THE CAT MANUAL
BY DICK WHITTINGTON
(Note: The pen-name of Miss Higgins, a regular contributor to "The Ladies Field" and "Our Cats")
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
CHAPTER I. CATTERIES
CHAPTER II. VARIETIES.
PART I. LONG-HAIRED CATS
PART II. SHORT-HAIRED CATS
CHAPTER III. STUD CATS
CHAPTER IV. BREEDING
CHAPTER V. PROFITABLE CAT KEEPING
CHAPTER VI. FEEDING
CHAPTER VII. GENERAL HINTS CHAPTER VIII. PREPARING FOR EXHIBITION
CHAPTER IX. BUYING AND SELLING
CHAPTER X. DISEASES
CHAPTER XI. CAT CLUBS AND SOCIETIES
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Lady Decies' Chinchilla, Ch. " Lord Southampton," Frontispiece
Plan of Cattery
Lady Esher's Black Persian “Pat-Paw”
Mrs. Leslie Willson's Black Persian “ Impeesi ”
Mrs. Kirk's White Persians
Mrs. Singleton's Blue Persian, Ch. “ Mabel of Lozells ”
Mrs. Mackenzie Stewart's Blue Persian “ Ronald ”
Mrs. Mackenzie Stewart's Blue Persian “ Blue-bottle ”
Miss Parr's Smoke Persian “Teazle”
Miss Parr's Smoke Persian “Althea”
Miss Snell's Chinchilla “ Silver Starlight ”
Lady Decies' Chinchilla “Silver Charm”
Miss Cole's Golden Tabby Persian “ Lord Kitchener ”
The Hon. Philip Wodehouse's Shaded Silver Persian “Silver Tom”
Mrs. Kirk's Silver Tabby Persian “ Kittiwake ”
Miss Anderson Leake's Silver Tabby Persian “Abdul Hamet of Dingley”
Lady Alexander's Blue Shorthair Ch. “ Ballochmyle Brother Bump ”
Lady Alexander's Tortoiseshell Shorthair “ Ballochmyle Samson ”
Lady Alexander's Tricolour Shorthair Ch. “ Ballochmyle Otter ”
Lady Alexander's Tricolour Shorthair “ Ballochmyle Neptune ”
Mrs. Robinson's Royal Siamese “ Ah-Choo ”
Mrs. Vary Campbell's Siamese “ Romeo ” and “Juliette”
Mrs. Cratty's Swiss Angora “ Jungfrau ”
Miss White Atkins's White Persian “ Snowbelle ”
Miss Sangster's Ch. “Royal Hector”
Miss White Atkins's “The White Knight”
Mrs. George Wilson's White Shorthair “ Pearl of Arrandale ”
Miss A. N. Cunningham's Tabby Shorthair English “ Tiger ”
ADVERTISEMENTS: THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROTECTION OF CATS.
PATRONS: THE DUKE AND DUCHESS OF BEDFORD. EARL PERCY.
Home for Starving and Forsaken Cats,
GORDON COTTAGE, ARGYLL PLACE, (turning at 118) KING STREET, HAMMERSMITH.
This Society was founded in July 1895, and was the first organised attempt to deal with the question of stray cats in a sensible and humane way. It aims at educating the public by distributing literature reminding them of the duty owing to all domesticated animals, thus in time ameliorating the condition of our feline pets. Its chief object, however, is to find an immediate refuge for the many miserable and starving cats haunting ihe streets of London, for which purpose Homes are being established. Every endeavour is made to find good homes for the best cats, and a chloroform lethal chamber ends by a painless death the miseries of those for whom no home can be found.
Good cats may be obtained at nominal prices, but no cat is permitted to be taken from the Home without the consent of the Hon. Sec.
Pet cats or birds painlessly put away in Lethal Chamber for 1/.
A limited number of cats boarded: English 2/6, Persians from 3/- per week, payable in advance.
Visitors are welcomed between the hours of 2 and 5 p.m., except Sundays in morning by appointment only.
A simple treatise on the management of Cats in Health and Sickness by Alice Gordon, price 3 and half d. post free, from Mrs. Gordon, Hon. Sec, S.P.C., 7, Nevern Road, Earl's Court, S,W.
Funds earnestly solicited, and for further information apply to the Hon Sec, S.P.C 7, NEVERN ROAD, EARL'S COURT, S.W
My object in writing this little book, has been to provide novices in the cat fancy with a useful handbook, and, with this end in view I have paid particular attention to those points upon which I am most frequently asked for advice, through the columns of The Ladies' Field. The volume is in
no way an ambitious one, and I fear much has been omitted, but I have written from experience, and experience only, and therefore I know that the advice given is sound. In giving the points of the different breeds I have, as far as possible, been guided by the standards drawn up by the various clubs, and I have dealt only with those breeds commonly seen in England.
In the chapter on diseases, I have treated only of those which are frequently met with, and easily diagnosed and which can be simply treated, because in more complicated cases I think that skilled assistance should be sought rather than that the patient's life should be jeopardised by experiments based, possibly, upon a mistaken diagnosis of the case.
- DICK WHITTINGTON
CHAPTER I - CATTERIES
The subject of catteries is a most engrossing one, and naturally, the question of their construction arises first in the mind of the would-be cat-breeder. Catteries vary to an amazing extent, ranging from the homely barrel, enclosed in a six foot run of wire netting, or the diminutive rabbit hutch, to the handsomely-furnished rooms or the gigantic model establishments, costing hundreds of pounds and fitted with "all modern conveniences," such as hot water pipes, etc., which some lady fanciers consider necessary for their pets.
I must frankly admit that I would far sooner buy the cat of the barrel than the cat of the palace, all points being equal, were I given my choice, for he will probably prove to be a healthy, hardy, heavily-coated gentleman, to whom nothing comes amiss, and whose constitution, thanks to plenty of fresh air, is infinitely superior to that of his well-cared-for brother, who, in many respects, resembles a hothouse plant. My own catteries have always been modest to a degree, but I think I may lay claim to having lost fewer cats, as a rule, than my neighbours, and in no single instance has a full grown, outdoor cat died from the results of a cold or chill. My houses were built of wood and if the walls did not prove to be draught-proof they were covered outside with roofing-felt. The roofs of the movable houses were of galvanised iron, lined with roofing-felt and wood, to keep them from getting too hot in summer. In some cases the wooden floors were raised off the ground, and when this was so, I found it necessary to cover the floors with cork carpet in case of draughts, but the floors I liked best were of brick, cemented over, and then boarded. Each house had a French window opening into a grass yard, and to every door and window was fitted an inner door of wire netting ; this I found to be almost a necessity in a cattery, as are adjustable ventilators. Each single house was at least six feet square, and the larger ones were divided by wire netting partitions.
Other and better catteries than these I have constructed in disused granaries, cow-pens, etc. The former require but little alteration and make ideal catteries, only necessitating a trifling outlay in wire netting for partitions and the addition of windows ; the latter, cow-pens, are also most satisfactory, but generally require clean wood lining and floors. The divisions may be put up in whatever manner the owner thinks most convenient, but the plan I found most satisfactory was to have a row of wire netting enclosures, like small loose boxes, each with a door opening into a passage which runs the whole length of the building at the back, and each having at the front a window opening into a grass run.
The only luxuries permitted in my catteries were a wooden window shelf, and in winter, a wooden packing case filled with hay.
For sanitary purposes large flower-pot saucers of fir sawdust or dry mould were provided, and these were changed and rinsed out every morning.
Some people keep their cats in small movable chicken houses, and these seem to answer admirably, and they are also exceedingly cheap. Only those of a good make should be used, and they should be boarded at the back and ends and over the roof, and the sleeping compartment should have a wooden floor.
