DOG BREEDS IN 1853
These pictures and accompanying descriptions are from the "Illustrated Natural History (Mammalia)" by Rev JG Wood, published in 1853. My edition is the single volume Routledge 1874 edition.
One of the most magnificent examples of the domesticated Dog is the THIBET DOG, an animal which, to his native owners, is as useful as he is handsome, but seems to entertain an invincible antipathy to strangers of all kinds, and especially towards the face of a white man. These enormous Dogs are employed by the inhabitants of Thibet for the purpose of guarding their houses and their flocks, for which avocation their great size and strength render them peculiarly fit. It often happens that the male inhabitants of a Thibetian village leave their homes for a time, and journey as far as Calcutta, for the purpose of selling their merchandise of borax, musk, and other articles of commerce. While thus engaged, they leave their Dogs at home, as guardians to the women and children, trusting to the watchfulness of their four-footed allies for the safety of their wives and families. The courage of these huge Dogs is not so great as their size and strength would seem to indicate, for, excepting on their own special territories, they are little to be feared, and even then can be held at bay by a quiet, determined demeanour. Several of these handsome animals have been brought to England. Their colour is generally a deep black, with a slight clouding on the sides, and a patch of tawny over each eye. The hanging lips of the Thibet Dog give it a very curious aspect, which is heightened by the generally loose mode in which the skin seems to hang on the body.
The GREAT DANISH DOG is best known in England as the follower of horses and carriages upon roads; and, probably on account of being restricted to this monotonous mode of existence, is supposed to be rather a stupid animal As, however, in its own country the Danish Dog is employed as a pointer, and does its work very creditably, we may suppose that the animal is possessed of abilities which might be developed by anyone who would take pains to do so. On account of its carriage-following habits, it is popularly called the Coach Dog, and, on account of its spotted hide, receives the rather ignoble title of Plum-Pudding Dog. The height of the animal is rather more than two feet.
The ESQUIMAUX DOG, however, spends almost its entire life in drawing sledges, or in carrying heavy loads, being, in fact, the only beast of burden or traction in the northern parts of America and the neighbouring islands. […] The Esquimaux Dog is rather smaller than the Labrador, being only twenty-two or twenty-three inches in height. There is something very wolfish about the Dog, owing to its oblique eyes, bushy tail, and elongated muzzle. In its full face the Esquimaux Dog presents a ludicrously exact likeness of its master’s countenance. The colour is almost invariably a deep dun, marked obscurely with dark bars and patches; the muzzle is black. […] These Dogs are able to travel for very great distances over the snow-clad regions of the north, and have been known to make daily journeys of sixty miles for several days in succession. Captain Parry, in his well-known “Journal,” remarks very happily, that “neither the Dog nor his master is half civilized or subdued,” the former indeed being the necessary consequence of the latter. The Esquimaux bears no love towards his Dogs [...] the poor animals can have no affection for their cruel tormentors, and are afforded no opportunity for developing the mental qualities which they possess in very large degree. When placed under the care of a kind master, the Esquimaux Dog is a most affectionate animal, and displays considerable reasoning powers. The Esquimaux Dog is rather larger than an English pointer Dog, although its true size appears to be less than it really is, on account of the comparative shortness of limb. Its fur is composed of a long outer covering of coarse hair, three or four inches in length, and an inner coating of short, woolly hair, that seems to defend the animal from the colds of winter. When the weather begins to wax warm, the wool falls off, and grows again as the winter draws near.
[…] the ALPINE SPANIEL, more generally known by the title of the ST. BERNARD’S DOG, on account of the celebrated monastery where these magnificent animals are taught to exercise their wondrous powers, which have gained for them and their teachers a world-wide fame. These splendid Dogs are among the largest of the canine race, being equal in size to a large mastiff. The good work which is done by these dogs is so well known that it is only necessary to give a passing. Bred among the coldest regions of the Alps, and accustomed from its birth to the deep snows which everlastinglv cover the mountaintop, the St. Bernards Dog is a most useful animal in discovering any unfortunate traveller who has been overtaken by a sudden storm and lost the path, or who has fallen upon the cold ground, worn out by fatigue and hardship, and fallen into the death-sleep which is the result of severe cold. […] When the Dog has made such a discovery, it gives notice by its deep and powerful bay of the perilous state of the sufferer, and endeavours to clear away the snow that covers the lifeless form. The monks, hearing the voice of the Dog, immediately set off to the aid of the perishing traveller, and in many cases have thus preserved lives that must have perished without their timely assistance. In order to afford every possible help to the sufferer, a small flask of spirits is generally tied to the Dog’s neck.
