you will earn, can more than charm you with its innate qualities, it is ideal for defending you against two social dangers: bankruptcy and disease. - Hélène de MONTÈS-LOIR.

While the Cat is a useful animal for many people, chosen at random and raised in the same way, for others it is a faithful companion through good and bad days, raised by his owner and close to him. Also, for the amateur, the best method of breeding consists of choosing a breed and surrounding himself with a small number of subjects in order to devote all his care to this breed. This way, he has them completely in hand and gets to know them better from a health and character point of view.


Indeed, although the Cat, like its lower brothers, cannot speak, it has its own Cat language and its own characteristic ways to show that it knows and understands its master.

To take better care of his cat’s health without completely sacrificing his interior, the true amateur-breeder of Cats provides his guests with comfortable accommodation. We have reserved three spacious rooms for our Cats, well-lit and well-ventilated, provided with a way of maintaining a constant temperature with a thermostatic control, so that changes in temperature, which can be deadly to many breeds, does not reach the cats.

One of the rooms is reserved for males and is divided into boxes with latticed windows so that the Cat can get fresh air and climb, which is essential for its health and physical development.

There is basic furniture in each box: a hutch, furnished in winter with a fleece, and in Summer with light fabric; a stool where Puss particularly likes to sit to follow the movements of the garden birds, and where it can exercise its claws on the rungs. In one corner is an unfolded newspaper, renewed each morning, on which there is a zinc sawdust tray with high edges. These litter trays are thoroughly disinfected twice a week and exposed to the sun whenever possible. The floors of the boxes are washed once a week with very hot bleach to kill any fleas that might be there. We must not forget an electric light for checking the Cats’ activities in the evening.

The second bedroom is reserved for she-cats and is divided into spacious boxes as before, and furnished in the same way, taking care that the niches are twice the length of the cat and have a movable cover, and that the entrance includes a hatch or a small door to allow separation of the kittens when their artificial feeding begins.

The weaned kittens are separated from their mother and have their spacious room, well ventilated and lit, with a large hutch with a movable cover and hatch.


What approach should be taken vis-à-vis adult cats and vis-à-vis kittens, from the point of view of general and personal hygiene?

Every morning, the cats are woken early and indulged with physical exercise, which could not be simpler: a 50 cm braid is enough and thanks to this, the Cats run, jump and cling, depending on whether you are trailing the braid while you are moving around, or raising it along the wall or the lattices. There is nothing better for maintaining a freely moving gut and strengthening the bones than by the cats running, grabbing and jumping. Ping-pong balls are valuable aids that Cats have fun with on their own.

After their physical exercise, the Cats are carefully groomed with a metal comb and wire brush for the Persians. The Siamese are brushed with a scrubbing brush and a suede is passed over the fur. Their natural cavities are carefully disinfected, and every ten days a powdered insecticide is used to prevent fleas.


Then it's meal time. For breeders as for all purebred cats, the food rations must be carefully calculated, and the preparation rigorously monitored.

It would be ideal, for both Cats and Dogs, to give only meat; but current difficulties do not allow many people to do this.

For an 18 month Persian breeding cat, for example, give a diet made up of pasta, alternating raw and cooked meat, preferably beef, vegetables, and vitamin D (20 days per month) twice a day. From time to time a little finely chopped watercress or a few drops of raw carrot juice.

Take very good quality pasta and cook it carefully. Cook pasta shells for a quarter of an hour, in barely salted and flavoured water (thyme, bay leaf, garlic); after cooking, immerse them in cold water, shaking the colander to avoid them sticking and hardening; then carefully leave them to drain; Cats should not consume food that is too soft, much less liquid. Put, in each adult’s saucer, 3 tablespoons of pasta shells per meal; 200 gr of beef per day; 100 gr. raw in the morning, not minced, but diced, 100 gr, cooked and chopped in the evening. Add a teaspoon of cooked lettuce, chopped and well-drained. Twenty days a month, give vitamin D of your choice and half a teaspoon of tricalcin. Before offering the food, let it cool down and add the vitamin drops. Give unlimited water to drink, never milk unless the cat is constipated. In this case, 2 tablespoons of raw cow's milk from time to time will achieve the desired effect. Every two weeks put your Cats on a diet of lukewarm Vichy water to avoid liver problems.

Never purge Cats. In general, when the females are going into heat their appetite becomes capricious and decreases markedly on the second and third days, then they tend to get diarrhoea and chills. The best thing is to conform to their preferences, avoiding what they do not want; then give them Eau de Vais and cooked meat during their heat. In general, after six or seven days everything is back to normal.


Should we give fish to breeding cats? Yes, if you are sure of its freshness and of the quality of the ice preserving it. Fish contains phosphorus, which is excellent for male or female breeding cats. But be very strict regarding its quality. I know of a Siamese, the darling of its owners, which had been fed exclusively with fish for the first three years of his life and which almost died after eating some very fresh fish that had been preserved with poor quality ice. So be careful and monitor its quality and cooking. Cook the fish moderately after skinning and washing it, then drain it well. Give Persians two fish meals a week, taking care to remove any bones.

Siamese are sometimes fed exclusively on fish - which keeps their fur very pale, or so it is said. To sell them, you'd better alternate fish and grilled meat.


Entire male cats not intended for breeding should be neutered at around four months, but there is no hard and fast rule. The veterinarian is sometimes obliged to delay the operation if the organs have not descended enough. It is said that castrated males are more faithful, but this is a matter of breed and temperament; I have known some who fled their homes at one year old, intending to stray, and it was necessary to treat them with camphor for a few months before they became wise.

Neutered cats are often larger than “tomcats” depending on the breed. Among the Siamese there is very often no difference between the entire males and the neuters, in fact the neuters are often thinner than the tomcats.