Many fanciers keep their cats in indoor rooms, but this plan is rarely successful, and the cats usually suffer in health sooner or later, why, I cannot say, unless it is because the rooms are not sufficiently aired. The most fatal error into which a cat fancier can fall is to have the cat houses heated either with stoves or pipes. The almost invariable result is that the cats succumb to lung complaints of some description, after leading a miserable existence in a half-stupid condition, and are frequently the victims of eczema and other skin diseases. The moral of all this is, that provided the cattery is clean, dry, draught proof, and thoroughly well ventilated, and that the cats can spend the greater part of their time in the open air, details of construction, measurements and furnishings are of minor importance. Those persons who do not care for the trouble of designing their own catteries can buy them ready made on capital principles from most of the leading kennel manufacturers.
Chapter II - VARIETIES
Part I - LONG-HAIRED CATS
Long-haired cats are, as a rule, called " Persians," and most of those in England at the present time are of Persian ancestry. Angoras are rarely heard of, and they have been so crossed with Persians that it is practically impossible to find a pure bred one. As far as I can understand, the Angora cat differs from the Persian in having larger ears and what may be described as a coarser nose, a long tail, and a coarser, more " hairy ' coat, and in being somewhat higher on the leg
The long haired cat of the present day is essentially more “ cobby ” than formerly, and very great importance is attached to its head and shape. The nose should be short and wide at the tip, the skull broad, and the fore-head rounded. The ears should be small, low set, and wide at the base, and the eyes should be large and set straight, not obliquely, in the head. The colour of the eyes is of greater importance in a self coloured cat than in any other variety. The legs should be short and thick, and the tail should be short and broad at the tip ; a pointed tail is very objectionable. Some fanciers assert that a cat should be short backed, but in this I do not agree, as it detracts from the grace and activity which add so much to the charm of its appearance. The coat of a Persian cat is of very great importance ; it should be long and thick and of a silky rather than a woolly texture, and round the neck, on the chest, and stomach, and down the backs of the thighs, it should be longer than elsewhere and should stand out from the rest of the fur. Tufts of long hair across the fronts of the ears and tiny tufts on their tips add greatly to the appearance of a long-haired cat. One hears occasionally of the value of toe tufts, but if a cat takes much exercise these soon disappear.
Black. A black cat should be without shade or marking of any description, though a slight tinge of brown is less objectionable than any suspicion of grey. The eyes should be deep dark orange.
White. Of a white cat but little description is necessary. The eyes must be bright blue. Yellow eyes are considered less objectionable than green ones, but a yellow eyed cat, however good, must always give place to a blue-eyed one. It is a curious and interesting fact that a number of white kittens, especially those which have been bred from mixed ancestry, are born with a smudge of black or grey on their foreheads. This usually, but not invariably, disappears when the second coat comes, but while in evidence it is a serious defect.
Blue. I do not think that blue is a true Persian colour. It is very rarely that a blue cat is imported from India or Persia, and the few that I have seen, had green eyes and short but unusually thick coats. This leads me to think that the colour was produced by crossing with the so-called Russian cat, which is, of course, not peculiar to Russia. Long-haired blue cats used to be known as French cats or as Chartreuse cats, after the monastery where they seem to have originated. It is most important that a blue cat should be without shading or marking. The colour must be perfectly sound and even all over, and must on no account be lighter at the roots than at the tips of the fur. Pale blues are at present more popular, and likely to remain so than dark blues, but I confess to a liking for a good dark blue cat. White hairs I consider to be practically a disqualification. The eyes of a blue cat are a most important point, and the deeper and darker orange they are, the better. I, like many others, would like to see green eyes labelled as a disqualification, and almost equally objectionable, are eyes of a shade which is something between green and yellow.
Cream and Fawn. I have classified these cats together as there have been some differences of opinion as to whether they should be separated or not. There are certainly two entirely different lines of colouring, one being a solid dead fawn colour, entirely free from marking or shading, and the other a bright, clear, creamy shade, which is, as a rule, a good deal marked, and which is lighter at the roots of the fur than at the tips. No very clear decision has been come to whether these cats should be marked or not, but we may draw our own conclusions from the fact that the unmarked cats invariably win in competition with the marked ones. The eyes of both cream and fawn cats should be dark orange or hazel.
An attempt was recently made to encourage green eyes, but this movement, I am glad to say, received but little support. We are occasionally told that blue eyes are correct, but as no one has yet seen a cream or fawn cat with blue eyes it is unnecessary to discuss them.
Smoke. Over the exact and proper definition of a smoke cat much trouble has recently been taken by the Silver Society, and I cannot do better than quote their standard.
A smoke cat must be black, shading to smoke, with as light an undercoat as possible and black points, light frill and ear tufts ; eyes to be orange. Value of points :
Head and expression 20
Colour of eyes 15
Colour of undercoat 10
Absence of markings 15
Coat and condition 20
From this it will be seen that dark smokes are encouraged, but there is another, particularly beautiful, variety of cat, which is in reality a light silver smoke, though specimens have occasionally been disqualified when exhibited in smoke classes. These cats are light grey "the colour of snow clouds" with dark faces, legs and tails, and are to my mind the most handsome of all our long-haired cats.
Silvers and Chinchillas. Here again I must quote the standard of the Silver Society, only adding that, all other points being equal, green eyes are very much to be preferred to orange ones, which, in their turn, rank higher than those of a greenish yellow tint ; also that at shows where no class is provided for shaded silvers they are usually entered among the Chinchillas.
Chinchillas should be as pale and unmarked silver as it is possible to breed them. Any brown or cream tinge to be considered a great drawback. The eyes to be green or orange. Value of points :
Colour of coat 25
Coat and condition 20
Colour, shape, and expression of eyes... 10
Shaded Silvers should be defined as pale, clear silver, shaded on face, legs, and back, but having as few tabby markings as possible, eyes green or orange. Any brown or cream tinge a great drawback.
Shaded Silvers: Value of Points :
Colour of coat 25
Coat and condition 20
Colour, shape, and expression of eyes 10
Orange. Of late years there has been a mania for breeding orange cats without markings, or, as our American cousins say, " Solid Orange cats." No really self coloured orange cat has yet been bred, though several nearly so have been exhibited. I consider that a well-marked orange or red cat, the latter for preference, should win over one which was marked only on its head and legs, though a really self coloured cat would meet a good tabby on equal terms. The colour should be bright, clear orange, with deeper orange or dark red markings ; the darker the colour the better the cat. The eyes should be orange or hazel.
Brown Tabby. In tabby cats markings must be the first consideration, and a brown tabby should be barred with decided black bands on a light golden brown or red sable ground. The cat should be marked clearly on head, legs, and tail ; two well-defined bars should run the entire length of the spine, and shorter but equally well defined bars should appear on its sides and chest ; a light chin is a common but serious fault. The colour of the eyes is not a matter of vast importance, but they should be either green or orange, the former for preference.
Silver Tabby. The silver tabby should be barred with black in the same way as the brown tabby, but the ground colour should be a pale clear silver. The eyes should be green or orange, the former for preference.
Blue Tabby. Many people refuse to acknowledge the blue tabby as a separate variety, but as the National Cat Club has provided classes for blue tabbies at the Crystal Palace, a few words of description are called for. The cats usually shown in these classes are blue cats with a few silver markings about their faces and chests, and are really shaded blues. The true blue tabby should be as distinctly marked as any other variety of tabby, with dark blue stripes on a bluish silver ground.
Tortoiseshell. A tortoiseshell cat is a weird and strange-looking beast, and it is rare indeed to find a good one. The colours should be distinct shades of red and yellow and black, and these should be broken up into small well defined patches. Any suspicion of yellow or cream is objectionable .
Tortoiseshell and White. These cats are handicapped by their uneuphonious name, and it has been suggested that they should be called tricolours. They should be white with even markings on the head, and a large saddle mark of red and black, which should, as in the tortoiseshell, be broken up into small distinct patches. Any tabby markings in either of these varieties are objectionable, and the eyes of both should be orange.
