RIVERS OF THE NORTH - THEIR CITIES AND THEIR COMMERCE -
THE CLYDE, FORTH, TAY, TYNE, AND TEES - MARITIME ENTERPRISE, MANUFACTURING ENERGY, MERCANTILE ACTIVITY.
THIS BOOK COMPLETE IN ITSELF.

RIVERS OF THE NORTH - THEIR CITIES AND THEIR COMMERCE.

SUCH a subject as the one indicated in the title of this work presents two principal aspects which are equally worthy of consideration — the picturesque and the utilitarian. For present purposes the latter must command our chief attention, but it is difficult to refrain from a few brief words of comment in connection with the former. From the days of Pliny down to the age in which we are now living, the peculiarly interesting subject of rivers, their character, their usefulness, and their influence generally upon the lands through which they flow, has engaged the attention of great writers; and many are they who have found pleasure in tracing the obvious analogy between the course of a great river and that of human life. Such an analogy must have suggested itself, at one time or another, to almost every student of nature. From its cradle, high up in the hills, the tiny stream first creeps forth like a little child full of wonderment at a strange and unfamiliar prospect — wandering, aimless, uncertain what course to take in the great new life suddenly opened before it. Anon it gains confidence as it feels its strength increase, and plunges forward with a joyous determination to achieve something, “dancing like childhood” (as Shelley says of the rivulet) from rock to rock in its mountain home, and thus swiftly forcing its way out into the larger world beyond, passing, in fact, from infancy to youth.

As yet its character is all unformed, and it can boast of nothing beyond the spontaneous gaiety and happy unconcern of childhood. It has the beauty of childhood too, and in its beauty we overlook its possible utility. Time passes on, and these characteristics are sobered down and matured in the strong, steady, earnest tide of middle age. From the mountains the river has rushed down to the valleys, and now it has become a power for good in the land. It realises and fulfils the mission of its existence. Meadows are watered, mills and factories feel its energetic influence, human wants are supplied, cattle quench their thirst in the life-giving stream, while the argosies of commerce and the stately ships of pleasure and transport float upon its placid breast. Great towns and cities flourish upon its banks, and its waters lave the wharves and docks of busy, bustling ports, whence the products of industry go out to meet the needs of nations and peoples everywhere.

At length old age draws on, and the broad stream loses its old-time force and vigour. The salt tides — harbingers of the rest that is not far distant — now mingle with the river’s waning flood. The mists of ocean mix with the mists of the land, and, just beyond, the great final scene is enacted, when the aged stream, all its labours finished and all its duties performed, merges silently and peacefully into the mighty void of waters, typical of the eternity that is the goal of every thinking soul. From first to last the semblance between the life of the river and the life of man is maintained. Each has its origin in comparative insignificance; each derives its mature character partly from innate power and partly from controlling influences and circumstances; each has its duty to accomplish, and each is esteemed or despised according to the manner in which its life- work is fulfilled.

Sir Humphry Davy spoke of a full, clear river as the “most poetical object in creation”; and few will deny the force of the observation. But a river has something more than a poetical aspect — it is vastly and pre-eminently useful, and every nation is a debtor to its rivers, not merely for those features of picturesque beauty which running water seems able to create even in a desert, but also, and especially, for the great practical part they play in ameliorating the condition and promoting the health, wealth, and happiness of humankind in general. A great river is at once a thing of beauty and majesty, a sanitary safeguard, a source of benefit to animal and vegetable life, and a permanent highway upon which the traffic of national commerce may move continuously in accordance with its destiny. In all these respects the six great “Rivers of the North,” with which we propose to deal in this volume, appeal to us strongly; but it is, perhaps, in their wonderful industrial and commercial life that they will prove most interesting to the busy worker in the modern world. As this phase of northern river life is not less extensive in scope than it is important in character, and as our space is strictly limited here, we need make no apology for waiving further prefatory remark and plunging at once in medias res. Among the rivers we have named above one stands forth conspicuously as a leader in regard to the magnitude of the mercantile and manufacturing operations that are carried on within the sphere of its influence, and upon this ground we may justly assign the post of honour in our review to

THE FORTH.

In the borderlands of Stirlingshire and Perthshire two little streams, one issuing from Ben Lomond and one from Loch Chon, supply the headwaters of the noble river Forth. These two, streams unite above Aberfoyle, and are then called Avendhu, or Black River. At Gastmore the river assumes the name of Forth, and flows on in a serpentine course along the borders of Perthshire. Above Stirling it receives the tributaries, Goodie, Teith, and Allan Water; while below Stirling the waters of the Devon, Carron, Almond, Leith, and other streams swell the volume of its ever-broadening tide. Both above and below Stirling the river indulges in a series of most tortuous and fantastic windings which are locally known as “the Links,” and these render a journey by water in this vicinity much longer than a journey in the same direction by road. For instance, from Stirling down to Alloa, where the river widens considerably, the distance by water is 10-and-a-half miles, though the towns are only five miles apart in a direct line. Passing Clackmannan and Kincardine, GRANGEMOUTH is reached at the mouth of the Carron, and here we find a busy, go-ahead river port, which, has come to the front very much during recent years, and which now has a flourishing shipping and general trade, particularly in timber. Opposite Grangemouth the Forth widens greatly, and from this point eastward the depth of the river increases continuously.

Two points of land, projecting towards each other between North Queensferry and South Queensferry, contract the breadth of the stream somewhat, and advantage has been taken of this in the construction at this point of that modern wonder of the world, the Forth Bridge. For generations the subject of transit across the Forth in this vicinity has been a most important theme of discussion, and the ferries so long used became at length greatly inadequate for the ever-increasing stream of traffic from north to south and vice versa, to say nothing of the uncertainties and dangers of wind and tide. In 1866 a bridge was projected, but it was not until 1878 that Sir Thomas Bouch was instructed to prepare designs for a suspension bridge upon a gigantic scale. This scheme was eventually abandoned, however, owing to the terrible Tay Bridge disaster in December, 1879. Two years later the project for a Forth Bridge was revived, and it was decided to construct a gigantic steel bridge on the cantilever principle. The work was carried on under the supervision of Sir John Fowler and Mr. Benjamin Baker, Messrs. W. Arrol & Co. being the contractors, and the result of this colossal undertaking, upon which upwards of 3,500 workmen were employed, is a marvellous triumph of engineering and mechanical science. To quote the words of a writer in the London daily press, on the occasion of the opening of the bridge:— “As high as the golden cross of St. Paul’s, but a few feet lower than the apex of the Great Pyramid, the giant hands reach out from the depths, and hold in their strong grasp the girders one hundred and fifty feet above the swirl of the waters, over which the heavy trains will come and go.” The Forth Bridge was opened on Tuesday, March 4th, 1890, by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, who with a distinguished company made the inaugural journey from south to north, and subsequently set in motion the hydraulic rivetting machine, by which the last rivet of the gigantic structure was driven home, after which His Royal Highness formally declared the Forth Bridge open. The total length of the bridge is 8,296 feet, or nearly one mile and five furlongs; and there are over 50,000 tons of steel in the superstructure, and 140,000 cubic yards of masonry in the foundations and the piers.

Immediately below the bridge the Firth of Forth commences, and from this point the expanse of water widens until it attains a breadth of 38 miles between St. Abb’s Head and Fifeness, where it merges into the German Ocean. The total course of the Forth is over 100 miles in length. Steamers of considerable size go up as far as Stirling, and a journey up the river to this most picturesque and historic burgh is extremely interesting and enjoyable. The fisheries of the Forth are of great value and importance, and a very large amount of trade is carried on at the various ports on the river and the firth, such as Leith, Granton, Borrowstounnes (or Bo’ness as it is more briefly termed), and Grangemouth. The anchorage in the firth is good, and it forms the’ most important harbour of refuge north of the Humber.

EDINBURGH.

Scotland’s beautiful and historic capital, the “Modern Athens” as it is not inappropriately called, stands a short distance inland on the south side of the Firth of Forth, with which it has commercial and maritime communication through the port of Leith. Its population in 1871 was 261,261. Though second in population among the cities of Scotland, Edinburgh stands pre-eminent in social, political, historical, and academical interest, and is admittedly one of the most beautiful and engaging of European cities. Let us quote the words of a writer who has graphically painted the salient features of the Scottish capital:— “Its magnificence of architecture and its many noble literary and scientific institutions, together with the apparently inherent and not acquired culture of its people, justly entitle Edinburgh to its proud appellation of the ‘Modern Athens,’ and there are not a few features of the capital which serve as reminders of the once potent metropolis of ancient Greece. Not only in natural land-marks — such as the Castle Hill, the Calton Hill, Firth of Forth, Inchkeith, and the hilly coast of Fife — does this topographical resemblance exist. It is also found to a certain extent in the best of Edinburgh’s architecture, which is modelled on classical lines; and the eminent intellectual qualities of the philosophers and savants of old Athens surely find a worthy counterpart in the city that has sent forth so many distinguished scholars for the honour of Scotland — the city of Scott, and Hume, and Carlyle - men whose labours have laid deep and strong the foundations of conspicuous phases of modern thought, and whose names will always ‘loom large’ on Edina’s scroll of fame.

In no other capital on the face of the globe, perhaps, can now be found such a strange and charming intermingling of past and present as in the Edinburgh of to-day. Here romance and reality walk side by side, as it were, under well-nigh every circumstance of the city’s life; here the ninth and the nineteenth centuries almost seem to jostle one another in some of the quaint old streets; and the glamour of great associations and thrilling deeds of olden time hangs ever as a rich haze over the Scottish capital, and shows her manifold beauties in a softened and entrancing light. And in the midst of all this manifestation of antiquity, the ‘New Town’ of Edinburgh arouses wonder at the great vitality it evinces in respect of every one of the higher walks of modern life; and the University, the schools and colleges, the libraries, the literary publications, the splendid philanthropic institutions of the city proclaim a state of civilisation and advancement not surpassed in the annals of human progress.”

We have no space in which to enter into a review of the history of Edinburgh, beyond an allusion to the belief that it dates from the early part of the seventh century, and that it was founded by and named after Edwin, King of Northumbria, a northern potentate of considerable power, who built the grand old castle, and named it Edwinsburgh. In and around this venerable and imposing fortress have been enacted some of the most stirring and momentous scenes in the romantic drama of Scottish history. Indeed, the whole annals of Edinburgh, from its remote foundation down to a very recent period, read more like a long and varied romance than like the sober chronicles of civic progress; and for such a wondrous story of war and intrigue, dauntless valour and cunning conspiracy, love and hatred, courtly pomp and knightly chivalry we can find no room in this brief and matter-of-fact review.

A momentary glance at the unique topography of Edinburgh must, however, be taken. The city covers an area of from 2-and-a-half to 3 miles square, and composes [comprises?] the “Old Town” on the east, lying between the Castle and Holyrood Palace; the “South Town,” in the neighbourhood of Heriot’s Hospital, Newington, and Morningside; and the “New Town,” extending over a large space in the north and north-west. The present century has witnessed the growth and expansion of both the New Town and the South Town, which are almost entirely modern, and the former is particularly noteworthy as containing the stateliest streets and squares, and the finest modern buildings in the capital. No city in Europe can boast of a nobler thoroughfare than Princes Street — truly a fitting site for the superb memorial to the “Wizard of the North,” which here rears its beauteous Gothic pinnacle high in air, and proclaims to all comers how deeply his countrymen venerate the memory of the author of “Waverley.” The beautiful stone from Craigleith quarry has been largely used in the New Town, and with splendid effect. If we penetrate into the Old Town and stroll along such quaint thoroughfares as High Street, Lawnmarket, the Canongate, and the Grassmarket, we read ancient history in almost every brick and stone around us. Things have changed but little in some parts here since Queen Mary’s time, and amazing indeed is the aspect of some of the antique houses, towering aloft storey above storey to an extraordinary height. At one time a ravine, which was neither useful nor picturesque, lay between the Old and New Towns. This spot is now occupied by the handsome East and West Princes Street Gardens, and the connection is completed by the North and Waverley Bridges, both of which are finely proportioned and very substantial structures.

Dominating the entire city, the famous Castle of Edinburgh stands perched upon a tremendous upheaval of igneous rock between 200 and 300 feet in sheer height, and from all points, of view it is a most conspicuous and impressive object. It occupies an area of about 7 English acres, can accommodate nearly 2,000 soldiers, and has an armoury capable of storing no less than 30,000 stand of arms. Next to the Castle, Holyrood Palace is probably the most interesting place in Edinburgh. It was long a Royal Scottish residence, and is inseparably associated with reminiscences of some of the most prominent personages in Scottish history. Here Queen Mary lived for a time during her brief and troubled reign; here Rizzio was slain by the vengeful and angry lords of Ruthven, Lindsay, and Morton; here the Young Pretender, in the heyday of his seeming success, held his brilliant receptions and balls, and won the hearts of all who came in contact with him. Holyrood teems with such associations as these, and no visitor to Edinburgh can resist the fascination of the spacious battlemented and turreted pile, which was founded as far back as the year 1501, by the Scottish King James IV.

The public buildings of Edinburgh, speaking generally, are widely renowned for their beauty and attractiveness, and they merit much more than passing remark. The restrictions of space, however, are inexorable, and we can only enumerate briefly the more important edifices, which have, perhaps, been often enough described after all. All visitors to the Scottish capital should make a point of seeing the General Register House, the New Register House, the New General Post Office, the Waverley Fruit and Flower Market, the Royal Institution, the Antiquarian Museum, and the National Gallery. These are all remarkably fine edifices, and afford an indication of the advanced taste prevailing in Edinburgh in the matter of buildings for public purposes.

Among the many hospitals, schools, and benevolent institutions of the city must be mentioned the vast Royal Infirmary and the munificently endowed philanthropic foundations known as Heriot’s Hospital, Donaldson’s Hospital, and Fettes’ College. The University of Edinburgh is an academical institution of very high rank, and is justly a source of pride to the people of the capital. With it is connected the Museum (said to be the largest public building north of the Tweed), which contains a splendid collection of scientific, artistic, and natural history subjects. Edinburgh has long been famed as a seat of learning, and her educational facilities are unsurpassed. The public and private schools of the city exceed two hundred in number, and among them the old-established High School, Calton Hill, with a record dating from the twelfth century, is particularly celebrated. The Metropolitan Church of St. Giles is an ancient and highly interesting fane, specially noteworthy as the scene of the signature of the Solemn League and Covenant in 1643; and the city contains many other fine churches, one of the most beautiful of which is the Episcopal Cathedral of St. Mary.

Commercially considered, Edinburgh takes a much higher rank than might at first thought be supposed. Banking and insurance concerns of great wealth and influence have their headquarters here, and these alone would entitle the city to the respect of business men. But in addition to this, Edinburgh is the seat of many well-conducted and flourishing trades, among which those of cabinetmaking, carriage-building, type-founding, linen manufacture, silk and sarsnet weaving, fine shawl weaving, brass and iron founding, marble-working, tanning, brewing, and distilling are conspicuous. Printing and publishing are very largely carried on, and the press and periodical literature of Edinburgh have an international renown. Genuine enterprise marks the conduct of every trade engaged in, and the energy shrewdness, and straightforwardness of the business men of Edinburgh are too well known to need any special indication here. Of the many magnificent retail establishments met with in the principal thoroughfares of both the old and the new towns, it can truly be said that they vie with those of any other town or city in the United Kingdom in the completeness of their stocks, the perfection of their organisation, and the courtesy and integrity of their proprietors. We have now only to add a word in praise of the excellent civic government of Edinburgh, marked as it is by such admirable intelligence and public spirit, and to call the attention of travellers to the superior railway facilities and hotel accommodation of the capital, in both of which respects it would be difficult to suggest much improvement. And now a portion of our space may be assigned to the important seaport which has for so long a period participated with Edinburgh in a common commercial prosperity, and relieved the capital of the strain of large and far-reaching maritime undertakings.

LEITH.

Standing foremost among the ports of the Forth, Leith enjoys the privileges of separate municipal government and independent status as a town, although it is in many respects part and parcel of the neighbouring metropolis. The long thoroughfare known as Leith Walk connects the two places, and has become a very handsome and important street, forming a splendid promenade for residents both in Leith and in Edinburgh. Of the ancient history of Leith there is not much to be said, except that some of its records possess a special Scottish interest. David I. gave the place a charter in 1124, when it was called “Inverleith,” or the “Mouth of the Leith.” Mary Queen of Scots landed here in 1561, on her return from France to Scotland, and it was at Leith that Cromwell landed when he devoted some of his stern attentions to this part of the northern Kingdom. He it was who ordered the erection of the Citadel.

Apart from historical features, Leith claims consideration as a port of great consequence, especially from its close relationship with the capital; and its accommodation in this respect has been greatly increased and improved during the last fifty or sixty years. All natural disadvantages have been overcome by steady perseverance, and Leith now has a remarkably fine harbour, with very extensive quays and conveniently situated wet and dry docks. The two fine piers, one on each side of the harbour, are probably unequalled in Scotland. Among the handsome and commodious docks must be mentioned those named the Victoria and Albert Docks; and the immense dock opened by the Duke of Edinburgh in 1881, and covering 17 acres, affords accommodation to steamers of the largest size. Many spacious bonded stores and warehouses in the vicinity of the harbour testify to the magnitude and importance of the commerce of Leith; indeed, the improvements in the harbour, and the inducements offered to shipping, have so greatly expanded the trade done here that Leith now undoubtedly ranks among the three leading ports of Scotland. It has a large and increasing tonnage of shipping, and many important firms of ship-owners have their headquarters here. An immense trade is done with the Baltic and all Northern European ports, as well as with the Colonies and other distant markets; and the coasting trade is also very important, there being an excellent service of steamers plying between Leith and London, Aberdeen, Dundee, Newcastle, and other important places, north and south. The passenger traffic by these routes is particularly large, especially in the summer months, and is conducted by means of swift and handsomely appointed steamers, which render the journeys additionally enjoyable.

As the chief business of Leith is connected with the receipt and despatch of goods from and to all centres of production and demand in our own and other countries, the local manufactures of the town as yet stand in a place of secondary importance. The activity that is being displayed in such industries as glass-making, sugar-refining, soap-boiling, engineering, brewing, distilling, rope-making, &c., points, however, to the rapid approach of a time when Leith will rank high among the industrial towns of Scotland. There are numerous large establishments engaged in the several trades we have mentioned, and their productions are highly esteemed. Coal, iron, spirits, linen, yarn, and paper are the chief exports of Leith as a seaport, and these are shipped in vast quantities to every part of the world, forming the materiel of an enormous and continuously increasing trade.

Since Leith assumed control of its own municipal and local affairs in 1833, it has made splendid progress in every direction leading to the social and material betterment of its people, and during the sixty years that have elapsed since then the growth of the place has been substantial and continuous, all of which testifies to the efficiency of its internal government. The population by the census of 1891 was 67,660. Leith has excellent means of communication with Edinburgh and the outer world generally, and its educational and other local institutions are in a flourishing condition. The town possesses a number of handsome public buildings, churches, &c., and is in every respect a credit to the progressive spirit of the provost and burgesses, who work well and diligently together to promote the general wellbeing of the community.

Some of the other towns and ports on and adjacent to the Forth, deserve notice, some for their commercial activity and some for their historic interest.

STIRLING belongs in an especial degree to the latter class, and, outside of Edinburgh, is probably the most historic town in Scotland. Its history is one long and stirring drama of political strife and turmoil, from the days of Kenneth III. down to those of Prince Charles Edward, who failed in his attempt to capture the Castle in 1745. Stirling Castle, like that of Edinburgh, stands upon a bold rocky eminence, commanding a magnificent prospect over the surrounding country. In the town itself there is considerable business activity, and manufactures of agricultural implements, carriages, carpets, tartans, tweeds, &c., are carried on in the vicinity. There is a brisk local trade in corn, timber, coal, wool, and other important commodities, and the commercial undertakings of the place are in the hands of experienced and enterprising men. Stirling has a population of 16,895.

ALLOA is a busy place on the north bank of the Forth, 29 miles from Leith, and five or six from Stirling by road. It has a large general trade, the shipments of coal from this port being very considerable; and the local breweries and distilleries have a great reputation for the excellence of their products. Alloa has a population of 10,711.

We have already mentioned GRANGEMOUTH, which is, next to Leith, the most important of the Forth ports. A few miles lower down, on the same side of the river is BORROWSTOUNNESS or Bo’ness, notable as the site of some of the oldest collieries in Scotland. Once one of the foremost of Scottish ports, Bo’ness fell upon evil days towards the end of last century, but it is now reviving as a result of the enterprise displayed by its people in connection with the iron and shipping trades. The population in 1891 was 4,579.

FALKIRK lies inland, a short distance to the south, between Grangemouth and Bo’ness, and is world-famous for its ironworks. “Falkirk goods,” comprising an infinite variety of light castings for all purposes, and particularly for domestic use, have an unrivalled reputation. The vast Carron Ironworks are in the neighbourhood of this town. Falkirk is decidedly one of the busiest seats of industrial activity in central Scotland, and has a population of over 17,000. Many other notable towns will be found in the valley of the Forth. Those that are especially worthy of a visit are Dunfermline, Linlithgow, Culross, Musselburgh, Granton (with a magnificent pier), and the favourite resorts of Trinity, Portobello, and Newhaven.

THE TAY.

ONE of the most important of the “Rivers of the North” with which we are concerned in the present volume is the Tay, which enjoys the distinction of being the longest river in Scotland. It drains almost the whole of the extensive and picturesque county of Perthshire, and is said to discharge a larger volume of water into the sea than any other river in Great Britain. The Tay has its actual source under the northern side of Ben Lui, on the borders of Argyllshire and Perthshire, but in the earlier part of its course it is called the Fillan. Flowing onward to the point where it feeds Loch Dochart, it takes at this stage the name of the Dochart, and continues thence in a north-easterly direction. About 24 miles from its source it enters Loch Tay, an elongated sheet of water, and here it assumes the name of Tay. Ninety-five miles from the source the river passes the “fair town of Perth,” and 26 miles further down it finally discharges its waters into the North Sea. The firth or estuary of the Tay practically begins at Perth, but maintains a more regular width than those of the Forth and Clyde, the average breadth being between three and four miles. Tides are felt about two miles above Perth, and vessels of considerable size can come up to that town. The Tay has many tributaries, among which the Tummel, the Bran, the Isla, and the Earn are chief. Its salmon fisheries are among the most valuable and important in the United Kingdom.

DUNDEE.

Famous in history, and still more famous in commerce and industry, the busy and growing city of Dundee holds the foremost place among the Tayside communities. It is situated upon the north bank of the river, about 12 miles from its mouth, and is the third city in Scotland in point of size, having a population (1891) of 153,066. Historians tell us that the site of Dundee — a very advantageous one, truly — was given by King William the Lion in the twelfth century to his brother David, Earl of Huntingdon, who fortified the castle, and built a large church, the tower of which is still standing, a landmark dear to every good Dundonian. In the Middle Ages the town experienced vicissitudes of war and siege, and it continued to share in the agitations of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Pretender entered Dundee in 1716, and resided here for a time prior to his hasty flight to France. Dundee became a royal burgh in the reign of William III., but it remained quite a small place until the beginning of the present century, when its real progress and prosperity may be said to have commenced, largely, no doubt, in consequence of the establishment of linen manufacture here. The development of the place has, indeed, been very striking within the last hundred years, not only in population, but also in every other matter that tends to the social and material welfare of a large community. A hundred years ago there was only a small quay in the shape of a crooked wall, where now we see one of the best and busiest harbours in Scotland, and Dundee can now boast a proud array of shipping, the tonnage belonging to the port being in excess of 150,000 tons. The deepening of the harbour and the building of many new docks and quays since 1820 have attracted shipping to this port from all parts of the world, and thus Dundee has energetically worked its way up into a high position among maritime cities in Great Britain. During the reign of William IV. the docks named in honour of that sovereign were opened, and very soon afterwards the Earl Grey Dock was inaugurated. In 1875 the Victoria Dock, with an area of 11 acres, added greatly to the accommodation of the port. Another fine dock is the Camperdown, named in honour of Admiral Duncan (Lord Camperdown), who was born in High Street, Dundee.

The expenditure of the large sums of money necessary for the carrying out of all these notable improvements in the harbour of Dundee has been a most profitable and intelligent investment for the city, and is yielding splendid fruits, as anyone may see who cares to glance at the commercial and shipping statistics of the port from 1815 down to the present day. The trade of Dundee, in a general sense, is now of great magnitude, imports and exports being both large and well balanced; and the many wealthy and enterprising firms of the city have very important commercial relations with all quarters of the globe.

In manufacturing activity Dundee presents a no less striking aspect than in purely mercantile operations, and none of our readers will need to be informed that this city is now the chief seat of our vast British jute industry, a most remarkable development of modern enterprise. The importation of jute into the United Kingdom (which forty years ago was only 275,000 cwts.) now reaches an enormous quantity annually, and the bulk of this material goes to the great jute-works of Dundee, where its marvellous possibilities for textile purposes are exemplified in the most astonishing manner. The flax and hemp industries started at Dundee early in the century attained a high condition of importance and became the leading manufactures of the place; but they have been quite eclipsed in later years by the jute industry, in which over one hundred mills are at present actively engaged, finding employment for between 20,000 and 30,000 hands. All these factories present evidences of excellent organisation and enterprising management. They are upon a large scale in every detail of equipment and productive resource, and their annual output in jute textiles is enormous, the demand for these goods being universal and constantly increasing. Among the numerous other important industries with which the name of Dundee is identified must be mentioned sugar-refining, rope-making, candle-making and engineering. Shipbuilding is also carried on upon a very extensive scale, some remarkably fine steamers having been turned out at the well-known works of Messrs. Gourlay. Dundee has achieved a special reputation for marmalade also, and the output of this delicious preserve at such an establishment as that of Messrs. Keiller attains enormous dimensions.

