This collection of dog breeds and the textfollowing the photos is from Harmsworth Natural History (1910). The "White Alsatian" is from another encyclopedia of the same era.

"Domesticated dogs—the varieties of which have been estimated at no fewer than 185 - may be grouped in the following main divisions, namely: (1) Wolf-like dogs; (2) greyhounds; (3) spaniels; (4) hounds; (5) mastiffs; and (6) terriers. By intercrossing between various members of these different groups all the existing breeds may have been produced."


One of the most wolf-like of all the domesticated breeds is the Eskimo dog of Arctic America. With their small, upright ears, long and bushy tails, moderately sharp muzzles, and rough coats, as well as in their general build, so closely indeed do these dogs resemble wolves that a pack of them has at least on one occasion been actually mistaken for wolves. These affinities are further indicated by this dog’s inability to bark. The Eskimo dog is represented by allied breeds in Northern Asia, of which the Samoyede of Eastern Siberia is one of the best known. Eskimo dogs, however, are very generally black and white, while Samoyede dogs are more often wholly white.

[…] The Hare Indian dog is found only in the region of the Great Bear Lake and the Mackenzie River, and is used for hunting purposes by the Hare and certain other Indian tribes. Sir John Richardson states that it has a mild countenance, with at times an expression of demureness, “a small head, slender muzzle, erect, thickish ears, somewhat oblique eyes, rather slender legs, and a broad, hairy tail, which it usually carries curled over its right hip. It is covered with long hair, particularly about the shoulders; and at the roots of the hair, both on the body and tail, there is thick wool. The hair on the top of the head is long, and on the posterior part of the cheeks it is not only long, but, being directed backwards, it gives the animal, when the fur is in prime order, the appearance of having a ruff round the neck. Its face, muzzle, belly, and legs are of a pure white colour, and there is a white central line passing over the crown of the head and the occiput. The tail is bushy, white beneath and at the tip. The feet are covered with hairs, which almost conceal the claws.” This dog, although of a playful and affectionate disposition, is not very docile, and is impatient of all kinds of restraint. Its voice is very like that of the coyote, but when for the first time it sees any new and startling object it attempts a kind of bark.

Under the title of Pomeranians are included a large and a small breed. The Pomeranian may be regarded as one of the nearest allies of the Eskimo, and is a middle-sized or small dog of strong build, with a sharply pointed muzzle, upright and pointed ears, and a thick, bushy tail generally carried curled over the back. The fur is long and coarse, and varies from black, through grey, yellowish, and foxy red, to pure white; the darker varieties usually having a lighter patch on the forehead, and also white marks on the feet. The larger Pomeranian was formerly used as a wolf-dog, and should properly be of a pale fawn-colour, without any admixture of white, and with black “points.” The smaller Pomeranian, or spitz, as this breed is often called, has the disadvantage of being somewhat uncertain in temper; it is employed as a sheep-dog in its native country, and is then most esteemed when entirely black. There is, however, on the Continent an almost complete transition from the pure black to the white spitz, which was the one most commonly met with in England till the black breed came into fashion. A well-bred white spitz ought to have a black tip to the nose, and in all cases the ears should be perfectly upright, without any tendency to fall over at the tips. The heavily furred curly tail is generally carried on the left side of the body. The fur on the throat forms a thick frill or ruff, and there is a considerable amount of long hair on the fore legs. The face has very short hair.

Originally used as a watch-dog on barges in the Belgian canals, the Schipperke has now become a well-established breed in England, and is notable on account of its intelligence and good nature. These small black dogs, of which there are two sizes, are nearly related to, although easily distinguished from, the spitz; but the absence or shortness of the tail is due to docking, although it is stated that tailless puppies are occasionally born. The weight should be 12 pounds in the smaller and 20 pounds in the larger breed.

Nearly resembling the Pomeranian in appearance is the Chinese dog, or “chow-chow,” the general colour of which is typically reddish, with a mixture of dark brown hairs in the fur of the back, which gives it a somewhat speckled look, but a black breed is also common.


The sheep-dog and its ally the Scottish collie depart more from the wolf-like type than the species hitherto noticed in having the tips of the ears pendent. The old English sheep-dog has a sharp muzzle, medium-sized head, with small and piercing eyes, and a well-shaped body, formed after the model of a strong, low greyhound, but clothed in long and somewhat thick and woolly hair, particularly strong about the neck and chest. The tail, which is always cut, is naturally strong and bushy. In almost all sheep-dogs there is a double dew-claw on each hind leg, very often without any bony attachment. The legs and feet are strong and well formed, and stand roadwork well, and the untiring nature of this dog is very remarkable. The colour varies greatly, but is mostly grey or black or brown, with more or less white. Many of the sheep-dogs used in England, however, have been crossed with other breeds, and thus depart more or less widely from the original type.

A handsomer animal than the English sheep-dog is the Scottish collie, which has the same mental characters, but differs considerably in external form and colouring. This dog has the same sharp muzzle as its English cousin, but a rather broader head, with a slight fall to the tips of the small ears. The build of the body is rather light and elegant; and the hair with which it is clothed is long and woolly, and stands out evenly on all-sides so as to form an efficient protection from the extremes of climate to which these dogs are exposed in their native hills. The ruff on the neck is more developed than in the sheep-dog, and, indeed, than in any other breed. The tail is very bushy and carried with the tip elevated, so as to keep its long hairs free from the ground. In pure-bred specimens there is a thick under-fur beneath the long hairs, and the hind legs should be free from any fringe of hair, although the fore legs may have a little fringe. The colour may be either black and tan, or either of these tints alone, with a larger or smaller admixture of white. The black is seldom very intense in tone, and the tan has no tinge of the mahogany-red of the setter. The collie has been introduced into England as a pet dog, and is often crossed with the black and tan setter, so as to produce a breed which differs from the original form - notably in the silky hair, without under-fur, and the long fringes on both fore and hind legs.

In some parts of the Scottish Highlands and in the north of England, there is a smaller and more slender variety known as the smooth collie, characterised by the smooth coat of short and stiff hairs, which are generally of a mottled grey colour, more or less mixed with white, but maybe black and tan, or even tan and white. All the breeds of sheep-dogs display their affinity to the wolf in their elongated and narrow skulls, with very long muzzles, the profile of the face alone displaying a slight degree of concavity. The premolar teeth are separated from one another by distinct intervals; and there is no tendency for the lower incisor teeth to project beyond the line of the upper jaw.

The drover’s dog, which varies in different districts of England, is generally a cross between a sheep-dog and some other breed. The size of these dogs is very variable; and both this character and the form are modified by breeders according to the special needs of the districts for which the animals are required. Drovers’ dogs generally have their tails cut short. Their duty is to conduct flocks and herds from one locality to another, and they are remarkably adept in separating the members of the herd under their own charge from those of any other herd which they may meet during their journey.