Part II - SHORT-HAIRED CATS
The short-haired cat should, like its long-haired cousin, be possessed of a broad massive head with small ears, a short nose, and large clear eyes. It should be a big-boned massive animal, but shortness of leg and tail are not admired in the short-haired as in the long-haired cat ; indeed, it is judged for colour, markings, and colour of eyes more than for any other points. The coat should be short, close, and firm, and show no trace of that wooliness which suggests a Persian cross.
Black. In the black cat the most important point is the colour of the eyes. These should be deep, dark orange. The coat should be jet black and glossy, and free from tabby markings, rustiness, and brown or white hairs.
White. Again the eyes are the most important consideration ; they should be a vivid shade of azure blue, as deep and intense as possible. The coat should be quite free from coloured hairs. Black spots on the ears are a common but serious fault.
Blue. Here I shall bring down upon myself the wrath of some few persons who persist in describing these cats as Russian or Archangel cats. I need only remark that all the best blues I have seen were bred in England, and had at least one English parent. The cats which come from Russia usually fail in eyes, are small, more or less marked with white, and have wedge-shaped faces. A short-haired blue should be in coat and general conformation like any other British cat. Its eyes should be orange, the darker the better, and in colour it should be a sound level blue ; a light shade is the most popular. Some blues have unusually thick tails which seems to suggest that they may have some long-haired blood in their veins. I need hardly say that a thick tail is a fault. Cats are often penalised by incompetent judges for having rings on the tail, but anyone who has bred this variety will know that as kittens they all show the markings of their primaeval ancestors over the whole body, but these invariably wear out with age, though in some individuals much later than others. The same remark applies to black kittens, though in them the markings can only be seen in strong sunlight. Lions and all self coloured wild felidae are born with spots and bars, which subsequently disappear. There is a strain of short-haired blue cats known as Maltese cats, which used to be extremely popular in America until the present craze for Persians began.
Brown Tabby. In the brown tabby cat, as in all tabbies, except reds, markings should be the first consideration. The ground colour should be a clear, deep, golden brown, and the markings should be jet black, clear and decided, as if applied with a paint brush. A well-defined bar should run along each side of the spine, and shorter but equally distinct bars should appear on the sides. The head, legs, and chest should be marked with unbroken but narrower lines, the rings, commonly called the Lord Mayor's chain, round the neck should be as decided and unbroken as those on the body, and should run close up to the chin, which should be the same shade of brown as the ground colour, a lighter shade, though very usual, being a bad fault. The tail should be distinctly ringed. The eyes should be green.
Silver Tabby. The silver tabby should be in all respects similar to the brown tabby except that the ground colour should be pale silver. A common, but serious, fault in a brown tabby is a brown smudge on the nose or elsewhere.
Red Tabby. The red tabby appears to be the king among short-haired cats. For some reason, possibly because of the difficulty of breeding good specimens, every enthusiastic breeder of short-hairs has a special weakness for this colour. Depth of colour is the chief point to be aimed at ; any suggestion of orange is tabooed, and for this reason it is incorrect to term these cats orange tabbies. The markings should be of the deepest, darkest red possible " a regular chestnut shade " upon a slightly paler red ground. White or pale chins disqualify. The eyes should be dark orange or hazel.
Tortoiseshell. This colour should be a patchwork of black, red and yellow. There should be an entire absence of tabby markings and white hairs on any part of the body should disqualify. The red should be of as deep a shade as possible. The eyes should be orange.
Tortoiseshell and White or Tricolours should have a sheet of black and red in sharply defined patches of equal size, like a chess board spread over the head, back, hind-quarters and tail, the chest and all the feet being white. It is important that the red should be of the deepest and free from bars.
Manx. Oh! what a bone of contention the Manx cat has been and still is. I hardly dare venture on a description of its points, though I have studied the breed for years. The Manx cat should pre-eminently be tailless. It should have no sign of a stump or scut, and I know of at least one cat which has a tiny hollow where an ordinary cat's tail would be. In head, colour and eyes the Manx cat should be similar to the short-haired cats previously described, but its coat is not, as a rule, so short and close. The hind legs should be longer than those of an ordinary cat, and the true Manx moves in a series of hops off its hocks like a hare or rabbit. It is almost impossible to judge a Manx cat in the show pen, it should be seen running about, as its style of moving constitutes a great part of its charm.
Abyssinian. The Abyssinian cat is very rare and by no means popular. The specimens seen in this country are frequently small and weedy. Their peculiarity lies in their colouring, which should be a ticked brown, like a rabbit, and absolutely free from tabby markings. There should be no dark spine line. The coat should be finer and closer than in a British cat, the tail being almost like a greyhound's. The head should be of the Eastern type, wedge-shaped, and as in tabbies, white on the chin or elsewhere is a fault. I have recently seen some Abyssinian cats which were ticked silver instead of brown.
Siamese. At the time of writing the Siamese Club is endeavouring to decide upon the standard of excellence which is to be recognised in this country. For this reason I feel diffident about laying down hard and fast rules, but, as I have made an especial study of the breed, I will do my best to mention the essential points. In future two varieties of Siamese cat are to be recognised in England, the Royal and the Chocolate. The Royal cat should be cream colour, the points, i.e., ears, mask, legs and tail, should be deep chocolate brown and should be clearly defined, not “ shaded off ” at the edges. The mask and muzzle should be free from light hairs and the eyes should be deep, dark blue. The cat should be free from tabby markings or clouding.
The Chocolate cat is similar to the Royal one except that the ground colour is a bright golden brown instead of cream colour, and the points are of a darker shade of brown clearly defined.
The head of a Siamese cat differs somewhat from that of any other breed, the ears are frequently rather large and close together, the cheeks wide and full, and, though the face is short it is narrow at the muzzle. The tail should be straight. There are some breeders who like a kinked tail, but there is no doubt that this betrays a distant cross of Malay blood. We are told that long years ago a Malay cat got into the Palace at Bangkok and bred with the Royal cats and that ever since the kinked tails have occasionally appeared. In Siam, as in England, the two varieties are kept separate, but the dark cats are there the most valued, as they are the sacred temple cats, and there is no blot on their escutcheon.
[Since the above was written the Siamese Cat Club's standard of points has been published, but it differs but little from that given above, except that kinked tails are admissible, and that the head is to be " rather long and pointed."]
It is a curious and remarkable fact that when a Siamese cat has been ill its eyes become quite pale in colour and a sprinkling of light hairs appear all over its face. It sometimes takes months to recover its good looks. The voice of the Siamese cat is, fortunately, peculiar to the breed. It is exceedingly loud and deep, and its owner, judging by results, apparently admires it exceedingly. For this reason Siamese cats should either be kept at liberty or their catteries should be erected at some distance from any human habitation. Siamese cats have a reputation for extreme delicacy, and they seldom live long in this country unless kept running about as house pets. The reason for this is simply that they are coddled and cosseted to death. A Siamese cat, if well fed, will thrive in an outdoor cattery with no artificial heat, but if kept in a warm room will soon go wrong. I have proved this again and again.
Chapter III - STUD CATS
The stud cat deserves a chapter to himself because he is a leading feature in almost every cattery, and his proper treatment is a very important but little understood matter. In the first place I must implore my readers not to let the question of money-making outweigh all other considerations.
It is a fact that many of the disagreements in the cat world arise, in the first instance, from jealousy over stud cats. The owners count the entries in the “ Cattery Register ” in some cat paper, and immediately try to outdo their neighbours in the amount of stud fees which they receive ; with the result that the stud cat's constitution is ruined, and hundreds of sickly and diseased kittens are brought into the world.
In the first place the stud cat's housing and feeding must be of the best. The larger and airier his house is, the better, and, if it can be managed, he should have a big grass run. His hair must be combed regularly, and his skin examined with care in case he should catch insects or skin diseases from his visitors. I do not think it is wise at any time to let a stud cat run loose, though some breeders consider that a daily walk on a lead is beneficial.