This magnificent animal which is termed the BLOODHOUND, on account of its peculiar facility for tracking a wounded animal through all the mazes of its devious course, is very scarce in England, as there is but little need for these Dogs for its chief employment. In the “good old times” this animal was largely used by thief-takers, for the purpose of tracking and securing the robbers who in those days made the country unsafe, and laid the roads under a black mail. Sheep-stealers, who were much more common when the offence was visited with capital punishment, were frequently detected by the delicate nose of the BLOODHOUND, which would, when once laid on the scent, follow it up with unerring precision, unravelling the single trail from among a hundred crossing footsteps, and only to be baffled by water or [by] blood […] spilt upon the track, the delicate olfactories of the animal are blunted, and it is no longer able to follow the comparatively weak scent which is left by the retreating footsteps. When the hound suspects that the quarry has taken to the water, it swims backward and forward, testing every inch of the bank on both sides, and applying its nose to every leaf, stick, or frothy scum that comes floating by. In this country the Bloodhound is chiefly employed in deer-shooting, aiding the sportsman by singling out some animal, and keeping it ever before him, and by driving it in certain directions, giving to its master an opportunity for a shot from his rifle. Should the deer not fall to the shot, but be only wounded, it dashes off at a greatly increased pace, followed by the Bloodhound which here displays his qualities. Being guided by the blood-drops that stud the path of the wounded animal, the hound has an easy task in keeping the trail, and by dint of perseveriug exertions is sure to come up with his prey at last. The Bloodhound is generally irascible in temper, and therefore a rather dangerous animal to be meddled with by any one excepting its owner. So fierce is its desire for blood, and so utterly is it excited when it reaches its prey. that it will often keep its master at bay when he approaches, and receive his overtures with such unmistakeable indications of anger that he will not venture to approach until his dog has satisfied its appetite on the carcase of the animal which it has brought to the ground.. […] The modern Bloodhound is not the same animal as that which was known by the same title in the days of early English history, the breed of which is supposed to be extinct. The ancient Bloodhound was, from all accounts, an animal of extremely irritable temper, and therefore more dangerous as a companion than the modern hound. The colour of a good Bloodhound ought to be nearly uniform, no white being permitted, except on the tip of the stern. The prevailing tints are a blackish-tan, or a deep fawn. The tail of this Dog is long and sweeping, and by certain expressive wavings and flourishings of that member,~ the animal indicates its success or failure.
It is hardly possible to conceive an animal which is more entirely formed for speed and endurance than a well-bred GREYHOUND. Its long slender legs, with their whipceord-like muscles, denote extreme length of stride and rapidity of movement; its deep, broad chest, affording plenty of space for the play of large lungs, shows that it is capable of long continued exertion; while its sharply pointed nose, snake-like neck, and slender, tapering tail, are so formed as to afford the least possible resistance to the air, through which the creature passes with such exceeding speed. The chief use - if use it can be termed - of the Greyhound, is in coursing the hare, and exhibiting in this chase its marvellous swiftness, and its endurance of fatigue. Naturally, the Greyhound of pure blood is not possessed of a very determined character, and it is therefore found necessary to give these creatures the proper amount of endurance by crossing them with the bull-dog, one of the most determined and courageous animals in existence. As may be supposed, the immediate offspring of a bulldog and a Greyhound is a most ungainly animal, but by continually crossing with the pure Greyhound, the outward shape of the thick and sturdy bull-dog is entirely merged in the more graceful animal, while his, stubborn pertinacity remains implanted in its nature. The narrow head and sharp nose of the Greyhound, useful as they are for aiding the progress of the animal by removing every impediment to its passage through the atmosphere, yet deprive it of a most valuable faculty, that of chasing by scent. The muzzle is so narrow in proportion to its length, that the nasal nerves have no room for proper development, and hence the animal is very deficient in its powers of scent. The same circumstance may be noted in many other animals.