On the 2nd and 4th days after the females are mated, keep them calm in the box [indoor pen] where they will have their young, and feed them as usual, taking into account their whims. After about three weeks, the nipples turn bright pink, and this often lasts only four or five days: this is a good sign. So, add half a teaspoon of tricalcin to the meals. Then increase the meals a little, insisting on meat, which favourably influences lactation. After a month, instead of 2 meals, give 3 smaller meals, in total higher in quantity. This avoids compression. Play with them after meals, so that they have as much exercise as possible, taking care to prevent them from jumping.

Give hygienic care as usual, carefully, taking care not to frighten the cats and paying particular attention to dental care. Avoid noise. Do not forget the insecticide dusting to avoid fleas spreading to the kittens.

Fifteen days before the birth, clean the hutch and then expose it to sunlight, if possible, for forty-eight hours. Furnish it with a very soft kelp mattress in a wooden crate.


Cover the windows and the light bulb with green during the first month of rearing the young. Check on the kittens several times a day, very carefully, and as much as possible without changing clothes. Puss will usually hide in the darkest corner of her crate and lie on her back for you to massage her abdomen, which must be done very gently to be pleasant and to give her some relief.

Remove her meal if she is not eating much of it and leave her some milk with Vichy water. Then, have close to hand rubber hot water bottles covered with a folded wool fleece, in which you put the Kittens as soon as they are born and cleaned by the mother or, unusually, by the breeder. Avoid the mother hearing shouting, otherwise it will interfere with her labour.

Immediately dab the kittens’ umbilical cords with alcohol at 90 proof with very sanitized hands and introduce a drop of 5% gomenolee oil [Tea Tree Oil] into each nostril.

If her labour is prolonged, give the little ones a drink, as it is better for them to do this as soon as possible. The mother’s nipples must be washed beforehand with lukewarm Vichy water. Then add a few drops of galega extract [Goat’s Rue, a folk medicine tonic] to the drink morning and evening.


Usually the mother feels the need to eat twelve or twenty-four hours after giving birth. In the first days, put her meals in her crate, being careful to spread white paper under the saucer so that food debris does not get lost in the crate and ferment. Then, later, she will come out for her meal; let her do this: she will want for some exercise. Just watch her, because at the first cry from her kittens, she leaves her meal and returns to them. Let her finish her meal near them so that the meal time is not disturbed any further. Naturally, during lactation, refrain from giving raw vegetables, carrot juice or other juice. Always keep filtered water available for the mother and remember that couch grass is essential for her.

In general, mothers feed their kittens for one month to six weeks. As soon as you realize that a young Cat is not lingering on the nipple and is looking for something else, present your hands to him after preparing the meat for the mother's meal; the youngsters will pay close attention and lick your hands. Start feeding them with small cubes of beef. In cases where the mother doesn’t produce enough milk, make sure you have access to a common cat that is suckling her kittens at the same time, and give her your kittens after removing her own and rubbing the newcomers against her.


On the first day [of weaning], give ½ teaspoon of meat, then gradually increase this reach 10O grammes per day by 4 months, monitoring the mother’s diet so that she helps with her milk for a long time. Do not mince the meat and beware of horsemeat, which is much too heavy for the little ones. Continue gradually, up to six weeks; give your kittens de-wormer in a spoonful of milk, then give them Eau de Vais.

Start mixing a teaspoon of well-drained pasta, mashed with a fork, in two of the raw and cooked meat meals interspersed with one meal containing cooked lettuce. When you are sure the young are healthy, omit the mother’s milk, putting her on a reduced diet for 48 hours. Mix vitamins and tricalcin with the pasta for the young, and, when they have reached 3 months, twice a week offer an incompletely cleaned calf’s foot so that the Kittens tear of the little meat left there, holding the bone with their small paws, which is perfect for the development of their jaw and limbs. Every 10 days, put Persians on a 24 hour diet from time to time to avoid indigestion of hair, giving some carefully peeled fish. In general, if the cat has no liver defects and no intestinal worms, the functioning of the intestine is regular with a balanced and carefully augmented diet. If a Cat tends to have diarrhoea, the most common cause is cold, along with poor nutrition; every third day give Vais Saint-Jean water, and if things get worse, try dieting and vaccines against typhus helped by yeasts.

On the contrary, if you encounter constipation, a teaspoon of raw cow’s milk every three days restores equilibrium, which means that cow’s milk should be used as little as possible for Kittens.


As soon as the Kittens are old enough to leave their mother, she herself teaches them to be clean and they will continue to be clean if you take care to prepare in advance a crate and newspaper and, like all Cats, large or small, they are always very clean when healthy and well kept, and will they reserve their sawdust tray for their small errands and the newspaper for the large ones, which greatly simplifies maintenance.

You can now safely let your students move around the house; they always return home to perform their functions. If you gently get the used to it each time you see them err, they won’t scratch furniture. To do this, catch them in the act and remove their claws from the wood or damaged material and, because Cats need to scratch, immediately take it to the wood which you have set aside for to him; he will return to it each time, after having carefully checking that he is using the object reserved for him.

So, there can be no objections to Cats becoming your faithful companions. If you talk to them and monitor your actions towards them, they will be very affectionate and loyal friends. – The Misses CAMUS.


I feed breeding males almost exclusively with raw horse meat; I give them as much as they can eat; in addition, I give some vegetables cooked in meat broth, rice or pasta.

I feed females in the same way as males; but if I notice a lack of ardour in females on heat, then during this time I add to their food some permanganate of potash equivalent to the size of a millet grain.