Considerable interest attaches to the more or less nondescript dogs found in troops in the towns and villages of Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa, and commonly designated pariah dogs, on account of the marked resemblance presented by some of them to the Australian dingo. These dogs vary greatly in different districts, but many present a very wolfish appearance, and it is probable that they sometimes interbreed with wolves and jackals, while in India they may also cross with wild dogs. Originally, however, these pariah dogs were domesticated breeds which, from neglect, have reverted to a greater or less extent towards a wild state. The pariah dogs of Egypt appear to belong to a single breed, and are of about the size of a sheep-dog, but of stouter build, with broader heads; the tail being long and generally bushy, and carried close to the ground. The colour of their coarse, rough hair is reddish brown, tending in some cases to grey, and in others to yellow. Occasionally black or tawny may be observed. Their ears are short, pointed, and usually erect. […] There is a half-wild breed of pariah-like dogs, the so-called tengera dog, in Java.


The English greyhound may be regarded as the typical and most specialised representative of the second main group of domesticated dogs, all of which are characterised by their long and narrow muzzles, their slight build, elongated limbs, and small ears, which generally fall at the tips; but they differ greatly in the length‘of the hair. They are further distinguished by their habit of hunting either entirely or partially by sight, instead of by scent. The long, slender skull of the greyhound points to affinity, with the wolf, or some other wild member of the family, and the group is of great antiquity.

The English greyhound is distinguished from all other dogs by its slender form, smooth hair, and rat-like tail, coupled with its comparatively large size. This dog is, indeed, perfectly adapted to extreme speed, the long, slender limbs, with wire-like muscles, giving the utmost possible length of stride, while the smooth coat, sharply pointed head, elongated neck, and thin tail offer the least resistance to the air. The long muzzle and neck are necessary to enable the greyhound to seize a small animal like a hare when running at speed; other noticeable points are the great depth of the chest, which affords ample room for the lungs, and the small size of the abdomen. The attenuated muzzle is of itself sufficient indication that the greyhound cannot hunt solely by scent, as the snout is too small to contain space for the large extent of surface in the cavity of the nose necessary in dogs that hunt by smell. The short coat of the English breed is probably an acquired character, since most other members of the group are long-haired dogs. At one period the greyhound became too weak in the jaws to kill its prey, but this defect was remedied by crossing with the bulldog; the bulldog blood being gradually eliminated until the proper combination of strength with speed was attained.

The head of the modern breed should be broad and flat between the ears, without that arching characteristic of other breeds. The eyes should be of the same colour as the coat; and the ears always fall at the tips, although there are reports of an old-fashioned breed in which they were erect. The length of the neck should be approximately equal to that of the head; although it is not very easy to say where the neck ends and the chest begins. Much importance is attached to the formation of the fore quarters of the greyhound, the best strains having the shoulder-blades of great length, obliquely placed, and well clothed with muscle, and likewise the upper portion of the fore leg (humerus) of considerable relative length. Of not less importance is the conformation of the hind limbs, in which the upper and lower portion of the leg should be of great relative length, so that the whole limb should be much bent at their junction. The hind limbs must be set rather wide apart at their lower extremities, to allow of their being brought ‘forward with the utmost celerity in running; while in the haunches attention is especially directed,to the development of sufficient width. That the foot-pads should be hard and horny, in order to withstand the wear and tear of racing over hard and rough ground, is self-evident, but opinions differ as to the precise form of foot that is most desirable. The tail should be devoid of any fringe of long hairs, and, while thick at the root, should at first taper somewhat rapidly and afterwards more gradually. It should hang close to the hind quarters for the greater part of its length; terminating in an upwardly-inclined curve, which generally forms about three-fourths of a circle. Colour is regarded as of minor importance in determining the “points” of a greyhound. A uniform colour, such as sandy or slaty grey, however, is preferred to a mixture.

The delicate Italian greyhound may be regarded as a miniature of the English greyhound. Its proportions are, most elegant and its speed is considerable, but so delicately is it made that it is incapable of pulling down even a rabbit. The muzzle and tail are relatively somewhat shorter than in the English greyhound, while the eyes are proportionately larger and softer. There are several colours, among which a golden fawn is the most valued; next to this comes a dove-coloured fawn, after which are cream-colour and the so-called blue-fawn. There are also black, red, yellow, white, and particoloured varieties, several of which depend for their value upon the colour of the muzzle. In the uniformly coloured varieties there should not be a single spot of white.

The Scottish deerhound, or rough greyhound, is larger and heavier than the English greyhound, frequently standing as much as 28 inches at the shoulder, while its weight may exceed 80 pounds, that of the English greyhound being seldom above 65 pounds The body is clothed with a rough and rather shaggy coat of hair, the texture of which varies in different breeds, being sometimes as stiff as in the wire-haired terriers, while in other cases it is of a more silky and more woolly nature. The legs should be devoid of a fringe of hair; while the tail should likewise be comparatively smooth. The favourite colours in the Scottish deerhound are dark slaty grey, fawn, grizzled, or brindled. White should be absent, although no objection is taken to a small spot on the forehead. When the fawn-coloured variety has the ears tipped with brown it is considered perfect. The Scottish deerhound was at one time employed for deer-stalking and coursing, and this different use ‘has given rise to various strains.

The ancient wolf-dogs of Ireland formerly enjoyed a reputation for great power and strength and for their prowess against wolves. The original breed, or, rather, breeds, however, appear to have completely died out, so that we are acquainted with the original type of these fine dogs mainly by tradition and history. By careful attention to these accounts, and judicious selection, a modern breed has been produced which is believed to come very close to the, original. There were formerly in Ireland two breeds of wolf-dogs, one of which was a greyhound and the other a mastiff, somewhat resembling the Great Dane; and it is shown from an old picture that there was also a cross-breed between the greyhound and the mastiff-like dog, in which, however, the characteristics of the latter predominated. Skulls of these dogs have been discovered in various parts of Ireland, which indicate animals of great size and power. Some of these, belonging to the mastiff-like breed, are considerably larger than the skull of a German boar-hound which stood 32and a half inches at the shoulder.