The IRISH GREYHOUND is a remarkably fine animal, being four feet in length, and very firmly built. Its hair is of a pale fawn colour, and much rougher than that of the smooth English Greyhound. Unless excited by the sight of its game, or by anger, it is a very peaceable animal; but when roused, exhibits a most determined spirit. In former days, when wolves and wild boars infested the Irish forests, this Dog was used for the purpose of extirpating those animals but in these days their numbers are comparatively few. When fighting, it takes its antagonist by the back, and shakes the life out of its foe by main strength. One of these Dogs measured sixty-one inches in total length; twenty-eight and a half inches from the toe to the top of the shoulder; and thirty-five inches in girth.
The SCOTCH GREYHOUND is still rougher in its coat than its Irish relative, but hardly so large in its make: a very fine example of these Dogs, of the pure Glengarry, Breed measures twenty-eight inches in height, and thirty-four inches in girth, being a little smaller thatn the Irish Dog which was mentioned above. There seems to be but one breed of the Scotch Greyhound, although some families are termed Deerhounds and others are only called Greyhounds. Each however, from being constantly employed in the chase of either deer or hare, becomes gradually fitted for the pursuit of its special quarrv, and contracts certain habits which render it comparatively useless when set to chase the wrong animal. The Scotch Deerhound is possessed of better powers of scent- than the Greyhound and in chasing its game depends as much on its nose as on its eyes. And it is curious too, that although it makes use of its olfactory powers when running, it holds its head higher from the ground than the Greyhound, which only uses its eyes.
THE RUSSIAN GREYHOUND is also gifted with the power of running by scent, and is employed at the present day for the same purposes which Irish Greyhounds subserved in former times. Many Russian forests are infested with wild boars, wolves, and bears, and this powerful and swift Dog is found of great use in the destruction of these quadrupedal pests. In size it is about equal to the Scotch Greyhound. It is not exclusively used for the chase of the large and savage beasts, but is also employed in catching deer, hares, and other animals which come under the ordinary category of “game.” The fur of this Dog is thick, but does not run to any length.
The noble and graceful animal which is the representative of the Greyhound family in Persia, derives its origin from a source which is hidden in the mists of antiquity, and has been employed in the chase of swift-footed animals from time immemorial. Powerful of jaw, quick and supple of limb, the PERSIAN GREYHOUND is chosen to cope with that swift and daring animal, the wild ass, as well as with the no less rapid antelope, and the slower, but more dangerous, wild boar. Of all these creatures, the wild ass gives the most trouble, for it instinctively keeps to rocky and mountainous neighbourhoods, which afford a refuge unassailable by the sure-footed Persian horse, and from which it can only be driven by such agile creatures as the native Greyhounds. So untiring is the wild ass, and so boldly does it traverse the rocky mountain spurs among which it loves to dwell, that a single ass will Frequently escape, even though several relays of Greyhounds have been provided to take up the running at different parts of the course, as soon as their predecessors are fatigued. For the antelope the Greyhound would be no match, and is therefore assisted by the falcon, which is trained to settle on the head of the flying animal, and by flapping its wings in the poor creature’s eyes, to prevent it from following a direct course, and thus to make it an easier prey to the Greyhound which is following in the track Of this curious mixture of falconry and hunting the Persian nobles are passionately fond, and peril their lives in ravines and among rocks that would quail the spirit of our boldest foxhunters. It is said that the Persian Greyhound is not the safest of allies, for if it should fail in its chase it is reputed to turn its wasting energies upon its master, and to force him, Actaeon-like, to seek his safety in flight; or, more fortunate than his cornuted prototype, to rid himself of his dependents by a blow from his ready scimitar. The Persian is said to be especially addicted to this vice when it is imported into India. This animal is rather slender in make, and its ears are “feathered” after the fashion of the Blenheim spaniel’s. Nevertheless, it is a powerful and bold creature, and can hold its own among any assemblage of Dogs of its own weight.