The neutered male becomes more lovable, larger, more playful, more beautiful, and more affectionate than a tomcat, and its urine loses the tomcatty smell. So, have the males neutered as soon as their organs become visible, around four or five months. In addition, it is a necessary operation if you simply wish to limit their role to that of companion.


I feed the pregnant females as normal until their condition is visible, around four or five weeks; I then give them, then an additional meal. The condition of the stool is examined and, from time to time, I give them a teaspoonful of olive oil to combat constipation.

When the time comes to give birth, I put at their disposal a cage-kennel well-furnished with paper that the females like to tear; it is positioned in a quiet place, but somewhere I can discreetly observe them. At this time, they often refuse to eat, and it is better that they fast a little.

It is best to let the female manage the labour herself, but if, after a few hours of effort, you see nothing happening, call the veterinarian. If her efforts are not intense enough and continuous, an injection of a half-ampoule of “post-hypophyse” every two hours generally puts the process in order.

It is best to leave the little ones with their mother unless you see that, during the rest of the birth, she has a tendency to crush them in her movements or efforts. In this case, put the first-born, discreetly, in a basket, with a hot water bottle, cover them with a woollen blanket, and keep them at a distance so that the mother does not worry when she hears them.


I give the mother plentiful food during nursing and add a little milk if it does not give her diarrhoea.

I plan for a wet-nurse in case the mother’s milk runs out; but if that is not possible, I feed the little ones every two hours with special commercial milks which replace their mother’s milk. Until you get hold of it, you can give condensed milk, adding a third of creme fraiche and a third of water.

By the age of one month, the mother's milk may be too scarce to suffice. Compensate for this insufficiency with small amounts of very light cream to begin with, gradually thickening it each day, while also increasing the number of meals. Rice cream, oat cream, or corn-starch are all very good. I also add a little creme fraiche for the vitamins and a small pinch of lime glycerophosphate to help bone formation. Once a day, at five weeks old, I start to give a teaspoon of finely grated raw meat, an amount that I gradually increase. From three months, I provide three meals a day until the age of six months, after which two meals are sufficient: a very thick milk-based soup in the morning, and raw meat in the evening.

At six months old, during teething, I take care of their oral hygiene. I examine the baby teeth that might hinder the arrival of others. A small cotton wool pad soaked in potassium permanganate, wiped over the gums, is a good disinfectant, if you notice that they are red. Cut the meat very small at this time.


In principle, I establish the following type of diet for adults. In the morning: 100 to 200 grammes of raw horse meat, cut into pieces large enough to require chewing. In case of constipation, give liver instead. In the evening: pasta cooked in broth, or rice. Cauliflower stumps, lettuce leaves, or carrots are cooked in the broth and minced. From time to time, fish, raw or cooked, can replace meat. If they have diarrhoea, cut out anything other than lean raw meat.

Every day, I give long-haired cats a good brushing and combing. If I notice that an animal is scratching, I examine the place, to check for any pimples or sores. If I find any, I swab them with a disinfectant. I avoid fleas, which transmit infectious skin diseases and tapeworms, by using insecticidal powder. If the nose is runny, I put a little argyrols in each nostril. I treat chills in the eyes with a few drops of argyrols.

I make a fuss of each animal, when I wash it so that it finds this daily care a pleasure and not a chore. Never rush your cats, but make them understand, firmly and gently, that this care is necessary, and they must bear it with a good mood. By giving its meals after these treatments they appear to be the reward.


The cat is clean by nature. I place a small tray of sawdust in the mother cats’ kennels. As soon as the little ones know how to walk, they do their business of their own accord in this tray. A few drops of valerian in the tray are much appreciated.

The ends of the claws can be cut with clippers. It is good to provide the Cats with a wooden log, standing in a corner of their living quarters or in the kitchen, which they can use for sharpening their claws. Once they get into the habit of using it, they don’t scratch elsewhere. – Mrs. G. CIBAUD de BARRAS.


I generally give my cats nutritious and abundant food, without differentiating between breeding males and mothers. It’s just a question of varying the menu as much as possible, and I never offer the same food twice in a row. I use horse meat, the collar is a better cut than all the others. I serve it raw, grilled or slightly boiled. I mix it with rice, boiled vegetables, noodles or macaroni. Once or twice a week, fish cooked in water, especially in the evening meal, mixed as above.

I don’t give Cats anything in the morning. They have a meal at noon, and at six o’clock a good half cup of lukewarm milk, or the same amount of Bledine, [a baby cereal] or sometimes even a single raw beaten egg. In the evening I give a second meal, either fish or a little meat with vegetables or rice, noodles, or macaroni. Always freely give fresh water.

Each meal is about 60 gr. As consistently as possible to each cat. I avoid fat and give extremely little salt.


My Cats’ housing is specifically built for their use; a small pavilion well exposed, sunny, dry and ventilated. Each Cat has its compartment of 2 m. x 2 m. The floor is covered with linoleum. At 1 m x 2 m. from the ground is a large cage serving as a bedroom, with a good bed. The litter tray is lined with dry sand and cleaned at least twice a day. In each compartment there is a balcony for physical exercise. A small ladder allows them to reach it. I also have a balcony placed outside, sheltered by the roof, and when the weather permits, we open a small hatch leading to the balcony inside. A small ladder allows the Cats to descend into their enclosure (5 m. X 2 m.).

For she-cats, their bedroom and their well sheltered bassinet suffices.

I groom my cats every morning by combing and brushing them. I use a little insecticide powder against any vermin that might be present. Their ears, eyes and throat are checked, just as for kittens.


I always taking good care of my females. The above food is sufficient, but I also add a little horse steak in the morning (40 gr. Per cat) or a small plate of saval during the 2nd month of gestation. I add a knife tip’s worth of veterinary lime phosphate to their diet once a day.