A very fine and, at the same time, a very ancient breed of greyhound is the slughi (salughi), also known as the Persian or Arabian greyhound, and sometimes as the gazelle-hound. These dogs are found in Arabia, Persia, Syria, and North Africa, but their original home seems to have been the first-named country. The Hon. Florence Amherst states that, according to Arab notion, the following are the essential features of the slughi: “Rather flat feet with slight tufts between the toes, formed to enable them to course over the yielding sand; the tail plumed with a paler shade, and gaily carried when galloping; the dense, smooth coat, with only the exact amount of feathering; the silky ears, which, when pulled down, should reach the corners of the mouth; the strong teeth and deep, ‘laughing jaws’; also the varied colour of the eye, with its marvellous human expression, the deep chest, and strong though ever-graceful frame. The narrow part of the back should be spanned by three fingers, not four. “The height is about 23 inches. The colour of the slughi varies from gold to dust-colour, cream, and white. The Arab choice is said to be guided by the tint of the ground over which the slughi has to hunt, to conceal him from the quarry. The slughi is trained to hunt hares, foxes, jackals, and other desert animals, but it is with the swift gazelle that he is seen to perfection. For this sport he is employed with or without the conjunction of a hawk, his duty being to hold down the quarry till the hunter gallops up, but not to kill and thereby render the game illicit for food according to Mahommedan rules. The hound works wonderfully with the falcon, and in a close country when hunting hares, where he is continually losing sight of the animal, courses entirely by following the flight of the bird.” Though the hawk is usually employed, the test of a really good slughi is that he can course gazelle without its aid.

The Grecian greyhound differs from the slughi in the absence of fringes of long hair to the ears, although the tail is well haired; while the Albanian greyhound is stated to be more heavily built, with the hair on the body finer and that on the tail longer and coarser. Nearly allied to these breeds is the Afghan greyhound, in which the colour is reddish fawn and the hair on the ears, flanks, and limbs very long and silky; the ears, as in the foregoing rough-haired breeds, being completely pendent. These dogs are likewise used for gazelle-coursing, and occasionally also, like Persian greyhounds, for hunting the wild ass, this being accomplished by employing relays of dogs.

More distinct is the borzoi, or Russian wolfhound, which has become such a favourite in England as a house-dog. These dogs, which stand from 28 to 31 inches in height, have moderately long, silky coats, with a comparatively short fringe to the tail, the prevalent colour being white, with or without fawn, lemon, grey, brindle, slaty, or black markings, too much black being considered a detriment. In Russia these dogs are used for chasing wolves and coursing hares; they hunt both by sight and scent.

Especial interest attaches to the Ibiza greyhound of the Balearic Islands, in which the build is more compact than in the North African slughi, and the coat is short and thick, although in many specimens the tail is feathered, while the general colour is foxy red, yellowish brown, or isabelline yellow. Red and white examples, however, are not uncommon. The slender head terminates in a long, narrow muzzle, but the most characteristic features are the ears, which are large, spoon-shaped, and upright. In this respect the Ibiza greyhound differs from all other existing members of the group in which the ears are completely or partially pendent. The upright condition of the ears is a proof of the antiquity and primitive character of the Balearic greyhound. In Minorca a tradition exists that these greyhounds originally came from the Pityusen group, especially Ibiza (Iviza), and this southern origin suggests their original derivation from North Africa. This is confirmed by their resemblance to some of the greyhounds depicted in the ancient Egyptian frescoes in appearance, colour, and habits. It was long a matter of wonder why the old Egyptian painters represented some greyhounds with upright ears, but the Ibiza greyhound indicates that the Pharaonic artists were true to nature, and there seems no doubt that the former is the direct unmodified descendant of the prick-eared greyhounds of the old Egyptian frescoes. These Pharaonic greyhounds are stated to have been exported to Carthage, whence they probably spread over North-Western Africa.

Here may be mentioned the curious hairless dogs of Central Africa, which closely resemble small greyhounds in appearance. These dogs have long, slender bodies, moderately elongated and thin necks, narrow and pointed muzzles, tall foreheads, long tails and limbs, and no dew-claws on the hind feet. Their ears are pendent at the tips. and, like the body, are devoid of hair; it is only in the neighbourhood of the tail, around the mouth, and on the limbs that-there is any hair at all. The skin is generally slaty, with flesh-coloured patches. Other breeds of hairless dogs occur in China, Central and South America, Manila, and the Antilles and Bahamas.

The lurcher is a cross either between the deerhound or rough Scottish greyhound and the collie, or between the English greyhound and the sheep-dog, or any pair of these four. The breed may be roughly designated as a dog with the shape of a greyhound combined with the stouter build, larger ears, and rougher coat of the sheep-dog.


The field spaniel may be taken as the first representative of the third division of domesticated dogs. These are all characterised by their large pendent ears, comparatively wide heads, with moderate muzzles, relatively short and stout limbs, thick and frequently long hair, and thickly haired tails. Their skulls are distinguished from those of all the dogs yet mentioned by their width and comparative shortness, this being especially noticeable in the palate and lower jaw. The profile of the skull is also more markedly concave, the brain-case rising suddenly at the eyes, and thus indicating great mental power. True spaniels, as their name denotes, are probably or Spanish origin, and are divided into field and water spaniels, in addition to which there are the smaller breeds, kept only as pets. Field spaniels form some of the best shooting dogs, and generally give notice of the proximity of game by their voice. They are divided into the Clumber, Sussex, Norfolk, and cocker breeds.

The Clumber spaniel, which is distinguished by its silence when hunting, is a heavily built dog, of comparatively large size, soon tiring when at work. The head is massive, with a deep furrow along the top, large flesh or liver coloured nostrils, large and generally hazel eyes, and long ears shaped like a vine-leaf, without a very long fringe of hair. In build, the Clumber is long and low, the length of the head and body being two and a half times the height The hair of the body should be silky and of moderate length, with a slight wave, but no curl; its ground colour being always white, with yellow or orange spots, the lemon-yellow tint being preferred.

The Sussex spaniel, which has the ordinary lobe-shaped ear and gives tongue when hunting, has a less heavy head than the Clumber, and a wavy coat of a golden liver-colour, without any mixture of white. The Norfolk spaniel, which is subject to considerable variation, and may be either liver and white or black and white in colour, differs from the two preceding breeds by the lesser proportionate length of the body, and the longer fringe of hair on the ears, which frequently nearly touch the ground. Cockers are small spaniels, divided into Welsh and modern cockers; the former being liver or liver and white; while the latter are larger, and generally completely black. The head is relatively long, the eyes are less full than in the other breeds; and the coat is soft, silky, and waved, with a considerable amount of fringe on the throat and limbs.

King Charles and Blenheim spaniels are much smaller animals, probably derived from the cocker. The King Charles is typically black and tan, with a larger or smaller mixture of white, and is characterised by the great length of the ears; but in the whole coloured ruby breed the coat is bright golden tan or liver-colour. The colour of the Blenheim is pearly white and bright tan. In both breeds the muzzle is extremely short, with an upturned nose; while the head is nearly globular, and the ears should touch the ground. The coat should be long, silky,, and wavy, but devoid of curl, and the ears, limbs, and feet abundantly fringed. Formerly the Blenheim, and King Charles had, longer noses and were used in sporting.