A very important question is the number of visitors a cat should be allowed to receive, but it is quite impossible to draw a hard and fast rule as everything depends upon the individual. As a general rule I should say that one visitor a week was enough for most cats, though in the busy season, from February to May, this must occasionally be exceeded, and some cats can manage twice that number with no ill effects. If a stud cat is overworked his progeny must suffer, but his owner as a rule will not realise this, and is prone to boast of the vast sums he earns. Personally, I must admit that when I hear of a stud cat being unusually popular I register a vow that I will not risk breeding from him. It is a fact that people who keep a male cat entirely for use in their own catteries, breed a larger proportion of big, healthy kittens, than those who send their queens to fashionable sires.
A few words on the treatment of visiting queens will not come amiss. In the first place the convenience of the owner of the stud cat should be consulted as to the hour at which the queen is to be despatched. She should not, for obvious reasons, be fed within six or eight hours of her departure. She should be packed in a strong box or a lined basket, which should have proper fastenings, as the owner of a stud cat is not likely to care for the trouble of sewing up ancient hampers. The stud fees and railway charges should invariably be prepaid. When the queen arrives at her destination she should be put in a quiet house and fed, and next morning she may be placed in a wire pen in the stud cat's house, when she can see him and make friends with him. This course saves a lot of fighting and scratching. When the queen seems inclined to be friendly she should be let out and left with the stud cat as long as is necessary only, and she should be put with him again on the following day and, if all seems well, she may safely be returned on the third day. Some cats are exceedingly tiresome and give endless trouble, but their owners are even more so, for they persistently send their cats off at the wrong time, and then blame the stud cat, or his owner, for what is their own fault.
It should be remembered that stud cats are frequently uncertain in temper and awkward to handle, so it is well to treat them with caution, and strangers should never be allowed to interfere with them in any way.
Chapter IV – BREEDING
The usual method of procedure among cat breeders is to procure a good queen and send her to a prize-winning male of the same colour. This course frequently results in the accidental production of good kittens, but no credit can be given to the owner who has expended no serious thought upon the matter but probably has an idea that two good cats should produce four good kittens! The correct system to go upon is that of mating a queen with a male belonging to a strain which is strong in the points in which she fails. The mere fact that the male himself possesses these points is not sufficient as he might be merely an " accident " — for example, had I a blue queen which excelled in colour and in all points except eyes I should seek out an orange-eyed male belonging to an orange-eyed strain, and if, as I fear, such a blue could not be found, I would breed from a black (had he and his parents good orange eyes). Probably some of the kittens, and possibly all, would be black, but if I bred one orange-eyed blue I should feel amply repaid, and the black kittens would be useful for crossing with blues with the object of building up, in course of time, a strain of orange-eyed blues.
A tabby cat which is thin and poor in markings should be crossed with a black.
In breeding whites no other colour should be used, though if the object is to produce cream, chinchilla, or pale blue kittens, a cross of white has occasionally been successful. For the original production of fawn cats a cross of blue and orange blood was found to be almost essential, but now that they have been bred in considerable numbers it is unnecessary, and in breeding creams any recent cross of blue is undesirable as it detracts from the clearness of colour.
A brown tabby which lacks warmth of colour may be mated with an orange or red tabby. Blacks, smokes, and chinchillas have been frequently interbred with success, but silver tabbies should not be crossed with any other colour except black, and that only when the markings want strength. Tortoiseshells are useful for breeding a variety of colours, but I think they should be kept for the production of reds, oranges, creams, fawns, and blacks only, as otherwise unwelcome surprises may crop up in future generations.
In my experience the best time to mate a young queen is when she is from ten to twelve months old. Many instances are recorded of cats which bred good litters before attaining this age, and some breeders prefer to wait till their queens are eighteen months old before mating them. It is exceedingly easy for the experienced breeder to find out when queens are in season, but the amateur is frequently puzzled, and it must be admitted that some cats are very sly. As a rule they become restless and noisy and give funny little croaks like a mother cat calling her kittens ; they roll over and over, and when stroked crawl about on the ground. Cats which are regularly bred from usually come in season twice or three times in the year, the first time generally being in February or March and the last in August or September, but cats which are kept back are much more troublesome.
When a queen shows any symptoms of being in season she should immediately be shut up, as she will take the first opportunity of escaping and it will be very difficult to catch her again. If the queen is to be sent away she should be dispatched as soon as decided symptoms are noticed. After her return it will probably be necessary to keep her shut up for a week or more, but as soon as she has quite settled down again the more fresh air and liberty she can be allowed the better. A cat rarely does herself any injury by climbing and scrambling about, but great care should be exercised in handling her when in kitten.
The kittens may be expected sixty-three days after mating, though sometimes they come a day or so too early and occasionally a few days late, but this is unusual. The cat should be provided with a comfortable bed in a quiet corner. If on the sixty-fourth day from the last day of mating no kittens have appeared, the queen may be given a teaspoonful of warm castor oil. As soon as the cat seems uneasy she should be shut up and all other animals should be kept away from her as, if disturbed, it is possible that she may eat her kittens. No interference of any sort is permissible, but if it seems to comfort the cat her owner may sit with her. Some cats are miserable if left alone at this time, while others resent the presence of even their best friend.
Cats, luckily, rarely have any trouble in kittening, but if there appears to be any considerable delay a teaspoonful of warm castor oil may be again administered. I have frequently known this to have an excellent and immediate effect in cases of difficulty, but if it does not, a skilful veterinary surgeon should be promptly summoned. When all the kittens have arrived, the mother may be offered some warm milk with a raw egg beaten up in it, and she may then be left in peace with her family for five or six hours before being fed again.
In breeding for show it is advisable to leave only two or three kittens with the mother and, if there is any great objection to destroying the rest, a foster mother may be procured. It is better, and more profitable also, to rear two fine healthy kittens than four or five "weeds." If a foster mother is employed it is well that she should kitten a day or two before the other cat. Most cats take quite kindly to strange kittens if they are diplomatically introduced. Her own kittens should be taken from her and put for an hour in a warm basket with the little strangers, which may then be given to her in company with one of her own kittens, which can be quietly abstracted the next day, and she will probably take to them all right.
In selecting a foster mother it is important to observe that she is thoroughly healthy, well fed, and friendly. It is not often that a cat is unable to rear her own kittens unless she has been ill while in kitten, but it is as well to make sure that she has plenty of milk, as otherwise every hour is of importance if the kittens are to be saved. If the kittens cry a good deal it is generally because they are hungry and a foster mother should in this case be procured at once, and, until she arrives, the kittens may be fed half-a dozen times a day with a spoon. I do not think that kittens ever repay the trouble of rearing by hand, but if their owner decides upon undertaking this arduous task Mellin's food will suit them well. They must be kept very warm, clean and dry, and fed every two hours at first, but giving only a few drops of food at each meal.
The best time to wean kittens is when they are between six and eight weeks old. After the first week the mother should be separated from them for half an hour twice daily, and, in very cold weather, a piece of flannel should be lightly laid over the little family during her absence. The length of her outing should be gradually increased, and as soon as her milk supply begins to fail she should be entirely separated from them, given a good dose of castor oil, and fed sparingly for two or three days.
Chapter V - PROFITABLE CAT KEEPING
I am continually asked if cat keeping pays, and I can say at once that, on a large scale, it rarely does. A good stud cat in experienced hands is most profitable, but a novice is not likely to find it so, and where a number of breeding queens are kept the chances are very much in favour of a handsome deficit at the end of the year. In most households one or two cats are kept running about to catch mice, and if two good Persian queens are kept in this manner and periodically sent to visit good stud cats their owner can turn an honest penny by the sale of their kittens, after a very trifling outlay for stud fees, etc. The cats' food will not require much consideration, as they will thrive on the house scraps, and if the kittens are sold at six weeks old, no separate marketing on their account is necessary. As the cattery grows, the risk of heavy losses proportionately increases, and if the owner is a novice there is but little chance of the balance coming out on the right side, but with good management and fair luck, cat breeding may become profitable. In a cattery of ten or twelve cats I have before now cleared £40 profit in a year, by the sale of kittens only, and if a couple of good males are kept at stud this sum may easily be doubled.