I always attend births to prevent possible accidents. I help the little ones by cutting the cords to 2 cm. and I remove the little ones as I go, putting them in a small basket between two sheets of cotton wool. At the bottom of the basket is a well-wrapped hot water bottle. I give the little ones a little warm sweetened milk, cut with water, with a small spoon. I remove the membranes so that the mother does not eat them. In case of difficult births, I give the mother 5 drops of adrenaline in a little milk; the result is wonderful.


Mother's milk should be sufficient until the age of 3 weeks. Thereafter I give the little ones a little bit of bledine baby cereal in the morning, at noon a little porridge either of wheat, semolina or rice, neither too hard nor too liquid, I regularly add 1 knob of fresh butter to it. After complete weaning, I continue with porridge and pasta, to which I add a little veterinary lime phosphate.

Later I give porridge in the morning; at noon, noodles with vegetables and a little minced meat; at 4:00 p.m., stew and in the evening either a little fish with vegetables or noodles, or buttered noodles.

The Kittens are combed and brushed every morning, and their ears checked; twice a week, I put drops of carbolic glycerin in each ear and, afterwards, wipe it well with a little cotton wool. In case of colds, I give 2 to 3 drops of aethone in a little sugar water, administered with a spoon. Against head colds dab tea tree oil in each nostril. Against eye inflammation use 1 drop of argyrol in each eye.

Against constipation and stomach infections, I give 1/2 tablet of uvargol in a little water (2 teaspoons). In case of digestive problems, bloating, etc. 1/2 teaspoon of naphtholated formo-carbine mixed with their food. Against constipation, a small teaspoon of lactose in a little warm milk in the morning on an empty stomach.

I recommend the castration of males at the age of 4 to 6 months. Castration makes the subject more faithful and gentle, but it goes without saying that he also becomes more miserable with age.


The Cat is an extremely clean animal by itself. As soon as he can walk, put at his disposal a small very low tray topped with dry sand (the first times with a little sand wetted by the mother). Then they look for their own tray and it is always a question of having a tray with clean sand at their disposal. In doing so, I have never had a dirty cat at my cattery.

To avoid cats scratching the furniture, I cut their claws with scissors.

For about 20 years I have been an amateur breeder of Persian Cats. I had many difficulties before knowing how to care for them in order to have robust and healthy Cats. Now I’ve got to this stage, the above summary may be useful to others like me who love “His Highness the Cat”.- Mme. P. W. KILDAL.


I BELIEVE that three meals a day are normally necessary. In the morning give a light meal around 7.30 a.m. consisting of milk porridge, at the rate of tablespoons per adult and 2 for kittens; vary the composition of these porridges: sometimes barley flour, wheat or, even better, oatmeal. At noon, give meat sometimes ground, mixed with rice or macaroni pasta, noodles, etc., and cooked green vegetables; sometimes (and this is the supreme delicacy) raw or roasted pieces of meat: 200 gr. For stud cats, 150 gr. For females, 30 gr. For Cats from 6 months. In the evening, give fish for the 3rd meal, carefully removing the bones beforehand; I also prepare this fish mixed with raw, chopped salads. The main point is to vary the composition of these menus as much as possible, because the Cat has a very irregular appetite. Lots of air and exercise is equally necessary for the Cat as we generally oblige it to have a sedentary life. – Mlle. Meunier.


Madame Abadie, whose remarkable study, full of advice on the ratting cat and its training, you have just read, does not entirely share the following opinion of a Chinese scholar. It clearly demonstrates why an apparent sympathy seems to exist between the Cat and the Rat, when these animals are raised experimentally together when fundamentally there is none.

IS IT necessary to modify the opinion firmly anchored in the public mind regarding the enmity between the Cat and the rat? According to a report in our colleague "Le Temps", a Chinese scientist made curious experiments, reported in an American psychology journal, on the relationship between felines and rodents.

It would seem that the Cat's hatred for the rat is not instinctive but acquired. If we isolate a Cat from birth, i.e. enclose it in a cage far from its mother, and we immediately give it rats as companions, we realize that Messire Raminagrobis does not manifest any antipathy towards the rodents. Out of 21 cats raised by their mothers, 85% killed rats before reaching the age of four months; on the other hand, out of 20 isolated cats, only 45% killed rats without training.

The percentage of good ratting cats doubled by maternal training pleases me, because it reinforces, as you say, what I have observed on the usefulness of ratting training. On the other hand, the fact that the isolated cat, kept from birth in the company of rats, accepts them amicably, does not seem to me to be, as the Chinese scholar thinks, clear proof that the cat's hatred for the rat is not instinctive but acquired. Both species have been placed in abnormal conditions. The cohabitation, the need for company, the shared food which creates the same kind of life, seem to me to establish an acquired tolerance rather than reveal the absence of hostile instinct. There are other known examples of this tolerance: between Dog and Cat, Cat and bird, small mammals and big cats, it can even exist, despite a certain aversion, in the human race e.g. where we see continued cohabitation, despite surprisingly hostile incompatibilities, spouses who are not obliged to stay together.

I also believe, from close examination of what I have seen in 20 years of breeding, and from many observations of Cats encountered here and there, that a Kitten does not have an innate hatred of the rat as often supposed. At the beginning, he has his carnivorous instinct which leads him to regard everything that moves as prey, to look out for it, grab it and tear it apart. The rat is really its favourite prey because it is within reach. Looking out for it is delicious, its capture is assured, and the young cat can amuse itself for ages, letting the rat run and catching it before, when it is finally motionless, the hunter either leaves it or eats it if it is very young. It is more fun to hunt the rat than the bird, an uninteresting and disappointing prey once taken, and whose feathers must be vomited. Hatred comes later; it is not an innate feeling, it is a defensive reflex: the desire to destroy the cause of any damage suffered and prevent its return. It is inevitable that the Cat will get bitten one day or another by a rat and learn to hate it, and as the rat already enters its house, steals its food, threatens its young, soils its kennel and coverlets, this accumulation of damage can no longer be overlooked.