Dundee has fairly made good her claim to be ranked among the foremost manufacturing and commercial centres of North Britain, and the importance of the and the meritorious nature of its achievements received fitting recognition in December, 1888, when Her Majesty the Queen (who personally visited Dundee in 1844) was pleased to bestow upon the town the title and privileges of a city. We must not omit some mention of the manner in which Dundee has benefited by the munificence of her sons, who in the day of their prosperity have not forgotten the needs and claims of their birthplace. In a long list of such worthies it would be difficult to point out a more honoured name than that of the late Sir David Baxter, sometime head of one of the greatest of Dundonian firms in the jute trade. His numerous benefactions to the town, in which he spent the whole of a remarkably active and industrious life, were rewarded by the bestowal of a baronetcy at the hands of the Queen. Baxter Park was one of Sir David’s most magnificent: gifts to his native town. It is situated to the north of the Arbroath road, and ^covers an area of 38 acres. The value of the gift was estimated at the time to be not less than £50,000, without including a fund for its endowment, which was also provided by Sir David and the Misses Baxter. This park has been very finely laid out on a plan prepared by the eminent Sir Joseph Paxton. The donor is commemorated by a handsome marble statue in the centre of the park. Another monument to the generosity and public spirit of Sir David Baxter is the new University College at Dundee, which he founded, and which was opened by the Earl of Dalhousie on October 5th, 1883. The late Miss Mary Ann Baxter (sister of Sir David) made a munificent addition, to the funds of this academical institution; and in December, 1886, Mr. T. H. Cox gave £12,000 to found a medical school in connection with the college. The Albert Institute, the Convalescent Home, and the University of Edinburgh also owe much to the energies and liberality of the late Sir David Baxter.

Education has been well helped by other prominent citizens. For instance, the important High School of Dundee was additionally endowed in 1880 by Mr. Harris to the extent of £20,000. The same gentleman also gave the School Board £10,000 for a secondary school, and to Miss Harris is due the Girls’ School in Euclid Crescent. The Morgan Hospital, a meat useful and beneficent institution, commemorates the generosity of another resident of Dundee, who amassed a large fortune in India, and endowed this establishment for the maintenance and education of 90 boys. As a jubilee offering (December 24th, 1886) Mr. J. M. Keiller gave the sum of £10,500 for the Free Library, Museum; and Picture Gallery of Dundee. While on the subject of eminent Dundonians we ought, perhaps, to mention that the. Rt. Hon. C. T. Ritchie, who was President of the Local Government Board under Lord Salisbury’s recent Administration; was born at Dundee in 1838, and was made a burgess in 1888, the year in which he so successfully carried through the Local Government Bill.

In the matter of public buildings Dundee has kept pace with the general advancement that is noticeable in most Scottish towns and cities; and a ramble through this historic place will introduce the visitor to many handsome and imposing edifices, as well as to quite a number of highly interesting relics of antiquity. Strangers in the city should not fail to visit the following:— The Town House, in High Street; the Town Cross and the “Old Steeple” (St. Mary’s Church), in Nethergate; University College, in Perth Road; St. Paul’s Church, in Seagate; the commodious theatre and opera house in Seagate; the High School, with its classic portico, in Albert Square; the Albert Institute, designed by Sir G. Gilbert Scott; the Royal Exchange, also in Albert Square; and the Royal Infirmary, facing the public bleaching-grounds. The Royal Arch, at the entrance to the docks, commemorates Queen Victoria’s visit in 1844. Near Magdalen Green commences the Esplanade, a favourite promenade of citizens; and not far from this are the fine Public Baths, a great credit to the city. In the matter of places of public worship the needs of all denominations in Dundee are well provided for, and the charitable organisations connected with the various religious bodies are important and admirably managed. Both secular and religious instruction is well studied, and the various elementary, secondary, and higher educational establishments of Dundee leave nothing to be desired. Among the most useful institutions which have been recently added to Dundee stands the Sailors’ Home, conveniently situated, and housed in a commodious and spacious building. Here “Jack” is well looked after in the important respects of food and lodging, and is provided with recreation and amusement well calculated to make his stay ashore a pleasant one, and to restrain him from any indulgence in unprofitable carousing.

If the enterprise of the great manufacturers and wholesale merchants of Dundee is conspicuous and creditable, that of their brethren in the many retail trades of the city is no less noteworthy. In the handsome and often palatial establishments which line the principal streets one may find as complete and as diversified stocks of the necessaries and luxuries of life as can be met with anywhere; and the city shows itself quite au courant with all the fashionable developments of the day. Nowhere north of the Tweed (or south of it, for that matter) can be seen more attractive or more perfectly organised drapery and furnishing emporia, grocery and provision stores, or general mercantile establishments than those which cater so effectively to the requirements of a large population in & around the metropolis of the Tay; and, to sum up in a few words, the energies of the traders of Dundee enable them to hold their own with those of any other town or city in Scotland, while their resources are limited only by the extent of the demands upon them.

One of the chief factors in the prosperity of Dundee at the present day is undoubtedly found in its very superior system of railway and steamship communication with other parts of the United Kingdom. The fine railway bridge which here spans the Tay is a great convenience in this connection. The first Tay Bridge at this point was projected nearly a quarter of a century ago, and the act authorising its construction was passed in 1870, work being commenced in the following year. The engineer was the late Sir Thomas Bouch, who died in October, 1880. The bridge was completed in August, 1877, and opened on May 31st, 1878. It consisted of 80 spans, and had a total length of 10,612 feet, or a little over two miles. On December 28th, 1879, this bridge was the scene of a terrible disaster. A. fierce gale made a gap of about 3,000 feet in the structure while a train was passing, and over seventy-five lives were lost. In 1882 the plans for a new bridge were approved, and the great viaduct was opened for public traffic on June 20th, 1887, the jubilee anniversary of the accession of Her Majesty the Queen.

PERTH.

It may truly be said that there is no more interesting place in Scotland than the ancient and beautiful city of Perth, which occupies a charming position on the river Tay, and is so situated to deserve its sobriquet, “the gate of the Highlands.” Perth is the capital of the county of the same name, and is not only one of the handsomest of Scottish cities, but is also among the foremost in historical interest. Its great antiquity makes it a matter of extreme difficulty to determine when or by whom it was founded, hut we know that its charter was renewed in 1210 by that great Scottish monarch, William the Lion, so that it must have been a place of some consequence then. The Kings of Scotland, from a very early period down to the time of the Stuarts, favoured Perth as a place of residence, and not far from the city is the ancient royal palace of Scone, where the sovereigns of the northern kingdom were crowned for many successive generations, sitting during the ceremony upon the famous stone which is now treasured as an honoured relic under the seat of the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey. Perth was in the olden time the home of many monastic orders, and Black and Grey Friars, Carthusians, and other monkish organisations flourished within its precincts in the Middle Ages. Everybody knows how prominently this ancient city figures in the work of Sir Walter Scott, and one’s thoughts turn instinctively to the two beautiful meadows called the “Inches of Perth,” upon the northern one of which was fought that terrific combat between the Clan Kay and the Clan Chattan, the description of which has thrilled the many thousand readers of “The Fair Maid of Perth.”

Modern Perth does not suggest many reminiscences of antiquity to a visitor at first sight, for the spirit of its people has been progressive, and fine streets and handsome buildings of a modern character have quite metamorphosed the place within the last hundred years. These changes have all been improvements, as everybody must admit, and it is pleasing to note the correspondence that now exists between the architectural aspect of Perth and the great beauty of its natural surroundings. The city has numerous handsome public buildings, churches, &c., and is rich in excellent schools and charitable institutions. It possesses a fine railway station; a valuable library and museum attached to its Antiquarian Society; and has many notable business establishments, of which we shall have an opportunity of speaking later on. The trading operations of the city are of considerable importance, and are conducted with ability and energy. Both for Highlands and Lowlands it forms a centre of supply to a large area, and has flourishing industries in the manufacture of linens, winceys, ginghams, leather and gloves, rope, cutlery, floor-cloths, ink and chemicals. The dye-works of Perth are nationally famous, and there are notable iron-foundries, distilleries, and spinning mills in the city and vicinity. Perth had a population of 29,902 according to the census of 1891. Its municipal government calls for highly favourable comment, and its general advancement in social and commercial matters shows that the citizens are resolved to fully maintain the old-time prestige of the ancient capital of Scotland.

In the valley of the Tay there are many places of special interest to tourists and antiquarians; and within the sphere of business activity that extends over a considerable area of country on either side of this noble river, we may find several towns that are noteworthy in a commercial sense also.

MONTROSE, a flourishing and important seaport, is not far distant on the coast of Forfar. Still nearer to Dundee is the ancient port of ARBROATH, with a considerable general trade and several local industries in a prosperous condition. The town of FORFAR is also a busy place, with large manufactures of coarse linen. Of these towns we may have more to say presently, should opportunity offer. Their populations, according to the census of 1891, are as follows, for the royal or police burghs and the parliamentary burghs respectively:— Montrose: 12,885, 13,048; Arbroath: 22,960, 22,806; Forfar: 12,844, 12,057. We may now proceed to consider the three great rivers of northern England, and to note the condition of their mercantile and industrial interests.

THE TYNE.

IN this noble northern river, a stream of remarkable power and volume, we may easily discern a type of the wonderful energy and resource that are so conspicuously displayed in every walk of life by the inhabitants of the North Country. The Tyne is one of the pre-eminent rivers of Britain and under all circumstances it presents an aspect of industrial and business-like vitality that must impress even the most careless observer. No eyes that gaze upon the marvellous sight presented by the Tyne from Newcastle or Blaydon down to Shields and Tynemouth, can fail to perceive that the life-stream of a vast and constantly busy commercial and manufacturing district is here in full flow, and that the broad river is bearing forth upon its dark and sluggish tides the many products of great industries which supply a means of livelihood to thousands of skilled artisans in this populous region, and at the same time meet many of the varied wants of nations and communities beyond the seas.

Let us glance very briefly at the course of the Tyne and at the operations carried on in some of the bustling, thriving towns that stand upon its banks. The river is formed about two miles above Hexham by the junction of two streams, the North Tyne and the South Tyne, the former rising among the Cheviot Hills, near the Scottish border, while the South Tyne has its source beneath the shadow of Cross Fell, about ten miles north of Appleby, Westmoreland. Both these parent streams flow through country abounding with historic reminiscences of the most romantic character, and teeming with relics of a stormy but intensely interesting past. From Hexham, a town very remarkable for the antiquities with which it is surrounded, the Tyne flows eastward through a richly wooded and highly cultivated country, and passes in succession Corbridge, Ovingham, Newburn, Ryton, Blaydon, Newcastle and Gateshead, Walker, Jarrow, and North and South Shields, where it discharges its mighty volume of water into the North Sea. Below Ryton two important tributaries join the Tyne, viz., the Team and the Derwent, the latter entering about three miles above Newcastle. The river Tyne forms the boundary between Northumberland and Durham for the last 18 miles of its course. It is navigable to Blaydon for small craft, and the lower part of the river is crowded with shipping from every land under the sun. The Tyne has a total course of about 75 miles in length, and its salmon-fisheries, which were famous in the days of Henry I., are among the most valuable in the United Kingdom.

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE.

This, the chief of the Tyneside ports, has derived its popularity from two sources, the commercial energy of its people, and the rich natural resources of its neighbourhood, for the conveyance of which to all parts of the outer world the Tyne affords a most convenient and advantageous channel. Newcastle is in many respects one of the most interesting and unique of northern cities; but even the quaintness of many of its antique features and the interest that attaches to a large part of its ancient history, are both overshadowed by its wonderful modern growth and advancement as a seaport, a coal mart, and a great seat of industrial activity. What that growth has been may be judged from the following figures, showing the population of the city at various periods since the beginning of the century:— 1801, 36,963; 1821, 46,948; 1841, 70,860; 1861, 109,108; 1871, 128,160; 1881, 145,228; 1891, 186,345.

We have space only for a very cursory glance at the history of Newcastle, which may be briefly reviewed by means of a few jottings of important events. The place was known to the Romans, and was called by them Pons AElia. Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, built in 1080 the castle from which the town derived its present name. In 1095 the place was taken by William Rufus. Four years prior to that, the famous church of St. Nicholas was built. It was burnt down in 1216, but Edward I. restored it, and it was in this church that John Baliol did homage to the great Plantagenet king. The coal-mines, which have been such a source of wealth to Newcastle, were discovered about 1234, and Henry III. granted to the townspeople their first charter to dig coals in 1239. When the Civil War raged in the north country the Scotch occupied Newcastle, and here the unhappy Charles I. was surrendered to the tender mercies of the Parliament. Then followed a long spell of tranquillity, broken only by the occupation of the town in 1745 by General Wade.

Subsequent events belong chiefly to the annals of peaceful progress, and we may note a few of these auspicious occurrences to refresh the memory of the reader. In 1813 the Newcastle Antiquarian. Society was founded. Ten years earlier was established the Literary and Philosophical Society, which was munificently endowed in 1859 by Robert Stephenson. In 1835 the fine market was built by Richard Grainger, whose many improvements in Newcastle entitle him to that commemoration which is secured by one of the city’s principal streets being named after him. The British Association met at Newcastle in 1838. Between 1846 and 1850 the High Level Bridge was erected by Robert Stephenson, and the great central railway station was planned and carried out. For the second time the British Association met at Newcastle in 1863. In 1871 the College of Physical Science in connection with Durham University was opened. The Elswick Estate was purchased for a public park in 1873. The New Swing Bridge over the Tyne was completed in 1876. The year 1880 was marked by the inauguration of a Technical College for the North of England. In 1882 Newcastle was constituted a city, and in the same year the bishopric was founded, the Right Rev. Dr. Wilberforce being the first bishop. The Public Library, opened in 1880, was accommodated with a new building in 1882. In August, 1884, the Prince and Princess of Wales were enthusiastically received at Newcastle, when Armstrong Park, the Natural History Museum, and the Albert Edward Dock were opened. On the 11th of May, 1887, the Duke of Cambridge opened the successful Royal Mining, Engineering, and Industrial Exhibition, which was continued until October 29th, being visited during the interval by over two million persons. The Royal Agricultural Society had a show at Newcastle in July, 1887, which, was visited by the Prince of Wales and his sons. Sir William, (afterwards Lord) Armstrong laid the foundation stone of the Newcastle and Durham College of Physical Science on June 15th, 1887, and the institution was formally opened by H.R.H. the Princess Louise on November 5th, 1888.

Newcastle occupies a remarkably advantageous site on the left bank of the Tyne, about 10 miles from Shields; and even at this remote distance from its mouth the river retains not a few of its ocean characteristics, for the commendable efforts of the River Tyne Commissioners have rendered its waters navigable for the largest vessels afloat at all times of the tide. Here we may see great ocean-going steamers, full-rigged ships from all parts of the world, river steamers, and every description of small craft, all playing a part in the panorama of life and movement with which the Tyne at Newcastle and Gateshead appeals to the matter-of-fact and to the aesthetic mind with equal force. The “hub” of all the commercial activity of the city is at the Quayside, a wonderfully busy spot, where the houses are massed closely together, and where there is an infinitude of those courts and alleys which Newcastle people call “chares.” As a suitable background to this arena of mercantile enthusiasm there stand back, well away from the Quayside, great blocks of palatial offices and warehouses appertaining to the wealthy city merchants, many of them four and five storeys in height, and all presenting an imposing spectacle, indicative of business operations upon a gigantic scale. Far away beyond this stretch the other districts of the city, which it would require a huge volume to describe. The whole of the lower part of the town, comprising the older quarters, is consecrated to commerce and industry. Here is the great heart of Newcastle throbbing with the energy and excitement of business life; and here the tall chimneys, standing as thick as a forest of pines, remind the visitor that for her factories and forges, chemical works, and smelting furnaces, Newcastle is nowadays not less famous than she is, and has long been, as the foremost coal port of the world, and the commercial metropolis of the north of England.

The many vast improvements that have been effected in the streets and buildings of Newcastle during the present century can only be hinted at here; and our restricted space will not allow us to do more than enumerate briefly some of the principal public buildings that now add dignity to this thriving city of the north. Any list of such edifices in Newcastle would inevitably include the following:— The Town Hall Buildings, the splendid Central Railway Station, the Guildhall, the Castle, the Art Gallery, the handsome Theatre Royal, the County Courts, and the Gaol. At the head of the churches of the city stands the grand old fane of St. Nicholas, the cathedral church of the diocese. The tower of St. Nicholas is unique in its beauty and originality, and none of the many imitations of it that have been attempted by various architects approach it in genuine elegance and symmetry. Many other interesting churches might be mentioned had we the time and space, for the “canny toon” is well supplied with places of worship for all denominations. Educational requirements are provided for upon a lavish scale, and the schools and colleges of Newcastle are worthy to rank high among similar institutions in any part of the United Kingdom. Equally notable and creditable are the varied and comprehensive arrangements that have been made by Novocastrians to promote the cause of philanthropy in their city, and to afford relief and assistance to the sick, the poor, and the destitute of the community. These charitable and benevolent establishments are a reflex and an outcome of the large-heartedness and kindliness that are so conspicuous in the composition of the shrewd and energetic north countryman.

A great and interesting page in national biography would be that which might contain the records of Newcastle worthies — men who have done noble work for their city and shed lustre upon her fame by their high individual achievements in various walks of life. Among such men as these there are and have been many of far more than local or even national renown, and the honour roll of eminent Novocastrians, past and present, embraces names like those of Thomas Miles Richardson, senior, Clennell, Mole, Carmichael, Peel, Emerson, and Jobling, all well known in the world of art; George and Robert Stephensen, whose place is among the immortals of engineering science; Dr. Charles Hutton, the great mathematician; Dr. John Scrotus, the eminent divinity scholar and controversialist; Bishop Ridley, the martyr of the Reformation, who was educated at Newcastle; Mark Akenside, author of the “Pleasures of Imagination;” Willliam and Elizabeth Elstob, the noted Saxon scholars of the seventeenth century; Charles Avison, a musician of rare attainments; the Rev. Dr. Morrison, famed as a Chinese scholar; Thomas Bewick, the naturalist and wood-engraver; Dr. Bruce, the antiquarian; William Scott (Lord Stowell), the great jurist; Admiral Lord Collingwood, who completed the victory of Trafalgar after Nelson had received his death-wound; and Richard Grainger, whose genius as an architect has left a deep and enduring impression upon the structural aspect of Newcastle. Among those who have benefited the city and its people by their liberality and public spirit a place of honour belongs by right to Lord Armstrong, the head of the famous firm whose works at Elswick are pre-eminent among the industrial wonders of Tyneside.

Newcastle has unsurpassed railway facilities, and in connection with the wonderful arrangement by which railway lines are carried into the Central Station, the colossal High Level Bridge across the Tyne commands admiring attention. This stupendous piece if work is one of the grandest monuments in this country to the genius of that giant among British engineers, Robert Stephenson. The industries of Newcastle cover a very wide field manufacturing enterprise. They are characteristic of the Tyne, and in addition to the immense operations carried on at such world-famous establishments as Elswick Works, Messrs. Spencer’s Steel Works, Messrs. Campbell & Bowstead’s Scotswood Ship-yards, and Stephenson’s Engineering Works, we find a vast amount of work in progress under the auspices of many other influention firms who are renowned in the glass, pottery, and chemical trades, fire-brick manufacture, engineering, and machine-making, ship and boatbuilding, and many other industries of a high order of importance.

GATESHEAD (population, 85,712) is the large and busy parliamentary and county borough immediately opposite Newcastle. It presents a scene of remarkable industrial activity, and is especially identified with the glass trade, which, in all its branches, is here carried on upon a vast scale by a number of enterprising firms. Some of the leading Tyneside firms of engineers, electricians, and iron-founders have their headquarters at Gateshead; and here also are situated the vast locomotive shops of the North-Eastern Railway Company.

WALKER-ON-TYNE (population, 11,341) is the seat of the world-famous Walker Iron Works, a special feature of the river and one of the oldest Tyneside works of the kind. Here also are some immense blast furnaces, several well-known shipyards, chain and anchor works, and chemical and pottery works.

WALLSEND, a name universally renowned in the coal trade, is a centre of marine engineering and shipbuilding second to none on the Tyne, and some very extensive and widely known works and ship-yards here come under our notice. The population of Wallsend is 11,620.

JARROW (population, 33,682) is another notable seat of the ship-building industry that has attained such large dimensions and such a high state of perfection on the Tyne. Portland cement of a very fine quality is also largely manufactured at Jarrow, and there is also a great output of chemicals. We are now approaching the mouth of the Tyne, and must bring our brief and incomplete sketch to a conclusion. The industries that have been named in connection with Newcastle, Gateshead, and the other Tyneside towns are those that are especially representative and typical of the district. There are many others, some of a kindred nature, others quite distinct in character, which will come in for more minute consideration when we come to review individually the undertakings of great Tyneside firms.

NORTH SHIELDS and OUTH SHIELDS, two places of great commercial activity, stand respectively upon the north and south banks of the river, at the point where the waters of the Tyne take their final plunge into the German Ocean. Here there is great vitality in the shipping trade, especially in connection with coals, and, as we shall endeavour to show later on, commercial matters in general are in a flourishing condition at Shields, the population of which in 1891 was 78,431.

TYNEMOUTH (population, 46,267) is almost a continuation of North Shields. It possesses a fine sandy beach, and is much resorted to for sea-bathing. Tynemouth Castle, Priory, and Lighthouse are conspicuous objects here, perched upon lofty cliffs the bases of which are washed by the in-rolling waves from the North Sea. At Tynemouth we say farewell for the present to one of the busiest, most interesting, and most resourceful of all the industrial and commercial districts of northern England. Later on in this work we shall revert to the Tyneside industries with the purpose of describing individually some of the great concerns whose names are inseparably associated with our national reputation for manufacturing advancement and mercantile enterprise.

THE CLYDE.

This interesting river, though not the largest of the Scottish waterways, may justly be termed the most important from a commercial point of view, and it is certainly not second to any in picturesque charm or in the historic associations connected with the region through which it takes its course. The Clyde has its birth high up among the Lowther Hills, in the extreme south-east of Lanarkshire, and is formed by the union of a number of mountain rivulets, which, converging at a point about lat. 55 deg. 27 min. N., make a considerable stream, to which the name of Clyde is given. This stream then takes a northerly course, and keeps the same for nearly twenty miles, making a detour round the Tinto Hill, and receiving a tributary, the Douglas Water, about Bonnington. From this point the rapidity of the river increases greatly, and at Bonnington occurs the first of the celebrated Clyde waterfalls. This is called Bonnington, or Bonniton Linn, and it is succeeded about two miles further on by the famous Corra Linn, consisting of three cataracts of singular beauty. It was while gazing on the sylvan charms of this romantic spot that Wordsworth wrote the simple and graceful lines, so widely known —

“For thou, O Clyde, hast always been
Beneficent as strong;
Pleased in refreshing dews to steep
The little trembling flowers that creep
Thy shelving rocks among.”

The manner in which the channel of the river narrows at this point, cutting its way through the mountain rocks, and cleaving a passage for the rush of foaming waters, produces an effect sufficiently inspiring to elevate the least poetical of minds: and tourists from all parts come in hundreds to visit the falls of Clyde. Below the town of Lanark (which is two miles further down than the Corra Linn) comes the final cataract of the Stonebyres. In the space of six miles, from Bonnington down to this point, the river has accomplished a descent of no less than 230 feet. The Clyde now continues its north-westerly course through the pastoral vale of Clydesdale, so extensively renowned for its horses, and passes on by Blantyre and Bothwell, the country on either side being very fertile and productive. Farther down, the banks are sometimes bold and well-wooded, sometimes level and plain-like. At length Glasgow is reached, and here we note the first aspect of navigation and commerce upon a really large scale. All down the river to Dumbarton this activity continues without abatement, and the vast ship-building yards for which the Clyde is world-famous make themselves conspicuous both to the eye and to the ear. Widening below Dumbarton into an ever-expanding estuary, the river at length attains a breadth of nearly four miles between the busy port of Greenock and that of Helensburgh. Beyond Cloch Point it turns due south, and here becomes the Firth of Clyde. Finally the sea is reached by way of the Kyles of Bute, and both river and firth give place to the Irish Sea at Ailsa Craig. From the source of its parent stream, Daer Water, in the Lowther Hills, to the commencement of the firth, the Clyde has a total length of about 120 miles, and it drains a large area of country, receiving during its course the tributary waters of the Douglas, the Avon, the Calder, and the Leven.

Below Glasgow the Clyde has been made the scene of some most astonishing engineering works. It is said that in 1770 only vessels of a little over three feet draught could come up to Glasgow Bridge; but in 1775 the people began to move in the direction of improvement, and the whole river from Glasgow to Dumbarton was deepened so as to receive vessels of six feet draught. In the next fifty-five years this depth was increased to thirteen feet; and a further increase of seven feet was accomplished by 1850. To-day the fine quays of Glasgow are approached by some of the largest and heaviest of modern ocean steamers, and the city is to all intents and purposes a great seaport, despite the fact that it is over twenty miles distant from the mouth of the Clyde.

So great have been the achievements of the Glasgow people in the improvement of their river that they recall the old story of the Glasgow worthy who, visiting Canada, was shown the majestic expanse of the St. Lawrence from the heights of Dufferin Terrace Quebec.

“There,” said his enthusiastic Canadian friend, “there is a river — you can show nothing like that in Scotland.”
“I dinna ken about that, now,” said the Scotchman dubiously, “there’s the Clyde, mind ye.”
“The Clyde!” retorted the Canadian contemptuously, “why, you could put a dozen Clydes into this river and not raise the water-line on the cliffs a single inch!”
“Aweel, that may be true enough, my friend, but remember — this river of yours is the work of the Almighty, but we made the Clyde ourselves!”