Pekinese toy dogs, which have become fashionable in England, appear to be members of the spaniel group, and are characterised by their small size, short muzzles, very long silky hair, and long, heavily haired tail, which should be carried curled forward over the right side of the back. Many of these valuable dogs are reddish fawn in colour, but others are black or pale fawn. Japanese spaniels, which arc often black and white, are large-bodied and less “lion-shaped.”

The water spaniels, of which the best-marked breed is the Irish, are relatively large dogs, with broad, splay feet, and a woolly, thickly matted, and ,often curly coat of a more or less oily nature. The southern Irish water spaniel is characterised by the bare face and thinly haired tail, the presence of a distinct “top-knot” on the crown of the head, the long curls round the legs, and the thickly curling coat of the body and ears, the colour being of a uniform puce liver tint. The northern variety of the Irish water spaniel has shorter ears, with but little fringe, while the curls of the body hair are shorter and closer, the colour being either liver or liver and white.

The various breeds known as setters are large spaniels which have acquired the habit of standing at their game, and derive their name from having been originally taught to crouch down when marking game, in order to admit of the net with which the quarry was taken being readily drawn over them. With the use of guns, however, this habit became of no advantage, and setters were taught to assume the attitude of pointers. There are five chief breeds of setters, three of which are commonly seen in England.

The English setter, regarded as the result of a cross between the field spaniel and the pointer, should have a silky coat, with a slight wave, but no curl in ,the hair. Both fore and hind legs should be thinly fringed with hair, while in the tail the fringe of long hair should fall regularly, like the teeth of a comb, without any signs of bushiness. In the middle of the tail the length of the fringe should be from six to seven inches in length, while at the tip it should not exceed half an inch. An abundance of hair between the toes is another “point” of the setter. There is great variation in colour, which is valued according to the following scale - namely, black and white ticked with large splashes, known as the “blue Belton”; orange and white freckled, termed orange Belton”; orange or lemon and white without ticks; liver and white, ticked; black and white with slight tan markings; black ‘and white; liver and white, without ticks; pure white; black; liver; red; or yellow.

The Irish setter is of a red colour, without any trace of black, and little or no white; but there is one strain characterised by its red and white colour. It is a rather more “leggy” animal than its English cousin, with a narrower and rather longer head, more produced nose - of which the colour is deep mahogany - and more tapering ears, which, when extended, should reach nearly to the nose. The Gordon, or black and tan, setter is characterised by its mixture of jet black and mahogany tan colours, although the original breed was black, tan, and white. It is a heavier dog than either the English or Irish breeds, this heaviness being specially shown in the head, which makes some approach to that of the bloodhound. The nose is relatively wide, and rarely shows the concave profile of the English setter; the tail is rather short; while the coat, although in some strains silky, may be much coarser than in the other breeds. The Welsh setter, which shows a great amount of variation in colour, is distinguished from the preceding by its curly coat. Finally, the Russian setter is almost entirely concealed by a long woolly coat, which is matted together in the most extraordinary manner.

The name of retriever is applied to large dogs of the spaniel type employed for retrieving game on land, in contradistinction to the water spaniels, which are used for the same purpose in water. These dogs have more or less Newfoundland blood in them, and trace their other parentage to the water spaniel or setter. The curly-coated retriever, which may be either black or tan, is the product of a cross between the smaller black Newfoundland and the water spaniel, and is characterised by the short hair of the face, and the absence of any fringe to the tail, which is covered to within a few inches of its extremity with short, crisp curls. The hair on the body is closely and crisply curled. The wavy-coated retriever may be either a pure-bred small black Newfoundland, or a cross between that breed and the setter.

The Newfoundland dog, of which there are three distinct breeds, is regarded as nothing more than a large spaniel, and its general form and the facility with which it may be crossed with spaniels and setters bear out this view fully. The characteristic of the Newfoundland is its well-known fearlessness of water, and the readiness with which it will risk its life to rescue human beings from drowning. The true Newfoundland is the largest breed, and should stand from 25 to 30 or 31 inches in height at the shoulder. The coat should be shaggy and somewhat oily, and the tail long and bushy and slightly curled on one side; the colour black, with or without some admixture of white, the specimens with the least white being the most admired. Sometimes the black has a rusty tinge. The head in the best-bred animals is large and broad, and nearly flat on the top, with a well-marked ridge at the eyes, while the expression of the countenance conveys a look of grandeur and intelligence without fierceness. The muzzle is relatively wide, and clothed with short hair; while the skin of the forehead should show some slight wrinkles. Both the ears and eyes are relatively small, the former being covered with short hairs, which become slightly longer at the edges; while the latter should be brown in colour and mild in expression. The neck has no distinct frill, and the fore legs should be fringed above, but nearly smooth below. The feet, although necessarily large, should be compact, so as not to spread out under the weight of the body.

The Landseer Newfoundland, said to be unknown in the island from which these dogs take their name, differs from the preceding in its looser build, less noble appearance, more woolly coat, and by the ground-colour being white, upon which are black spots. The smaller black Newfoundland, now generally known as the Labrador retriever, is inferior in size to the typical Newfoundland, standing not more than 22 or 23 inches in height, with a relatively smaller and less massive head. Its cot, is moderately short and wavy, without under-fur, and should be entirely black, although there ma be a white spot on the forehead or a white toe. The fore legs are fringed with long hair down to the feet. Of late years these dogs have become much appreciated by British sportsmen as retrievers; one of the finest strains being owned by the Hon. A. H. Holland Hibbert at Munden, near Watford, Herts. A female from the Munden kennel is exhibited in the Natural History Branch of the British Museum at South Kensington.


The bloodhound may be taken as the first representative of the fourth division of domesticated dogs, which includes pointers and all those usually denominated hounds. They are characterised by their large drooping ears, and most of them by their smooth coats and the absence of any fringe of hair on the ears and legs, while the tail is in most cases but thinly fringed. The profile of the face is only slightly concave, and the muzzle relatively long and deep, with a more or less marked overlapping of the upper lip. With the exception of pointers, they hunt by “foot-scent.” The most striking characteristic feature of the bloodhound is its magnificent head, which is larger and heavier in the male than in the female, While extremely massive, the head is remarkable for its narrowness between the ears, where it rises into a dome-like prominence, terminating in a marked protuberance in the Occipital region. The skin of the forehead, like that round the eyes, is thrown into a series of transverse puckers, which gives a peculiar and somewhat melancholy expression to the whole countenance. The long and tapering jaws are of great depth but relatively narrow, and abruptly truncated in front, and the upper lips are pendulous. The large and thin ears should hang close to the cheeks, and the small and deeply sunk hazel eyes are characterised by the exposure of a considerable part of the membrane of the socket, which is generally red, and technically known as the haw. The throat is heavy, passing downwards into a more or less well-marked dewlap. In the English breed the tail is slightly fringed with hair, although in some foreign strains it is smooth; it should be carried in a curve, but not raised above a right angle with the line of the back. The short coat should be coarse and hard on the back and sides, but soft and silky on the head and ears. The most esteemed type of colour is black and tan, but the coat may be all tan, although white is regarded as a blemish.