Cats are more subject to epidemics than any other animal with which I am acquainted, and for this reason I never advise anyone to take up cat breeding as a means of livelihood, for when a stud of fifty or sixty cats is got together they are rarely without disease of some sort. Moreover, when more cats are kept than the owner can personally attend to, it will be found that they never thrive, for servants rarely notice the first symptoms of any disorder, and often overlook trifles which would speak volumes to the careful owner.
Kittens do not fetch as high prices as they did a few years ago, but there is a steady demand for male kittens, blues in particular, as pets, at two or three guineas apiece, and kittens of exceptional merit or pedigree can generally be sold to breeders. By selling kittens at a low price as soon as they can leave their mothers, less risk is run, and it is better to do this than to keep them on in the hope of obtaining a high price.
Chapter VI – FEEDING
There is, in my opinion, only one correct diet for cats and kittens, and that is the natural one " raw meat. A cat living in a wild state lives on birds, mice and young rabbits, and if it was possible to feed show cats in the same way they would thrive amazingly. Such a menu would be difficult to arrange regularly even in the country, and in a town manifestly impossible, so we must consider the best substitute. Where horseflesh can be obtained fresh and sound it will answer admirably, and is much cheaper than beef or mutton ; mooverer, in buying horseflesh we can generally get the best steak, whereas in the case of beef or mutton the price charged becomes a serious consideration, and we are obliged to be content with what we can afford. Shin of beef is excellent food for cats, and can generally be bought for about sixpence a pound.
I wish to impress upon cat fanciers that if their cats are fed entirely on raw meat a much smaller quantity of food is required than if farinaceous foods are given, for the latter are not suited to the internal economy of cats, and they require to overload their stomachs before they can obtain the requisite amount of nourishment from them. Raw meat is to the cat a concentrated form of nourishment, and there appears to be little waste when it is the sole article of diet.
Roughly speaking three to four ounces of meat daily is sufficient to keep the largest full grown cat in excellent condition. As a rule cats should be fed once daily, but “ bad doers ” or invalids may be fed more frequently, and of course only the regular attendant can decide the exact quantity of food to be given to each cat, and the number of meals which it requires. Queens with kittens should be fed twice or three times daily and may be given about two ounces of meat at each meal. I have found that cats fed in the way I describe suffer from none of the troublesome external and internal complaints of which we hear so much in most catteries. Of course they occasionally catch cold, but they are in such splendid condition that they recover quickly, and even distemper visits them lightly.
I never give milk to cats or kittens except medicinally, they have plenty of water to drink, and the little kittens are fed on raw meat before they are a month old. Of course young kittens should be allowed a very small quantity of meat at each meal — about half a teaspoonful twice daily is sufficient for a kitten until it is five weeks old, when the quantity may be gradually increased.I know that there are many fanciers who will absolutely refuse to believe that a raw meat diet is the best for cats, but I also know that these are people who have not given it a fair trial. I often receive letters from people who say that they have followed my system, but that " of course they gave a little milk food too." This milk food is exactly what I am always preaching against. It does not agree with cats, but causes indigestion and irritation of the lining of the stomach and bowels, chronic diarrhoea and worms. Of course in some particular cases of illness sloppy foods are ordered by veterinary surgeons, but only in very rare cases are they advisable. If a cat suffers from constipation a little milk every
Chapter VII - GENERAL HINTS
Long-haired cats are a perpetual source of worry and annoyance. For about one month in the year they are in full coat, and then they begin to moult, and if not combed regularly, they swallow quantities of fur, which causes internal irritation. Some cats begin moulting in January, and others not until March, but the careful cat owner watches for the earliest symptoms, as a daily " rake " will keep the hair from matting, and the cat does not then object to the process. When once the coat has become badly matted it is necessary to have recourse to scissors, as combing will tear out far more coat than is necessary, and also will hurt the cat considerably. At all times of the year great attention should be paid to cats' ears, and if they show any irritation or appear to be dirty they should be very carefully and gently cleaned out with a piece of medicated cotton wool and a pinch of boracic powder should afterwards be dropped into each.
Except for young kittens I do not approve of any bedding in the summer, as it harbours vermin. A full grown cat will sleep quite comfortably on a wooden box or shelf during warm weather, but in the winter a hay bed should be provided, and should be changed every week. If a lump of camphor is placed in the bottom of every sleeping box it will discourage fleas. In the South of England it is extremely difficult to keep cats clear of fleas, and they should be carefully gone over with a fine tooth comb at least once a week, and young kittens should be combed every day. Lice very often appear on long-haired cats, and if the cats are strong and healthy they may be washed once a week with Spratt's dog soap until cured.
Powdered camphor and sulphur rubbed well into the skin every day will also effect a cure, and another even more rapid remedy is to comb the cat all over with a comb dipped in paraffin oil, but this will make the patient look rather disreputable for a time. Either of these remedies is excellent for fleas also, but Mothaline or Steel's Flee-Flee are certain cures. Sulphur should not be administered to cats internally, and in applying it to the skin in any form, it should be used very sparingly, as if the cat swallows much it will cause diarrhoea. When a cat returns from a show it should be given a Carter's Little Liver pill, as the confinement in a show pen is likely to have upset its stomach and liver.
I do not think it is wise to show kittens before they are eight months old, though persons who breed only for the market find that they can sell kittens better by showing them. After every large show there is an outbreak of distemper in some form or another, and it is impossible to prevent this, no matter what precautions in the way of veterinary inspection, disinfecting, etc., are taken.
In giving medicine to cats, or feeding them when ill, do not attempt to force the mouth open, but take the cat firmly by the scruff of its neck with the left hand, lift it on to its hind legs, and tilt its head slightly backwards, the mouth will then open naturally, and the dose can be administered with the right hand from a spoon or bottle.
Chapter VIII - PREPARING FOR EXHIBITION
There is really very little preparation necessary before showing a cat if it is regularly kept in good condition. A cat looks all the better in the show pen for being a trifle fat, and therefore if it is not so it may be given a teaspoonful of cod liver oil every morning for three weeks before a show. Great care must be taken that none of the oil is spilt on the coat of a long-haired cat, as it is rather difficult to get off again, though a good rubbing with Puller's earth will generally remove it. Many fanciers brush and comb their cats every day, and no doubt it improves their appearance greatly, but, except in special cases, I do not consider it necessary, and in large catteries, unless an attendant is kept or the owner devotes his or her entire life to the cats, it would be quite impossible. An occasional thorough combing, and a daily examination of ears, skin and tail are all that is absolutely necessary. A healthy cat, which is properly fed and housed, should require no cleaning before a show, and, when depth of colour and markings are of importance, as in blacks, reds, oranges, tortoiseshells and tabbies, it is better not to make any attempt to clean the coat except by brushing, as either washing or powdering will detract from its appearance.
The only short-haired cats which are improved by cleaning are whites and those marked with white, but long-haired blues, whites, creams, fawns, silvers, chinchillas and smokes should be smothered the day before a show in prepared white Fuller's earth. This should be thoroughly rubbed into the coat and then brushed out. It is important that every vestige of powder should be removed, as if any is left in the coat the cat is liable to be disqualified.
Chapter IX - BUYING AND SELLING
In the matter of buying cats experience is essential. The novice, if he acts without advice, is almost certain to meet with disappointments as, it is a sad fact that, cat fanciers in general are no more to be trusted than other dealers in live stock. There are of course numbers of well known breeders who are reliable in every way, and the beginner must endeavour to ascertain the name of one of these to whom he can apply for advice and assistance, which will almost invariably be willingly given.
Before buying a cat it can generally be obtained on approval, and I should never purchase one without seeing it, but it is not fair to ask that kittens should be sent on approval as they are bad travellers. For this reason also it is much wiser to buy cats than kittens, for though the price may be much higher, the risk is proportionately less.