There is many a true word spoken in jest, and it is perfectly accurate to say of the Clyde (as far as that part of the river between Dumbarton and Glasgow Bridge is concerned) that it has literally been made by the energetic and enterprising Glaswegians. The River Trust, an important body in whose hands is vested the power of continuing the various improvements of the river, has discharged its functions with splendid effect up to the present, and in the course of a hundred years its revenue is recorded as having increased from £1,540 to over £210,000. The Clyde of to-day is a fine type of a great commercial waterway, and in its journey to the sea it passes by a number of flourishing and prosperous towns whose names are widely known in mercantile and industrial circles. Of course, Glasgow heads the list, but there are also Hamilton, Renfrew, Dumbarton, Greenock, Gourock, and Helensburgh, with the busy towns of Paisley only a few miles distant. Let us glance briefly at these places, noting some of their historical features and their modern condition as municipalities and centres of trade.

GLASGOW.

As everybody knows, this wondrous port of the Clyde, and the recognised second city of the Empire in wealth and influence, was founded by St. Mungo, its own tutelary saint, somewhere about the middle of the sixth century. In those remote days it was probably a very insignificant place — a mere collection of rude huts on the banks of the brook Molendinar, with St. Mungo’s primitive church in the midst. But from that unpretentious beginning has been evolved one of the world’s greatest cities — a seat of trade and commerce second only to London itself — and the result is a magnificent testimony to the qualities of the Scottish people.

The history of Glasgow has been an eventful one from the earliest times, but we cannot afford space for any extended consideration of purely historical matters. One or two salient points may be noted. Glasgow became a burgh in 1175, under charter from William the Lion. It was first represented in Parliament in 1546, and attained in 1635 the dignity of a royal burgh. In 1690, King William III. gave it the privilege of a free town, with full right to elect its own magistrates. As far back as 1556 the population of Glasgow was estimated at about 4,500, and the calculations of a hundred and fifty years later placed the number of inhabitants at 13,000. When the regular decennial census began to be taken in 1801, Glasgow had a population of about 83,000. The last census (April, 1891) showed that the population of the royal or police burgh of Glasgow was 176,777, while that of the parliamentary burgh was no less than 564,968. Glasgow is a splendid example of a modern city, and possesses many characteristics of a metropolitan character. Its condition points to the excellence of its civic government, and the constant march of improvement in streets, houses, means of communication, and general business and social facilities indicate the progressive spirit of its inhabitants.

The city extends over a great area of ground on the north and south banks of the Clyde, which is here spanned by a number of very handsome bridges. The situation is a particularly good one, and all its advantages have been turned to excellent account. The street plan of Glasgow is largely rectangular, enabling a visitor to find his way about with ease, and the means of internal communication are excellent, there being an abundance of cabs, ’buses, tramcars, &c., to say nothing of the wonderful Clyde steamers, which ply up and down the river continuously, and are largely patronised by those who appreciate the pleasant and economical means of transit they afford.

The north side of the city contains most of the great public buildings and architectural monuments that are the pride of modern Glasgow, and here, too, the bulk of Glaswegian business is carried on, for Glasgow has its “City” or commercial quarter as well as London. Those who knew only the Glasgow of thirty or forty years ago would be astonished could they revisit the place and note the wonderful structural and topographical improvements that have been effected in that lapse of time. Many of the streets and squares now present a truly noble aspect, and form a scene of never-ending human interest. There is Buchanan Street, for example, the Bond Street of Glasgow, a thoroughfare of which any city in the world might be proud. Broad, bright and pleasant to look upon, crowded with fashionable shops and equally fashionable shoppers, it forms with Sauchiehall Street, a little farther to the north and west, one of the favourite promenades of visitors and residents alike. The shops vie with those of London, Paris, or New York in the wealth of novelties and the rich variety of attractions they exhibit, and nowhere can be found merchants more advanced in knowledge or more enterprising in method. Jamaica Street, Union Street, Renfield Street, Argyle Street, and Ingram Street are also handsome and interesting thoroughfares, devoted entirely to business, and containing some of the principal warehouses of Glasgow merchant princes. Many curious features of Old Glasgow may be noted in the Saltmarket, Trongate, and adjacent thoroughfares — indeed, a volume might be written concerning the Trongate alone, so rich is it in historical association, and so full of intense human interest. Passing up to the West End, we find the abode of fashion and society in quiet stately rows of residential streets, eminently metropolitan in style and appearance; and on our way we may note what has been termed the “Valhalla of Glasgow,” George Square, with its numerous memorials to great Scotsmen, among which the lofty column in honour of Sir Walter Scott is particularly prominent.

The public buildings of Glasgow are among the finest in the United Kingdom, and reflect the highest credit upon the city and its people. Chief among them are the Cathedral and the University. The former, a noble and imposing Gothic pile, stands upon the slope of ground above the Molendinar, where St. Mungo reared his first church about the year 560. The Cathedral fell upon evil days at the time of the Reformation, when the spirit of religious factions took a destructive tendency, but it has since been renovated and restored in a manner befitting its dignity and beauty, and now ranks high among the most imposing and interesting ecclesiastical edifices in North Britain. The architectural details of the interior are particularly graceful and elegant, and the Lady Chapel has been pronounced faultless in symmetry. There may be seen some excellent stained glass and woodcarving in the Cathedral, and numerous monuments are here, commemorating distinguished Glaswegians, and great Scottish soldiers who have fought and died for the honour of the Empire.

The University comprises a vast pile of modern buildings, most impressive in design and magnitude, having the advantage of a grand situation upon Gilmore Hill, above Kelvinside, in the western part of the city. The foundation of this important seat of learning, is the second oldest in Scotland and dates from 1450, Bishop Turnbull having been the founder. The old buildings of the University were in High Street, and are now embodied in the College Railway Station. Within their antique precincts James Watt pursued those indefatigable and assiduous labours which resulted in the perfecting of the steam-engine. A Newcomen engine upon which he successfully experimented, is preserved as an object of great interest in the University Museum. Sir Gilbert Scott, one of our most distinguished architects in modern times, designed the present superb buildings of Glasgow University, which effectively combine the picturesque elements of the Early English style with the commodiousness of the Scottish Domestic. Many instances of individual munificence assisted in defraying the great cost at which they were erected, and they now stand as a permanent memorial of the respect accorded to education by Scotsmen of all sects and classes. There are about thirty-four professional chairs, filled by some of the most eminent scholars of the day, and the attendance of students is very large, numbering, we believe, over two thousand. Glasgow University continues, as in the past, to maintain a distinguished reputation among the great academical institutions of the United Kingdom.

Of the other public buildings of Glasgow we can only speak in the briefest manner here. Visitors will find them all worthy of attention, and their admiration will be especially aroused by the magnificent new Municipal Buildings, which are among the finest in Great Britain. The Post Office, the old City Hall, the County Buildings, the Court House, the Corporation Art Galleries, the Andersonian University, the Royal Exchange, Custom House, Stock Exchange, and Corn Exchange are among the most notable structures associated with the public sand commercial life of the city. There are also many handsome and imposing churches, bank and insurance buildings, and mercantile warehouses of vast extent. In the matter of schools, hospitals, and charitable institutions Glasgow is especially rich. The amusement-loving public are catered for by numerous theatres and music-halls, and art, literature, and all the sciences are largely cultivated in this “Western Metropolis” of Scotland; Visitors will find the hotel accommodation of Glasgow second to none in the British Isles and the city has unsurpassed facilities of railway communication with the north, east and south. Tourists make Glasgow their point of embarkation for a cruise among the Western Highlands, the unrivalled Clyde steamers providing, a perfect passenger service to and from the enchanting lochs, glens, and firths of this most romantic region.

TRADE AND MANUFACTURES.

As a centre of commerce Glasgow has attracted the attention of the whole world, and the mighty volume of her trade at the present day presents a subject worthy of the most graphic and thoughtful pen. We cannot pretend here to more than touch the fringe of this great subject; and our readers will understand our reasons for this when we draw their attention to the later pages of the present volume, where they will find in abundance those minute details and records of individual enterprise which tell so clearly the story of this wealthy city’s progress and prosperity in the many mercantile ventures with which her name is identified. Glasgow’s commerce is mainly the outgrowth of the last two hundred years. Indeed the dawn of her prosperity came with the eighteenth century, and doubtless had its origin in the many advantages and privileges conferred upon Scotland by the legislative union with England. Then began the great tobacco trade carried off even to this day with so much success at Glasgow, and we have all read of the ancient glory and power of the “tobacco lords” of Glasgow, whose extraordinary career was, however, sadly interfered with by the American War of Independence. Meanwhile, though there were many other trades growing up and becoming firmly established in Glasgow, and that process of development has been going on ever since, until, at the present day, this city is a mart for every known kind of foreign and British merchandise. The export and import trades of Glasgow are alike enormous, and the volume of her shipping is correspondingly large. Her merchants send out the products of English, Scottish, and Irish industry to every quarter of the globe, and bring home again the natural and industrial fruits of every land under the sun.

Glasgow has a vast trade in all those classes of merchandise which may be classified as necessaries of life, and she also deals upon an immense scale with an endless variety of manufactures, among which her own local products are, of course, particularly prominent. The city is not less notable in industry than in commerce, and has a reputation both as a manufactory and as a mart. We need only remind our readers of Glasgow’s unapproachable fame in the matter of shipbuilding, and of her great renown in such highly important industries as engineering, iron-founding, machine-making, glass-making, dyeing, textile manufacture, the production of furniture, clothing, &c., &c., in all of which lines her output is both vast in quantity and superior in quality. Those who visited the admirably organised and splendidly successful International Exhibition held here in 1888 will not readily forget how creditably Glasgow came to the front among competitive towns and cities in this country and abroad, and how favourably her products could be compared with those of other great manufacturing centres. We must now pass on to consider places in the valley of the beneficent Clyde, conscious of the fact that our survey of Glasgow has been all too brief and inadequate. Of such a city one might write volumes, but if the few words we have penned can serve to quicken in any degree the interest of our readers in the great commercial achievements and untiringly energetic population of Glasgow, their best purpose will be amply served.

GREENOCK.

Finely situated at a point where the Clyde attains noble proportions of breadth and volume, the flourishing port of Greenock ranks next to Glasgow in the importance of its association with the Clyde trades and industries. It boasts of docks which are among the best and most commodious in Scotland, and these, with their water-front of about a mile in length, present a most interesting scene of shipping activity. But apart from the natural advantages of its situation, all of which have been most sagaciously utilised, Greenock owes all its modern advancement and prosperity to the energy and intelligence of its people. Two hundred years ago it was an obscure village; to-day it is a large, busy, bustling town, with a population of over 63,000, and the seat of many trades that are being prosecuted with great success. All this progress has been achieved between 1710 (when the harbour was first opened) and the present day, and there are now few ports in Scotland that have a more promising future ahead of them than Greenock. Here the sugar-refining industry is most extensively carried on, and shipbuilding, iron-founding, machine- making, brewing, distilling, tanning, and the manufacture of paper, cotton, rope, sailcloth, pottery, &c., are all profitably engaged in. Nowhere is the spirit of progress more clearly manifested; and nowhere can the traveller meet with a community more efficiently governed, or more fully abreast of the times in all matters of municipal and social advancement.

“Across the way” from Greenock stands HELENSBURGH, a handsome town of about 8,500 people, enjoying a situation which has made it a very favourite resort for Glasgow people and tourists generally. It is chiefly as a watering-place that Helensburgh commands attention, though there are not a few large and well-conducted business establishments, representing various branches of trade. The neighbourhood is rich in scenic beauty and historic associations. Five miles west of Greenock is GOUROCK, a remarkably busy and growing Clyde port, with a population of 4,431, and extensive manufactures of ropes, sails, and rigging; yacht, boat and ship building are also carried on here.

PORT GLASGOW dates from the seventeenth century, and owes its origin to the then un-navigable condition of the Clyde, which made it necessary for Glasgow to have a port more accessible to shipping. So Port Glasgow came into being, and served as an auxiliary to the great city up the river until those wonderful improvements in the channel of the Clyde made it possible for the largest merchant vessels to ascend even to the Broomielaw. When this came to pass, Port Glasgow began an independent existence, and has since been “in business on its own account,” to use a familiar expression. It has had a successful career upon the whole, and is now associated with some large enterprises in engineering, iron-founding, shipbuilding, &c. Port Glasgow has a remarkably fine graving-dock, which is very convenient for shipping, and its facilities for further commercial development are very satisfactory. The population of the burgh in 1891 was 14,624. Ascending the river now, we come to DUMBARTON, with its picturesque rock and castle. Here the Leven enters the Clyde, and the shipbuilding yards situated at this point rank among the foremost in the district, both in magnitude and in reputation. Dumbarton is a royal burgh supposed to be identical with the “Balclutha” of Ossian, and its history dates back to a very remote period. It is decidedly one of the busiest places on the Clyde, particularly as regards the great local industry of shipbuilding; and the population of the parliamentary burgh in 1891 was 16,908.

RENFREW, an ancient royal burgh, has a pleasant situation about six miles from Glasgow, with a landing-place on the Clyde. Silk and muslin fabrics are manufactured here to a considerable extent. Renfrew was once a favourite place of residence of the Stuarts, who had a castle here.

PAISLEY, though not actually situated on the Clyde, is nevertheless one of the notable towns in the vicinity of the river, and shares in the industrial activity and prosperity that characterises the whole of this district. Paisley is an exception to the general rule governing great manufacturing towns in that it is a place of high antiquity and great historical interest. In olden times its ecclesiastical influence was of a more than ordinary character, as the remains of the imposing abbey amply attest. This venerable pile, founded in the middle of the twelfth century, was once one of the most beautiful and extensive abbeys in Scotland, and its ruins are still highly interesting. They have been considerably restored, and in this restoration the ancient grandeur of the nave, transept, and Lady Chapel has been consistently preserved and reproduced. Modern Paisley stands among the foremost of Scottish towns for business energy, and has a great reputation in many departments of trade and industry. Its manufactures of cotton thread, muslins, and shawls are world-renowned, and the largest thread factories in existence are located here. Cotton, silk, and linen goods are also included in the products of Paisley, especially in the form of handkerchiefs, gauzes, lawns, crapes, velvets, &c.; and, apart from textiles, there is a great output of brass and iron goods, starch, soaps, cornflour, and chemicals. In Paisley there are many fine public buildings, the Town Hall being a grand monument to the public spirit of the inhabitants. Well-governed in every respect, and showing an increasing activity in all matters bearing upon its future progress and prosperity, Paisley is one of the most creditable of Scottish provincial towns, and presents many evidences of internal resources that bid fair to greatly advance it in time to come. The population of the town in 1891 was 66,420. Having now completed a brief survey of the Clyde and its most important communities, we may proceed to a similar consideration of its great sister stream,

THE TEES.

This important northern river, the Tisa of the Romans, rises under Cross Fell, Cumberland, and traverses the picturesque valley of Teesdale, on the borders of the counties of York and Durham. After a course of nearly 70 miles it falls into the North Sea between the Snook and Turn Points. In the romantically beautiful district of Teesdale, so widely famous for its scenery, the Tees receives several tributaries, and on its course to the sea it passes Barnard Castle, Sockburn, Yarm, Stockton, and Middlesbrough. From Portrack, approaching the German Ocean, the river expands into a large bay or estuary three miles wide, and this forms an excellent harbour of refuge in stormy weather. The Tees is the scene of extensive shipbuilding operations, which are largely carried on in the vicinity of Stockton, and it is also a river remarkable for the extent and importance of its general trade, which is notably exemplified at

MIDDLESBROUGH.

The history of municipal progress in the north of England can show no more remarkable instance of rapid growth and development than that which is presented to our notice by the rise of this great and busy shipping centre and manufacturing town. Middlesbrough, the headquarters of the northern iron trade, and the chief commercial community on the Tees, is entirely a product of the last sixty years, and the visitor cannot help being amazed when the truth is forced upon him that this handsome and attractive town, with its stately buildings and miles of well-kept streets, full of life and bustle and business activity, had barely commenced its existence when Her Majesty Queen Victoria ascended the throne. The jubilee of Middlesborough only preceded the jubilee of our beloved sovereign by six years, and in both instances the celebration was one commemorative of many great events and high achievements.

In the year 1829 the site of Middlesbrough was a vast expanse of marshland hard by the grey flood of the Tees, and occupied, as records show, by one solitary farmhouse, standing upon the spot where once was the ancient priory of St. Hilda. In 1830, with a view to making a port here for the convenient outlet of the Durham coal trade, the Stockton and Darlington Railway was brought hither, and forthwith Middlesbrough came into real earnest existence. It soon became an important and busy coal-shipping port, but the marvellous development of the place in later times may be traced from the year 1840, when the vast mineral wealth of the neighbouring Cleveland Hills was discovered. This gave an immense impulse to the growth of Middlesbrough which at once became the metropolis of the northern iron trade; and what that means may be understood when we remind our readers that fully a quarter of the total output of iron in the United Kingdom is produced in the Cleveland district. The blast furnaces of Middlesbrough may be counted by dozens, and a tremendous scene of activity here meets the eye. Not only in the actual manufacture of merchant iron and steel, but also in the subsequent working-up of these metals, is Middlesbrough celebrated.

The engineering and machine-making industries of the town are in a high state of development, and there are also many other industries in progress, including chemical manufacture, wire-drawing, salt-boring, nail-making, wood-working, and shipbuilding. Very important indeed are the shipbuilding operations of this port, giving employment to several thousand men, and turning out a large annual tonnage. The salt-wells were started a few years ago, and are very productive, boring operations being profitably conducted upon a very large scale.

Middlesbrough has a very considerable export of coal, and a large and flourishing general trade, and great enterprise has been shown in the improvement of the port and the provision of suitable accommodation for shipping. The South Gare Breakwater is between two and three miles long, and was completed at a large expenditure of money and labour, the work extending over a period of more than twenty years. The dock accommodation is excellent, and there is a fine graving-dock, which cost £120,000.

Middlesbrough is admirably laid out, and has the advantages of modern methods and advanced knowledge in its street plan and general arrangements. It presents an aspect suggestive of municipal government upon the most intelligent principles, and despite the purely industrial nature of its undertakings it shows many evidences of remarkable taste and culture, particularly in the matter of its public buildings and local institutions. The Town Hall and Municipal Buildings are of magnificent appearance and dimensions, and were erected at a cost of nearly £125,000. They were opened by the Prince and Princess of Wales, who honoured Middlesbrough with a visit in 1889. There are numerous churches and chapels, a Jewish synagogue, a Roman Catholic cathedral, excellent schools, and all the distinguishing social and commercial features of a prosperous and progressive modern community. Middlesbrough has a fine park of 75 acres, called the Albert Park. This was presented to the town in 1868 by the late Mr. H. W. F. Bolckow (died 1878), one of the principals of the great firm of Messrs. Bolckow & Yaughan.

We need hardly inform our readers that this firm were the first to develop the iron trade at Middlesbrough, their immense works being started in 1840. Mr. Yaughan is commemorated by a monument in Exchange Place, and in 1881 (during the Middlesbrough Jubilee celebrations) a memorial to Mr. Bolckow was unveiled. Middlesbrough was incorporated as a borough in 1853, and was enfranchised in 1867, returning one member to Parliament. Mr. H. W. F. Bolckow was the first mayor of the borough, and was also its first representative at Westminster. No more remarkable evidence of the exceptional manner in which Middlesbrough has grown could be adduced than the following figures showing the population of the place at various periods during the present century. In 1801 the township of Middlesbrough had 25 inhabitants, and twenty years later the number of residents in the same area had increased to 40! In 1831, when the railway first came from Stockton and Darlington, the township had a population of 155. In 1841 there were 5,463 inhabitants, and in 1851, 7,631. The municipal borough was formed in 1853, and its population has been shown decennially by the census returns thus:— 1861, 18,892; 1871, 39,824; 1881, 55,288. The census of 1891 shows that there were in that year within the limits of the municipal borough no fewer than 75,516 inhabitants, while the parliamentary borough had, in the same year, a population of 98,899.

Middlesbrough can safely claim the distinction of having had a unique development, and among all the English towns that have won an honorable and prominent position in connection with our national industries there is none which can look forward to a more promising future than that which lies ahead of this constantly progressing Tees-side borough.

STOCKTON-ON-TEES.

This important and rapidly increasing town is a place of great antiquity, and was in early times under the sway of the powerful and wealthy Bishops of Durham. During the last century and a half the history of the place has been uneventful, but a portion of that period has been marked by great industrial and commercial development. At the present day Stockton is a municipal and parliamentary borough, and ranks next to Middlesbrough among the towns that are specially identified with the commerce of the Tees. It is situated in the south-eastern part of the county of Durham, on the north bank of the Tees, and about four miles above Middlesbrough. In 1891 the population of the parliamentary borough was 68,895, and that of the urban sanitary district was 49,731. The parliamentary borough includes South Stockton, on the south bank of the Tees. This suburb is in the North Riding of Yorkshire, and had a population of 10,665 in 1881, rising to 15,476 in 1891. The river is spanned by a fine iron bridge, which was completed in 1887, at a cost of more than £80,000.

Stockton is a great seat of the iron industry that has assumed such large proportions in the valley of the Tees since the development of the Cleveland iron-mines. In and around the town may be found many very extensive and splendidly organised iron and steel works, blast furnaces, foundries and rolling-mills; and in connection with these the engineering trades are naturally in a high state of advancement. For many years, too, Stockton has been associated with the shipbuilding industry of the Tees, and the numerous shipyards here in active operation maintain an eminent reputation for the strength, speed, and complete equipment of the vessels they produce. Iron and steel ships and steamers, are built in large numbers, and these ultimately find their way to all parts of the world, the Stockton shipbuilders being widely and favourably known. Some of the most highly esteemed English firms in this important industry have their headquarters at Stockton-on-Tees, where there are excellent facilities for the launching of large vessels. Other notable products of this busy place include bricks and tiles, pottery and glass bottles, and linens and sail-cloths, while the brewing and milling trades are well represented. Stockton has an excellent port, and owes a great deal in this connection to the action of the Tees Conservancy Commissioners, a board incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1852, and invested with powers which have enabled them to greatly increase the accommodation and shipping facilities of the river. A very large shipping trade is carried on between Stockton and the Dutch, Baltic, and English ports, and the imports of grain, timber, and provisions are particularly extensive.

Great enterprise is displayed by the local merchants in the conduct of the general trades of the place, and all the commercial undertakings of the neighbourhood are much assisted by the superior railway facilities that here exist affording economical and convenient means of transport to and from all parts of the United Kingdom. Stockton is connected with Darlington by one of the earliest completed lines of railway in the Kingdom; and, as we have already shown, it was an extension of this railway which, in 1831, gave the signal for the rapid rise of Middlesbrough. Stockton-on-Tees is a large and well-built town, with many fine streets, the long and remarkably broad High Street being one of the noblest thoroughfares in the English provinces. Among the notable public buildings of the town may be mentioned the Town Hall, the Borough Hall, the Theatre, the Exchange, the Temperance Hall, the Freemasons’ Hall, and the Literary Institute. There is also a Free Library, with an excellent collection of books. The Hospital and Dispensary are very useful and well-regulated institutions; and the town is amply provided with churches, chapels, and schools. The great development of the many substantial trades and industries of Stockton in modern times may be allowed to stand without further comment as a fitting and practical tribute to the energies and abilities of the people of this progressive district.

There are three other towns which deserve mention in connection with the commercial life of the Tees.

BARNARD CASTLE, a place of great antiquity, is finely situated on an eminence near the base of the Yorkshire Fells, and has the ruins of a very formidable castle erected by Barnard Baliol, grandfather of John Baliol, King of Scotland, who was born here. Barnard Castle has some important local industries, and its corn market is one of the largest in the north of England. Population, in 1891, 4,341.

DARLINGTON, situated a few miles to the north of the Tees, and communicating with Stockton, Middlesbrough, and Barnard Castle by rail, is a place of great industrial activity, especially in the metallurgical and engineering trades. It is a municipal borough, and has a population (1891) of 38,060.

HARTLEPOOL and WEST HARTLEPOOL, commonly called “The Hartlepools,” though not actually on the Tees, form an important port on the Durham coast, about 10 miles north of Middlesbrough. Both Hartlepool and West Hartlepool have notable industries, including iron-works, brass and iron foundries, engine and boiler works, saw-mills, breweries, cement and tile works, &c., and they carry on an extensive shipping trade, having fine docks with an area of nearly 90 acres. The exports embrace coal, coke, machinery, linens, woollens and cottons; and the imports consist principally of timber, cattle, corn, provisions, and wool. The population of Hartlepool (municipal borough) in 1891 was 21,521; that of West Hartlepool (municipal borough) being 42,492. “The Hartlepools” form a parliamentary borough, with a population of 64,914.

We may now give our attention for a brief space to the industrial and commercial aspect of

THE WEAR.

This picturesque and interesting river, flowing through the historic ground of the county of Durham, has its source at Weardale St. John’s, and pursues a north-easterly course, passing the city of Durham, and finally discharging its waters into the North Sea at Sunderland. It is an important channel for the Durham coal trade, and is also well known as the scene of extensive shipbuilding operations, which are carried on upon a large scale near Sunderland. The river is navigable for barges as far up as Durham, and for the last five or six miles of its course it presents a very busy scene. Above the bridge which spans the Wear at Sunderland and Monk Wearmouth there may be seen on both sides of the river the “staiths” for coal shipping, reminding us that Sunderland ranks among the foremost coal ports of the world; and all along the stream up here there are numerous shipbuilding yards and engineering works. These establishments extend as far up as Hylton (five miles), and are all in a state of the highest working organisation. There are ship-yards of worldwide renown on the Wear, and they turn out vessels designed upon the most advanced modern lines, and famous for speed and solidity of construction. The immense coal trade of the Wear gives employment to large numbers of “keelmen,” who bring the coal downstream to the staiths, whence it is shipped in enormous quantities to all parts. Of the Durham collieries, famous as they have been for centuries, it is quite unnecessary for us to speak in detail. One of the mines in the immediate vicinity of the Wear is said to be the deepest in the world. A word or two of special comment is due to the chief port of the Wear, the populous and prosperous town of

SUNDERLAND.