English staghounds are descended from two extinct breeds, the southern hound and the northern hound, both of which were large, heavily built animals, with thick throats, distinct dewlaps, and large pendent ears resembling those of the bloodhound. They were slow in pace, and dwelt upon the scent more than their modern descendants. The true English staghound was a considerably larger dog than the foxhound, with a relatively broader and shorter head, and a more thickly fringed tail, and also distinguished by several points in the conformation of the limbs. The large hounds used for stag-hunting in England stand about 25 inches high in the males, and from 23 to 23 and a half inches in the females. The modern foxhound, derived from either the old southern or northern hound, with perhaps some cross of a different breed, is remarkable for its combination of speed and endurance, and thus affords an excellent instance of the results that can be attained by breeding with a particular end in view. The appearance of the foxhound is much modified by the artificial rounding of the ears - a process in which a large portion of the extremity of the lobe is cut away in order to prevent it from becoming entangled in bushes. The coat should be short and hard, but at the same time glossy, the tail having a distinct fringe of hair on its under surface. The favourite, or true, colour is black, white, and tan; but there are also several “pies” in which the respective colours are blended with white, while whole colours, or black and tan only, are not unknown. The endurance and speed of the modern foxhound are fully attested in numerous works on sport. It has been observed that a peculiar faculty in which the hound differs from his congeners is a mental one, leading him always, when he loses scent of his quarry, to cast forwards rather - than backwards, and to do this with a “dash” altogether unlike the slow and careful quest of the bloodhound. This, of course, may be overdone, and in that case the hound constantly overruns the scent ; - but without this property few foxes would be killed, for unless they are hard pressed the scent soon fails and is altogether lost. For ordinary country the male foxhound should average 24 inches, and the female 22 and a half inches in height, but in hilly districts smaller hounds are preferred.

Harriers are a breed of hound trained to hunt hares instead of foxes, and intermediate in point of size between foxhounds and beagles. Pure-bred harriers, probably descended from the old southern hound, are to be met with in Wales, but many of those used in England are crossed with the foxhound, while in some cases a small breed of foxhounds is employed in hare-hunting. Owing to the absence of the practice of “cropping,” harriers may be distinguished from foxhounds by their larger and pointed ears, and generally have longer and narrower heads, with a deeper hollow under the somewhat fuller eye. The height varies from 16 to a little be1ow 20 inches. The colours and points are the same those of foxhounds. A rough breed of Welsh harriers is practically indistinguishable from - the otterhound. Harriers work more slowly than foxhounds, dwelling more on the scent and tending to cast backwards rather than forwards when they come to a check.

Otterhounds so closely resemble large rough Welsh harriers that it requires an expert to distinguish between the two, such difference as there is consisting in the nature of the coat and the form of the feet. Thus the feet, instead of having the neat cat-like form of those of harriers, are broad and splay; while the coat furnished with a thick woolly under-fur of – an oily nature. Probably owing to having to contend with such a fierce animal as the otter, the otter-hound is of a savage and quarrelsome disposition, and very apt to engage in internecine conflicts with its fellow occupants of the kennel. Otter-hunting is a favourite sport in many parts of England and Wales. In some cases foxhounds are employed for otter-hunting.

Bassets (from the French bas, “low”) are small, long-bodied, and short-legged hounds, intemediate in point of size between harriers and beagles; they are divided into straight-legged and bandy-legged bassets, the latter having the fore legs crooked. The heavy build, long body, and short legs render these dogs easy of recognition. The name of beagle is applied to any normally formed hound - that is, to any except a basset - standing less than 16 inches in height, although the true pure-bred beagle is a distinct breed, which may be regarded as a miniature of the old southern hound. In build the beagle is rather short in the limbs and long in the body, with a relatively wide and somewhat dome-shaped head and a short nose. The throat is likewise rather short and thick, and the older breeds used to show a tendency to a dewlap. The ears are full and hang in folds. Beagles may vary in height from about 15 to 1o or 9 inches, but those from 11 to 12-inches are esteemed the best. These small hounds, which are used in hunting hares and rabbits, have a remarkably musical note and an exquisite sense of scent, as well as great perseverance in following a trail. From their small size, short legs, and rather heavy build, beagles are necessarily slow; and in hunting follow all the windings of the hare, so that during the first part of the chase they are far behind their quarry. Their perseverance, however, is generally successful in the end, and there is no prettier sight for the lovers of sport than to watch a well-trained pack at work.

With the cessation of its monotonous occupation has come about the practical extinction of the old English turnspit, which was a long-bodied, short-limbed dog, with the fore feet everted, closely allied to the dachshund, but relatively taller, with a longer head and nose, straighter forehead, less bent fore limbs, and a longer and- thinner tail; the ears being small and placed relatively far back. In colour the turnspit was black and tan. These dogs performed their task in a kind of wire barrel, somewhat like that in a squirrel cage; in England two of them were generally kept, which worked turn and turn about.

Under the title of dachshund, or badger-dog, Germans include two distinct strains of long-bodied dogs with short and crooked legs, one of which presents these characters in a less marked degree than the other, and has also relatively larger ears. One strain has a long, cylinder-like body, supported on short and bent legs, the head, muzzle, and drooping ears large, the paws of great size and furnished with sharp claws, and the coat short and smooth. The fore -feet are markedly turned outwards, and the hind feet have large dew-claws; while the tail is thick at the root, from which it rapidly tapers to the end, without any fringe. The colour varies, but is generally black and tan, although not in frequently either tan or yellowish, and sometimes grey or parti-coloured. The second variety of the dachshund has a still longer body, and shorter and more bent legs than the other strain, from which it is also distinguished by its smaller ears and shorter tail. - The ear is set farther back than in any other dog, its front border being scarcely in advance of the line of junction of the head with the neck. The tail should be carried over the back, and the smooth and glossy coat ought to be hard and wiry, except on the ears, where it becomes silky. Black and tan are the favourite colours in this breed, but whole tan, with a black nose, occupies the second place in the estimation of fanciers. Dachshunds are used in their native country chiefly for hunting badgers, which are numerous in some districts. The strain with the longest body and the shortest legs is employed for digging the badgers out of their holes, while the other is used in the chase. From their small size and short limbs dachshunds are, of course, extremely slow, but they have a keen scent, coupled with great perseverance and endurance, and therefore make admirable hounds. From its somewhat squeaky voice the dachshund has been regarded as more related to terriers than to hounds, but there is no doubt that its place is among the latter.