One fact seems to me to illustrate this hatred added to the primordial hunting instinct quite well. If my Cat, Shagree, who almost died from a rat bite, brings me a lizard, nine times out of ten, I can take it and release it, barely bruised and uninjured. If it's a rat, Shagree only agrees to give it to me once it is dead and bears the mark of her deep bites. If he has fun with the lizard, he kills it through exhaustion, because the dead reptile bears no trace of bites; if it plays with the rat, it does not tap it with velvet paws, but each blow is given with claws out, and often accompanied by growling. I’ve seen other Cats do the same.

There are some extremely interesting things in Feline psychology. Unfortunately, it has been less studied than that of the Dog and you would have to be able to compare many observations to come to a conclusion. - J. L.-A.


TIGRIS was born in Paris on September 30, 1931, to a small and fine European cat mother, a black and red tiger tabby, and an unknown father - no doubt very tall, because Tigris measures 79 cm. from nose to tail-tip; when he is standing on his hind legs he reminds me of Puss in Boots. He has a chinchilla-grey coat, streaked with black. Without being overweight, he weighs 7 kg.

Tigris is a whimsical character, with very marked sympathies and antipathies: the more he likes some people, the more he avoids some others.

Very affectionate to his mistress, he follows her everywhere and observes all her movements; he regularly sits on her desk, and often joins her in bed, his front legs stretched out on the paper where she is writing. Every morning, he wakes her up at 7:15 a.m. by stroking her face two or three times with his velvet paw. If she pretends not to notice, he touches the small clock, moves it and several times even pushes her off the table.

Electric buttons preoccupied him for a long time: he touched them and looked up to see if the lamp would light; faced with failure as constant as his endeavours, he looked upset and lost interest.

Tigris has already gone on holiday in the countryside three times; he recognizes his garden when he arrives and returns to his haunts in the smallest corners. There, every day, waking up early, he goes hunting and regularly brings to his mistress’s door either a field mouse or a lizard, or simply butterflies that he catches in flight. One day when his mistress was sick, he brought her all sorts of unwanted small creatures to her bed.

Tigris is a very punctual cat, always arriving on time, at the very moment of his meals; he is exceptionally clean, and in Paris, in the apartment, he cries if one does not do his personal cleaning quickly enough.

His favourite game is hide-and-seek and he invites his mistress to play with a special meow: then there are endless sarabands behind doors and curtains; he even climbs on top of the doors and from there jumps on a bed or onto a wardrobe with the prettiest elegance. Very clever, he never breaks anything, although he often walks on the furniture among the trinkets.

Tigris has a minor failing: he is a little jealous, if you indulge in a moment of some conversation without paying attention to him, he comes to roll at your feet and, without warning, jumps on your back, always very gently. - A.T.

MORE THAN 200 PHOTOGRAPHS from our incomparable Collection submitted by many Breeders and Fanciers could not find a place in this Album-Volume, which we wanted to present as neatly as possible to preserve its artistic cachet. We apologize for this and would like to let you know that the documents so kindly made available to us WILL BE PUBLISHED IN OUR FUTURE MONTHLY ISSUES accompanying articles and notes which could not be inserted in this work, however copious.

Among the "star turns" that will be successively presented to you, let us mention the superb SIAMESE by Mmes Romeyer, Guillaume, Meynier, Clermont, Duncan Hïndley, Mlles Camus, Messrs. Caudal, and Orner Henry; the champion Birman by Mrs. Brassart; the WHITE PERSIAN by Mmes Teyssier, Cogniard and Mlle Bossin; the BLUE PERSIAN by Mmes Tkatchenko, Montier, Paul Morand and Mile de Cavarlay; the CREAM PERSIAN, CHINCHILLA and MISCELLANEOUS by Mmes Ferard, Proust, etc. The artists will not be forgotten, because many have put their talent at the service of His Highness the Cat. If you like this Album-Volume, don't forget to get our next monthly issues, unless you have the excellent idea of subscribing.



CATS have, so to speak, a common type, the same conformation that is strangely close to that of the Tiger. By examining the skeleton of a cat, you realize the wonderful flexibility of this animal and, by studying its physiology, you will better understand its character, which is certainly not perfect, but only misjudged.


With the exception of a few differences, which reside more in the form of the organs than in their arrangement, the anatomy of the Cat is very close to that of the Dog. Here are just a few features that may be of interest to the hobbyist.

Skeleton. Roughly speaking, the skeleton of the Cat is the same as that of the Dog, but it is obvious that each of the bones of these two animals presents a host of details that allow a veterinarian to distinguish a cat’s bone from the analogous bone of a same-sized Dog at first sight; but these details are technical. Just notice that the cat’s humerus has an epitrochlear hole near its bottom end that runs from front to back. The two forearm bones, radius and ulna, are much more mobile relative to each other in cats than in dogs. The metacarpal bone, which supports the thumb, is thick in cats, but thin in dogs. The Cat never has an ergot [callosity] on the hind legs.

In cats, the last sternebra, i.e. the last section of the sternum, extends at the back by a cartilaginous peg. On the other hand, it is articulated forward with the previous one, so that it can oscillate in the vertical direction.