A more utter contrast to the above-mentioned animal [Persian Greyhound] can hardly be imagined than that which is afforded the ITALIAN GREYHOUND, a little creature whose merit consists in its diminutive proportions and its slender limbs […] the delicate, shivering, faint-hearted Italian Greyhound; sad type of the people from which it takes its name. In truth, the Italian Greyhound is but a dwarfed example of the true smooth Greyhound, dwarfed after the same manner that delights our Celestial friends, when tried on vegetable instead of animal life. The weight of a really good Italian Greyhound ought not to exceed eight or ten pounds; and there are animals of good shape which only- weigh six or seven pounds. One of the most perfect Dogs of the present day weighs eight and three-quarter pounds, and is fourteen and a quarter Inches in height. His colour is uniformly black. Attempts have been made to employ the Italian Greyhound in the chase of rabbits, but its power of jaw and endurance of character are so disproportioned to its speed, that all such endeavours have failed. A mixed breed, between the Italian Greyhound and the terrier, is useful enough, combining endurance with speed, and perfectly capable of chasing and holding a rabbit. In this country, it is only used as a petted companion, and takes rank among the “toy-dogs,” being subject to certain arbitrary rules of colour and form, which may render a Dog worthless for one year through the very same qualities which would make it a paragon of perfection in another. The Dutch tulip-mania afforded no more capricious versatility of criterion than is found in the “points” of toy Dogs of the present day. If the creature be of a uniform colour, it must be free from the least spot of white; and even a white stain on the breast is held to deteriorate from its perfection. The colour which is most in vogue is a golden fawn; and the white and red Dog takes the last place in the valuation of colour. It is a pretty little creature, active and graceful to a degree, and affectionate to those who know how to win its affections. Even in the breed of our British smooth Greyhounds, this little animal has been successfully employed, and by a careful admixture with the larger Dog, takes away the heavy, clumsy aspect of the head which is caused by the bulldog alliance, and restores to the offspring the elastic grace of the original Greyhound. It is generally bred in Spain and. Italy, and from thence imported into this country, where the change of climate is so apt to affect its lungs, that its owners are forced to keep it closely swathed in warm clothing during the changeable months of the year.
The large and handsome animal which is called from its native country the NEWFOUNDLAND DOG, belongs to the group of spaniels, all of which appear to be possessed of considerab1e mental powers, and to be capable of instruction to a degree that is rarely seen in animals. In its native land the Newfoundland Dog is shamefully treated, being converted into a beast of burden and forced to suffer even greater hardships than those which generally fall to the lot of animals which are used for the carriage of goods or the traction of vehicles. […] Many of these noble Dogs sink under the joint effects of fatigue and starvation, and many of the survivors commit sad depredations on the neighbouring flocks as soon as the summer commence, and they are freed from their daily toils. In this country, however, the Newfoundland Dog is raised to its proper position, and made the friend and companion of man. There are two kinds of Newfoundland Dog; one a very large animal standing some thirty-two inches in height; and the other, a smaller dog, measuring twenty-four or twenty-five inches high. The latter animal is sometimes called the Labrador Dog, and sometimes is termed the St John’s Dog. When crossed with the setter, the Labrador Dog gives birth to the Retriever. The large Newfoundland is generally crossed with the mastiff. There are few dogs which are more adapted for fetching and carrying than the Newfoundland.
Of the Spaniel Dogs, there are several varieties, which may be classed under two general heads, namely, Sporting and Toy Spaniels; the former being used by the sportsman in finding game for him; and the latter being simply employed as companions.
The FIELD SPANIEL is remarkable for the intense love which it bears for hunting game, and the energetic manner in which it carries out the wishes of its master. There are two breeds of Field Spaniels, the one termed the “Springer,” being used for heavy work among thick and thorny coverts, and the other being principally employed in woodcock shooting, and called in consequence the “Cocker.” The Blenheim and King Charles Spaniels derive their origin from the Cocker. The three Dogs which are represented in the engraving are examples of the three most celebrated breeds of - Springer Spaniels. The black Dog is a Sussex Spaniel; that which stands in the foreground is a Clumber; and the seated Dog is a Norfolk Spaniel. Some of these Dogs continually give tongue while engaged in the pursuit of game, and utter different sounds according to the description of game which they have reached; while others are perfectly mute in their quest. Each of these qualities is useful in its way, and the Dog is valued accordingly; only it is needful that if the Dog be one that gives tongue, it should not be too noisy in its quest, and should be musical in its note. While hunting, the Spaniel sweeps its feathery tail rapidly from side to side, and is a very pretty object to any one who has an eye for beauty of movement. It is a rule, that however spirited a Spaniel may be, it must not raise its tail above the level of its back. For the purpose of sport, a Spaniel must be possessed of a thick coat, as it is subject to continual wetting from the dripping coverts through which it has to force its way. It should be also a tolerably large Dog, not weighing less than fourteen pounds if possible, and may with advantage weigh some thirty or forty pounds, as do the breed known by the name of the “Clumber” Spaniels. These last-mentioned animals work silently. Examples are given in the accompanying illustration of three kinds of Cocker Spaniels. The dark Dog, that occupies the foreground, is a Welsh Cocker; and the other two Dogs are ordinary Cockers.