That the various breeds of pointers are descended from the hound was first clearly indicated by William Youatt. The disposition to “point” appears to be due to the result of training; and although other dogs have been taught to point, in no case do they assume the rigid condition so - especially characteristic of the pointer. Indeed, in some of the old Spanish and French pointers so intensely was this characteristic developed that the animals assumed a kind of cataleptic condition; some of them having been known to remain on the “point” for hours, until absolutely exhausted. Pointers differ from hounds in hunting by “body-scent” instead of by “foot-scent.” The most ancient breed appears to have been the old Spanish pointer, and from this breed the modern English pointer is-believed to have been derived, with inter-crossing either directly with the greyhound or indirectly through the foxhound. This breed is characterised by its compact and well-knit build, sloping shoulders, straight, muscular limbs, and spirited action. The head is still relatively large, but the pendulous upper lips, dewlap, and the heaviness of the throat of the old Spanish breed have been lost. The nose should be long, broad, and square in front. The eyes are moderately large, soft, and intelligent, the colour varying from buff to dark brown. A peculiarly rounded outline on the upper side of the neck marks the well-bred pointer, which can hardly be described in words. The tail should be as straight as possible, with no trace of a fringe, sharply pointed at the end, and carried low. The coat is soft, although not silky. With regard to colour, there are two strains, distinguished as the lemon and white and the liver and white, which are the most numerous and the most esteemed: in addition to these are entirev black and entirely liver-coloured pointers, the latter being very rare. There are also black and white, and black, white, and tan varieties; a dog with much white being preferred, in order that he may readily be seen among turnips. In the best-bred pointers the head should be carried high when at work; those that have too much of the foxhound in their blood carrying the head down, and seeking after a “foot-scent,” instead of trusting entirely to the “body-scent,” while their tails are not carried in the orthodox rigid position.

The Dalmatian, coach, spotted, or “plum-pudding dog,” is probably allied to the pointer and hounds, although there have been suggestions of its affinity to the great Dane. It is distinguished by its dark spots, which are by preference jet-black on a white ground; these spots are large and evenly distributed, varying in size from a shilling to a half-crown. In England essentially a carriage dog, next to the regularity of its spots attention is directed to the perfect development of the limbs. In its native country the Dalmatian dog is employed as a pointer.

Griffon hounds, which must not be confounded with griffon terriers, are a Continental breed, and appear to have been originally of rather large size and uniformly white in colour, although there is now a strain of griffons which may be three-coloured, blue, grey, or lemon and white, These dogs are rough-haired, like otterhounds.


With the mastiff we arrive at the fifth division of domesticated dogs, characterised by the more or less shortened muzzle, in which the lower jaw frequently projects beyond the upper, while the skull is greatly elevated above the eyes by the enlargement of the air-cells in the frontal bones. The typical breeds are of large size and powerful build, with either pendent or erect ears, pendulous lips, and generally short coats and thin tails. They are used chiefly as watch-dogs, or for fighting. Of the true mastiffs there are two breeds, the English and the Cuban. The modern English mastiff is a powerful dog of large size, distinguished when pure-bred, by its fully pendent ears. The head relatively larger and the body less massive than in the bulldog; the head showing a slight furrow down the middle, small eyes, and short face. In height, the male should not fall below 29 inches, while the female should reach at least 27 inches. The coat is fine and soft, but may become rather rough on the tail. The colour most esteemed is either a stone-fawn with black “points,” or a brindle, without any admixture of white; but red mastiffs are not unknown.

The bulldog is a smaller animal, distinguished by its ugly appearance and low degree of intelligence. The head should be square in shape, and as wide as possible, while the skin on the forehead should be well wrinkled. The indentation between the eyes, technically known as the “stop,” should be of great depth and size, and the eyes should be dark, rather prominent, far apart, and set horizontally. The ears, which vary somewhat in shape, are required to be small, and placed high on the head, although not at its summit. Breeders also attach importance to the shortness of the upper as compared with the lower jaw, which is carried to quite an extraordinary degree in the modern breed. The canines, or tusks, should be large and powerful, and the incisor teeth ought to form a regular series. The shape of the body and limbs is admirably adapted for the attainment of the maximum strength and power. A male should not exceed 50 pounds in weight, while the female should scale about 10 pounds less. The coat should be close and fine, the favourite colours being pure white, black and white, or white marked with brindle, fallow, or red; while uniformly coloured brindle, fallow, or red dogs come next in estimation.

The modern type of bulldog appears to have been derived from a breed which, as shown by old pictures, was of a much more mastiff-like type. Bull-baiting was a recognised sport in the thirteenth century, and there is a record dating from the early part of the seventeenth century in which a sharp distinction is drawn between bulldogs and mastiffs. The old type was a fighting dog, and it was essential that an animal which makes a frontal attack on a bull should be both underhung and short-legged, in order to be able to get a firm grip of the muzzle of its antagonist, and to avoid being gored by its horns. It may therefore be taken for granted that whenever a distinct breed of bulldog was differentiated from the mastiff type it possessed in some degree these characteristics. Of the bulldog skulls in the British Museum two are much more like the skulls of mastiffs than those of modern bulldogs, although they are distinctly, if slightly, underhung. Nothing is known as to their history, except that they were in the collection in 1862, but it is probable either that they are much older than that date, or that they belonged to survivors of the ancient type of the breed, for a third skull in the series, belonging to the Lidth-de-Jeude collection, acquired in the sixties [1860s], is of the modern type, and has nothing of the mastiff about it. Of the two mastiff-like skulls, one is decidedly shorter than the other, and therefore indicates an approximation to the modern type. The Lidth-deJeude skull, which belonged to an animal of huge size, although resembling in general characters modern bulldogs, is much more powerful and decidedly less underhung than the skulls of modern bulldogs. With the loss of its fighting power, the bulldog has likewise discarded most of its original ferocity.

The bull terrier, as its name implies, is a cross between the bulldog and the smooth terrier, but varies in form and size according to the amount of bull or terrier blood. The jaws must be long and powerful, and the hollow between the eyes of the bulldog should be quite eliminated, while the profile should be nearly straight. The coat should be short, firm, and close, and, in a perfect animal, milky-white throughout, with the nose black. The worst point about a bull terrier is its quarrelsome disposition, which is rendered all the more objectionable by its courage and strength.