This notable seaport and municipal and parliamentary borough is situated on both banks of the Wear, at its confluence with the North Sea, about 13 miles north-east of Durham and 12 miles south-east of Newcastle. The chief part is on the south bank, but the town and borough include Monk Wearmouth and Bishop Wearmouth, which were places of importance as far back as the Saxon period, and out of which modern Sunderland has been evolved by the development of the coal trade and the growth of other productive and profitable industries. At Monk Wearmouth was situated the ancient monastery in the quiet seclusion of which the Venerable Bede lived and worked for many years. Its site is now occupied by the old and interesting parish church of St. Peter. Bede was born at Monk Wearmouth, and when a boy he was under the charge of Biscop, who superintended his studies at the monastery.

Sunderland, in its newer parts, is a well-built town, and possesses a number of handsome public buildings, churches, chapels, schools, and well-managed benevolent institutions. Gray’s Schools, situated on the Town Moor, are particularly extensive and-note- worthy, and educate a very large number of boys and girls.

Since 1851 great improvements have been effected in the streets, buildings, and sanitary arrangements of the place. The parliamentary borough was constituted by the Reform Act of 1832, and returns two members to Westminster. The municipal government consists of the mayor, fourteen aldermen, and forty-two councillors, who have jurisdiction over the seven wards into which the borough is divided. In 1881 the population of the municipal borough was 116,542; in 1891 the number of inhabitants had increasrd to 130,921.

Among the principal products of the various industries carried on at Sunderland and in its immediate vicinity are bottle and flint glass, anchors, chain cables and ships’ ironwork, ropes, cordage, &c., bricks, brass goods, &e. There are also notable breweries, lime-works, flour-mills, saw-mills, timber-yards, &c., and a great many firms are engaged in the various operations incidental and auxiliary to the immense shipbuilding industry in this district. Besides all this there is a large general trade, both export and import, and a great amount of business is done by the representative retail and wholesale houses of the town, the affairs of which are directed with conspicuous energy and enterprise. The spirit of progress is strongly manifested in all the social, municipal, mercantile and manufacturing doings of Sunderland. There are very few towns on the “Rivers bf the North” that have a stronger claim upon our attention at the present day; and we shall have especial pleasure in inviting our readers to a perusal of the series of articles in this work which deal individually with the representative firms and trade interests of this thriving port.

DURHAM.

The historic capital of the county of Durham is one of the most interesting of England’s old-time cities. Its situation gives a due to the origin of its name, for it stands upon a steep and lofty till which is almost encircled by the winding stream of the Wear. Thus the name Durham is obviously derived from the Saxon “dun,” a hill, and “holme,” a river island. The position of the city is exceedingly picturesque, and it presents a most imposing sight, the lofty hill crowned by the ancient castle and the vast cathedral. Durham has had a most interesting history, especially during and immediately after the Norman period; and for centuries the powerful and wealthy bishops of Durham wielded palatine authority, and ruled in princely fashion over the larger part of the north of England. The greater part of the city is enclosed within the line of the old wails, considerable remains of which still exist, and the approaches from without are by way of a number of bridges over the Wear, some of them being of great antiquity. From the more modern bridge at the end of South Bailey may be obtained a fine view of the magnificent Norman cathedral, the boldness, magnitude, and majestic appearance of which are unsurpassed in any ecclesiastical edifice in England. The many beauties and antiquities of this grand old pile could not well be described in less than a good-sized volume, and we shall therefore refrain from any comment upon them here.

Within the city of Durham there are many fine old churches, and the place is rich in excellent schools and important benevolent institutions. The University of Durham holds high rank in English academical circles, and, though constituted upon its present lines in modern times, it is virtually the outcome of a college which existed here at a very early period. Durham also has an ancient and highly reputed grammar school, which dates from the time of Henry VIII. In the city are many remarkable old buildings and several noteworthy public edifices, the Court-house being prominent among the latter. The civic government is in the hands of a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors; and the city returns one member to Parliament. The bishopric of Durham is a very ancient one, and originated at Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, on the coast of Northumberland. In 875 it was transferred to Chester-le-Street in consequence of the ravages of the Danes, and eventually, in 995, Durham was chosen as the seat of the bishopric. The palatine privileges retained by the bishops of Durham from the close of the tenth century were taken by the Crown in June, 1836, the Right Rev. William Van Mildert being the last Prince-Bishop. He died February 21st, 1836. The present Bishop of Durham is the Bight Bev. Dr. Westcott.

Durham is a place of considerable business activity, and has manufactures of carpets, paper, nails, hats, and mustard, besides numerous well-known and important houses engaged in different branches of trade connected with general supply and public requirements. The population of the city in 1891 was 14,863.

BISHOP AUCKLAND may here be mentioned as a busy town of somewhat more than 10,000 inhabitants. It is about 11 miles south-west of Durham, with which it has direct railway communication, and derives its name from the fact that here is situated Auckland Castle, the magnificent residence of the bishops of Durham.

We have now finished our brief survey of the principal “Rivers of the North,” as far as the matter in this necessarily concise introduction is concerned. Here it has been our endeavour to record a few facts of a general nature respecting the historical features and business enterprises of the towns and cities that are to a greater or less extent within the immediate influence of the rivers Clyde, Forth, Tay, Tyne, Tees, and Wear. In that larger portion of our work which is now to follow, we shall attempt more particularly to indicate the part that has been played by individual enterprise and effort in building up and consolidating the world-wide industrial and commercial renown of the districts through which these several rivers wend their way to the sea.

GLASGOW.

THE FOLLOWING PAGES CONTAIN SKETCHES OF MERCANTILE HOUSES, FIRMS, AND COMPANIES, DETAILING FACTS CONNECTED THEREWITH, WHICH WILL BE OF MUTUAL ADVANTAGE TO BUYER AND SELLER.

MESSRS. ARCHIBALD EADIE & CO., MANUFACTURERS OF WHITE LEAD, SNOW-WHITE ZINC, BED LEAD, PAINTS (ALL QUALITIES AND SHADES), CEMENTS AND TARNISHES, TALLOW, GREASES, AND ANTI-FOULING COMPOSITION, ETC., OIL BOILERS AND REFINERS, RESIN DISTILLERS, AND MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS.
OFFICES:— 54, COOK STKEET, GLASGOW.

IN connection with the paint, oil, colour, and varnish trade in Glasgow the name of Messrs. Archibald Eadie & Co. is prominent. This notable firm control a most extensive business, which was founded forty-eight years ago fby ex-Bailie MacBean. In 1880 Mr. Archibald Eadie and Mr. John Shankland, who had long been associated with the business, became partners. In beginning of 1882 Mr. MacBean was laid aside by failing health, and during the next eight years these gentlemen continued the business, when an arrangement was made whereby Mr. MacBean retired from the concern, leaving Mr. Eadie and Mr. Shankland in joint proprietorship. These gentlemen have continued the business with marked ability and success, and under their able and energetic management it has fully maintained its position as one of the leading houses in the trade. The premises occupied are very extensive, and form a large and substantial block of buildings at the north corner of the junction of Cook and West Streets. The paint and lead manufactory is known as the Tradeston Paint Mills; and the firm's large oil, colour, grease, and resin distilling works and stores are situated in Gloucester Street and Paterson Street. Oil refining and boiling are engaged in at 56, Cook Street, where also will be found head offices of the firm. At Ruchill, near Glasgow, Messrs. Archibald Eadie & Co. have important chemical works, where, among various other processes, the distillation of coal tar, &c., is largely carried on.

All Messrs. Archibald Eadie & Co.’s operations are conducted under favourable conditions, with the aid of skilled labour and the best modern plant and appliances, and their firm have a reputation for the superior quality of their various productions, which embrace all qualities of paints in every shade of colour, besides dry and moist colours, cements, varnishes, tallow, greases, magnetic, anti-corrosive, and anti-fouling compositions, white lead, red lead, snow-white zinc, all kinds of oil, resin, &c. These important goods are turned out in large quantities, and are in very extensive demand, no firm in the trade in Glasgow having a more influential connection at home and abroad than the one here under notice. Indeed, we may add that this firm is on the list of the Admiralty and War Office for the supply of their leads, paints, oils, varnishes, &c., and have for many years held the largest contracts of the principal ship-building and engineering firms, and also for steamship, railway companies, &c., &c., in the United Kingdom. Messrs. Archibald Eadie & Co. exercise great care in carrying out all the processes of their industry, and the high standard of excellence which distinguishes their manufactures is scrupulously preserved. The entire business is personally supervised by the principals, who are widely known and much respected in the trade with which they have so creditably associated themselves.
The firm's telegraphic address is “Paint, Glasgow,” and their telephone is No. 539.

J. MUIR WOOD & CO., PIANO AND MUSIC SALOONS,
42, BUCHANAN STREET, GLASGOW.

TO the enterprise displayed by leading firms in the music trade must be ascribed a considerable share of the credit arising out of the advancement of musical taste and education in Great Britain during recent years. In Glasgow the notable firm of Messrs. J. Muir Wood & Co. have long held a leading position as music-sellers and dealers in musical instruments, and their business is a particularly interesting one of its kind, not merely by reason of its high standing in the trade, but also because it is probably the oldest concern in its line in the city. This house was founded about one hundred years ago in the same firm-name, and for a long period it has occupied its present fine premises in Buchanan Street. These are large, commodious, and admirably suited to the requirements of the business, and the spacious and handsomely appointed saloons afford superior facilities for the display of one of the largest and best stocks of pianos, organs, and harmoniums out of London. In this stock will be found first-class examples of the instruments of all leading makers of the present day, both British and foreign, the most notable names in the long list being those of Erard, Hardman, Broadwood, Kaps, Collard, Winkelmann, Bechstein, and Steinway. Some of these makes are specialities of the establishment. For example, Messrs. J. Muir Wood & Co. are agents in Glasgow for the celebrated “Hardman” pianofortes, which are patronised by Her Majesty the Queen, H.R.H, the Prince of Wales, the Duchess of Connaught, the Duchess of Fife, the Duke of Richmond, the Duchess of Montrose, and the nobility and gentry of Scotland, as well as by many distinguished musicians. The firm are also agents here for the Erard pianos, and for the famous instruments of Messrs. Cramer, and also Messrs. Winkelmann. They also manufacture a special piano which is largely used all over Scotland in Board schools; in Glasgow over seventy of these pianos have been supplied to the Glasgow School Board alone.

In the organ and harmonium trade Messrs. Muir Wood & Co. hold some valuable agencies; for instance, they are sole agents for the first-class American organs made by the Wilcox & White Organ Company, of which they keep a large selection. The well-known firm of Mason & Hamlin, of Boston, U.S.A., also make a special line for them, applicable principally for use in churches or chapels, and here we may note the large business transacted by Muir Wood & Co. in supplying organs and harmoniums for use in churches and chapels in different parts of Scotland and even to the Colonies. Of the renowned Erard pianos there is no need to speak here. Their fame extends throughout the musical world, and the awards they have won and the testimonials they have elicited from the highest sources speak volumes for their fine qualities. Of these superb instruments Mendelssohn said:—“ I have not seen any instrument that may be compared to yours.” Rubinstein, when asked what piano he preferred, replied:— “But there is only one piano, the Erard. As to the others, they are but imitations.” Liszt, Paderewski, Wagner, and Madame Schumann have all pronounced in favour of the Erard piano. Paderewski says:— “Play on an Erard wherever obtainable.” As everybody knows, Messrs. S. & P. Erard are famous also as makers of harps, and they hold a number of Royal appointments. Messrs. J. Muir Wood & Co. show a fine selection of their unrivalled instruments. The Winkelmann pianos may also be seen here. These are instruments of the highest class, and their fine qualities have been commended by some of the greatest artists of the day.

Altogether Messrs. J. Muir Wood & Co. have a remarkably good business under their control, both as regards the character of the goods they supply, and the extent and importance of their connection. As music-sellers they keep a very full and complete stock of all the best publications, including the leading editions of musical classics. They sell pianos, organs, and harmoniums at the lowest prices for cash, or supply the same on the three years’ system, or on hire by the month at moderate charges. Their tuners visit every district four times a year, and they have branches at Aberdeen and Inverness, and numerous agents in different parts of the country. Mr. W. Adlington is now the sole partner in this firm. He is a gentleman of large experience and widely known in the trade, and he has been specially appointed piano-maker to the Queen and the Prince of Wales, an honour which attests the high standing of the house over which he presides, as well as the esteem in which his personal abilities are held.

MUIR & HOUSTON, SHIPBUILDERS, ENGINEERS, AND BOILER MAKERS,
HARBOUR ENGINE WORKS, PORTMAN STREET, KINNING PARK, GLASGOW.

FOUNDED over twenty years ago at its present headquarters, this important business has attained very large dimensions, and has become one of the most prominent concerns in the busy district of Kinning Park. The works have an excellent situation in Portman Street, and occupy an area of about three acres, two-thirds of which is covered by the extensive sheds and buildings containing the firm's offices and workshops. All the departments are equipped with the most powerful and effective modern machinery for their several purposes, employment being given to upwards of five hundred hands. A speciality of the firm in steamers is steam trawlers for Hull, Grimsby, and the East — no less than seventy have been turned out in the last two years, Messrs. Muir & Houston’s speciality consists in marine engines and steam boilers. These they turn out at the rate of one set of engines and boilers, complete, per week. The firm do their own forging, and have a capital plant of steam hammers, &c., for this purpose. In fact, it would be difficult to find in all Glasgow an industrial establishment, which is in the slightest respect superior to the Harbour Engine Works, either in systematic management or mechanical resources. There has just been added a new suite of offices, counting house, drawing office, and private offices. The old offices are now used in extending the store. The machine shop, as viewed from the late office stairs, presents a picture of animation and activity not to be easily effaced from the memory. Confining their attention entirely to marine engines and boilers, and possessing unsurpassed facilities for turning out first-class work in this very important branch of industry, Messrs. Muir & Houston are in a position to execute all orders with unfailing promptitude and punctuality. They enjoy the support and confidence of a large and valuable connection among shipbuilders and ship-owners, and their business ranks with the most extensive of its kind in the Clyde district*

DUBS & CO.,
GLASGOW LOCOMOTIVE WORKS, GLASGOW.

IT was in 1864 that Mr. Henry Dubs founded this vast business, whose increase seems to know no cessation. The founder of the concern was a man of far more than ordinary ability and energy, and the impetus given to the business during his lifetime is still felt in more ways than one. Mr. Henry Dubs had an exceptionally large experience in engineering operations, and was already highly qualified in various branches of the trade, when, in 1858, he entered the establishment of Messrs. Neilson & Co., of the Hyde Park Works, Glasgow. It was during his connection with this eminent firm that Mr. Dubs perceived the growing demand for locomotives at home and, abroad, and foresaw that this demand was bound to increase enormously as railway enterprise extended its operations. He accordingly started the now famous Glasgow Locomotive Works, and displayed from the first a mastery of the trade so thorough and complete, that within a very few years his business became one of the recognised leaders of the locomotive industry. The works are laid out upon a vast scale, and almost every year witnesses some considerable enlargement in their area or improvement in their general resources. The long line of offices extends down Aitkenhead Road, Palmadie, with three hundred feet of frontage, and contains three floors throughout. They are admirably appointed, and considerable space is given up to the important drawing offices, wherein every part of the engine about to be constructed is first of all accurately delineated on paper by a staff of highly-qualified draughtsmen. Behind the range of offices is a large open space, intersected by lines of railway, on which may be seen in action some of the firm’s noted productions in locomotive steam cranes, which are a special feature, of the business to-day.

The late Mr. Dubs invented and patented the locomotive crane in 1868, and the invention was favourably reviewed in Engineering of April, 1869. The same journal spoke highly, in 1877, of an important and valuable improvement effected by the firm in the slewing gear of their cranes. At the present time, these locomotive cranes, possessing every useful feature that ingenuity can devise and long experience sanction, of a power capable of lifting as much as seven tons, are turned out by Messrs. Dubs & Co. and they have supplied them to many large engineers and railway companies, and have exhibited them with success at international exhibitions.

The actual working departments occupy several huge blocks of buildings at the back of the yard already referred to. The large number of steam-engines here noticeable denote not only the progress of an industry calling for a vast amount of motive power, but also indicate that the resources of the works are too complete to admit the possibility of any serious stoppage through the effect of a “breakdown.” An accident to any one or two engines in operation would not in any way interrupt the working of other departments. The tinsmiths’ shops, the forge, the wheel forge, the smithy, the plate-flanging sheds, the case-hardening shop, the dressing-shop, splasher-shop, iron-moulding and pattern shops, and the large and busy erecting-shop, where the various parts of the locomotives are finally put together — all these possess their own peculiar features of interest, and all play their parts well and systematically in the great routine of Messrs. Dubs & Co.'s industry. Perhaps the most interesting place in the whole of this colossal establishment is the wonderful machine-shop, where all sorts of mechanical processes are carried out with the aid of a splendid plant of modern machinery, nearly all of which bears the famous name of Whitworth. There is no finer machine-shop than this in the British Isles. The great packing department is another interesting spot, standing at the back in a separate building, and here are locomotives being packed for shipment abroad with as much systematic precision as might be displayed in the case of any other description of merchandise.

Messrs. Dubs & Co. are now making an average of nearly two hundred locomotive engines per annum. They give employment to about two thousand hands in the several departments of their works, and their enormous resources are often fully taxed by the influx of orders from every quarter of the civilised world. It should also be noted that the Glasgow Locomotive Works have excellent facilities of transport, the Caledonian Railway Line running close by the establishment, and forming one of its boundaries. Locomotive engines of all sizes and kinds continue to be the leading speciality of these works, while locomotive cranes are also largely made. An enormous and universal trade is controlled, and Messrs. Dubs & Co.’s engines maintain to the fullest extent the splendid reputation for superior design, structure, workmanship and material, which has brought them into favour in every part of the United Kingdom, and throughout the world in general. Conspicuous ability and enterprise mark the administration of this immense concern and its continuous development from year to year demonstrates the soundness of the principles upon which its affairs are conducted, as well as the widespread esteem and confidence in which, its productions are held.
The firm’s telegraphic address is: “Dubs, Glasgow.”

JAMES WALKER, CABINETMAKER AND UPHOLSTERER,
154, MAIN STREET, GORBALS, GLASGOW.

THIS notable firm is of some twenty years standing, and a large measure of the success which it has achieved has been due to the fact that Mr. Walker has advanced with the times, and suited his class of business to the ever changing fashions of the hour, The sale-shop and show-rooms at 154, Main Street are situated at the principal corner of the handsome buildings which were erected a few years ago by the Corporation of the city. These premises are very spacious, and are lighted by six large windows, two of which front Main Street and four look into Bedford Lane. A very extensive and varied stock of cabinet and upholstery goods is to be found here splendidly arranged to display the wares to the best advantage. The works and manufactory are located at 194, Main Street, and these comprise an extensive block of buildings, five stories in height. On the average thirty-two hands are kept in constant employment in the various departments; and the cutting machinery is driven by engine power, and is of the newest and most improved description. Mr. Walker’s speciality is bedroom and dining-room furniture made in a plain and serviceable style, as well as of the most elaborate and elegant designs. A large stock of all varieties of household furniture, sideboards, wardrobes, and iron bedsteads of the newest patterns can always be seen in the show-rooms. Mr. Walker has a great belief in variety, both in design and price, and by the attention he pays to providing furniture to suit the requirements of both rich and medium class of customers he has built up a business of which he may be justly proud.

LIETKE & CO., SHIP AND INSURANCE BROKERS, AND STEAMSHIP AGENTS,
109, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW; AND AT GREENOCK.

AMONGST the leading shipping circles on the Clyde, a position of honourable prominence has long been held by the well-known firm whose style and title is now Lietke & Co. Their important business was originally established over forty years ago by Messrs. Bankier, Lietke & Co., and it has held its present designation since 1874. The members of the firm are now Messrs. J. O. Lietke and Alexander Wilson, both of whom have a thorough knowledge of all departments of mercantile shipping business. Their headquarters are at 109, Hope Street, and comprise a handsome suite of offices fitted up with telephonic communication, and every other requisite for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. The telephone number is 511, and the registered telgraphic address is “Lietke, Glasgow.”

Messrs. Lietke &. Co. control a large amount of valuable business as coal exporters, ship and insurance brokers, and steamship agents. By their system of charging steamers, for freight only, from several eminent ship-owning companies, they have organised a regular service to Constantinople and the Black Sea ports. Their vessels generally berth in the Queen’s Dock, and form the only line of steamers trading direct from Glasgow to the ports mentioned. They are also agents for the well-known Leith, Hamburg, Stettin, and Hull Steam Packet Company. The firm employ a large staff of efficient clerks and other assistants. The position of the firm in the shipping trade is suggested by the fact that Mr. J. O. Lietke holds the important and honourable position of consul for the German Empire in Glasgow and Greenock, and also that of vice-consul for Sweden and Norway at Glasgow, while the firm, who have a fully equipped branch establishment at Palmerston Buildings, Greenock, are the vice-consular agents in that port for Russia and the Netherlands.

ARCHIBALD THOMSON & CO., GLASGOW ROPE WORKS.
OFFICE AND WAREHOUSE, 58, WEST HOWARD STREET;
WORKS: SHETTLESTON, GLASGOW.

IN connection with the manufacture of rope, which has long been a well-developed industry on the Clyde, the name of the Glasgow Rope Works, conducted for over half a century under the proprietorship of Messrs. Archibald Thomson & Co., is widely and favourably known. This important and thoroughly representative concern was founded in the year 1842 by the late Mr. Archibald Thomson, whose death occurred as recently as October 27th, 1893. The business is, however, continued under the original title, and the managing partner now is Mr. D. B. Strang, Mr. Thomson’s son-in-law, a gentleman of large practical experience in all branches of the trade. The firm have offices and a large warehouse at the above address in West Howard Street, where stocks of their manufactures are kept to meet the needs of town customers. The works at Shettleston, four miles east of Glasgow, are substantially built of brick and cover a large area of ground, the rope-walks being from three hundred to four hundred yards long. The latest steam-power machinery is here in use, and a large staff of hands are employed. All kinds of hemp and wire ropes, patent steel-wire ropes, twine, cordage, &c., are turned out at these works, and the firm carefully maintain the high standard of excellence in make and quality which enabled them to win the gold medal at the Edinburgh Exhibition of 1886, and the bronze medal of the Glasgow Mining Exhibition, 1885. There is a large demand for Messrs. Thomson’s ropes, and the firm’s home and export trade is a very extensive one. Under Mr. Strang’s able and enterprising management this fine old business continues its prosperous and progressive career, and retains the full confidence of its large and substantial connection.
Telegrams should be. addressed, “Thomson, Glasgow.” The telephone No. is 584.

THE GLASGOW PATENTS COMPANY,
BOTHWELL STREET, GLASGOW.
W. J. H. ADAM, MANAGER.

THE Glasgow Patents Company, Limited, whose works are at 120, Great Wellington Street, Kinning Park, Glasgow, are manufacturers of engineering specialities, and ships’ compositions, and general paints. The works are in two sections, the engineering department consisting of smiths’ shop, machine and fitting shops, pattern shop, &c., and the paint department of grinding and mixing shops, colour-making shop, varnish shop, stores, &c., as well as convenient premises for manufacturing their chemical products. The Company was originally organised as Hannay’s Patents Company, but finding their extensive connection at home and abroad placed them in a strong position for taking up really good appliances of any inventor, the directors wisely decided to enlarge their borders and change its name, and are now working appliances invented by gentlemen well known in marine engineering circles. One of these appliances is Edmiston’s Feed Water Filter for marine and land boilers, which the Company introduced about two years ago, and which has since been adopted by many of the largest and best-known shipping companies, notably the White Star, Union, Royal Mail, British India, Wilson and Forwood Lines, as well as by the Admiralty, and seven of the most important navies. The Company have just entered into arrangements with Mr. Mudd, of the Central Marine Engineering Works, Hartlepool, for the manufacture and supply of his patent tail shaft preservers. By a simple and inexpensive, but well-devised and carefully matured plan, the tail shafts of propellers are perfectly protected from corrosion, and rendered as strong and reliable, after the use of years, as the day they were fitted. This is a most important appliance, which will be fully appreciated by marine engineers, and no doubt also by Lloyds and the other underwriting corporations.

The “Electrogen” system of boiler protection is now so well known that it may be described in a word. By this system the boiler is made one large galvanic battery, the water being the active agent, the steel or iron work of the boiler, the negative pole of the battery, and the electrogens the positive pole. By this means the corrosive action is diverted from the steel or iron work to the electrogens, which waste away in consequence, leaving the furnaces, &c., unimpaired. Innumerable cases have occurred where plates which were pitting badly, and for which every known remedy had been tried, were found with pitting entirely stopped and a fine clean thin scale on the metal on the first opening of boilers after fitting the electrogens. Since this appliance was introduced, many others following somewhat on its lines have been introduced, but none have met with such success, the number of electrogens fitted increasing year by year.