In buying a young stud cat it is wise to ask for a warranty that he is a stock-getter, and in all cases a guarantee of perfect health should be insisted upon. Immediately upon the arrival of a new purchase it should be carefully examined, and if exception be taken to it, the seller should be advised of this at once as any delay may give rise to difficulties in case it is desired to return the cat. If it be suspected that the cat's health is at fault a veterinary surgeon's certificate should be procured and forwarded to the seller without delay.
In selling cats and kittens, advertisement plays a large part. A judiciously-worded advertisement may bring scores of answers about a cat for which there would not be a single enquiry were the announcement differently put. It is advisable to give a full description of the animal, age, colour, sex, pedigree and any particularly good points it possesses, and prizes it may have won, and, above all, to state the price asked, as this course not only saves much useless correspondence but, in my experience, brings more genuine answers. In writing to a would-be purchaser, be careful to give an accurate description of the cat, as any error or omission in this respect is almost certain to cause trouble. Never send a cat away that is not perfectly well and healthy, and see that its coat is clean and free from vermin. Pack it carefully in a box or lined basket, and let the purchaser know when it is sent off, and also tell him how it has been fed and housed.
If a cat is sent on approval the usual arrangement is that each party to the transaction pays carriage one way, but otherwise the purchaser pays all expenses.
Chapter X – DISEASES
The majority of deaths in show catteries are caused by improper feeding, over-physicking, and lack of common sense. The ignorance of many cat fanciers is appalling, and is only equalled by their audacity in the matter of diagnosing and prescribing. I well remember spending an afternoon in a well-known cattery and being shown a tiny blue kitten which was obviously very ill and suffering great internal pain. Knowing that it had been vigorously dosed for worms I suspected inflammation of the bowels, but the owner turning to me said solemnly :" If you ask my opinion that kitten has got meningitis ! " I should dearly love to make a round of all the big catteries in the country and walk off with most of the medicine bottles. I would leave a bottle of castor oil, one of salad oil, one of cod liver oil, one of Kepler's Extract of Malt and Cod Liver Oil, one of Carter's Little Liver pills, one of boracic acid powder, one of Symes' lac bismuthi, a small quantity of carbonate of bismuth and of pepsine, some camphor pills, and a pot of sulphur and vaseline ointment. I should absolutely forbid the use of nux vomica and arsenic unless under veterinary supervision, and under no circumstances should I allow a dose of worm medicine to be given to any kitten under four months of age.
DIARRHOEA is almost invariably the result of improper feeding, and if the patient is fed on raw beef over which has been sprinkled a pinch of carbonate of bismuth a cure will usually be effected. In more obstinate cases half a teaspoonful of Symes lac bismuthi may be given to a cat twice daily and quarter of a teaspoonful to a kitten. Diarrhoea is occasionally caused by over feeding, and in this case the obvious remedy is to let the patient miss a meal and administer a teaspoonful of castor oil. In the Spring, long-haired cats often suffer from chronic diarrhoea, which is caused by the irritation set up by swallowing large quantities of hair. Under these circumstances a large dose, about a dessert spoonful, of castor oil should be given, and the patient should be supplied with plenty of coarse dog grass. After a bad attack of diarrhoea a pinch of pepsine may be sprinkled over the food every day for a week or two, and the cat should be fed two or three times in the day, but given a very small quantity of food at each meal.
WORMS. Worms and diarrhoea are generally found in company, as they arise from the same causes. A cat fed entirely on raw meat rarely suffers to any extent from worms, and I do not think much good is done by administering vermifuges frequently. The cat's internal machinery is extremely delicate and easily upset, and worm medicines increase the irritation caused by worms, the result being that though some are expelled at the time, the relief is only temporary, and very shortly matters are worse than before. My opinion is that by continually dosing for worms we work in a circle, always returning to our starting point. If a cat’s stomach and intestines are kept in a healthy condition by proper feeding the worms never get the upper hand, and though most cats have a few, if they are strong and healthy the worms do not trouble them. Dosing young kittens with any kind of worm medicine is a form of murder.
If a full grown cat has been wrongly fed a change to a raw meat diet will, through time, rid it of worms, but a dose of worm medicine will expedite matters. The best vermifuge is freshly-grated areca nut, of which five grains may be given, after twenty- four hours fast, to be followed in an hour by a dessert spoonful of castor oil. Oil of malefern is also an excellent vermifuge, and four drops may be administered on an empty stomach, and followed by a dose of castor oil. For kittens of from four to eight months Ward's Worm Powders may be used, as they do not upset them so much as areca nut or santonine would.
ECZEMA . Eczema is the most common form of skin disease amongst cats. It generally appears first upon the head and ears and gradually spreads down the back. Sometimes a lot of hard, dry scabs can be felt, but at others there is only a scurfy, scaly appearance on the skin. As with most feline diseases it is caused by improper feeding. The patient should be at once put on raw meat and cod liver oil. It should be allowed as much fresh air and exercise as possible, and, if it can be managed, it should be sent away to an entirely different neighbourhood, when the change of air will work wonders. The affected parts may be rubbed once daily with a very little sulphur and vaseline ointment, or painted with Ward's Eczema Lotion, which I have found excellent.
MANGE. I cannot advise any cat fancier to attempt the cure of mange at home. The risk of contagion to other animals, and also to human beings and the difficulty of curing it are too great. In the treatment of mange very strong dressings are required and the patient, as cats cannot be muzzled, immediately proceeds to lick them off and poison itself. Any preparation of spirits of tar is fatal to cats. There is some difficulty in distinguishing between mange and eczema, but as the former is contagious, and the latter is not, it is important that they should not be confused. It will generally be observed that eczema spreads gradually from one centre, usually the head, while mange appears in patches, the cat having infected itself again and again. Thus if a patch of mange appears on a cat's back it will lick it and infect its face and head and then, in scratching its head, its paws will be infected also. A cat suffering from mange must be completely isolated, and its skin dressed all over twice daily with sulphur ointment.
PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOUR. Another form of skin disease which has become common during the last few years, is a kind of parasite which strongly resembles ringworm, for which it is often mistaken. It appears chiefly among kittens and is highly contagious. A round patch of hard scurf appears on the skin, and the hair gradually breaks or wears away, then the scurf disappears leaving a patch of smooth bare skin. I have found that the most efficacious treatment is to apply a little paraffin oil or some of Ward's Eczema Lotion to the affected parts with a small brush.
COLDS AND COUGHS. Cats and kittens are at all times exceedingly liable to take cold. As with human beings so with cats, what is one man's meat is another man's poison ; one cat can spend its life out of doors, in rain or sunshine, without harm, but if it sits in a draught indoors will promptly take cold, while another can thrive in a perpetual gale, but if a spot of rain touches it it will immediately begin sneezing.
Many cat fanciers suffer from a delusion that sitting on damp grass will give cats cold, but I have never found this to be so provided the cat had always been accustomed to being out of doors, and had a dry house to go into if it wished to do so. I have known many stud cats which had the doors into their runs always open, and which spent most of the night curled up on the grass. It is not wise to allow kittens to remain in a grass run after the dew falls in the evening or to let them go into it immediately after heavy rain as they will get soaked, and cannot run about to dry themselves, but a few hours' scamper about a lawn or garden in summer will not do a strong kitten the least harm no matter how damp the ground may be.