The Great Dane, or German boarhound, is the largest European representative of the mastiff group. These dogs have long been bred in Germany and Denmark, whence they were originally introduced into England. The great Dane is a magnificently proportioned animal, with slender limbs, rather pointed muzzle, slender tail, and large, full eyes. It is generally either yellow and black, or yellow in colour; but may be black, light or dark grey, brown, or yellow, the light shades being often brindled, There are frequently white spots on the chest, and one or more white toes in the lighter-coloured examples. An unusually large dog measured upwards of ~35 and a half inches in height at the shoulders, when in its third year. At one time the ears were invariably cropped, and thus lost their pendent tips. In the Black Forest these dogs are still used in hunting the boar and stag, but are elsewhere mostly employed as watch-dogs. Some authorities are of opinion that a distinction may be drawn between the great Dane and the German boarhound, although this is not accepted by most writers on dogs.

A purely fighting breed is the so-called “dogue de Bordeaux,” a French bulldog of the south of France, which is a short-coated dog, typically of a reddish fawn colour, with a redder face. In shape this- dog is rather low, massive, and muscular, with an enormous head and powerful teeth. The head is both long and broad, with a wide, deep, and powerful muzzle, and a relatively short face and slightly underhung lower jaw. A deep furrow extends from between the small and deeply-set eyes on to the forehead, and the “flews” are thick, broad, and pendulous. When uncropped the pendent ears are small and fine; and the skin of the whole of the head should hang in symmetrical folds. The whiplike tail should be altogether devoid of fringe. Despite their inferior size and weight, these dogs are more powerful and more active than either mastiffs or great Danes. On the Continent they are pitted not only against one another, but against bears, wolves, and other large animals.

The curly-tailed pug-dog, which is a diminutive member of the mastiff group, is kept solely as a pet, and has suffered from the caprice of fashion in England, where it was much esteemed in the eighteenth century, until it fell into the neglect from which it was afterwards rescued. The colour is either yellow or stone-fawn, with black “points”; these black points comprising the face and ears, an area under the tail, and a more or less well-marked streak down the back, which, in the Willoughby pug, is most esteemed when it spreads out into a saddle-shaped patch. The coat should be soft, short, and glossy, except on the tail, where it should be rougher; the tail itself being tightly curled, so as to lie on one side of the back, with rather more than one complete turn. The head is rounded, and second only in relative size to that of the bulldog, with a short but not retreating face. The black ears should be short, and shaped like a vine-leaf; the teeth even; and the dark brown eyes full and soft. The body is thick and “punchy,” with a very loose skin; and the legs should be straight, with small bones, narrow feet, and dark nails, without any white on the toes. A black mole on each cheek, with several long hairs growing from it, is also considered an essential point in a pug. The second strain is the Morrison pug, characterised by its richer and yellower colour, and the absence of an excess of black, notably in the lack of a black patch on the back. The two breeds, however, are now more or less completely blended.

The Chinese, or, as it is often incorrectly called from being imported into Japan and thence brought to Europe, the Japanese pug, is a still more remarkable dog, exhibiting a kind of degradation from overbreeding. One of these brought to England about 1867 was a slender-legged dog with very long hair, and the bushy tail closely curled over its back. The face was extremely short, and the jaws very feeble, with only a single pair of incisor teeth in the lower one. This pug lived chiefly on vegetables, and displayed a special partiality for cucumbers.

The Tibet dog is a magnificent animal, usually placed among the mastiffs, with which it agrees in the general physiognomy and the large pendulous upper lips, or “flews,” as they are technically termed. It differs, however, from all the foregoing members of the group by its coat of long, shaggy hair, with a thick under-fur, and the large bushy tail, carried curled over the back. The development of this thick coat, however, is doubtless an adaptive character due to the winter climate of its native regions. The expression of the countenance is stern and fierce, from the deeply sunken eyes, overhanging eyebrows, and the deep folds into which the skin of the forehead and cheeks is thrown. The ears are pendent, and the greatest development of hair is on the throat and chest. In colour these dogs may be entirely black, black and tan, or tan; and in size they are fully equal to the largest European dogs. The Tibet dog is the watch-dog of the villages and encampments in the highlands of Tibet and neighbouring regions, extending westwards into Ladak and southwards into Sikkim. It is invaluable in protecting the flocks from the inroads of wolves and wild dogs. On reaching a Tibetan village or encampment in the higher regions of Ladak, the traveller is assailed by the baying of at least half a dozen of these dogs, and until they are called off the sensations of the visitor are sometimes the reverse of pleasant. In the more eastern, portions of its range the Tibet dog, in common with sheep and goats, is pressed into service as a beast of burden for carrying salt and borax across the elevated passes and plateaus.

The splendid dogs taking their name from the monastery of Mount St. Bernard, and formerly unknown beyond the Alps and adjacent regions, are remarkable for their high intelligence, and are used in the Alps for rescuing travellers lost in the snow. They were formerly classed in the spaniel group, but, according to one well-known authority - whose views, however, are by no means universally accepted -both Tibet dogs and St. Bernards are descended from the great mastiff-like “Molossi,” or Molossian dogs, of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In size St. Bernards attain dimensions only equalled by those of the great Dane, and are larger than any wild member of the family, unless it be the Alaskan wolf. A very large St. Bernard known as “Young Plinlimmon” measured 68 and a half inches from the tip of his nose to the root of his tail, while others are known which measured respectively 64, 63, and 60 inches. These dogs are divided into rough and smooth St. Bernards, according to the length of the hair. The rough St. Bernard has the coat of the body long and wavy, with the tail very bushy, and the fringe on the fore legs comparatively small. There is great variety in colour; one strain being a rich orange tawny mixed with brown, while others are red and white, brindled or fawn, or those colours more or less mixed with white, and some almost white. The head is large, with a higher elevation at the eyes than in that of the Newfoundland, and the muzzle rather long and squared, with slightly pendulous lips. The ears ale relatively small, with the hair rather rougher than that of the body. The eyes are full but deeply set. The feet are very large, apparently for the purpose of supporting the animal in the snows of its native home, and may be furnished with double dew-claws. The smooth St. Bernard differs mainly from the rough breed by its nearly smooth coat; the tail being comparatively thin, and the legs and cars entirely free from fringes of hair.


All terriers have moderately short and highly arched skulls, in which the elevation is mainly due to the large size of the braincase, and consequently indicates a high degree of intelligence, the jaws being generally rather short. The smooth fox terrier is now one of the most favoured breeds of companionable dogs. It should have a hard, thick, and glossy coat, of a pure white ground-colour, more or less fully marked with black and tan, black, or lemon colour, liver-coloured markings being objectionable. The true colour - namely, white and black and tan - is the most esteemed. There has been much discussion as to the advisability of a strain of bulldog blood in the smooth fox terrier; such strain showing itself by a tendency for the lower jaw to be “underhung,” and also an unusual massiveness of the jaw muscles. The weight may vary from 15 or 16 to 20 pounds. In a pure-bred dog the head should be flat and rather narrow, tapering from the ears to the muzzle, with a slight- hollow in front of the eyes, but none behind them. The jaws should be long and tapering, with a moderate prominence of the masseter muscle; and the nose must be black. The eyes are small, without prominence; and the ears likewise small, in shape resembling the letter V, and set close to the cheeks, with their points directed forwards and downwards. The rough fox terrier came into popular favour at a later date than the smooth breed, although it had been bred for many years in the west of England. It is in all respects similar to its smooth brother, with the exception of the coat, which on the body and legs should be about twice the length of that on the smooth dog, with the addition of a thick underpile of a woolly nature, and furnished, like that of the otterhound, with a certain amount of oil, so as to resist the action of water.