Digestive system. The Cat’s teeth are less numerous than those of the Dog, which can be predicted from the shortness of the jaw. There are 26 milk teeth or deciduous teeth; there are: 3 incisors, 1 canine, and only 3 molars on each side of the upper jaw; 3 incisors, 1 canine, and only 2 molars on each side of the lower jaw. The adult teeth or permanent teeth are 30 in number: 3 incisors, 1 canine, and 4 molars on each side of the upper jaw; 3 incisors, 1 canine and 3 molars on each side of the lower jaw. The incisors are very small. On the contrary, the canines are long and are more pointed than those of the Dog.

Both cats and dogs are carnivores, which explains the similarity of their digestive systems. The small intestine of the Cat measures approximately 1.65 metres the colon 35 cm. Its caecum is simply curved instead of being spiral like that of the Dog. On the other hand, relative to the small intestine, the colon is large, while in dogs, the two intestines are roughly the same diameter.

Respiratory system. In the Cat, the cartilaginous rings which form the skeleton of the trachea overlap so as to form a crest at the back, while, in the Dog, this overlap is absent. The Cat’s lungs are similar to those of the Dog, except that the azygos lobule of the Cat is much shorter, relatively speaking, than that of the Dog.

Urinary System. The Cat’s kidneys look a little different from those of the Dog. Thus, the subcapsular venules, instead of being laid out as multiple stellate veins as in the Dog, all meet towards the hilum [recessed part where the ureter starts], forming a kind of single star.

Male reproductive system. The penis is short, pointing backwards in the resting state, but at the time of mating it points forward. Its free part is conical and bristling with hard backwards-pointing papillae that are capable of straightening during copulation. This arrangement makes mating extremely painful for the female. The Cat’s penis, like that of the Dog, contains a penile bone, but much smaller.

Female reproductive system. The entire genital system of the she-cat is the same as that of the Bitch. Note that the clitoris has a bony nucleus inside, which is missing in the female dog.

These substantial details on the anatomical particulars of the Cat are mainly of use to breeders. Jacques TASKIN, Veterinary Doctor.


By observing this skeleton, note that, compared to the average size of the Cat, and except for the head and shoulders, its bones are thin and light throughout, the hindquarters being almost disproportionate. The backbone is not straight, it forms a convex curve and seems too long for the animal’s body; the intervertebral joints are very loose, which explains the surprising flexibility of the felids, but prevents it from running. This flexibility of the spine facilitates leaping, and our little Tiger uses this ability extensively, often even abusing it to grab its prey by surprise. Sometimes, he even watches from a height and at the precise moment when it passes within his reach, he lets himself fall and grabs it with all four of his clawed paws.

The singular action of the Cat’s fall is due, first of all to the extraordinary elasticity of its body, provided with prodigious musculature, particularly in the lumbar region, which contributes to the momentum. In falling, and with an instinctive intention to hold back, the Cat makes a violent effort which imprints on its body a mechanical movement, from which results a half-turn which, restoring balance, restores the cat’s body back to its centre of gravity. The cat’s tail may also help him accomplish this acrobatic feat; it is perhaps not only a useless appendage, a vain attribute of beauty! It is generally proportionate to half the body.

When walking, the Cat holds its tail straight like a plume, but as soon as it flees, this tail seems to lengthen behind him and follow the undulations of his spine. On a sloping roof and on a narrow tree branch, the cat’s tail balances it like a pendulum.


The senses of cats are particularly well developed. The Cat has an excessively delicate palate, and his little tongue does not have the conformation of a common tongue. The cat’s tongue bristles with hard backward-pointing papillae and, when the animal wants to lick, this tongue first lengthens, then retracts, straightening the papillae backwards and, gripping, gives the rough impression of a rasp.

The Cat has perfect sight which, moreover, is both diurnal and nocturnal. At midday, the pupils of his prominent eyes are vertical and retracted; the animal suffers if the light is too bright (which dazzles it) hurts its very sensitive optic nerves. You can barely see, drowned in the centre of transparent water and as if crystallized, that the pupil is an imperceptible black dot. The peculiar glow comes from the velvety shine of the retina where it surrounds the optic nerve. The multiple veins which cross the eyeball give it those varied reflections that you admire, for its magnetic eye is never a single fixed colour - golden yellow, sea green or porcelain blue – but is iridescent and shimmering. When awake, the Cat hides the white from you and only reveals a glowing, metallic pupil. In darkness, the dilated pupil receives the last remaining rays of light and forms a reflector.

Generous nature, moreover, has endowed this little animal with hearing no less fine than its sight! The ear that serves this has a rounded shape at the bottom of the skull and narrows towards the tip; it twitches at the slightest noise, moved by 27 muscles (man only has 8). At the bottom of the auditory canal, which amplifies the sound, hides a marvellous eardrum whose thin walls vibrate at the slightest sound.

The cat’s extraordinary acuity and sensitivity explain why this animal is easily startles, which makes him seem fearful although, on the contrary, it displays real courage when face to face with danger. When, cornered, he goes on his guard, whatever the stature of his enemy and, in a stylised dragon posture, he bristles his long whiskers and reveals his gleaming fangs, ready to lacerate the opponent.

His dazzling eyes seem charged with magnetism. Along his rounded spine, which he must protect, an army of electrified fur suddenly bristles upright, and his powerful claws are extended, lightning fast, at the moment of attack.


The Cat’s two short jaws armed with 30 teeth betray its origin. The small molars are compressed, serrated, sharp and face each other, as in other carnivorous animals, at their sides like scissor blades and not at the crown like ours. The first upper molars, called upper carnassiers, are excessively developed for tearing.

Behind these carnassiers, there is a tuberculous molar which has no matching opposing tooth in the lower jaw. The powerful muscles that move these jaws, the "masseters", are remarkable for their development, which gives the feline its typical characteristics.