In the paint and chemical department the Company’s specialities are well known. First-class material at a moderate price has built up a large business which is still rapidly increasing. The Electroid Anti-fouling Composition is used for all classes of craft, from the superb yachts of the Emperor of Germany to the serviceable river tug, and audacious twenty-one-inch footracer. The Wellington Green Composition is also extensively used as Anti-fouling, its special property being to keep off grass, which is so troublesome for craft lying in rivers and brackish water. It is also very economical. The “Clutha” Hold Paint is specially manufactured for sugar-carrying vessels, and has been largely adopted. “K.P.” Deck Paint has extra fine covering and protecting qualities, one coat giving a better covering than two coats of red lead or oxide. Both of these paints dry in four hours’ time. The Company’s Protection Pure Paints are guaranteed free from adulteration, and are therefore absolutely reliable. The management of the Company’s business is in the hands of Mr. William J. H. Adam, who is assisted by a large staff of engineers who look after the interests of the Company at Glasgow, London, Cardiff, Liverpool, &c.

SMITH & MCLEAN, GALVANIZERS, &c.,
CLYDE GALVANIZING WORKS, MAVISBANK, GLASGOW.

A VERY extensive and important industry is carried on by the above-named firm, who have been established here for more than forty years. Their works are equipped in the most modern way for carrying out all kinds of galvanizing. Here sheets and plates, both of iron and of mild steel, sent in from the firm’s large steel and iron works at Gartcosh, some seven miles distant, are galvanized, afterwards being corrugated or otherwise treated, according to the purposes for which they may be required. Adjoining the galvanizing works the firm have an extensive tank-making and tinsmiths’ establishment, as also a factory for the making of galvanized shipping tackle; while farther down the river, at Port Glasgow, built by them some twenty years ago, they have a subsidiary but most complete galvanizing works, which is always in full operation. A large number of workmen are employed by Messrs. Smith & McLean at their different works, and it is pleasant to record the complete harmony between employers and employed that has existed for many years in their establishments. Under the able and energetic control of the present proprietary, this house, with its large and influential connection, fully maintains its position and reputation as one of the foremost in the trade. Mr. Charles C. Mowbray and Mr. M. L. P. Jardine are the principals of this representative firm.

JAMES BUIST & CO., GENERAL WAREHOUSEMEN,
172, COWCADDENS STREET, GLASGOW.

A conspicuous business establishment in the Cowcaddens district, and the oldest of its kind thereabouts, is that of Messrs. James Buist & Co., the extensive general warehousemen, whose attractive and imposing premises are located at 172, Cowcaddens Street. This important and leading business was established in 1837 by Messrs. Walter Beaton & Co., and was successfully developed by them. The present proprietors are upholding the reputation and standing of the house, and every year adding to the extent and value of the connection that has been secured during more than half a century of enterprising trading. The facilities and resources of this colossal establishment are unsurpassed by those of any similar house in Glasgow, and the principals spare neither trouble nor expense in maintaining the utmost efficiency in every branch of their many-sided business, and in keeping it well abreast with the constant changes that are going on in fabric and style. The premises occupied are prominently situated almost directly opposite the New City Road, and consist of a substantial block of four-storey buildings, with a splendid frontage of plate-glass windows and large and lofty entrance in the Centre. The interior has been elaborately and elegantly appointed, and fitted up with every conceivable requisite for displaying the immense variety of goods on view to the best advantage. The proprietors, too, have been careful to provide every convenience for the inspection of the stocks, and the comfort of visitors has been looked after in every possible manner. There are spacious sale-rooms and show-rooms, as well as extensive warehouses and store-rooms, while the workshops, in which a large staff of experienced workpeople is kept constantly employed, are well lighted and ventilated and in every way a credit to the forethought and kindly consideration of the proprietors.

The whole of the premises are occupied with the business. With the space at our disposal it would be impossible to give a detailed account of the various goods handled by the firm, but some idea of the extent and variety of the business done may be gathered from the enumeration of the several departments. These are: silks, dresses, prints, furs, mantles, costumes, millinery, underclothing, laces, ribbons, hosiery, gloves, linens, cottons, flannels, and blankets, gents’ and boys’ clothing, floorcloths and linoleums, carpets and bedding, smallwares and haberdashery. The goods are obtained from the most responsible manufacturers in their respective lines, and are always of the latest style and the most fashionable material. The dressmaking, family mourning, and mantle-making department is a special feature of the business. As only thoroughly experienced persons are employed, and those under the supervision of responsible foremen, a high-class and uniform excellence is always kept up in the articles turned out, and it is not too much to say that no such ladies’ jackets, mantles, capes, costumes, and dresses are to be obtained in the locality as those emanating from this responsible establishment. Ladies’ hats and bonnets are made in the latest style, and all orders for mourning are executed with a promptness that is sure to give every satisfaction. From the amount of business done, and the influence they have both in the home and foreign markets, the firm can offer the most favourable prices, whilst maintaining the highest quality in everything sold. A large trade is also controlled by the firm as wholesale as well as retail merchants, their connection extending throughout the whole of Scotland, the north of England, and the north of Ireland. The proprietors occupy a leading position in the trade and are regarded as sterling business men of strict commercial integrity, and as thoroughly obliging and courteous in all their dealings.

ROBERT HEATON & CO., CABINETMAKERS, UPHOLSTERERS, HOUSE AND SHIP FURNISHERS,
8, DIXON STREET, ST. ENOCH SQUARE, GLASGOW.

AMONG the many notable furnishing firms in Glasgow, special mention is due to that of Messrs. Robert Heaton & Co., who combine house and ship furnishing upon a considerable scale, and enjoy a high reputation for the excellence of their productions in both branches. Though Messrs. Heaton’s business has been established but a few years, it has made very substantial progress, and its continuous growth from the first amply attests the soundness of the methods upon which it has developed. The firm occupy excellent premises at the above address in Dixon Street, St. Enoch Square, their establishment possessing a good frontage, and extending a considerable distance to the rear. There are spacious and conveniently arranged stock-rooms and show-rooms, affording every facility for the transaction of business and for the display of a stock which is undoubtedly one of the most interesting and attractive of its kind. Messrs. Heaton make a special point of keeping on hand a very large and carefully assorted stock, embracing styles and qualities of furniture suited to a great variety of requirements, and at the same time they maintain a high standard of merit in every article. Perhaps it may be said that the speciality of this house consists in supplying goods of first class quality at prices very little, if anything, above those frequently charged for inferior productions.

Our inspection of Messrs. Heaton’s stock impressed us particularly with the idea that elegant and artistic design, coupled with the best workmanship and finish are the chief characteristics of this firm’s work; and we need hardly say that such qualities as these are practically certain to command approval and win patronage. We noticed a large variety of pre-eminently beautiful work in drawing-room, dining-room, and library furniture, in all of which the artistic nature of the designs is very conspicuous; and many charming novelties in bedroom suites of an ideal character are also exhibited, Messrs. Heaton are well-known already for their massive and handsome work in sideboards and buffets, of which they show a large variety; while luxurious easy chairs, and splendidly upholstered sofas and settees are also among their specialities. Very fine work is done by the firm in tables, mirrors, mantels and overmantels, and all kinds of “fitments,” interior woodwork, and artistic upholstery; and special attention is paid to ship furnishing, in which class of work the firm have been highly successful. Large stocks are held in all the newest furnishing draperies, and also in bedding made from the very best materials; while floor coverings are represented by new patterns of linoleum, floorcloths, mats, matting, and carpets. The firm’s workshops are situated in Maxwell Street, and are admirably equipped throughout, possessing a full outfit of the necessary plant and appliances for the trade, besides a large staff of highly-skilled workmen. Messrs. Heaton have already developed an extensive wholesale and retail trade, which is steadily increasing, owing to the facilities they possess for carrying out all orders in the most prompt and satisfactory manner. Mr. Robert Heaton, the principal, is a gentleman possessing a sound practical knowledge in all its details, having been for many years with leading firms in the city. He is most successful in his management of this business, which he directs with marked ability and enterprise, and which is rapidly advancing under his careful personal supervision, and that of the able assistance of Mr. W. G. Johnson, a gentleman of vast experience. We commend to the notice of our readers Messrs. Heaton’s excellent book of designs, which is well produced, and very comprehensive in the range of its contents.

MACGNIRE & JAGO, SAW, FILE, AND TOOL MANUFACTURERS; ENGINEERS, SHIPBUILDERS, AND SAW MILL FURNISHERS; IRONMONGERS AND WHOLESALE MERCHANTS,
13, UNION STREET, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 3,166.

THE records of this representative house date back to the year 1840, when it figured prominently in Argyle Street under the control of its founder. In 1877 the business was acquired by Messrs. Macguire & Jago, and was then conducted by them in Jamaica Street, and finally in 1886, after close upon half-a-century’s continuously progressive development, a transference was effected to its present eligible quarters in Union Street, with works at Washington Street, under the sole proprietary control of Mr. William Bruce Macguire, who still continues to trade under the old style and title. The spacious handsomely fitted single-fronted shop in Union Street, with its complete office and other accommodation for the rapid and effective transaction of business is devoted to the sale and show department; and here in addition to a very large and comprehensive stock of superior general ironmongery goods and cutlery, may be inspected samples of the firm’s famous productions in the way of band and circular saws, hand saws, files, and edge and other tools of every description, and for which Mr. Macguire was awarded a diploma of honour at the Glasgow International Exhibition of 1888. The works in Washington Street are well adapted for the manufacturing of the firm’s specialities. The file department is one of the largest branches of their extensive trade. The firm employ a large staff of cutters under the superintendence of a Sheffield manager. The saw department is well looked after, first-class workmen only being employed. The firm also do a very large foreign trade, shipping at regular intervals to the Australian, American, and China markets, via London and via Glasgow. This business has increased greatly from year to year. The management of the whole concern is entirely under the careful administration of Mr. Macguire, and the house promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the prosperity of days to come.

PATERSON, SONS & CO., PIANOFORTE, HARMONIUM, AND AMERICAN ORGAN WARE-ROOMS,
152, BUCHANAN STREET, GLASGOW.

THE spread of musical knowledge and culture in England and Scotland during the last half-century is a subject of congratulation to our so-called “unmusical nation.” We have probably made more genuine progress in this most interesting and universal of all the arts than has any other nation in modern times — a fact which is pretty well indicated in the manner in which leading British composers are now gaining recognition and applause abroad. The dissemination of good music among the people is largely dependent upon the enterprise of the music trade, and in this connection it is a pleasure to mention the name of Messrs. Paterson, Sons & Co., who have done so much for the cause of the “divine art” in North Britain. This eminent firm, founded very early in the present century, are leaders of the trade in Scotland, and have built up one of the largest and most successful music businesses in Europe, having, in addition to their Glasgow house and their famous establishment in George Street, Edinburgh, branches at 34,Newmarket Street, Ayr; 100, English Street, Dumfries; King Street, Kilmarnock; Terrace Buildings, Paisley; Reform Street, Dundee; and 17, Princes Street, Perth. The Glasgow establishment, with which we are now more particularly concerned, is a very handsome and commodious warehouse, finely situated in Buchanan Street, and affording every convenience for a high-class music trade.

On the ground floor is a noble sale-room and show-room, stocked with every requisite of the trade, including all the new music of the day, and all the best editions of standard and classical works. The fact that the firm hold a special appointment as music-sellers to the Queen, and that they are patronised by the elite of the profession and of amateur musical circles, affords a sufficient guarantee of the completeness and high character of the stock in their music department. Equally notable is their department for musical instruments, upon which great care is bestowed, and the remarkable variety of instruments displayed in their show-rooms (to speak only of pianofortes, harmoniums, and American organs) is explained by the circumstance that they are sole agents here for such celebrated makers as Steinway & Sons, Bechstein of Berlin, Kirkman & Son, Squire & Sons, the Brooklyn Pianoforte Company, and the Estey Organ Company. The fine instruments of all these and various other esteemed makers are well represented in the firm’s splendid stock, an inspection of which will reveal the wonderful degree of perfection to which the art of musical-instrument manufacture has been carried in these times. It is not for us to pronounce an opinion as to the comparative merits of the various instruments here on view. Messrs. Paterson have solved a difficult problem by making a selection sufficiently comprehensive to satisfy the tastes and requirements of every cultivated musician. One player likes one maker, another prefers another, and it is for the seller to provide for all demands likely to be made upon him. This Messrs. Paterson have done, with the one reservation that no instruments of inferior make or unreliable quality are admitted into their ware-rooms. They have an unblemished reputation of many years’ standing to maintain, and they consistently refrain from lending the influence of their well-known name to promote the sale of any instrument in which they are unable to place their confidence. The present principals of this representative music firm are Messrs. R. R. Paterson, Alexander Murray, William Murray, and John Murray, all of whom possess a thorough knowledge of their interesting trade in its every detail. They personally attend to the affairs of the business, and supervise its routine with untiring energy and sound judgment. Mr. Paterson manages the Edinburgh house, and Mr. Alexander Murray the Glasgow one; while Mr. John Murray takes charge of the important branches at Ayr, Dumfries, and Kilmarnock. The firm are known throughout the musical world as publishers, music-sellers, and musical-instrument dealers, and no house in the trade enjoys the support of a more valuable connection. As music appeals to every heart and mind that is rightly constituted, and exerts its refining influence alike in the cottage of the artisan and in the castle of the prince, it is appropriate that in this volume of reviews, dealing with a wide range of representative trades and industries, space should be found for a brief mention of a firm whose energies have been be effectively applied to the advancement of the one art that is universal—the one art that speaks intelligibly in every language, and is hampered by no law of race, or condition of social status.

ALEXANDER WOOD & SONS, MAKERS OF SCALES AND WEIGHING MACHINES,
8 AND 10, STOCKWELL STREET, GLASGOW.

THE history of this concern dates back as far as the year 1720, and the firm was originally known as James Liddle & Co. The founder of the house, Mr. James Liddle, was uncle to the grandfather of the present Mr. Alexander Wood, so that the business still remains in the same family. It has always been carried on in Stockwell Street, and the present premises were built in 1878-79. Mr. Alexander Wood came into the firm in 1871, and his brother, Mr. A. Moncrieff Wood, joined in 1876. These gentlemen constitute the personnel of the house to-day, and continue the business most successfully under the style of Alexander Wood & Sons. The firm use their commodious Stockwell Street premises for warehouse purposes, and hold here a large assortment of their manufactures, which are attractively displayed in the show-rooms. The works, formerly located in Stockwell Street, were removed for greater convenience first to Anderston and ultimately to their present site in Baltic Street, Bridgeton, where they underwent further extensions in 1891. These works are provided with every appliance necessary for carrying on the manufacture of weighing machines on a very large scale. Messrs. Alexander Wood & Sons manufacture every description of weighing apparatus, from the small and delicately-adjusted scales required by the apothecary or the banker to the largest and heaviest of weighbridges; and in all departments of their trade they have a reputation for the most reliable class of work.

During recent years they have made a special feature of the larger kinds of weighing apparatus, particularly those adapted for weighing wagons and cattle, and they have been so successful in this branch that they have secured the Admiralty Dockyard contract for making this class of machines. Among the leading specialities of the firm are Wood’s patent “Smithfield” cattle-weighing machines and the “Wynyard” cattle-weighing machines, the largest apparatus of this latter type in Great Britain being one now fixed at Carlisle, which will hold sixteen bullocks at a time and record their weight to an ounce. These machines have been erected by them at the principal Smithfields, such as Shrewsbury, Lichfield, Workington, Whitehaven, Aberdeen, Inverness, &c., &c. Wood’s patent carcass-weighing machine is an invaluable apparatus for butchers and all engaged in the dead-meat trade, and is equally convenient, accurate, and reliable, saving a vast amount of time and trouble in weighing carcasses. Mention must also be made of Wood’s patent “Jumbo” scale, the “newest thing out” in counter weighing machines. The firm claim for this excellent apparatus that it weighs with perfect accuracy, gives “fair play” alike to buyer and seller, prevents the slightest fraud, and will pass successfully the most trying tests to which it can be subjected by inspectors of weights and measures. The scales are two sizes larger than any other machine in the market, and yet fully meet the requirements of the Act of 1889. Moreover, this patent scale can be fitted to any counter weighing machine, and for flour, fish, and fruit it is unrivalled. Messrs.

Wood have also produced (in addition to a vast assortment of weighing apparatus fully described in their illustrated catalogue) a most useful machine for sausage- makers, viz., the patent “Winton” geared chopper, by which a great increase of power and speed is secured. This machine will speak for itself, and so confident are the patentees that it will give satisfaction that they allow a week’s trial free of charge, and challenge all other makers to a public competition. Messrs. Wood’s weighing machines for railway wagons, which form a very important feature of their business, can be supplied fitted with steelyards graduated to any national standard, or with Wood’s patent automatic dial register. Besides having secured the Admiralty contract from 1891 to 1895, this eminent firm do a large amount of Government work generally, and have executed contracts for the India State railways, and built railway weighing bridges of very large size in South America and elsewhere. They also do a great business in tea planters’ scales for Ceylon and other tea-growing districts. Messrs. Wood’s works give employment to a large force of hands, and are under the able management of Mr. T. Davies. The entire business is directly supervised by the principals, whose masterly knowledge of the trade is the result of long practical training and experience therein, both having been brought up as practical mechanics, and passed through all the stages of regular apprenticeship to the business. The works in Bridgeton have telephone communication with the warehouse and with the Glasgow Telephone Exchange, Telephone No. 3,302; and the firm’s telegraphic address is “Woodsons, Glasgow.” Mr. Alexander Wood, the senior partner, takes an active interest in public affairs, and is a Commissioner of the burgh of Partick, where he has resided all his life.

DOBBIE, FORBES & CO., COOKING RANGE AND STOVE MANUFACTURERS,
SHOW-ROOMS: 51, BUCHANAN STREET, AND AT HECLA FOUNDRY, GLASGOW.

ONE of the best-known firms in Scotland engaged in the manufacture of ranges, stoves, and other similar goods, is that of Messrs. Dobbie, Forbes & Co., of Glasgow, Larbert, and London. This firm’s extensive and important business was founded about twenty-five years ago at Larbert, where several acres of ground are covered by the works, and at the Larbert establishment and the Hecla Foundry in Glasgow upwards of six hundred hands are regularly employed. Messrs. Dobbie, Forbes & Co. are widely and favourably known in connection with the manufacture of every description of cooking and heating stoves, ranges, grills, ovens, portable boilers, grates, hot-plates, and special apparatus for hotels, restaurants, and mansions. Their manufactures are highly esteemed for improved construction, aa well as for sound workmanship and excellent finish, and the demand for them extends all over the world. At the show-rooms in Buchanan Street, Messrs. Dobbie, Forbes & Co. make a large and most interesting display of their various specialities, among which we may mention the following as being particularly noteworthy. The patent gas heating and cooking stoves made by this firm upon the most improved principles, and possessing special recommendations of efficiency and economy; the new pattern “Guardian” kitchener, with open and close fire arrangement; ship’s galley ranges, cabooses, and yacht, boat, and cabin stoves, embodying every new and useful feature that experience and ingenuity have suggested; the “Duet,” “Princess,” and “Livingstone” portable cooking stoves, which are remarkably cheap, compact, and useful; the “Hecla” and other excellent laundry stoves; the “Sunbeam” patent combination open and close range, which the firm claim, with considerable justification, to be the most comprehensive, compact, and perfect cooking range yet introduced; the “Diadem” patent convertible open and close self-setting range, which is replete with valuable improvements; and the “Liberator” smokeless cooking range, under Leggett & Marsh’s patent, requiring no setting or brickwork, and possessing the qualities of consuming its smoke and economising fuel in a very marked degree; but perhaps the most notable of this firm’s productions is the now universally famous “Larbert” cooking range, which takes its name from Larbert, in Stirlingshire, where Messrs. Dobbie, Forbes & Co.’s works are situated.

The “Larbert” is the leading range in the London market, and has sold in thousands. Its many excellent features have made it a prime favourite in domestic circles, and at the present time it may safely be said that no cooking range is so well or so widely known. The prompt recognition accorded to its good qualities, and the success engendered thereby, have encouraged the manufacturers to make many improvements of a valuable character, which have greatly increased the usefulness of the range. It is “self-setting,” requiring no brick-building, and affording a uniformly heated oven which cooks all kinds of food in a rapid and reliable manner. The “Larbert” range will boil, bake, roast or stew equally well, and will ensure a constant supply of hot water. Every inch of the hot-plate is available for flat or well bottomed vessels, and acts in a thoroughly satisfactory manner. The bricks forming the lining of the fire-box can be removed when necessary, for providing a larger fire to burn wood or turf, as is sometimes desirable when used in the Colonies or in country places. All the wearable pieces of the range are renewable. In durability, power in work, and ease in management, the “Larbert” range is facile princeps, as the public verdict testifies, and it adds to these merits a remarkable economy in fuel. All sizes of the “Larbert” range, except the smallest, are now made with open and close fire arrangement, and a raising-bottom grate may also be had if desired. In fact, the firm have left nothing undone to bring this practically perfect range thoroughly into line with modern requirements, and under these circumstances it is not surprising that it still commands the largest sale of any range made in Great Britain. The fact that it has been extensively imitated may be taken as a genuine compliment to its efficiency, but the public know the real article pretty well by this time, and may be trusted to insist upon having it.

“Larbert Range,” we may add, is the legal trade-mark of Messrs. Dobbie, Forbes & Co. The firm also make very serviceable portable boilers for farmers, laundry, dairy, and restaurant uses, and among their other notable productions must be mentioned an excellent series of “Anglo- American” warming stoves, a large variety of garden furniture and ornaments, and the “Caledonia” and “Vesta” wringers, which are made of best materials, and designed to be of real usefulness. All Messrs. Dobbie, Forbes & Co.’s productions are reliable as well as thoroughly “up-to-date” in every detail of construction. It is, therefore, not surprising that this firm should have developed an immense trade, and gained the support of a most extensive connection in the home and export markets. The Glasgow show-room is admirably situated, and is under excellent management. Mr. Robert Dobbie and Mr. William Dick devote their personal attention to every detail of the business. They spend most of their time at Larbert superintending the works, but every Wednesday they visit the Glasgow establishment. They have also a London branch at 7A, Suffolk Lane, E.C., which greatly facilitates the operations of their large trade in the south.

THE AIR BURNING COMPANY, LIMITED,
41 AND 49, NORTH ALBION STREET, GLASGOW.

THE above-named Company dates its history from about the year 1870, and great success has attended the introduction of its specialities, which comprise patented apparatus for the generation and application of pure heat (from the mildest to the most intense), for all industrial and domestic purposes. At the present time these apparatus take the form principally of gas calenders, gas irons, fans, and laundry appliances, for all of which the Company have achieved a very high reputation. Large and well-appointed premises are occupied at the above address in North Albion Street, where a staff of hands is employed, assisted by modern machinery specially adapted for the manufacture of the Company’s goods. Particular attention is being paid to the requirements of large modern laundries, which have been so greatly improved in recent years in the matter of equipment, and a leading speciality in this connection is the Company’s “Radiant” flat iron. There are also the gas and air-polishing irons, the “Iron Duke” gas and air smoothing iron, and the “Ulster Queen” gas and air-smoothing iron, all of which are specially designed for general laundry use. The advantages derived from the use of the Air Burning Company’s irons are numerous and important. By their method a regular, steady heat, at any required temperature, is obtained. The iron can be heated, ready for use, at four minutes’ notice. The heat can be turned on or off, reduced or increased at pleasure, as easily as lighting or extinguishing a jet of gas. The iron being heated internally, the sole is always clean; and the irons are suitable for every class of work, from the finest to the heaviest. As no furnace is required, the ironer never needs to leave the table. One-half more work can be done in a given time by this method than by any other, and a decidedly superior finish produced. Iron stains, so troublesome in ordinary ironing, are avoided entirely, the cost of heating is not one-half the cost of the ordinary method, and the Company claim that, compared with those in ordinary use, their irons will, in the hands of competent and regular workers, effect in labour alone a saving of £10 yearly on each iron.

Many favourable comments have been passed upon these excellent ironing apparatus in the press, and testimonials in great numbers have been received by the Company, all in terms of high praise. Among the awards granted to the Company’s appliances are the medal and diploma of the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition, 1876, and the Glasgow Philosophical Society’s Certificate of Honourable Mention, 1880. The fact that over six thousand of the Company’s irons are now in use, giving entire satisfaction, is perhaps the best proof of their high practical efficiency. They are to be found in many of the principal laundry establishments in the country, and a notable example of the many important contracts the Company have executed in this way is presented by the Great Western Steam Laundry at Glasgow (Jordanhill), reputed to be the largest and most complete in the kingdom, where the Air Burning Company have fitted no less than one hundred and fifty gas and air irons. The Company are also large makers of heating apparatus for calenders, to which they apply their patented method with great success. They do an immense and increasing trade, and their specialities have been sent as far as Australia. The affairs of the Company are admirably administered, and Mr. Peter King is Secretary of the Company. There is an agent in London who represents the Company for the whole of England. This enterprising Company have just added another important department to their business, a department in which they will undertake to supply the public with the best and most economical mechanical stokers for steam-boilers. The following is from their preliminary announcement of the new department:—

“Some Aspects of the Great Question of Smoke Prevention. Three years ago great public meetings were held in Glasgow, under the presidency of the Lord Provost, for the promotion of smoke abatement. An executive committee with full powers was appointed to go practically into the work of investigation. The committee consisted of able, experienced, and highly respected citizens, and indeed no better committee could have been appointed. They had the services of a well-qualified secretary and of an able and reliable engineer. But the sum they received from the public was only about a fourth part of what was required to do the work assigned to them. This was most disheartening to the committee, and compelled them to limit the area of their operations. It so happens that, from the nature of our business, we have found it necessary for more than twenty years to study most minutely, both in theory and practice, the best methods of producing perfect combustion. We have introduced into various important branches of industry the means of producing heat of any required temperature without smoke or smell, and we have watched with close attention and hopeful interest the gradual introduction and improvement of mechanical stokers for steam boilers. We have investigated the merits of between forty and fifty patent stokers, of both the sprinkling and coking types, and the researches of the executive committee do not appear to have extended beyond a dozen competitors among the patent stokers. Even although the committee had been unanimous in finding one of the dozen competing stokers decidedly the best, they, from their official position, would scarcely have ventured to announce the fact. After a much more extensive examination than it was possible for the committee to make, and undeterred by the dignified decorum of office, we have no hesitation in announcing the name of the stoker that we consider to be not only the best, but decidedly the best of the numerous machines in the market. It is the patent stoker of Mr. Thomas Henderson, of Liverpool. It is at once both a coking and sprinkling machine, cleverly combining the advantages of both systems, works smoothly, wears well, takes more heat out of the fuel than any other machine, can burn any kind of fuel, consumes the smoke, and is a permanent source of profit to every firm that applies it to their boilers. On the one hand it confers a great boon on the public by preventing smoke; and on the other hand it enables the user to secure a profit for himself at the same time that he bestows a great benefit on the community.”