The rough Irish terrier, which has of late years to a great extent replaced the old Scottish terrier, is a rather large dog, varying in weight from 17 to 25 pounds, with a hard, rough, and wiry coat, showing no tendency to curl. The most admired colour is bright reddish bay, usually termed “red,” but it may vary through different shades of brown and yellow to grey. The tail is generally cut, but if kept entire should curve. The form of the head should he long and rather narrow, without any wrinkles or hollow between the eyes. When uncut, the ears should he small, filbert-shaped, and lying close to the head, without any fringe of hair, and rather darker in colour than the head. The small eyes should be hazel, and the nose black.

Very different from either of the above is the long-bodied, short-legged, and long-haired Skye terrier, of which there are two distinct breeds, distinguished by the form of the ears and the proportionate length of the body. The first of these is the drop-eared, or smooth, Skye, in which the ears are pendent, and the body almost or quite as long proportionately as in the dachshund; the length of this dog. From the tip of the nose to the end of the tail, being in perfect specimens as much as three and a half times the height. The coat should nearly touch the ground and almost conceal the shape of the body; the long hair being straight, coarse, and shiny, and naturally parting down the middle of the back, while beneath this there is a thick, woolly under-fur. The most approved colours are “blue,” black, or grizzle, next to which comes silver grey with the hairs tipped with brown, and then fawn with the tips of the hairs also brown. The long hair makes the head appear larger than really is the case. It should be rather narrow, and nearly flat at the top, with little or no elevation at the eyes. The nose and the roof of the mouth must be black or dark brown, and the ears should be about 3 inches in length. The latter should have very long hair, which, together with the long hair of the eyebrows and cheeks, should fall over the eyes. The height of the Skye terrier varies from 9 to 10 inches the length in the former case varying from 30 to 33 inches. The prick-eared Skye is a shorter-bodied dog, with a larger and squarer head, a rougher coat, and large, pointed, erect ears, terminating in a distinct tuft.

Much alteration has ensued in the appearance of the Skye terrier through the fancy of breeders, but the modification is not nearly so great as that which has taken place in the Dandie Dinmont, the height of which varies from 8 to 11 inches at the shoulder, and the weight from 14 to 24 pounds. The hair on the top of the head is soft and silky, but that on the jaws is harder and darker. The upper surface of the tail has wiry hair of a darker tint than that of the body, while below it is softer and lighter in colour. The ears terminate in a distinct point of hair. The prevailing colour is either “blue” or “mustard,” but in the former case the hair on the forelegs and feet should vary from tan to fawn, and in the latter they should be darker than the creamy white head. The ears vary from brown to black, and the eves are hazel.

The Yorkshire, or Halifax, terrier is a small breed, recognised by the enormous length of the long and silky hair, especially on the face. On the body the length of the hair is about 3 or 4 inches, while on the face it reaches as much as 6 or 7, and thus communicates an almost grotesque appearance. The colour on the upper parts is grizzled “blue,” owing to the mixture of dark with light hairs, while tan occupies the same parts as in the black and tan terrier.

The “griffon bruxellois” is a small and vivacious rough-haired breed, indigenous to Belgium, which has of late years come into fashion in England. in their native country these dogs have the ears cropped and the tail docked.

Under the title of English terriers may be included the short-haired dogs, commonly known as black and tan terriers, with their diminutive representatives the toy terriers and white terriers. The black and tan, or Manchester, terrier is of about the same average size as the fox terrier, varying in weight from some 10 or 12 to as much as 18 pounds. Special attention is paid to the colour of this terrier, the black being required to be of jetty fulness, and sharply defined from the tan, which should be of a rich mahogany. The tan should occupy a spot, forming a “bee,” over each eye, and another on the cheek, as well as the sides of the jaws backwards to the lower parts of the cheeks, ending on the throat. The tan should also occupy all the under parts, the inner sides of the ears, a spot on each side of the chest, the whole of the inner sides of the limbs, their outer sides as far as the wrist and ankle joints, and the entire feet, with the exception of a narrow line of black -along each toe. The black and tan toy terrier, which is merely a diminutive derivation from the Manchester terrier, should not exceed 6 pounds in weight, and is most prized when it only weighs 3 and a half or 4 pounds, if at the same time it exhibits perfect symmetry. The white English terrier is a less well-known breed, having the same general characteristics as the Manchester terrier, but a pure opaque white coat, and dark eyes, nose, and claws.

Although very different in appearance from the typical representatives of the group, the poodle, perhaps the cleverest of all dogs and the one most apt to learn tricks, is included among the terriers. There are several strains, differing mainly from one another in size; the usual colours being either black or white, a mixture of the two, or grey. The coat should resemble astrakhan, but may incline more to a silky or a woolly nature in the different strains. When clipped it should present a satiny sheen. Both on the Continent and in England the poodle is clipped to a greater or less degree; but while on the Continent the coat is permitted to grow in winter, in England the clipping is too often continued at all seasons. In England and Russia the poodle is treated solely as a companion and house-dog, but in France and Germany is employed as a sporting dog, and is the constant outdoor companion of the farmer. The poodle is an excellent water-dog, diving well, and seldom failing to retrieve a wounded bird in the water; the oily nature of its coat being a protection against chills. In retrieving on land the poodle relies fully as much on its general intelligence as on its sense of smell, thereby resembling the Newfoundland; and it usually hunts by casting round in circles, rather than by following a direct trail. Poodles are the dogs employed in circuses as performers […]

The Maltese dog, which may be compared to a diminutive Skye terrier, and should not exceed some 5 or 6 pounds in weight, has a short body, covered with -very long and silky hair of a uniform semi-transparent white colour; the tail being thickly haired and carried tightly curled over the back. The nose and roof of the mouth are black, and the hair of the moderately long ears, as in the case of other terriers, mingles with that of the neck.

The Mexican lapdog is also pure white, but with a flesh-coloured nose. The hair on the head and body is moderately long and curly, but that of the rather short tail longer and straighter. The ears are small and not pendent. and the head is rounded, with the brown eyes widely separated from one another.


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