It should be remembered that colds are very infectious among cats, and therefore when a cat or kitten begins sneezing it should be promptly isolated. I do not invariably recommend that the patient should be kept in a warm atmosphere, as, if the cold is a bad one and of long duration, it could not return to its original habitation during cold weather, and supposing it to take ill in November it would have to remain in a warm room until the following May, which might be inconvenient and would certainly be bad for the cat's constitution and render it more liable to take cold again. As soon as a cat shows symptoms of a cold, I give it a camphor pill (half to a kitten) and put it in the most draught-proof house I have and give it a little extra food. A slight cold will pass off in three or four days, but if the cat's mouth begins to dribble it may be concluded that it has got a regular influenza cold which requires careful nursing. So long as the patient will eat there is not much danger, and it must be coaxed with any delicacy which it specially fancies. Freshly shot sparrows, mice, sardines, and rabbit may all be tried, but if the cat will not eat, put a scrap of raw beef on the back of its tongue, tilting its chin back and manipulating the sides of its mouth with the fingers so as to persuade it to chew. This plan is often successful, and after a cat has been persuaded to swallow a few pieces of meat it will frequently settle down to a good meal. If the cat cannot, by any means, be persuaded to eat, it must be fed with a spoon every four or five hours either with milk and whisky, Valentine's Meat Juice, or Brand's Beef Jelly. The worst form a cold can take is when it affects the throat. This will be easily detected because the patient gulps constantly, and refuses food from the first day of illness. The remedy which I have found most generally effectual is a pinch of flowers of sulphur dropped as far back into the throat as possible. In mild cases a pinch of chlorate of potash will sometimes give relief, and occasionally I have cured a patient by painting the throat inside with perchloride of iron, but this is rather a difficult feat for a novice to attempt. If a cold affects a cat's lungs there is much cause for anxiety. An almost certain symptom of lung trouble is when the patient shows a great partiality for draughts, and even sits with its nose at a door hinge in its desire for fresh air. I do not recommend poulticing, because amateur efforts in this direction are more productive of harm than good as a rule. Keep the cat in a very warm but well ventilated room and stop up all the chinks at doors and windows in case of it discovering a draught, and feed every hour with a teaspoonful of milk. Aconite pillules (homeopathic) may be given, one every two hours.
Distemper in young kittens is almost invariably fatal, but if, by good luck, the patient pulls through, its growth is frequently stopped and it remains a stunted, unsatisfactory animal all its days. For this reason if kittens under three months' of age develop distemper it is far the best and wisest plan to have them chloroformed. After that age there is a chance, with care and good nursing, of pulling them through. Distemper appears in so many different guises that it is a little difficult to describe. The most rapid and fatal form is that which attacks the liver. The patient sits huddled up in a heap refusing food and appears to be sleepy. It suffers no pain and often purrs loudly. Death supervenes rapidly, often within twelve hours of the commencement of the attack. The only treatment I have found efficacious is to give a Carter's Liver pill morning and evening. No food should be given until the patient will feed itself.
Distemper which affects the chest and throat may be treated as in the case of cold, but the patient should be given liquid nourishment every two hours if it will not eat, and it must be kept warm. Distemper which affects the head and eyes is the most tedious, but the least dangerous form. The cat should be fed frequently, and its nose and eyes washed three or four times a day with boracic lotion.
GASTRO-ENTERITIS. This complaint has, during the past year, worked fearful havoc amongst show cats. It is, I believe, a form of distemper. The great difficulty is that the patient is constantly sick, and therefore ordinary physicking is useless, as the drugs given are not retained in the stomach long enough to do any good. Extreme dulness, constant sickness, and, frequently, much pain are the most marked symptoms. Bismuth is the only remedy I have found of any use. A pinch of carbonate of bismuth may be put on the tongue every hour until the sickness is stopped or half a teaspoonful of lac bismuthi may be administered every three or four hours. No food should be given until the sickness stops, and then care should be taken not to give too much at a meal as the slightest error in that respect will cause a relapse. For the first week a teaspoonful of finely-scraped raw beef sprinkled with carbonate of bismuth should be given four times daily, but no other food. The quantity should very gradually be increased, and on no account should any milk food be allowed.
FITS. Kittens frequently and cats occasionally suffer from fits which may be caused by worms, distemper, epilepsy, or other causes. The patient will usually recover all right if shut in a dark hamper, but if it does not do so it should be put up to its neck in very hot water. No attempt should be made to dose it until it has recovered as there is serious danger of choking it,but when it regains consciousness a teaspoonful of castor oil should be administered, and every day for a week it should have a dose of bromide of potassium. The dose for a cat is two grains and for a kitten one grain.
EYE AFFECTIONS. Of late years, breeders of long-haired cats have been much troubled by an epidemic form of opthalmia breaking out among their kittens when five or six weeks old. The cause of the disease is still unexplained, but I am of the opinion that it is a form of distemper, and that the houses which the sick kittens have occupied, become so saturated with the disease that nothing short of removing the entire stock to new quarters will eradicate it. A slightly weak eye is of common occurrence with young kittens, and may be treated with any mild astringent lotion, such as alum and water, cold tea, etc., but if any inflammation can be seen in the corner of the eye, when it has been washed, strong measures should promptly be taken. Different treatment suits different cases, but I have pinned my faith to boracic lotion, which should be applied every hour if possible, and as hot as can be borne, in the proportion of one teaspoonful of powder to half a pint of water until a cure is effected. A clean piece of medicated cotton wool should be used every time the eyes are bathed, and the bedding should be frequently changed, as the eyes discharge freely, and the kittens re-infect themselves. The paws should be frequently sponged with disinfectant. Steels eye lotion is sometimes almost magical in the cures it effects. For ordinary colds in the eyes and injuries, boracic lotion or Steel's lotion may be applied three or four times daily.
AFFECTIONS OF THE EAR. If cats' ears are regularly attended to and kept clean and occasionally dusted with boracic acid powder it is rarely that they will give any trouble. If however, they seem hot and painful and a discharge comes from them they should be carefully washed out with warm water and Condy’s Fluid, and a pinch of boracic acid powder dropped into each. Occasionally a cat suffers from gatherings in the ears caused by cold or injury, and these cause acute suffering. The cat will sit in a dark corner refusing all food, and, until the cause of the trouble is discovered, will appear to be seriously ill. On no account should the ears be poulticed, but a little warm linseed oil may be dropped into them, and when the gatherings break, they should be frequently washed out as directed above. For ear canker any of the remedies advertised for dog’s mav be used.
CONSTIPATION. Cats and kittens often suffer from constipation and this, if taken in time, usually yields to a dose of warm castor oil, a teaspoonful for a cat and one half for a kitten. In severe cases, or when it occurs as a complication of some other illness, an enema of warm glycerine and water should be injected with a proper syringe. This is by no means a difficult task, but almost equally efficacious, and even less trouble to administer, is a small glycerine suppository.
Chapter XI - CAT CLUBS AND SOCIETIES
The National Cat Club comes first by right of seniority. It was founded in 1887, and its first Secretary was Miss Mary Gresham, now Mrs. Bridgewater. Since that date the National Cat Club has passed through numerous vicissitudes, but is now firmly established under the able management of the Hon. Secretary, Mrs. Stennard Robinson, 13, Wyndham Place, Bryanston Square, London, W. The subscription is one guinea per annum, and the Club has a stud book and register, and holds two large shows annually, one at the Crystal Palace in October, and the other in the Botanical Gardens, Regents Park, in June, and various smaller shows.
The Cat Club was founded by Lady Marcus Beresford in 1898. It has done good work for the fancy, and holds one annual show at Westminster in January, besides supporting a few provincial shows. The Club has a register and stud book of its own, a General Committee, a Long-Haired Cat Committee, a Short-Haired Cat Committee, and a Committee of Delegates from Specialist Clubs. The subscription is £1 per annum, and the Secretary is Mrs. Bagster, 15A, Paternoster Row, London, E.C.
The Northern Counties Cat Club is a comparative juvenile, but has already shown its mettle. It is affiliated to the National Cat Club. Annual subscription, 10s. The Secretary is Mrs. Ransome, 35, The Downs, Altrincham.
The Scottish Cat Club is a thriving body of about fifty members with an annual subscription of 2s. 6d., and an entrance fee of 2s. 6d. It holds one large open show in the year, and patronises, all shows having at least six open classes. The Secretary is Mr. J. F. Dewar, 2, St. Patrick Square, Edinburgh.