We understand the Air Burning Company have been appointed sole agents for Scotland and Ireland for Mr. Henderson’s patent stokers and furnaces.

HIRD & COMPANY, WOOLLEN MANUFACTURERS AND MERCHANTS,
8, MILLER STREET, GLASGOW.

THE firm whose name appears above hold a position of prominence and influence in the mercantile community of Glasgow, and are widely known for their extensive operations in the wholesale woollen trade. Their business is a large and high-class one, and was founded in 1878 by Mr. W. F. Hird, who is still the sole principal and active manager of the house. In Miller Street Messrs. Hird & Company have premises well suited to the requirements of their extensive trade. The warehouse comprises the basement and ground floor of a handsome building, covering an area of about 12,800 square feet, and forming the largest single rooms devoted to commercial purposes in the city. The basement is used as a stock-room, warehouse, and packing-room, and all packing is done here by hydraulic press. The general show-room and sale-room, admirably lighted and conveniently arranged, occupies the ground floor, and here the firm display one of the finest stocks of woollen cloths to be found in the kingdom. This part of the premises is most handsomely appointed, and everything bespeaks a concern of the highest commercial standing and, reputation. Messrs. Hird & Company are widely known as Scotch Tweed manufacturers, and their stock in this respect is replete with productions of a very choice character. These goods are of unexceptionable quality and finish, and display many beautiful designs and texture which have brought them into great demand. They form the leading speciality of the business, and are as highly esteemed abroad as at home, so that Messrs. Hird & Company’s trade embraces an export department of much more than ordinary importance, extending to many distant markets, including the Continent of Europe, South America, the United States, and all the British colonies. All this is, of course, additional to the firm’s immense home trade, which is developed among wholesale woollen merchants and shipping houses in all parts of the United Kingdom. Besides their own special Scotch Tweeds, which represent the highest achievements in this branch of textile industry, Messrs. Hird & Company have large dealings in other standard woollen fabrics, such as Irish Tweeds, Yorkshire and West of England cloths, fine worsted coatings, and high-class trouserings and overcoatings, in all the newest patterns, shades, and textures. They hold very extensive and varied stocks of these fashionable materials, all selected from the products of the best manufacturers in England and Ireland. The extent of the firm’s business may be understood when we say that they employ about thirty representatives in all, no less than eight of these being travellers in the various districts in the United Kingdom. The entire concern is under the personal control and supervision of Mr. Hird, who has had a large practical experience in the trade. The business has had a wonderful development under his able and energetic management, and undoubtedly one of the chief factors in its success has been Mr. Hird’s unswerving adherence to the sound policy of supplying only the best and most reliable goods in the several classes of woollen cloths to which he gives his attention.
This firm’s telegraphic address is “Hird, Glasgow”; and they have a London office at Ivy Chambers, 30, Newgate Street, E.C.

ALEXANDER BROWN, PRACTICAL WATCHMAKER AND JEWELLER,
10, ARGYLE ARCADE, GLASGOW.

MR. Brown opened his now prosperous business in the same busy neighbourhood as far back as the year 1873, removing in 1890 to his present eligible quarters in order to give full scope to his rapidly expanding business. The elegant and exceedingly neat single-fronted shop in the Arcade is tastefully appointed and arranged throughout with a particularly well-chosen stock of great value and variety, composed of gold and silver watches and chains of the best manufacture, gold, silver, and gem jewellery and fashionable bijouterie, a very fine selection of marble and other clocks and bronzes suitable for presents, and Scotch jewellery in charming variety. This is the leading Masonic jeweller’s in the West of Scotland, Masonic jewels of the finest design and workmanship being manufactured on the premises. In his well-equipped workshops on the floor above, Mr. Brown, with a full staff of expert craftsmen, operates as a practical watch and clock maker, supplying the trade with goods made to order; and here also he undertakes the cleaning and repairing of watches, clocks, and jewellery of every description with economy, efficiency, and dispatch, and the large and liberal patronage he enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation.

THE GLENBOIG UNION FIRECLAY COMPANY, LIMITED,
WORKS: GLENBOIG,NEAR COATBRIDGE; OFFICES: 4, WEST REGENT STREET,, GLASGOW.

THE vast business controlled by this company originated as far back as the year 1836, and continued for a number of years under the style of Thomson MacLean & Co. In 1860 reconstruction ensued, and the concern then came under the management of Mr. James Dunnachie, who has exercised such a powerful influence upon the industry we are now discussing. When the Glenboig Fireclay Company was formed in 1865, Mr. Dunnachie became its managing partner, but seven years later that firm was dissolved, and in 1872 Mr. Dunnachie started the Star Glenboig Works. The old and the new concerns continued to compete with each other for about ten years, and were then amalgamated under the style of the Glenboig Union Fireclay Company, Limited, Mr. Dunnachie assuming the management of the united businesses. This amalgamation of interests has been attended with highly satisfactory results, and the Company are now in control of two immense establishments at Glenboig, in addition to other works at Cumbernauld and Gartcosh. These establishments present an example of practically perfect organisation and equipment, and give employment to about one thousand hands, whose duties are connected with the operations of the Company, first in mining for fireclay, and subsequently in converting the raw material into all kinds of fireclay wares for industrial and other purposes. The renown of the valuable seam of fireclay at Glenboig is international, and many reports on its quality from analysts of the highest standing indicate that for general and particular merit, and especially for application to furnace work, there is no deposit of fireclay in Great Britain which equals it. The special excellence of furnace bricks made from this superior clay has been repeatedly proved, and the experience of the many notable firms who have used these bricks justifies the claim advanced by the Company on their behalf, viz., that furnaces built with these bricks manifest greater durability, greater economy, and greater safety as regards the purity of the iron produced in them.

That most important speciality for brick, pottery, and cement manufacturers, the Glenboig Regenerative Gas Kiln (Mr. Dunnachie’s patent), has been favourably commented upon by no less distinguished an authority on metallurgy than the late Sir William Siemens, and is in use in a great many notable works at home and abroad. These kilns, of which the Company are the sole proprietors, save from fifty to seventy-five per cent, in the cost of burning, and greatly improve the quality of the manufacture, besides effectually abolishing smoke. The Company’s special furnace bricks are, of course, a leading product of the works, and receive the most careful attention in manufacture. They are of the highest refractory character, specially suited for Siemens’s and all other descriptions of furnaces subjected to the greatest heats and to sudden changes of temperature. The “Nocilis” Silica Brick is another excellent production for steel works, and is regarded by many as the first in the market for its special purpose. It is a true silica brick of the highest quality, thoroughly uniform in character, and altogether satisfactory in effect. This brick is protected by the registered trademark “Nocilis,” and is branded therewith. The Company also manufacture Bessemer tuyeres, glass-house blocks, flue-covers, gas-retorts, blue bricks for acid chambers, basic bricks, glazed sewage pipes, ganister, silver sand, tiles, Wilson producers, Gorman tubes, &c., and supply ground and unground fireclay.

In all details of appointment their works are exceptionally advanced and complete, and in many respects they are quite unique. Nothing has been left undone which could enhance their efficiency, and they have been described by a well-known American scientist as the “Model Fireclay Works.” They contain a well-equipped chemical laboratory, and all substances used in the Company’s manufacture are subjected to regular and careful chemical tests. Since the formation of these great works at Glenboig, there has grown up around them a village of two thousand inhabitants, nearly all of whom are directly or indirectly dependent upon the employment afforded by the Company. Within the last thirty years the importance and the output of the concern have increased fifty-fold, and the trade now controlled is simply enormous. The Company’s goods find their way to every quarter of the globe, and large contracts are frequently executed for Her Majesty’s government, and for the Indian and Colonial governments. The Company have supplied the Mikado of Japan, and have sent their wares to Russia, China, and even to the Fiji Islands. It is a fact that, on the borders of Persia, six bricks bearing the trade-mark of this concern, were exchanged not long ago for a splendid Persian rug. At every exhibition at which they have been represented the Company have succeeded in carrying off the highest awards, including medals from Paris, Santiago, London, Calcutta, Amsterdam, Glasgow, Melbourne, the Inventions Exhibition of 1885, Antwerp, Liverpool, Edinburgh, and the London Smoke Abatement Exhibition of 1882. At Paris, in 1889, they obtained a special award, and they have always had highest honours at engineering exhibitions, which subject such manufactures as fire-bricks to very severe and special tests. The Company’s Glasgow offices are at 4, West Regent Street, Glasgow; and at the head of Glebe Street, St. Rollox, they have a large depot, where heavy stocks are held. Their shipping ports are Glasgow, Grangemouth, Leith, South Alloa, Bo’ness, and Greenock.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Glenboig, Glasgow.”

JAMES V. TURNER, LUPTON & CO., LIMITED, STOCK AND SHARE DEALERS,
125, BUCHANAN STREET, GLASGOW.

MODERN finance includes as one of its principal departments the science of successful operation in stocks and shares, and it has been repeatedly proved by experience that, to the general public, this is a branch of speculation in which the assistance of some well-reputed and influential firm of dealers is exceedingly valuable, if not indispensable. Such a firm, by its position in the market and its wide knowledge of the probabilities and possibilities thereon, can afford advantages which are not within the reach of the ordinary operator, and can give him or her opportunities for profitable dealing which would not be likely to present themselves under other circumstances. In this connection we have pleasure in referring to the old-established and widely known stockbroking firm of Messrs. James V. Turner, Lupton & Co., Limited, whose head offices are at 5, Copthall Buildings, Lothbury, London, E.C., and who have an important branch at 125, Buchanan Street, Glasgow. This being the only concern in Scotland which, besides carrying on ordinary stock and share operations, devotes itself to dealings on the limited liability or “cover” system, and the sale of shares for forward delivery, the need for and utility of such a business are at once obvious. Formerly all transactions by the two particular methods referred to had to be done with dealers in London, thus involving a great deal of inconvenience, as well as loss of time and considerable postal and telegraphic expense on the part of the operator. As a large amount of business came to them from Scotland, Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co. decided last year to open a branch office at Glasgow, and this they have done, with results that are already most gratifying. They were fortunate in securing a site which is in the very heart of the city, and in close proximity to all the leading mercantile houses and the chief centres of commercial activity. Here, in Glasgow’s handsomest thoroughfare (Buchanan Street), this enterprising firm have opened their Scottish offices, which comprise a spacious and commodious suite, and which bid fair to become a great rendezvous for stock and share operations, owing to the fact that Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co. extend a free invitation to call to all who are in want of information, or who wish to see the quotations, whether they have business to do or not. Moreover, to investors and speculators residing in Glasgow these offices afford the opportunity of dealing on the spot in stocks and shares, with all the advantages and facilities attained by doing business with London stock and share dealers, but without the delay and expense unavoidable in the case of operator and dealer being obliged to carry on communications at a distance of some hundreds of miles apart.

At Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co.’s Glasgow offices telegrams are regularly received every few minutes from the London Stock Exchange, the last of these messages arriving at about 5 P.M. As soon as the quotations of various stocks and shares come to hand in this way, they are put upon the blackboard for the benefit of clients, who can thus see at a glance, and free of cost, the rise or fall of the market in this, that, or the other security. The firm also are in telephonic communication with all the towns served by the trunk wires of the National Telephone Company, so that parties possessing telephones, or who like to use the nearest call office, even as far distant as Aberdeen and Carlisle, have no need to visit the offices in Buchanan Street, but can “ring up” the firm, learn the latest prices and the tone of the markets, and obtain any other desired information in the space of a few seconds. Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co.’s system of business has commended itself very largely to the approval of investors and judicious speculators. Being dealers, this firm charge no commission or brokerage whatever, but conduct transactions and dealings in all classes of stocks and shares at close nett current prices. The firm have developed the method known as the “Limited Liability” or “Cover” system, which is a distinct boon to the average operator. By employing this system in speculation in English and foreign stocks the operator limits his risk without detriment to his profit, the option remaining to him of closing and securing the latter whenever he may think proper. For example: £1,000 of stock can be purchased on a deposit or “cover” of £10, and in no event — no matter how much the stock may fall - does the liability exceed this amount. Should the price go up, however, say five or ten per cent., there would be a clear gain of £50 or £100, with the return of the “cover.” The “cover system” as worked by Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co. has become immensely popular, and a vast amount of business is now being done on these lines. The fact that the firm charge no commission or brokerage, and that they pay the profit and return the “cover” immediately a bargain is closed, without waiting for the usual fortnightly Settling Day, brings them a large number of orders from those who hitherto have been paying big sums annually for commissions to the brokers they formerly employed.

With regard to the class of stocks and shares in which this firm deal we may remark that they do not confine their operations to one or another, but deal largely in such securities as home railways, foreign bonds, American securities, Colonial and foreign rails, nitrates, mines, breweries, miscellaneous, and all other quoted and unquoted securities. A speciality, however, is made of mining shares, which attract a great deal of attention in these times, and in such the firm under notice offer a marked advantage to those who might not find it convenient to pay for their shares at once. They do this by selling at current prices for one, two, or three months’ forward delivery on receipt of a deposit of twenty per cent., or one-fifth of the purchase money. Even those who wish to buy for speculative purposes only will derive benefit from this method, for, should the anticipated rise take place before the expiry of the time on which the transaction is based, they can close at once, receiving their profit and having the deposit returned immediately; then should the transaction have matured and the buyer finds it inconvenient to pay the balance of the purchase money, the firm are prepared to carry over the bargain at a low contango rate, averaging about 1d. per share on shares quoted at 20s. and under. As specialists in mining stocks Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co. give bond-fide advice to investors and speculators, and publish daily price lists which are of great usefulness and convenience. They have agencies in South Africa and Australia, and keep thoroughly in touch with every move in the mining world, and with every new aspect of the speculative problems involved therein.

To sum up, in conclusion, the advantages offered by this firm to their clients, they may be briefly stated thus:— Dealings at the close nett prices; accounts opened at one per cent, “cover” (i.e., £5 commands £500 stock, £10, £1,000 stock, and so on); daily settlements; no brokerage for carrying over or closing; every attention given to personal applications, and to telegrams and letters; telegrams sent free on opening or closing stock, or on any necessary inquiry — advantages seldom offered by other brokers or dealers. The firm also advance money to any amount on stocks or shares, and grant “options,” either “call,” “put” or “double option,” at market prices, these latter being largely taken up by operators who decide upon a stock which seems likely to move considerably. In short, Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co., Limited, afford the most complete facilities for every class of transaction in the stock and share markets; and being an old and substantial firm, and probably the largest mining-share dealers in the United Kingdom, the opening of their Glasgow offices is an event well worthy of notice, and one likely to be much appreciated by investors and speculators in this city. Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co., Limited, conduct all transactions in a perfectly straightforward manner, and they enjoy the confidence of a very large and representative clientele. They have a Dublin branch at 30, College Green. Their bankers are:— The London and South-Western Bank, head office; the Royal Bank of Ireland, head office; and the British Linen Company, Glasgow.

The telegraphic addresses of the firm are:— “Equanimity, London;” “Equanimity, Dublin;” and “Equanimity, Glasgow.” Their telephones are:— No. 425, London National; No. 422, London Exchange; and No. 4,819, Glasgow. For telegraphic messages the “A.B.C.” code is used, and the firm have also an excellent private code which they publish in a little brochure, together with useful general explanations of their method of doing business. On application, this little pamphlet, with their “Weekly Circular,” may be obtained free of charge, and we commend them to our readers as containing fuller particulars of Messrs. J. V. Turner, Lupton & Co.’s system of trading than we have been able to bring them within the scope of this necessarily brief review.

SMITH & SHARP, SUGAR AND TEA MERCHANT,
13 AND 17, VIRGINIA STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS old-established and widely known mercantile house was founded about the year 1840 by Messrs. Smith & Sharp, and was conducted under their joint proprietorship until 1854, when Mr. Sharp died. Mr. Smith continued the business until his death in 1862, and it then passed into the hands of Mr. McEwen and Mr. J. H. Kerr. The latter gentleman was subsequently joined by his brother, Mr. J. S. Kerr, and these two principals now carry on the business, trading under the old style of Smith & Sharp. Very commodious premises are occupied at the above address in Virginia Street, and the establishment is in every respect well suited to the requirements of this firm’s extensive business as sugar merchants and tea merchants. The sugar department embraces raw and refined sugars from the principal sources of production, and the firm are also large importers of the finer kinds of sugar, such as granulated and lump sugar from France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, and Austria. For these importations they have receiving stores at the principal English ports of entry. An extensive export trade is done to the North of Europe, including Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and North Germany, while the home trade connection extends all over the United Kingdom, among large wholesale and retail grocers. The sugar is sold by sample, and the orders are executed at the refineries and receiving stores, whence the goods are dispatched direct to customers. Messrs. Smith & Sharp are also well known as tea merchants, and do a large trade in all the choicest Indian, Ceylon, and Chinese growths, supplying dealers both with original packages and with select blends of the best quality. In both departments of their trade (which is entirely wholesale) the firm have a most extensive and valuable connection, and their business increases continuously under the able and enterprising management of the partners, Messrs. J. H. and J. S. Kerr, both of whom take an active part in the administration of the concern. The house is well represented by commercial travellers at home and abroad, and holds a high position in the trade, its long-established reputation for superior goods being carefully maintained. The members of the firm are much esteemed in commercial circles, and Mr. J. H. Kerr is also an active participant in public affairs, being an energetic and valued member of the Glasgow School Board, and a Justice of the Peace for the county and city of Glasgow.
We may add that Messrs. Smith & Sharp’s telegraphic address is “Sharp, Glasgow,” and their telephone is No. 1,121.

HADDOW & CO., ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS,
127, BOTHWELL STREET, GLASGOW.

AS electrical engineers, the above-named firm hold a very prominent position in Glasgow, and have come very rapidly to the front, for their business was founded as recently as the year 1892. Since then, however, Messrs, Haddow have obtained some large contracts, and the manner in which they have carried out these has given ample proof of their large resources and practical skill. The premises occupied in Bothwell Street form show-rooms and offices, and the works are in Union Place, North Street. Employment is given here to a large staff of skilled operatives, and the firm are busily engaged in the manufacture of electrical appliances of all kinds for domestic and industrial purposes. The speciality of the business consists in contracting for electric lighting, on the arc and incandescent systems, for mansion houses, factories, ironworks, yachts, and steamships. The electrical transmission of power also engages the attention of the firm, together with the erection and maintenance of telephones, electric bells, and fire-alarms. Machine repairs and reconstruction are carried out, including the supplying of new commutators, brush-holders, brushes, &c., and the firm are designers and makers of all kinds of switchboards. In all these branches of the trade Messrs. Haddow & Co. have been highly successful. They furnish estimates free, and are in a position to execute all contracts with despatch. They lately completed the fitting of the Anchor Liner, ‘City of Rome,’ with a full outfit of electrical appliances, and this important piece of work elicited a favourable notice in the Electrical Review, May 19th, 1893. Messrs. Haddow have also been entrusted with the lighting of two new vessels — the Riopurus, which sailed in June, 1893, and which was the first vessel electrically lighted for the Amazon River; and the Golondrina for the same trade. The Maryhill Conservative Club has been entirely lighted by Messrs. Haddow, and the Dalmellington Ironworks; also complete installations of arc and incandescent lamps at Messrs. James Miller & Co.’s Rivet and Bolt Works, Stobcross Street, Glasgow; Swinhill Colliery, Larkhall, Lanarkshire; at Messrs. Sellar & Co.’s drapery establishment, Airdrie, and at the Singer Manufacturing Company’s premises, Aberdeen. They also provided and fitted all the electric bells, appliances, &c., at Glenburn Hydropathic Establishment, Rothesay. Messrs. Haddow & Co. give a complete exemplification of the trade of the modern electrical engineer, and have gained a splendid reputation for high-class work on the most advanced lines. They enjoy the support of a rapidly increasing connection in all parts of the country, and their business develops day by day under the able supervision of the principals, Messrs. William M. Haddow and John S. Hutchison, who are gentlemen of high practical and scientific qualifications, and who take an active part in all the under-takings of the concern.

A. STEWART & CO., MASONS, BUILDERS, AND CONTRACTORS,
STEWARTS’ STONE DRESSING WORKS, 47, MAXWELL ROAD, GLASGOW.

AS masons, builders, and contractors the above-named firm are widely and favourably known, and their business is a most extensive one, having developed continuously since it was founded twenty years ago by the present sole proprietor, Mr. Archibald Stewart. The premises in Maxwell Road comprise a large yard with offices and sheds in connection, the latter being arranged and equipped for stone dressing and the preparation of mason work generally. About an acre of ground is occupied by the buildings of this large and busy establishment, and there is every convenience for the conduct of a most extensive trade. The facilities of transport are particularly good, there being a siding from the Caledonian Railway which runs into the yard. A special feature of the works consists in a system of mortar mills by which the various ingredients are thoroughly ground-up and amalgamated. Altogether, Messrs. A. Stewart & Co. have an establishment befitting the magnitude of their business, which is certainly one of the very largest in the Glasgow building trade. During recent years this notable firm have erected some very large and important public buildings, among which may be mentioned the Callander Hydropathic Establishment, the Wynd Free Church, the Rev. Mr. Riddell’s Church in Cathcart Road (considered to be the handsomest in Glasgow), the Maternity Hospital in Rotten Row, and also Smith, Sons & Laughland’s in Union Street. These are all excellent examples of the sound and superior work Messrs. Stewart put into all their contracts. This firm have likewise built several of the board schools of Glasgow, for example, Lamb Hill and Camden Schools, and also Hill’s Trust School, Govan. Work is undertaken and carried out with skill and promptitude in all parts of the Glasgow district, and, for that matter, in every quarter of the country, and they are presently engaged in erecting several large blocks of first-class house property in the northern, southern, and western districts of the city, employing a staff of two hundred workmen, so that the firm’s reputation is rapidly becoming a national one. The energy and enterprise Mr. Stewart has displayed in the administration of this business are almost unprece[de]nted in the building trade, and his practical ability and personal supervision of all work undertaken have inspired widespread confidence and won the support and approval of a very valuable connection. Mr. Stewart (who is also an expert valuator and surveyer) is constantly adding to the resources and facilities of his business, and is manifestly resolved to worthily maintain the high position he has achieved among the leaders of the building trade in Glasgow.
Telephone No. 3,407.

THE SCOTTISH GAS STOVE COMPANY, GAS ENGINEERS,
618, EGLINTON STREET, AND ST. ANDREW’S WORKS, GLASGOW.

THIS business was established some three years ago, and has been taken over about a year by the Scottish Gas Stove Company. The new proprietors immediately effected such drastic improvements in the management of the undertaking that an extensive increase in the business was at once perceptible, and under its present splendid management, the Scottish Gas Stove Company has made wonderful and rapid development. The number, the quality, and variety of their stoves, as well as their other useful household requisites, will bear comparison with many of the manufacturers who have been much longer connected with the business; and that such progress should have been achieved in so short a time, speaks very highly for the active and controlling influence of the firm. The articles of manufacture embrace the “Darwin” cooking range, for which three gold medals have been awarded in succession. The varieties of this range include the “Prize Medal” cooker, with boiling table in combination, and the “Darwin” patent grill; the “International” domestic cottage cooker; the “Chelsea” combination; the “Darwin” breakfast cooker; and other varieties are supplied by this firm; and among their other manufactures are the “Rapid” restaurant boilers, the “Buteman” and the “Herald” instantaneous water heaters, iron heaters and boiling heaters in immense variety. Ornamental gas stoves are manufactured by the Scottish Gas Stove Company, and every description of tasteful and artistic designs are submitted for selection. The “Queen Anne,” the “Norseman,” the “Saxon,” the “Lord of the Isles,” the “Irene,” and the “Stafford” stoves are so gracefully designed that they suggest ornament rather than utility, yet they combine both. The premises occupied by this firm comprise a spacious and well-fitted under flat of a building, which was specially constructed for the purpose. A series of offices and show-rooms form the front portion, and the workrooms, where fifty skilled hands are constantly employed, are situated to the rear. The Company have established an office and show-rooms in London, at 22, Garlick Hill, Queen Victoria Street, E.C., and the progress that the business is making is so rapid as to justify the belief that the goods they manufacture will shortly be known and used throughout the United Kingdom. In addition to which, a large Continental and Colonial export trade has been already developed.
Telephone No. 398.