With its retractable claws, the cat's paw epitomises the very spirit of a malicious animal; it is these which, unbeknownst to the cat, betrays its slightest feelings, perhaps even more subtly than its ears, however finely tuned. A young Cat plays with a simple piece of paper. What grace and skill his nervous gestures reveal! And at the same time what flexible dexterity, what infinite sureness!

We can say of the Cat that it has a prehensive [able to grasp] and intelligent paw. Thanks to two elastic bracelets, one at the wrist and the other at the root of the toes (5 at the front, 4 at the back), the paw contracts or extends according to requirements. Sometimes these powerful muscles, moved by a spring, extend the fine, sharp claws which arm each finger at will; sometimes, on the contrary, they keep the claw hidden, like a dagger in its sheath. The popular expression "to make velvet paws" perfectly describes the impression made on your hand by this small, round, velvety and delicate ball, so that you would never suspect the existence of dangerous claws.

These claws are, at the same time, a harmless toy for the Kitten and a means of defence and a hunting instrument for the male. But for the mother cat, the paw is the living and passionate soul which expresses joy in a gesture of quivering and voluptuous passion!

Indeed, this animal is one of those with the most highly developed nervous systems; its nervous centres are always on the alert due to its particularly rapid circulation (140 pulses per minute), and this inner agitation excuses the wild swings of its sometimes impulsive character.

This simple study shows the perfection of the cat’s physiological arrangement. The commonest of cats reveals the noble character of its ancestors, without the help of any selective breeding; the appearance of its body is flexible, graceful, and well proportioned.

The cat's senses, so remarkably perfected, surprise and amaze us. Generously and in a spirit of fairness, we might recognize two more: the sense of direction, and that of the prescience of time, which additionally prove to us that this little animal, interesting from many points of view, is particularly highly evolved.


Enigmatic in his psychology, with a delicate grace, his independent character often makes us consider him, wrongly moreover, an egoist. While he mingles with our life and our habits, without being enslaved by it, as a silent, discreet witness, and loving him, you realize that this feline is loyal, devoted and faithful, just like a dog.

LA FONTAINE readily gives Rodilard and Raminagrobis shadowy roles. Sometimes you see them hidden in the form of a floured block, watching for the innocent family of mice; sometimes they are accomplices of Renard himself: always cunning, always cruel, never honest.

Buffon, in his “Natural History”, does not give a very flattering portrayal of the Cat. For this reason, cat-lovers and cat-owners prove Buffon wrong, with touching unanimity.


“THE cat is an unfaithful domestic and kept only from the necessity we find of opposing him to other domestics still more incommodious, and which cannot be hunted; for we make no account of those people, who, being fond of all brutes, foolishly keep cats for their amusement. Though these animals, when young, are frolicsome and beautiful, they possess, at the same time, an innate malice, and perverse disposition, which increase as they grow up, and which education learns them to conceal, but not to subdue. From determined robbers, the best education can only covert them into flattering thieves; for they have the same address, subtlety, and desire of plunder. Like thieves, they know how to conceal their steps and their designs, to watch opportunities, to catch the proper moment for laying hold of their prey, to fly from punishment, and to remain at a distance till solicited to return. They easily assume the habits of society, but never acquire its manners; for they have only the appearance of attachment or friendship. This disingenuity of character is betrayed by the obliquity of their movements, and the duplicity of their eyes. Besides, most cats are half wild. They know not their masters, and only frequent barns, offices, or kitchens, when pressed with hunger.” [I’ve used the existing translation by William Smellie, 1781]

Fortunately for the Cat, not everyone shares the opinion of La Fontaine or Buffon. But the opinions, however favourable they are, are nonetheless contradictory, and the Cat remains an often enigmatic animal, to those who do not understand it.


"For two years, at the School of Psychology,” wrote Dr. Lepinay, “I tried to expose the true psychology of the Cat. I believe I have demonstrated that, if it offers disturbing appearances, if its attitude is not that of the other animals surrounding us, if the Cat was formerly taken in turn for a God or the Devil, if one encounters it near witches and sleep-walkers, if it is even regarded as an incarnation of these, if it is loved by some, sacred to others, if he is considered in turn as a wicked, treacherous, aggressive animal, or, on the contrary, as a precious, gentle, devoted, affectionate being, the reality is that we don't know him. We cannot forgive him for his whimsical nature because we are used to seeing around us animals that are much more pliable, much more capable of bending to our whims, it is because, we must admit, we want all those around us to more or less be our servants and slaves."

The Cat is an independent being, unwilling to bow down to servility; he is more attached to his house than to his entourage; he loves this entourage, but on the condition of living as he pleases and taking his freedom whenever he wants. He disdains caresses or accepts them only insofar as he is ready to receive them. This is what Rivarol briefly says: "The Cat does not caress us; he caresses himself on us." He defends himself wisely, retaining in all circumstances his personality and his free will, I have somewhere called him the "anarchist of the animal race."

However, you know that the Cat wrongly passes for an exclusively selfish animal, but if you raise it gently, it is very capable of attachment.

Everyone knows the devoted attachment that Cats have to the houses they inhabit; they are like the indoor gods of the hearth and never desert it. But they also become attached to people. We have seen them die of hunger during the absence of their masters; others mew desperately near the bedside where their mistress has just expired; we even one that had to be killed because, with threatening claws and teeth, it blocked the way for those who wanted to take away its master’s body.

However, the Cat is discreet. Disdainful of appearances, he only gives his affection to those who know how to win it. He reveals only a soul enveloped in silence and mystery as it approaches on furry feet.


"The Cat," writes M. Wietrich, "is an aristocrat among animals; he has the manner of a regular in the seraglio, and he carries in his eyes the whole mystery of the East. He is full of discretion and restraint; he has his protocols, his code of politeness; he is a friend of distinction. Walking quietly, he advances full of dignity, without haste or fever, like a prelate or a well-stuffed magistrate. He lives on a diet and eats in his own time; even in front of prize morsels, he is suspicious, he sniffs them and hesitates; he is a gourmet rather than a glutton."