The Silver Society was started by Mrs. Champion to further the interests of silver tabby, shaded silver, chinchilla and smoke cats. It has drawn up standards of points, a list of Club judges, and has given an enormous number of challenge cups and prizes at the leading shows, and has also, when necessary, guaranteed classes. The subscription is 5s. per annum, and the Secretary is Mrs. James Backwell, near Bristol.
The Orange, Cream and Tortoiseshell Society was started some time ago, but appears to have done little beyond offering one or two specials at shows. The annual subscription is 10s., and the Secretary is Miss M. Beal, Ronaldkirk Rectory, Darlington.
The Chinchilla Club was recently started by Mrs. Balding, with the avowed object of encouraging a race of pigeon blue cats! Mrs. Balding's address is The Lodge, Penge, Surrey. The annual subscription is 5s.
The British Cat Club was started by Sir Claud and Lady Alexander to encourage the breeding, exhibiting and kind treatment of cats in general, and particularly those belonging to the poorer classes. It gives money specials at all shows approved by the Committee. The subscription is 2s. 6d. per annum, and the Hon. Secretary, pro tem, is Sir Claud Alexander, Bart., Faygate Wood, Sussex. It has also a Scottish Branch, of which the Secretary is Miss Leith, Ross Priory, Alexandria, N.B.
The Short-Haired Cat Society was founded in 1901. Mrs. R. M. Middleton is Hon. Secretary. Her address is 67, Cheyne Court, Chelsea, London, S.W., and the subscription is 5 s. per annum for ordinary members and 2s. 6d. for working men and women.
The Siamese Club, though a new body, is doing good work in drawing up a standard of points, guaranteeing classes, and offering medals and specials at shows, besides arranging for taking particular care of members’ exhibits at shows. The annual subscription is 5s., and the Secretary, Mrs. Baker, 13, Wyndham Place, Bryanston Square, London, W.
The Blue Persian Cat Society is large and flourishing, though its commencement was marred by some unfortunate squabbling The subscription is, I believe, 5s. annually, and the Secretary is Miss Simpson, Durdans House, St. Margarets- on -Thames.
The Manx Cat Club is a small, but energetic body, which is working hard to encourage the Manx cat. The annual subscription is 5s., and the Secretary is Miss Cochran, Witchampton, Wimbome.
GARBOLDISHAM CRIQUET, Sire Patrick B1ue, grandsire, Upwood Timkins. Very pale blue, Wide head, small ears, round amber eyes, heavy coat. Fee 21s. Mrs. C. L. Kennaway, Garboldisham Rectory, East Harling (Station, Harling Road, G.E.R.). Mrs. Kennaway frequently has prize bred cats and kittens for sale.
THE ABSENT-MINDED BEGGAR. Absolutely unmarked chinchilla by Lord Southampton ex Dimity by Lord Southampton ex New Forest Fairy.
LORD HAMPTON by Ch. Silver Mist ex Priscilla. A grand mate for Lord Southampton bred queens. Trains met. Mrs. Neild, Hart Hill, Bowdon.
SILVER GREEN EYES. An immense silver tabby Persian ; magnificent head, coat, frill, and brush ; young and healthy; winner of 2nd Reading, first time shown. Fee (for the present), 10s. 6d. Photo and particulars, T. Furze, 171, Gooch Street, Birmingham.
AT STUD:CHAMPION RONALDKIRK ADMIRAL AND CHAMPION ROMALDKIRK MIDSHIPMITE, the only Cream Champions. Sires of many winners, Creams, Oranges, Tortoiseshells and Blues. Fees, 30s. each.
Miss WHITE ATKINS frequently has Prize-bred Cats and Kittens of the highest quality for disposal. Various colours kept, but principally blue-eyed whites, Chinchillas and Blues. Address, St. Rumons, Hedge End, Botley, Hants.
LORD ANNESLEY OF ORMOND. Sire The Absent-Minded Beggar by Lord Southampton ex Dimity. Dam Daisy. Very pale chinchilla, good coat, massive head, emerald eyes. Fee, 21s.
ROMEO OF ORMOND Sire Cooey, Dam Gipsy by Lindfield Booties by The Friar ex Lily. Smoke Blue Persian, heavily coated, big bone, broad head. Fee, 21s.
Miss E. Annesley Phayre, Ormond Lodge, Weston, Bath.
CH. AYRSHIRE RONALD. Exquisite Blue Persian, perfect colour, head and eyes. Winner of two Challenge Cups, Medals, also 1st Open, Stud and Premiership for best Long-haired Male in Show, Crystal Palace, 1900, and Challenge Cup and Specials, Westminster, 1901. Sire, Waterloo by Ch. Turkish Delight.
AYRSHIRE DARNLEY, light Blue Persian; deep amber eyes, small ears, good head ; sire of Bonnie Prince Charlie. Sire, David by Ulysses.
Florian, grand-headed blue by Ch. Blue Jacket, sire of numerous winners.
DICK FAWE. Allowed to be the finest black Persian alive. Winner 1st Championship, Challenge, and Breeders Cups, Gold Medal for best Long-haired Cat in Show, at Westminster, 1901, and numerous other 1sts. Fee for above, 21s.
FITZ EUSTACE. Very pale Chinchilla, by Silver Lambkin, sire, of Winning Female and 1st prize Litter, Glasgow, January, 1901, and December, 1901.
PRINCE HAMPTON. Shaded Silver by Lord Southampton ex Bluette. Magnificent head.
Fee for either, 21s.
Mackenzie-Stewart, Seagate House, Irvine, N.B. On direct Midland line.
SWEETBOY II., promising young Silver.
RICHMOND RONALD. Unmarked Cream or Fawn. Good head, massive limbs. Father, Ronaldkirk Toga; Mother, Jael. Fee, 21s.
BLUESTONE. Sound Blue, cobby shaped. Fee, 21s.
RICHMOND TSAR. Very promising young Blue Grandsire Purple Emperor. Great Grandsire, Ch. Turkish Delight. Fee for the present. 10s. 6d.
All these cats are perfectly hardy and healthy. Every care taken. Miss Cartmell, Barham, Canterbury. Queens to be sent to Barham Station, S.E.R.
ROB ROY OF ARRANDALE.
Grandson of the noted Lord Argent and the best of his progeny living; also Great-Grandson of Silver Lambkin.
Massive Silver, wonderful head and coat, unmarked; as Kitten, 2nd Palace, '98; 1st Brighton, '98; 2nd in class of 19; sp. Best Novice Silver Cup and Salver, Botanic, 1901 ; 1st five specials. Gold Medals, Sandy, 1901.; 2nd Medal, Brighton, 1901 ; 1st sp Ring Class, and 2nd Bayswater. Only times shown. Highest pedigree. Perfect health. "His immense body and massive well-shaped head made him a marked contrast to some of the undersized, weakly Silvers too often seen occupying positions of shape honour." Fee, 21s.
FRITZ OF ARRANDALE.
Grand Young Smoke, by Smoke Royal, ex Betty. Short, wide head, very cobby, thoroughly strong and healthy. Fee 12s. 6d.
Mrs. Geo WILSON, Arrandale, Adamsrill Road, SYDENHAM.
A MANUAL OF TOY DOGS: HOW TO BREED, REAR, AND FEED THEM. Price is 6d. net, post free 1s. 8d. This manual, the first of its kind ever published, is written by an expert, and will be found invaluable to all who breed or keep* toy dogs for profit or pleasure. In its pages will be found full directionsh breeding, rearing, feeding, and exhibiting of toy dogs, their ailments and diseases, and treatment of the same, together with valuable recipes. Acknowledged standards, and clubs, of the various breeds, and illustrations of some champion toy dogs are included in the contents. Orders for the above (prepaid) should be addressed to the Kennel Editor, Toy Dog Manual, THE LADIES' FIELD, 7-12, Southampton Street, Strand, W.C.
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