J. S. MACGILL & CO., OIL MERCHANTS AND DRYSALTERS, IMPORTERS AND REFINERS,
175 TO 181, GEORGE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE old-established and highly-reputed firm whose name appears above, was founded as far back as the year 1855, and has long been a prominent and influential concern in the oil and drysaltery trades. The original establishment was situated in St. Enoch's Square, whence the firm subsequently moved to Stockwell Street. Eventually, in 1893, they transferred the business from Wellington Court, Argyle Street, to its present headquarters, where thoroughly commodious premises have been constructed especially to suit the requirements of the business. These comprise handsomely appointed general and private offices, with large storage accommodation adjoining, the whole being situated on the ground level, and in a very convenient and advantageous district. Messrs. J. S. Macgill & Co. conduct a very extensive trade as oil merchants, refiners, and drysalters, and they hold very large and comprehensive stocks. In the oil department they have always a full supply of the leading American, Russian, and Scotch mineral oils for lubricating purposes, besides greases of every description for all mechanical and engineering requirements. Sperm, lard, neatsfoot, olive, cod, colza, salad, rape, cocoanut, linseed, pine, whale, seal, castor, cottonseed, and many other oils are also supplied; and among the firm’s specialities (all of which are of their own careful preparation) are the following: gas-engine oil, spindle oil, stainless loom oil, marine-engine oil, safe-burning marine colza, extra-bodied shafting oil, solidified oil for heavy bearings, printers’ machine oil, sewing-machine oil, compound castor oil, pale double-refined cylinder oil, dark double-refined cylinder oil, &c. Drilling soap powder, boiler composition, and belting syrup are also among the specialities of this firm, which are one and all of the most reliable character and uniform quality. Messrs. J. S. Macgill & Co., furthermore, deal largely in all kinds of paints, varnishes, size, patent dryers, paint brushes, &c., &c.; and the stock they hold in their warehouses embraces a wide range of sundries in general drysaltery goods, in which a high standard of quality is very carefully maintained. In this department, starch, gums, glue, acids, alkalies, bleaching powders, soaps, tar, resin, glycerine, cement, dye-woods, indigo, naphtha, turpentine, beeswax, &c., are prominent features; and it will be noticed that many of these commodities come within the requirements of the textile trades, and are in regular demand amongst manufacturers, dyers, &c. The whole business is personally directed by Mr. J. S. Macgill, the proprietor, who is a member of the Glasgow Parochial Board, and chairman of the Glasgow District Lunacy Board. Mr. Macgill also fills other important public offices, and is well known and much respected as a staunch supporter of Liberal Unionist political principles in connection with the Central Division of the city. He is an energetic and enterprising business man, and enjoys the esteem and confidence of those with whom he has commercial intercourse.

SMITH, SONS & LAUGHLAND, SILK MERCERS, FAMILY DRAPERS, HOSIERS AND GLOVERS, OUTFITTERS, CLOTHIERS, GENERAL WAREHOUSEMEN, CARPET FACTORS, HOUSEHOLD FURNISHERS, MILLINERS, MANTLE-MAKERS, DRESSMAKERS,
73 TO 82, UNION STREET, GLASGOW.

THE eminent firm of wholesale and retail drapers and warehousemen named at the head of this sketch is one of the most notable of Glasgow’s representative mercantile institutions, and its history dates from the commencement of the present century. It may, therefore, be said to have grown up with Glasgow, for the great city of the Clyde was a very different place in 1800 from what it is to-day, and its own development in the intervening years has been perhaps more remarkable than that of any British city in the same period. Mr. George Smith, a prudent and withal an enterprising business man, commenced operations as a draper in the year 1800 in the ancient Glasgow thoroughfare called Candleriggs, and his establishment there was the nucleus of the great business of Messrs. Smith, Sons & Laughland. Gradually the business grew, and several removals were made in consequence of its increasing demands; each succeeding establishment being larger and more commodious than its predecessor. Eventually the firm came to their present headquarters in Union Street, which they have occupied since 1877, and which have been constructed and equipped throughout with special regard to the requirements of their trade. This fine establishment extends from Union Street to Mitchell Street, and is an imposing five-storey block, covering a large area of ground, and affording the most ample commercial conveniences. In the earlier years of the firm’s history, when they traded as George Smith & Sons, a shipping business was founded which has become one of the leading ship-owning concerns of the day. This business is still continued under the style of George Smith & Sons, but since 1867 it has been distinct from the warehouse business. Mr. Andrew Laughland took over the latter, and being joined by Mr. George Smith, grandson of the original George Smith of Candleriggs, he may be said to have started the firm of Smith, Sons & Laughland as we know it to-day. That was in 1867, and since then the warehouse business has increased continuously, its growth being largely influenced by the energy and popularity of its respected principal, Mr. Laughland. This gentleman is one of the oldest commercial travellers in the textile trade, and is personally known and esteemed in all parts of Scotland, his geniality and his inflexible integrity of principle having made him many friends throughout the country, and inspired widespread confidence in his house.

Few men could relate such a tale of varied experiences and adventures as Mr. Laughland were he to recount the reminiscences of his early travelling days, when railways were not, and the “knights of the road” made their journeys with their own horses and traps, carrying their samples with them, and bearing the latest news and the best stories from place to place, along with the newest goods. The weight of years rests lightly upon Mr. Andrew Laughland, and he still presides over this fine old business with undiminished vigour and zeal. He is ably assisted in the work of administration by Mr. John Service (who joined the firm on the retirement of Mr. George Smith, junior, in 1873), and by Mr. J Laughland, who entered the partnership a few years later. The trade controlled by Messrs. Smith, Sons & Laughland embraces every branch of the modern drapery business, both wholesale and retail, in all its varied and comprehensive aspects; and their splendid warehouses form a great emporium of silks and soft goods of every description, clothing and outfittings, hosiery, gloves, furs, men’s mercery, carpets, household furnishings, and fashions, the last-named section embodying all the newest styles in mantles, millinery, and dresses, after the most approved London and Paris models. We might fill many pages in detailing the arrangement of the firm’s numerous departments in the space afforded by their handsome and commodious premises, but such extended description, is hardly necessary in the case of an establishment so well and intimately known to the public and the trade as that of Messrs. Smith, Sons & Laughland. It is sufficient to know that the organisation of the warehouses in all their divisions is thoroughly practical and systematic, and enables the firm to meet with facility the heavy demands made upon their resources by a widespread and influential clientele.

Every condition governing the conduct of this business is such as we should expect to find in the case of a house which stands among the very first of its kind in Scotland. Msssrs. Smith, Sons & Laughland have “moved with the times,” and made every arrangement to withstand the ever-increasing competition of the modern age. Their stocks are well known for exhaustive variety and thoroughly representative character, and no firm can excel them in the combination of superior quality with novelty and moderate price. These characteristics are maintained in every department, and Messrs. Smith, Sons & Laughland never follow in the wake of any of their contemporaries, but, on the contrary, continue as in time past to hold their position among the recognised leaders of the trade. The ramifications of their wholesale and retail business are remarkably extensive, and it may safely be said that there is no quarter of Great Britain in which customers of this old and celebrated house may not be found. Under the wise and judicious guidance of the present principals the firm retain that widespread confidence of their customers which is so indispensable to success in trade, and which they have so worthily earned by an uncompromising adherence to the soundest principles of commercial policy.

JOHN NIVEN, GLASS BOTTLE MANUFACTURER, CRAIGHALL BOTTLE WORKS,
61, BISHOP STREET, PORT DUNDAS, GLASGOW.

MR. Niven initiated his business in 1884, and from the commencement has controlled it with energy, ability, and enterprise. A constant increase has been maintained in the business, and to-day the house stands second to no similar establishment in the north. The premises comprise a large and well-appointed office at the entrance, with works at the rear. The latter include melting furnaces, annealing kilns, mixing-rooms, sorting-rooms, and packing-rooms, the whole being fitted up with plant and appliances of the most modern and improved description. Employment is found for a force of thirty hands, and every department is kept in a thorough state of efficiency. Under circumstances calculated to produce the best possible results, a splendid business is here in operation in the manufacture of every description of bottles as used by wine and spirit merchants, chemists and druggists, mineral water manufacturers, ale and porter bottlers, and others. The articles are well-known in the markets, and everywhere regarded as superior goods, free from blemishes or defects, uniform in quality, and always well finished. The manufacturing facilities enjoyed, coupled with the ability shown in the management (in which Mr. Niven is assisted in all its branches by Mr. C. B. McNeil), enable the house to execute the largest orders promptly and completely, and at the same time to quote prices that will favourably compare with those of any rival manufacturer. The trade is both home and export in character. The home trade extends all over the United Kingdom, and two commercial travellers are kept constantly on the road, while the foreign business is of an exceptionally valuable kind, and is carried on chiefly with America and India. Mr. Niven is, also, the proprietor of a large business at Kilwinning, in which borough he is exceedingly popular, and has recently been elected a councillor. He is the sole agent for Ayrshire for Blair & Co.’s celebrated brewery, Edinburgh, and is developing a very excellent connection in this direction. He is a gentleman of much skill and energy, and is recognised in trade circles as a successful and honourable business man. Mr. Niven is well known in the athletic world, and has achieved distinction as the champion bowler of Scotland.

MESSRS. CAMPBELL & PULTON; PINAFORE AND UNDERCLOTHING MANUFACTURERS,
119, VIRGINIA PLACE (OFF INGRAM STREET), GLASGOW.

THE principals of this concern have had a long experience in this important branch of trade, and commenced operations in conjunction in 1891. They are both thoroughly conversant with the trade in all its numerous branches, and give their undertaking their undivided attention. Adequate and convenient premises are occupied, consisting of the third floor of a large block of building, capitally situated in the midst of the manufacturers and merchants. The accommodation comprises a compact suite of offices, various warehouses, and the cutting-out department. A first-class business is in operation in the manufacture of ladies’ and children’s underclothing in woollens, unions, flannelettes, linen, Cotton, &c. The materials used are procured in the piece from the best and most reputed manufacturers in the trade. They are cut out by experienced cutters and then given to out-door workers to makeup. The articles manufactured here have already made themselves a name among wholesale buyers, and are looked upon as standard goods in their respective lines. The beauty and perfect workmanship of the ladies’ underclothing cannot be excelled, and the pinafores are novel in pattern and design and such as are sure to command ready and remunerative sales. No effort is spared by the worthy proprietors to keep in touch with the changes of style and fashion in their principal goods, and it is very gratifying to notice that their endeavours have so far been eminently successful. The business is not confined to Glasgow but extends to all the principal towns in Scotland, the firm numbering among their customers many of the largest and most critical buyers. Both the principals are young men, thoroughly skilled in their trade, and of sound business habits. They well merit the success their enterprise, skill, and business integrity are securing for them.

JAMES BLACK & CO., TEA AND FANCY BOX MAKERS,
10 AND 14, GARTHLAND STREET, OFF GLASSFORD STREET, GLASGOW.

FOR the last quarter of a century a well-known and responsible house in Glasgow in its special line of business has been to be found in that of Messrs. James Black & Co., the well-known tea and fancy box makers, of 10, Garthland Street, off Glassford Street. This notable business was originated by Mr. James Black, who early obtained a good name for the character of the work he turned out. He developed the concern with great success, and was succeeded in 1892 by Mr. John F. Macmillan, who is now the sole proprietor, trading under the title as at the head of this sketch. Mr. Macmillan has had a long practical acquaintance with the trade in all its various branches, and under his vigorous and well- directed efforts all the old connection has been retained and the business extended in various directions, until it has assumed proportions it never had before. The resources of the establishment have been considerably augmented, every facility being now possessed for carrying out the largest and most diverse order with promptness and thorough satisfaction. Operations are conducted on the third floor of a large block of buildings situate as above in the centre of a populous manufacturing and commercial district. The premises comprise offices on the entrance with workshop and warehouse adjoining. The workshops have been equipped with much care and expense, being fully supplied with cutting and scoring machines of the latest and most approved construction. A numerous and efficient body of workpeople is employed and a good system of discipline is in force throughout the place. Every description of fancy box is turned out here, special regard being paid to the requirements of the local trades. The best material only is used, and good substantial and finished work can always be relied upon. Among the leading lines made by the firm are boxes specially adapted for packing millinery, flowers, ladies’ and children’s underclothing, and all kinds of boxes required for textile goods. Bakers’ and confectioners’ showcases are also important items with the trade. The great speciality with the firm, however, is fancy tea boxes, a branch of the business of which they are the recognised leading exponents. These are supplied in various sizes and in many pretty and attractive patterns, while the prices at which they are quoted have extended the demand for them far and wide. During its many years of prosperous trading the house has established a substantial connection in various parts of Scotland and Ireland among shipping houses, manufacturers, merchants, general warehousemen, and wholesale tea merchants. Mr. Macmillan is indefatigable in his endeavours to oblige his customers, and thorough reliance can be placed upon him to give every satisfaction in quality, despatch, and price. He occupies a good position in trade circles, and is widely known and everywhere held in high respect for his business ability, his straightforward methods, and many good qualities.

GLASGOW APOTHECARIES’ COMPANY, WHOLESALE, RETAIL, AND EXPORT DRUGGISTS,
32 AND 34, VIRGINIA STREET, GLASGOW.
MANAGING PARTNER: ROBERT MCADAM.

THE important and influential establishment which is famous throughout the United Kingdom as the Glasgow Apothecaries’ Company, was founded by a combination of eminent medical men as far back as 1806, and seven years afterwards the institution assumed its present title. From time to time the premises they occupy have been enlarged and improved to meet the ever-growing demands of the business, with the result that to-day the retail department is one of the most magnificently appointed chemist’s shops in the Kingdom. The floor is inlaid with ornamental encaustic tiles, and the fittings and counters are of mahogany in the best style. A number of glass showcases are distributed on all sides, and to the left is situated the private and general offices. The four upper flats are used as warehouses, while the packing-room is located in the rear of the premises. The wholesale department is replete with a thoroughly representative stock of chemicals and drugs, druggists’ sundries, patent medicines, and surgical instruments of the best quality. They also hold a wine licence, and are tea, coffee, and sugar merchants, and dealers in glass and earthenware for druggists’ use and chemical purposes. The monthly price list issued by the Company contains the names of thousands of drugs that they supply, and they also prepare and pack a large number of specialities, including Adam’s Aromatic Aperient Salt, Adam’s Aromatic Quinine Wine, Adam’s Bay Rum, Brilliantine Brush and Sponge Powder, Chilli Paste, Codeia Jelly, Corn Cures and Plasters, Cosmetiques, Essences, Rennet, Flavouring Essences, Fluid Magnesia, Fruit Syrups, Fullers’ Earth, Glycerine and Cucumber Cream, Lavender and Smelling-Salts, milk preserver, mustard oil, pomades. The building is five stories in height, the various floors being connected by hydraulic hoists as well as staircases. From the flat roof, which has been adopted for the purpose of bleaching oils, the lower part of the city is overlooked. In the basement is a fireproof vault of large dimensions for storing the more valuable drugs and chemicals, &c.; also a series of huge tanks for cod liver oil, olive oil, &c., &c. The Company’s works are situated at St. Rollox, where the drug-grinding for the several preparations is carried on. The firm export goods to all parts of the globe, and the home trade connection in the wholesale department extends throughout England, Ireland, and Scotland. This business in all its details is conducted by Mr. Robert McAdam. This gentleman has had a large experience, and under his control the position and high standing of the Company is fully maintained.
The registered telegraphic address of the firm is “Apothecaries, Glasgow,” and their number on the telephone is 1,348.

ROSS & WALLACE, STRAW HAT AND BONNET MANUFACTURERS, AND FLOWER AND FEATHER IMPORTERS,
70, UNION STREET, GLASGOW; AND AT EDINBURGH.

FOR the wholesale supply of flowers, feathers, and jet goods and the manufacture of straw hats and bonnets there is no firm in Scotland which holds a higher position than that of Messrs. Ross & Wallace. This excellently organised business was established sixteen years since by Messrs. R. H. Ross and John Wallace, who are still the sole members of the firm. Both of these gentlemen brought to their enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the business in which they are engaged, and it is to their personal energy that the success achieved by the house is to be attributed. They occupy a commodious warehouse in Union Street, comprising two floors of a spacious and substantial block of buildings. The first of these floors is utilised for the large stocks of artificial flowers, feathers, and jet ornaments which are always held by the firm. The other is similarly devoted to straw hats and bonnets in the greatest variety, necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. The registered telegraphic address is “Straws, Glasgow.”

Their supplies of straw hats and bonnets are derived direct from the headquarters of the industry, Luton, in Bedfordshire, while their stocks of flowers, feathers, &c., are imported direct from the leading sources of supply. With these, as also with the most eminent manufacturing firms in Luton, they maintain such intimate and extensive relations that they are able to offer exceptionally advantageous terms to their customers. Their business is exclusively wholesale, and, in point of the quality of their stocks, theirs represent the medium and finest class of goods. Yet they are always alive to have a large stock of the cheaper or less valuable class on hand, so that they can suit all kinds of trade over the country. The connections of the house are very extensive, including all the leading centres of population in Scotland, and also all over the North of Ireland. They keep constant touch with their wide circle of customers by the assistance of an efficient corps of travelling representatives, whose efforts to extend the influence of the house are much facilitated by the high repute throughout the trade of the firm and its commercial methods. A strong staff of experienced salesmen and other assistants is employed at headquarters, so that there is never any undue delay in the execution of orders. Goods are sent up or down to the different flats by the aid of a powerful hydraulic lift, and throughout the whole of the establishment every facility has been provided for the prompt transaction of a large business. Some fourteen years ago the firm opened out a fully equipped branch establishment in Edinburgh, and the results of this development of the trade have been eminently satisfactory.

The registered telegraphic address is, for Glasgow, “Straws, Glasgow,” and for Edinburgh, “Straws, Edinburgh.” Messrs. Ross & Wallace are both possessed of an exceptional power of organisation, and their administration of the complicated details of their business secures orderly and satisfactory working.

WILLIAM SKINNER & SON, BAKERS AND CONFECTIONERS,
477, SAUCHIEHALL STREET AND ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS admirably organised business was founded so far back as 1835, and since 1849 has occupied the present premises, which, however, have in the interval frequently been altered and extended to meet the requirements of an ever-growing volume of business. These premises, which still constitute the headquarters of the firm, occupy a commanding site at the junction of Sauchiehall Street and Newton Street, and the elegant frontage to the two thoroughfares has an aggregate extent of about a hundred and thirty-five feet. There are six ample and handsomely designed show windows which, with their tastefully arranged displays of toothsome dainties, constitute points of never-failing attraction. The spacious interior, which serves as a sale-shop, is very handsomely appointed, and in the evening is brilliantly lit up with electricity, the firm having their own installation and power. A fine staircase leads to the upper floor which, since 1892, has been used as tea and light refreshment rooms, having accommodation for about a hundred persons. The numerous fittings in the sale-shop display to advantage the splendid variety which the firm constantly produce of biscuits, cakes, fancy bread, and pastry of all kinds, also French confections and fancy goods, including soups, entrees, jellies, creams and ices.

Messrs. Skinner & Son have successfully made a speciality of the production of wedding and christening cakes, and they send large quantities of their famous Scotch shortbread to all parts of the United Kingdom. To the rear of the shop is a well-appointed office, which is furnished with telephonic communication and all other requisites. The telephone number is 318. In the ample basement of the building is the principal bakery, other industrial departments being to the rear. A competent staff of skilled and experienced assistants is employed, and the firm maintain an unblemished reputation for using none but the purest ingredients in the preparation of the articles which they manufacture, and all their productions are in an eminent degree wholesome and appetising. Messrs. Skinner & Son are in the habit of supplying estimates for dinners, ball suppers, wedding breakfasts, and refreshments on all other festive occasions, and their wide experience in this department enables them to undertake the most extensive contracts. Their business connections extend to all parts of the city and the surrounding districts, and they execute important orders all over the West of Scotland. For the convenience of many of their customers Messrs. Skinner & Son have a fully equipped branch establishment at 168, Argyle Street.

MACARTHUR & JACKSON, OIL REFINERS,
96—98, DOBBIE’S LOAN, GLASGOW.

EFFECTIVE lubrication is absolutely indispensable to the efficient working of machinery, and the choice of good and reliable oils for this purpose must always be an important consideration with all users of mechanical plant and appliances. The old and well-known firm of Messrs. MacArthur & Jackson meet all requirements in this connection, and have a high reputation for the excellence and uniform quality of their various productions. They commenced business as oil brokers in 1865, but since 1875 they have devoted themselves to the manufacture and refining of all kinds of lubricating oils, and for this important industry they have large (and perfectly equipped works in Dobbie’s Loan, admirably situated, and replete with facilities for maintaining a large output. Messrs. MacArthur & Jackson have been highly successful in their manufacturing operations, and have gained great renown for their superior lubricating oils for railways, steamships, tramways, cylinders, engines, shafting, looms, spindles, and general machinery. These oils are prepared with the greatest care, and a striking proof of their excellence is afforded by the medals they have won at Calcutta, London, Antwerp, and Edinburgh Exhibitions, where they carried off high honours in international competition. Messrs. MacArthur & Jackson have made a profound study of all the requirements of lubricating oils, and they base their specialities upon the results of many experiments. In no other way could they have attained the high standard of excellence for which they are noted in respect of this class of goods. We commend to the notice of our readers the interesting pamphlet issued by this firm, dealing in an exhaustive and masterly manner with the whole subject of lubrication and lubricating oils. This pamphlet is issued in English, French, and German, and should be perused by all engineers and steam users. It may be had post-free on application. The firm under notice also manufacture jute oil, cloth oil, wool oil, and shoddy oil, and have a large sale for these in the manufacturing districts. In addition to a large home trade, Messrs. MacArthur & Jackson export extensively to. India, Australia, South America, and the Colonies generally. They are well represented by agents in the principal Continental and Colonial markets, and have several travellers “on the road” at home. The entire business is ably and enterprisingly conducted, and Messrs. MacArthur & Jackson are to be congratulated upon a thoroughly well-earned and well-merited success in the important trade with which they have identified themselves.
They have branch offices at London, Liverpool, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Belfast, and their telegraphic address is “Oleum, Glasgow.”

J. BUCHANAN & CO., COACH-BUILDERS,
123 TO 145, NORTH STREET, GLASGOW.

FOUNDED upwards of half-a-century ago, this business has had a remarkable development, and has become one of the largest and most famous of its kind in North Britain. It is now carried on under the sole proprietorship of Mr. James Alexander, who retains the original firm name of J. Buchanan & Co. Mr. Alexander has been associated with the coach-building trade from his youth up, for thirty-five years ago he entered the establishment of the noted firm of Messrs. James Henderson & Co., where he was managing partner for some twenty years; and it is now about ten years since he acquired the fine business here under notice. The works in North Street afford an example of perfect organisation which speaks for Mr. Alexander’s high administrative ability. The establishment is a very extensive one, and the different departments connected with the many processes of this interesting and scientific industry are most completely and effectively equipped for their several purposes. Mr. Alexander has produced many excellent and valuable improvements which have been received with well-merited favour. His new method of lifting and lowering the glass frames in carriage doors is one of these; and many other novel and ingenious ideas are manifest in the construction of the carriages of which this house makes a special feature, such as the improved door fixtures, balanced seats, and improved springs, that have contributed so much to the popularity of Messrs. J. Buchanan & Co.’s elegant and comfortable “Premier” chapel carts. Among the many beautiful vehicles that attract the attention of the visitor in this firm’s show-rooms special mention is due to the new “Medical” gig, with its tasteful fittings and smart appearance; the “Premier” victoria-phaeton, with its patent folding head to the back seat.

In all branches of the trade Messrs. J. Buchanan & Co. maintain an unsurpassed reputation for artistic design and faultless finish. Their vehicles combine strength and durability with lightness and-elegance in a very marked degree, and the sound construction, good workmanship, and reliable materials that characterise their productions, obtained for them the first prize medal at the Dublin International Exhibition of 1865. This firm build every description of carriage to order, and let on job for a term, with or without option of purchase. They store carriages, sell carriages on commission, and give estimates for all kinds of repairs. All their new carriages are warranted for a twelvemonth. The firm do a very large and substantial trade, and have the patronage and confidence of a most extensive and valuable connection. Mr. Alexander personally supervises the entire business, and is admitted everywhere to be a master of his craft. He is greatly esteemed in the trade, in which he has literally worked his way up “from the ranks,” starting years ago as an ordinary workman, and now finding himself proprietor of one of the finest businesses in the country. It is greatly to Mr. Alexander’s credit that he manages to spare a portion of his time for the public service, being at the present time a respected and diligent magistrate of the city of Glasgow. In the routine work of the business Bailie Alexander is ably assisted by his trusty manager, Mr. Arneil; and in his service he has a staff of workmen upon whose skill and conscientiousness every reliance can be placed.

BUCHANAN & PEARSON, WHOLESALE AND EXPORT STATIONERS,
33, EAST HOWARD STREET, AND 77, DUNLOP STREET, GLASGOW; AND DUNDEE.

DURING a period of almost half-a-century the wholesale and export stationery trade in Glasgow has been represented, under the best possible conditions, by the well-known firm of Messrs. Buchanan & Pearson. Of their admirably organised and successful business Mr. Charles Pearson is now the sole proprietor, and under his energetic and enlightened control the influence of the old-established house is still extending. The premises of the firm are situated in a commanding position, the building having entrances both at 33, East Howard Street, and 77, Dunlop Street. There is a suite of handsomely-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication (No. 3,434), the office being connected by telephone with all country exchanges; and the telegraphic address is, “Buchanan-Pearson, Glasgow.” The warehouses, with their numerous and conveniently disposed fittings, admit of carefully systematized classification and arrangement of the heavy and varied stocks which are always held. These comprise a great variety of general and commercial stationery, including a specially ample choice of day-books, cash-books, and other stationery for the counting-house. The firm have, also, with notable success, made a speciality of the supply of various high-class papers for packing purposes, and are sole agents for Scotland for some of the best Continental mapping papers. They likewise do an extensive business in providing all descriptions of note headings, circulars, invoices, &c. They employ resident agents in various parts of the Kingdom, and their business connection extends throughout the whole of Scotland and a large part of England. So widely known is this house for good letterpress work that they obtained the contract to supply the British Bakeries in the great French Exhibition; they have also supplied the Health, Colonial, and Chilian Exhibitions. The intimate and extensive relations which Messrs. Buchanan & Pearson maintain with the most eminent sources of production, enable them to place their customers upon advantageous terms as to prices. With them and their special requirements the firm keep constant touch by the aid of a competent staff of travelling representatives. Mr. Pearson, who has an exceptional faculty for administration, personally supervises all the departments of the business, having under his control a staff of assistants, all of whom have been trained in the house.