It is even alleged that he loves music, and Dr. Lepinay has been able to observe, during experiments intended to establish the influence of music on animals, that even Cats with a really wicked temperament become sweet when someone played the piano in their proximity.

One cannot consider the Cat’s beauty without remembering Baudelaire's sonnet:

In contemplation they take the noble attitude
Of great sphinxes lying in the depths of solitude,
Who seem to sleep in their endless dreams.
Their fertile loins replete with magic sparks
And specks of gold, as well as finest sand,
Their mystical eyes haz’ly spun with stars.

Sometimes a good caretaker
“The cat seems less able to defend its home and the inhabitants than the dog; this is a mistake,” says the same author.

“We could cite many cases when the Cat reported a malefactor, a fire that had started, or some other danger, either by meowing relentlessly, or by going to find the people around him and pulling on them with his claws.”

The Cat very skilfully detects the enemies of those it loves, and it does not hesitate to show them its claws and teeth, hissing as a signal of contempt for them. This same Cat dances and cuddles with friends of the household.

It even seems that, in some countries of the Far East, cats are given the mission of guarding the house and property, a task that we entrust to the Dog. And the Cat would do this remarkably well,


In 1888, Jules Lemaitre wrote about skilful circus Cats: “They are very brave; they jump through flaming hoops; they are very soft: on the tightrope where they are walking are placed pretty rats, but the Cats do not touch them. They are very dignified. There is nothing servile about their obedience. We feel that they have kept the right to be themselves. They rest from time to time, whenever it pleases them ... Finally, the Cats in these exhibitions remain nonchalant and disdainful ... They do not need our admiration.

It was obvious, as well, that these Cats cared nothing for our opinion. They did not even seem to realise that we were looking at them and when our applause reminded them of our presence and they turned towards us slightly, they showed in their eyes, usually inexpressive and jewel-like, merely surprise and indulgent contempt."


"The quality that everyone recognizes in the Cat, and the reason a number of his detractors adopt him, is his ability to catch mice and rats. Nature has given him particularly well-developed senses; he sees, he hears, he is able to remain silent and hidden to skilfully capture his favourite prey, and it is not uncommon to see Cats capture rats as big as themselves.

You are aware of that. But, do you know that the Cat is able to hunt with its master as well as a dog does; he sees the game, he perceives its footsteps, its sounds, its flight, he stops it, he follows it into the trees and, when it is dead, he very willingly brings it back; it is more easily trained than the dog!"


In England, principally, Belgium and also Holland, pedigree cat breeding is practiced by a number of breeders, generally women, who draw an appreciable income from it. Because of the number of specialist clubs, shows, and public taste, the prices reached are often considerable. Animals with good pedigrees, and aged from 10 to 12 months, are commonly sold from 30 to 40 pounds sterling, with some champions reaching prices of 100 and even 200 pounds.

Animals imported from England were priced 6,000 fr. The prices of Siamese Cats and other Short-haired Cats were generally lower. At weaning, ordinary cats sell for 100 to 200 fr. From 5 to 10 months, prices stabilize between 300 and 800 fr. As with Blue Persians, the award-winning females and stud cats used for breeding reach high prices: 1,500 to 500 fr. Some rare Cats are rated very high, these are orange, cream, and tortoiseshell Cats, and Birmans.

In France, fanciers who are interested in Cat Breeding declare they are, for the most part, satisfied with the results. Some Catteries group together several award-winning females and stud cats, and their young easily sell for 300 to 400 fr. at weaning; and for 600 and 800 fr. from 5 to 10 months, depending on their beauty. Show-winning cats immediately gain in value, with some selling for over 3,000 or 4,000 fr.

Stud fees reach 350 fr. For champions; and 250 to 300 fr for others.


A work of such importance as the present Extraordinary Issue is not simple, in the same way that other Album-Volumes of Vie a la Campagne devoted to farming were never improvised. A document like this is prepared by collecting all the advice, opinions, photographs and texts communicated to us, and by visiting the most characteristic organizations.

We have invited these documents by sending letters to all the groups and all the breeders, before preparing this work. All those who answered, by letters or by voice, all those who approached us in any way, were greeted with all the courtesy and the eagerness possible. This is why the summary of this Album-Volume brings together the names which are authoritative by their enlightened and liberal competence.

I was updated by one group, by one of its leaders advising me at a particularly late date, that its members documentation could not appear in a Number grouping portraits of subjects other than those who have somehow received the official approval of that group.

Our concern for absolute impartiality and independence does not allow us to entertain such a concept of particularism and exclusiveness. I therefore maintained, in these pages, the line of conduct which is the rule here, namely that these pages remain widely accessible to all quality documentation, whatever the origin; because it is under this sign of impartiality and the widest eclecticism that such work should, in my view, take place.

That is to say, cat breeders and owners, amateurs and professionals, that, if you have not been informed about the preparation of this Album-Volume and if do not have the pleasure of finding here the portrait of your favourites, it's not too late to make good. Send us the documentation. It will be warmly welcomed and as liberally reviewed as the ones you contemplate in these pages. It will find a place in our Monthly Edition and we will provide for it, moreover, for a future edition of this Album-Volume whose anticipated success we have already foreseen. - A.M.


This Review brings you a thousand practical, interesting, thoughtful tips, concerning not only your favourites, but also the flora and fauna of gardens, apartments, etc. ... Judge from the content of this booklet; in a word, everything that concerns, and everything that is new, in the countryside and city is addressed and presented with all the appropriate details in words and in pictures.


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