THE COCKER is altogether a smaller animal, seldom weighing above twenty pounds, and very often being only ten or twelve pounds in weight. it is an active and lively animal, dashing about its work with an air of gay enjoyment that assists materially in enlivening the spirits of its master. There are many breeds of this Dog, among which the English, Welsh, and Devonshire Cockers may be mentioned as well-known examples. It is a courageous little creature, retaining its dashing boldness even when imported into the enervating Indian climate, which destroys the spirit of most Dogs, and even reduces the stubborn bull-dog to a mere poltroon.
From its singular affection for the water, this Dog is termed the WATER SPANIEL, as a distinction from the Field SpanieL In all weathers, and in all seasons, the Water Spaniel is ever ready to plunge into the loved element, and to luxuriate therein in sheer wantonness of enjoyment. It is an admirable diver, and a swift swimmer, in which arts it is assisted by the great comparative breadth of its paws. it is therefore largely used by sportsmen for the purpose of fetching out of the water the game which they have shot, or of swimming to the opposite bank of the river, or to an occasional island, and starting therefrom the various birds that love such moist localities. Much of its endurance in the water is owing to the abundance of natural oil with which its coat is supplied, and which prevents it from becoming really wet. A real Water Spaniel gives himself a good shake as soon as he leaves the river, and is dry in a very short time, This oil, although useful to the Dog, gives forth an odour very unpleasant to human nostrils, and therefore debars the Water Spaniel from enjoying the fireside society of its human friends. Some people fancy that the Water Spaniel possesses webbed feet, and that its aquatic prowess is due to this formation. Such, however, is not the case. All dogs have their toes connected with each other by a strong membrane, and when the foot is wide and the membrane rather loosely hung, as is the case with the Water Spaniel, a large surface is presented to the water. The Water Spaniel is of moderate size, measuring about twenty-two inches in height at the shoulders, and proportionately stout in make. The ears are long, measuring from’ point to point rather more than the animal’s height.The KING CHARLES CAVALIER SPANIEL derives its name from the “airy monarch,” Charles II., who took great delight in these little creatures, and petted them in a manner that verged on absurdity. it is a very small animal, as a really fine specimen ought not to exceed six or seven pounds in weight. Some of the most valuable King Charles Spaniels weigh as little as five pounds, or even less. These little creatures have been trained to search for and put up game after the manner of their larger relatives, the springers and cockers, but they cannot endure severe exercise, or long-continued exertion, and ought only to be employed on very limited territory. When rightly managed, it is a most amusing companion, and picks up accomplishments with great readiness. It can be trained to perform many pretty tricks, and sometimes is so appreciative of its human playfellows that it will join their games.
The BLENHEIM SPANIEL is even smaller than the King Charles, and resembles it closely in its general characteristics. Both these animals ought to have very short muzzles, long silky hair without any curl, extremely long and silky ears, falling close to the head, and sveeping the ground. The legs should be covered with long silky hair to the very toes, and the tail should be well “feathered.” The eyes of these little Dogs are extremely moist, having always a slight lachrymal rivulet trickling from the corner of each eye. Although, from their diminutive size, these little Dogs are anything but formidable, they are terrible foes for the midnight thief, who cares little for the brute strength of a big yard-dog. Safely fortified behind a door , or under a sofa, the King Charles sets up such a clamorous yelling at the advent of a strange step, that it will disconcert the carefully arranged plans of professional burglars with much more effect than a deep bay and the fierce struggles of the mastiff or bloodhound. It is easy enough to quiet a large Dog in the yard, but to silence a petulant King Charles Dog within doors, quite a different matter. Many “toy” Dogs are equally useful in this respect, and the miniature terrier, which has lately become so fashionable, or the Skye terrier, are most admirable assistants in giving timely warning of a foe’s approach, although they may not be able to repel him if he has once made good his entrance.
Of late years, a Dog which much resembles the last-mentioned animal [Esquimaux Dog] has come into fashion as a house-dog, or as a companion. This is the POMERANIAN FOX DOG, commonly known as the “Loup-loup.” it is a great favourite with those who like a Dog for a companion, and not for mere use, as it is very intelligent in its character, and very handsome in aspect. Its long white fur, and bushy tail, give it quite a distinguished appearance, of which the animal seems to be thoroughly aware. Sometimes the coat of this animal is a cream colour, and very rarely is deep black. The pure white, however, seems to be the favourite. It is a lively little creature, and makes an excellent companion in a country walk.
A very celebrated, but extremely rare, “toy” Dog, is the MALTESE DOG, the prettiest and most loveable of all the little pet Dogs. The hair of this tiny creature is very long, extremely silky, and almost unique in its glossy sheen, so beautifully fine as to resemble spun glass. In proportion to the size of the animal, the fur is so long that when it is in rapid movement, the real shape is altogether lost in the streaming mass of flossy hair. One of these animals, which barely exceeds three pounds in weight, measures no less than fifteen inches in length of hair across the shoulders. The tail of the Maltese Dog curls strongly over the back, and adds its~ wealth of silken fur to the already superfluous torrent of glistening tresses. It is a lively and very good-tempered little creature, endearing itself by sundry curious little ways to those with whom it is brought in contact. The “toy” spaniels are subject to several unpleasant habits, such as snoring and offensive breath, but the Maltese Dog is free from these defects, and is therefore a more agreeable companion than the King Charles or the Blenheim Spaniels. As the name implies, it was originally brought from Malta. It is a very scarce animal, and at one time was thought to be extinct; but there are still specimens to be obtained by those who have no objection to pay the price which is demanded for these pretty little creatures.
The LION DOG, so called on account of its fancied resemblance to the king of beasts, when it is shaven after the fashion of poodles, is a cross between the poodle and the Maltese Dog, possessing the tightly curled hair of the poodle without its elongated ears and determinate aspect.
Of all the domesticated Dogs, the POODLE seems to be, take him all in all, the most obedient and the most intellectual. Accomplishments the most difficult are mastered by this clever animal, which displays an ease and intelligence in its performances that appear to be far beyond the ordinary canine capabilities. A barbarous custom is prevalent of removing the greater portion of the Poodle’s coat, leaving him but a ruff round the neck and legs, and a puff on the tip of the tail as the solo relic of his abundant fur. Such a deprivation is directly in opposition to the natural state of the Dog, which is furnished with a peculiarly luxuriant fur, hanging in long ringlets from every portion of the head, body, and limbs. The Poodle is not the only Dog that suffers a like tonsorial abridgment of coat; for under the dry arches of the many bridges that cross the Seine, in Paris, may be daily seen a mournful spectacle. Numerous Dogs of every imaginable and unimaginable breed, lie helpless in the shade of the arch, their legs tied together, and their eyes contemplating with woeful looks the struggles of their fellows, who are being shorn of their natural covering, and protesting with mournful cries against the operation.
There is a diminutive variety of the Poodle, which is termed the BABBET. This little Dog is possessed of all the intellectual powers of its larger relative, and on account of its comparatively small size, was formerly in great request as a lady’s Dog. For this enviable post it is well fitted, as it is a cleanly little creature, very affectionate, and full of the oddest tricks and vagaries. Some years since, I made acquaintance with a comical little Dog, named “Quiz,” which I believe to have been a Barbet […] He was very small, not larger than an ordinary rabbit, and was overwhelmed with such a torrent of corkscrew curls that his entire shape was concealed under their luxuriance; and, when he was lying asleep on the sofa, he reminded the spectator of a loose armful of mop thrums. While reposing, his head was quite indistinguishable from his tail; and when walking, his trailing curls collected such an ever-increasing mass of leaves, dry sticks, straws, and other impediments, that he was frequently obliged to halt, in order to be released from his encumbrances.
The very tiniest of the Dog family is the MEXICAN LAPDOG, a creature so very minute in its dimensions as to appear almost fabulous to those who have not seen the animal itself. One of these little canine pets is to be seen in the British Museum, and always attracts much attention from the visitors. Indeed, if it were not in so dignified a locality, it would be generally classed with the mermaid, the flying serpent, and the Tartar lamb, as an admirable example of clever workmanship. It is precisely like those white woolen toy Dogs which sit upon a pair of bellows, and when pressed give forth a nondescript sound, intended to do duty for the legitimate canine bark. To say that it is no larger than these toys would be hardly true, for I have seen in the shop windows many a toy Dog which exceeded in size the veritable Mexican Lapdog.