THOMAS DICK & SON, ACCOUNTANTS, PROPERTY VALUATORS, HOUSE FACTORS, AND INSURANCE MANAGERS,
43, KENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS responsible and influential house was established upwards of thirty years ago, and during that period a high-class and valuable connection has been maintained. The partners are Mr. Thomas Dick, and his son, Mr. Thomas Dick, junior, both of whom are eminently qualified for successfully controlling a large business of this kind. The organisation of the business leaves nothing to be desired, and everything placed in their hands is carried out in a manner that never fails to give the utmost satisfaction, while the long-standing and high position of the firm is an ample guarantee that business confidences will never be violated. As property valuators and house factors the firm are maintaining extended and valuable connections. The principals’ extensive and varied experience in everything connected with these branches of their profession is well known and recognised, and their decisions are always accepted as the honest judgment of expert, conscientious, and impartial men. The house agency they control is one of the most important in the city, and in their registers will always be found a list of some of the most desirable properties in Glasgow and the district to be let or sold. Messrs. Dick & Son are thoroughly energetic on behalf of the interests of their clients, and those having houses or land to dispose of, or, on the other hand, are desirous of purchasing or renting the same, cannot do better than place their affairs in the hands of this reliable firm.

Messrs. Dick & Son are the district managers of the Globe Accident Insurance Company, Limited, whose head offices are at 58, Fountain Street, Manchester, and with which is now incorporated the Glasgow Plate Glass Insurance Company, which was formed in 1870, and successfully conducted by Messrs Dick & Son ever since. They also do a large fire insurance business, and are the representatives of the Sceptre Life Association, Limited, Finsbury Pavement, London. The connection of the house extends to all parts of Scotland, and is being maintained and enlarged with splendid energy and ability. The members of this responsible firm are well known and highly respected, and the success they are achieving is no less distinguished than deserved. Mr. Thomas Dick, senior, has for many years been prominently identified with the public life of the district, and has filled many important offices with credit and rectitude. He is an ex-Provost of Kinning Park, and is a member of the Go van District Lunacy Board, while for the last quarter of a century he has been a respected member of the Govan Combination Parochial Board, and was chairman for three years.
The house is in telephonic communication, the number being 3,314.

JOHN G. RHIND, ITALIAN WAREHOUSEMAN, FAMILY GROCER AND PROVISION MERCHANT,
109, KILMARNOCK ROAD, SHAWLANDS, GLASGOW.

AMONG the business establishments of Glasgow, a prominent position in its own line is held by that of Mr. John G. Rhind, of 109, Kilmarnock Road. As above, this business was established some ten years ago by Mr. Rhind, who brought to bear upon its development a long and valuable experience in every department of this branch of commercial activity. To the knowledge thus acquired, he subjoined energy, tact, and enterprise, and, as may be naturally supposed, he was not long before he succeeded in placing his establishment on a sure and substantial footing. Every year since has added to the extent of the business done and the value of the connection, and the house can now deservedly lay claim to be regarded as a representative one. The premises occupy a commanding position at the corner of Regent Place and Walton Street, with entrance at the comer, and having two large plate-glass windows facing the former thoroughfare and three the latter. In these fine show-windows a splendid display is made of groceries and provisions, the latter being a leading speciality, Mr. Rhind having been for eight years with James Fulton & Co., of Argyle Street, one of the principal provision houses in the West of Scotland; the tasteful and attractive manner in which they are arranged being no less noticeable than the variety of the goods exhibited. The interior is capitally well fitted up both as regards the control of the trade and the comfort of visitors, and the warehouse, stores, and cellaring are ample in size and generally well adapted to the proper preservation of their contents. A number of assistants are kept, and a first-class family business is being energetically and successfully controlled. Mr. Rhind procures his supplies direct from the very, best sources, and exercises great care and judgment in selecting only the most desirable classes of goods, and such as he knows will suit the special wants of his superior patrons. Tea, as becomes its universal popularity, is a leading feature here, and the kinds handled can hardly be surpassed in strength, flavour, and piquancy; while the special blends offered by the house are recognised by connoisseurs as having no superiors in the district. Ample and choice stocks are held of coffee, cocoa, spices, fruits, Belfast hams, Ayrshire rolled bacon, butter, cheese, Edinburgh oatmeal, the best American flour, and everything necessary to make up a full line in the trade. Nothing of an inferior kind is offered at this responsible establishment, and yet by tact and care in the management, prices are kept as low as the very lowest in the district. Mr. Rhind occupies a position of prominence in trading ranks, and is widely known, and everywhere respected, for his upright methods of doing business, and his strict commercial integrity.

JOHN WALLACE & SONS, AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT MANUFACTURERS,
GRAHAM SQUARE, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 929; Telegrams: “Implements.”

THIS firm carry on a very extensive trade in the manufacture of agricultural implements and machines, the present business being started in Graham Square by the father of the present partners over thirty years ago. Previous to coming to Glasgow, the late Mr. John Wallace, senior, carried on a similar business in Dumbartonshire, so that the name of Wallace has been long known in connection with the agricultural implement trade. The firm have commodious premises in Graham Square, comprising offices, show-rooms, and warehouse in front, with large and well-equipped works at the rear. They have also a large implement show-room, well adapted for the display and storage of implements. On the west side of Graham Square the firm have also additional workshops, this latter site being where they first commenced business in Glasgow. Messrs. John Wallace & Sons manufacture various descriptions of agricultural implements and machines, and they are especially noted for the valuable improvements they have introduced in mowers and reapers, potato diggers, turnip and mangold sowers, &c. They also have specialities in horse forks, rick lifters, liquid manure pumps, food coolers, land rollers, potato screens, slicers, &c, &c., and they likewise do an extensive trade in supplying and fitting up special machinery for cutting hay into chaff and bruising oats, and cleaning and mixing the same into chop for horse feeding; this kind of special machinery being supplied to large contractors, colliery proprietors, and grain merchants. Messrs. Wallace have always been well known for the introduction and adoption of practical improvements, and their constant aim is to turn out implements and machines of the latest and most approved designs, embodying first-class material and workmanship. Besides conducting a large manufacturing business of their own, Messrs. Wallace are agents for the specialities of several of the largest English, American, and Canadian firms, and are also sole agents for Great Britain and Ireland for the “Oliver” Celebrated Chilled Plough, so that farmers should note that they are in a position to supply them with every implement requisite for farm work. Messrs. Wallace enjoy the confidence and support of a large and valuable connection, and they personally superintend the entire business. Graham Square is just the place for the carrying on of an implement business, being the principal entrance to the Glasgow Cattle and Feeding Markets. It is quite a historical part of old Glasgow, and Messrs. John Wallace & Sons (who are now the oldest firm in the Square) have seen many notable changes and improvements effected in the immediate vicinity since they first started business over thirty years ago.

ALEXANDER COCHRAN & CO., ART CABINETMAKERS AND UPHOLSTERERS, REMOVAL CONTRACTORS, BAZAAR AND BALL-ROOM DECORATORS,
CHARING CROSS, GLASGOW.

THE firm of Messrs. Alexander Cochran & Co. has been before the public for something like half a century. Operations were first commenced under the title of Messrs. Cochran & Provan, and were carried on for many years at 202, Hope Street. The present sole proprietor of this notable house is Mr. Peter T. Cochran, under whose vigorous and well-directed control the business is maintaining its ancient prestige, and adding annually to the amount of business done. The premises to which the firm has recently removed are situate at Charing Cross, and are in many respects eminently suitable to the business on hand. Originally a private house, it has been altered and re-arranged, and now includes a compact suite of offices, large well-lighted show-rooms, and a number of workshops. There is a good-sized grass plot between the house and the footpath, and on this the firm have literally pitched their tents, and are showing many of their commodities to the best advantage. The workshops are capitally well fitted up and only a competent staff of skilled workpeople is kept constantly employed in art goods and in every description of upholstery work. The articles turned out here are known all over Scotland, and are justly looked upon as having very few superiors in beauty of design and excellence of workmanship. They also do a large trade in removals and the packing of furniture. Mr. Cochran is a thoroughly practical man, and personally superintends the whole of the management, thus insuring a uniform degree of satisfaction to his customers. A great speciality of the house is the artistic decorating of bazaars and ball rooms, a branch of business in which they confessedly take the lead. Many of the great bazaars held in Glasgow of late years have owed their success in no small degree to the fertile brain and inventive ingenuity of Mr. Cochran, and his services are in constant demand in this direction in all parts of the country. Extensive stocks of furniture suitable for the different epochs represented are kept on hand, as well as banners, flags, tents, chairs, frames, and other requisite properties. A very large business is being done by the firm in first-class second-hand furniture, of which immense selections are always kept in stock, and persons having furniture to dispose of will find in the firm liberal and conscientious buyers. The stocks held embrace second-hand furniture suitable for drawing-room, dining-room, library, parlour, bedrooms, hall and corridors, all of the best description and in first-class condition; there are also splendid assortments of high-class articles such as panoplies, antique cabinets, rare old china, chime clocks, hall settles, Chippendale furniture, and articles de luxe. A valuable connection has been established by years of close attention to the wants of patrons, and by keeping fully in touch with the requirements and tastes of the times. Mr. Cochran enjoys the respect of all who come into business relations with him.
The telephonic number of the house is 296.

WILLIAM M‘COMBIE, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL CHINA, GLASS, AND EARTHENWARE MERCHANT,
19 TO 25, ROYAL ARCADE, GLASGOW.

ONE of the largest and most attractive establishments in the Royal Arcade is that of Mr. William M‘Combie, whose fine business in china, glass, and earthenware is the result of nineteen years’ steady development under able and energetic management. The premises occupied by this notable concern include Nos. 19, 21, 23, 23-and-a-half, and 25, in the Arcade, and comprise fine spacious shops and show-rooms, with ample office accommodation. Particularly fine is the show in the ten large windows of the establishment, where the beautiful goods exhibited never fail to attract the attention of passers-by. The internal arrangements of the place have been carried out with every regard for trade convenience, and the stock is one of the largest, most comprehensive, and most valuable of its kind in Glasgow. It embraces every description of high-class china and glass ware in the newest and most beautiful designs, and comprises goods both for table and toilet use, and for decorative and ornamental purposes. The productions of all the best manufacturers are here well represented, and Mr. M‘Combie also shows some beautiful and characteristic specimens of Dresden, Worcester, Crown Derby, Wedgwood, and Limoges wares. There are likewise utilitarian articles of earthenware in great variety adapted to general domestic requirements. Visitors to this establishment should notice particularly the fine assortment of English cut glass, the extensive variety of elegant Bohemian glass, of which Mr. M‘Combie has long been a noted importer, and the unusually large selection of ornamental china in every conceivable form and style.

Mr. McCombie does a great trade in complete services of various wares. His general business is one of great magnitude, and extends all over Scotland. He also has several branches in Glasgow, where a first class retail trade is done, these being as follows: 196, Main Street, Anderston; 199, New City Road; 277, Duke Street; 490, Springbum Road; and 58, Argyle Arcade. There are likewise extensive stores in Renfield Street, where an enormous reserve stock is kept. The whole business is conducted upon the most advanced lines, and with every arrangement for the rapid fulfilment of orders. To maintain a leading place in this trade evidently calls for sound judgment, enterprise, and thorough practical knowledge, and that Mr. M‘Combie possesses these qualifications is proved by the quality and character of the stock he keeps, and the extent and importance of the connection whose support he enjoys.
His telephone is No. 4,095.

SMITH, SONS & MURRAY, LIMITED, WAREHOUSEMEN AND MANUFACTURERS OF UMBRELLAS AND WATERPROOFS,
128 AND 134, INGRAM STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS is one of the most notable of the many great mercantile concerns that impart a special character and importance to the fine thoroughfare of Ingram Street. The extensive business of Messrs. Smith, Sons & Murray, Limited, was founded by the present company as recently as 1892, but it has developed with great rapidity, and has already gained a place in the leading ranks of the trade in such goods as umbrellas, waterproofs and travelling requisites. The company occupy a large and commodious warehouse which is admirably arranged for the purposes of the trade, and which has in connection extensive work-room accommodation, affording every facility for the firm’s large manufacturing operations. In this latter respect Messrs. Smith, Sons & Murray, Limited, have become widely and favourably known for their excellent productions in umbrellas and sunshades and waterproof garments of all descriptions, which may be regarded as the leading specialities of their business. They turn out umbrellas and parasols in every shape, size, and material, suitable for all the home and foreign markets, and have constantly on hand a splendid stock of the best fabrics for this trade, such as silks, glorias and Austrias, all of which have been secured in the best markets at low contract rates, enabling the firm to give their customers the benefit of prices which are lower than those now being quoted elsewhere. Messrs. Smith, Sons & Murray are also holders of a remarks ably fine stock of sticks and handles for umbrellas and sunshades, including an endless variety in all the latest styles; and handles selected by their customers to-day are made up and delivered within the twenty-four hours following. Umbrella-makers are supplied with all kinds of furniture, ribs, and sewn covers — in short, every detail of the umbrella trade is fully exemplified upon the most extensive scale, and in all matters appertaining thereto the firm under notice will be found thoroughly “up to date.”

Other notable departments of this interesting business embrace waterproofs, waterproof garments, waterproof driving rugs, travelling rugs, bags and portmanteaus, braces and stays, gaiters, leggings, and oilskins. The stock of ladies’ and gents’ waterproof garments is exceedingly large and comprehensive, including every description and quality for all ordinary and special purposes in the very latest styles and patterns. A special department is devoted to the manufacture of special garments made to measure, and clients can always depend upon prompt delivery and good workmanship. These goods are all of a superior quality, and are recommended for reliability and good appearance. The firm make a point of promptly repairing and altering water-proof garments, and have every facility for this work. In bags, trunks, and portmanteaus we noticed an immense variety in stock, and the departments for braces, corsets, rugs, rug-straps, hat cases, and oilskin goods are replete with the newest productions of the trade. Messrs. Smith, Sons & Murray, Limited, have innumerable specialities in every branch of their business, and their warehouse is well worthy of a visit from the home and foreign consumer who wishes to be au courant of the most recent developments in these important sections of the textile trade.

The company’s factory for waterproofs and portmanteaus is in Trongate, the work-rooms at the Ingram Street establishment being devoted to umbrella and sunshade manufacture. All the affairs of the house are most ably administered, and an immense trade is controlled (entirely wholesale) with connections extending from Aberdeen in the north to Carlisle in the south. Through the medium of shipping firms this company’s goods also find their way to most of the foreign and Colonial markets, where their good qualities are highly esteemed. Numerous travellers represent the house “on the road,” and the routine work of the warehouse is carried on by a thoroughly efficient staff under proprietary supervision.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Gloria, Glasgow.”

CAMERON, FERGUSON & CO., WHOLESALE, EXPORT, AND MANUFACTURING STATIONERS AND PUBLISHERS,
63, NORTH FREDERICK STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS admirably organised business was founded in 1859, under the style and title of Cameron & Co. In 1862, Mr. John Ferguson became a member of the firm, which then assumed its present designation; and in 1890, Mr. Ferguson became the sole proprietor. At the same time the business, which had originally been carried on in West Nile Street, was removed, as a result of its rapid extension, to the commodious premises which the firm now occupy at 63, North Frederick Street. They comprise the ground floor of a splendid block of buildings, and include a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of business. The telephone number is 4,436; and the registered telegraphic address is “ Exemplum, Glasgow.” The front of the premises is utilised as a warehouse, and to the rear are the work-rooms, which are fully equipped with all the requisite mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type. The machinery is driven by a powerful “Otto” gas-engine, and the excellence of the working plant throughout largely accounts for the remarkably low quotations which the firm make to the trade. Messrs. Cameron, Ferguson & Co. control a very extensive business as wholesale, mercantile, and general stationers, and the lists of their “new lines,” which they periodically issue, are always worth the special attention of retail stationers. They have, with notable success, made a speciality of producing remarkably good and cheap notepaper, envelopes, letter-books, and Christmas and New Year’s cards. In another special department the firm have made a wide reputation by holding, at all times, large and comprehensive stocks of Catholic prayer-books, rosary beads, and other ecclesiastical goods. As publishers, the firm produce an enormous amount of standard and popular literature at marvellously low prices. They have particularly devoted themselves to the issue of historical works connected with Ireland, and to the publication of novels by authors of high standing, at prices varying from a penny to a shilling. They are also the publishers of a lengthy and varied series of songbooks and “reciters.”

For the holding of their large surplus stocks, the firm retain a large warehouse in Sauchiehall Street, and extensive stores and workshop at 130 Ingram Street. Their export trade is extensive and is rapidly increasing, and their home connection, which is largely maintained through their fully-equipped branch establishment in London, reaches to all parts of the United Kingdom, amongst manufacturers, merchants, public companies, and wholesale and retail booksellers and stationers. The firm keep touch with their customers in this country by the aid of a staff of experienced travelling representatives, and by a corps of specially appointed agents abroad. Some thirty or more counting-house and despatch clerks are employed at headquarters, and hundreds of hands are employed producing the goods of the different departments of the business. All the detail of the business are under the personal supervision of the principal, who is gifted with exceptional powers of organisation. So strong are his administrative abilities that, notwithstanding the large amount of his attention which is occupied by his extensive business, he is able to devote much of his valuable time and energies to the service of the public, and he has recently been elected a member of the Glasgow City Council, where the same qualities stand him in good stead which have already enabled him to create a great commercial organisation.

J. COPELAND & CO., ENGINEERS AND BOILER MAKERS,
PULTENEY STREET ENGINE WORKS, DOBBIE’S LOAN, GLASGOW.

FOUNDED as far back as 1858 by Messrs. John Norman & Co., this large and influential concern was taken over in 1880 by Mr. J. Copeland, who had been a partner in the concern and actively connected with the management of the business from its inception, and to whose energy much of its success is due. Mr. Copeland’s partner for the last seven years has been Mr. Lawson Forsyth, a well-known engineer. The Pulteney Street Engine Works, having been several times enlarged, now cover a large area of ground, and may be pronounced to be among the best equipped and most perfectly organised engine works in Glasgow. Here Messrs. J. Copeland & Co. have every facility for carrying on their extensive operations as general engineers and millwrights, and as makers of sugar, rice, and flour-mill plant, ice-making machines, and general hydraulic work; the firm having successfully carried out many large contracts for plant and machinery for India, Japan, Cuba, and various Continental countries, including a lot of chemical machinery for Germany. Another very important piece of work carried out in recent years was the contract for slip docks for Brisbane, Queensland, and also at Ayr. Messrs. Copeland have a special principle in slip-dock construction, and the Brisbane Patent Ship Dock Company having ordered one of these from the firm, it proved to be such a complete success, that a second and heavier one was ordered soon afterwards. These slips can be made in any size, and will also provide machinery for hauling the ship on to a cradle, either by strong wire rope worked by gearing, or by hydraulic purchase with strong linked chains and pins. Messrs. Copeland have greatly distinguished themselves in the making of sugar plant, and one of their greatest triumphs in this department was a complete sugar-refining plant, weighing in all upwards of three hundred tons, and capable of producing forty-five tons of sugar per day.

In other departments this firm have gone in for very extensive undertakings with marked success, their rice-milling plants for Japan and Manilla being very conspicuous instances, which were much noticed in the press. A special hydraulic shearing machine constructed by them was capable of exerting a pressure of one thousand tons, and could cut steel slabs thirty inches by ten inches as they came from the mill. This stupendous piece of machinery is one of the most notable things Messrs. Copeland have done. High-class boilers are also largely made at Pulteney Street Engine Works, and very special and careful attention is paid to this extremely important department. Bridges, girders, and iron houses are likewise among the productions, and a large trade is done in distilling and oil-refining plants, calico printing machinery, and machines for printing linoleum and floorcloth. The ice-making machinery is a celebrated speciality, and is sent very largely to the East, where its practical efficiency is highly esteemed. Messrs. Copeland & Co. have just completed large and perfect plant for making malleable iron and steel tubes up to twelve inch diameter for the Imperial Turkish Government at Constantinople, and also for the Imperial Russian Government at Kolpino, near St. Petersburg. These enormous plants are the most perfect of their kind, and have given the greatest satisfaction to all concerned. They are also at present engaged on special tube-making machines for a firm in Dusseldorf, and have a large contract on hand for the Glasgow Corporation Tramways. Altogether, this is a business which ranks with the first in the kingdom in point of magnitude, comprehensiveness, and reputation. It affords employment to upwards of three hundred skilled workmen, and has the support of an international connection. The affairs of the firm continue to be administered in an enterprising and progressive spirit, to the advantage of the house, and the satisfaction of its world-wide clientele.
Telegraphic address: “Vulcan, Glasgow.”

JAMES G. SWAN & CO., CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS,
74, BATH STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS firm has since its establishment in 1885 succeeded in creating a valuable business connection, which is still being rapidly extended. Their premises were originally at 41, Port Dundas Road, but the rapid extension of their operations induced removal in 1890 to the commodious and conveniently situated premises which they now occupy. These comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, adjoining which is a spacious warehouse in which are held, in readiness for all demands, heavy stocks of the specialities the manufacture and supply of which have made the reputation of the establishment. Amongst flock masters and others interested in live stock, the name of the firm is well and favourably known in connection with their patent “Caledonian Dip” (non-poisonous), which infallibly kills all parasites which infest the skins of cattle, sheep, and other animals. A long list of most valuable testimonials from well-known authorities, setting forth their favourable experience of the “Caledonian Dip,”, is printed for circulation by Messrs. Swan & Co. The dip is sold at 6s. 6d. per gallon. One gallon mixed with water will make sufficient wash for a hundred and twenty sheep. Equally popular in its way is the “Standard” sheep deep (poisonous), manufactured by the firm. It kills ticks and all other parasites, and likewise the scab insect. This dip, which must be used for sheep only, is sold in one gallon drums and in larger quantities, the one gallon drum being sufficient to dip about seventy-five sheep, for four shillings. Another popular speciality of the firm, which is of more general application, is their patent “Hygeia,” the strongest disinfectant yet offered to the public. It has the advantage over carbolic acid disinfectants that it mixes freely with water, thus allowing its use for purposes to which insoluble preparations are inapplicable. It does not stain or burn and is probably the safest powerful disinfectant now in the market. It is specially useful for disinfecting and deodorizing drains, closets, sinks, &c., and in courtyard, stables, piggeries, cattle pens, ships’ bilges, the sick-room, &c. A few teaspoonfuls in the bath render it most refreshing, and it may be utilised in this way with great advantage after exposure to infection. It forms, too, a most beneficial dressing for wounds in all animals. It kills ticks and all parasites which infest the skins of dogs and other animals, and cures mange and other skin diseases, and an occasional application of a dilute solution much improves the appearance of a horse’s coat. It also destroys weeds in garden walks, &c., and is of constant utility in any household. Mr. Robert R. Tatlock, F.R.S.E., F.C.S., public analyst for the city of Glasgow, says:— “I have carefully analysed and examined the ‘Hygeia’ disinfecting fluid and find it to be in every respect eminently suited for its intended purpose. It is a powerful and efficient disinfectant and antiseptic.” Messrs. James G. Swan & Co. control a very extensive business, both wholesale and retail, their connection extending throughout the United Kingdom and the Colonies. They make large consignments, especially to Australasia and South Africa, and have a branch office and stores at Buenos Ayres, under the same firm-title, the telegraphic address being “Dipping, Buenos Ayres.” Mr. James G. Swan, who is the sole proprietor of the business, possesses exceptional powers of organisation, and personally supervises all the details of his extensive business.
The registered telegraphic address of the firm is “Dipping, Glasgow.”

J. C. ANDERSON, PRODUCE BROKER (AGENT FOR MESSRS. J. A. VAN DEN BOSCH & ZONEN),
9, INGRAM STREET, GLASGOW.
Telegraphic Address: “Kinheim, Glasgow.”

THIS well-organised and rapidly progressing business was established, in 1885. Mr. Anderson brings to this enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the trade, and his exceptional commercial aptitude has enabled him to create a most valuable connection in addition to that to which he succeeded. He occupies premises which are conveniently situated in Ingram Street, and, therefore, in the centre of the quarter in which the headquarters of the principal produce merchants and importers are to be found. They comprise a suite of general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt dispatch of business. The remainder of the premises, which are all on the ground floor, are utilised for warehouse purposes, and thus there is ample space for the careful classification and arrangement of the stocks of specialities which Mr. Anderson is accustomed to handle. These are always held in considerable quantities so that no delay arises in the execution of the most extensive orders. Mr. Anderson is the sole agent for the well-known firm of Messrs. J. A. Van Bosch & Zonen, of Alkmaar, Holland, who are makers of the highest blends of butters, and extensive manufacturers of margarine. These are found to be eminently saleable in the large towns of Scotland. He also receives large consignments of Danish produce, and deals with some of the most popular brands of condensed milk. The establishment includes a separate department for the sale of high-class teas to retailers, in the original packets only, as imported. Messrs. Closs &Co., Danish butter importers, Fredrikshavn, Denmark, have appointed Mr. Anderson as their agent for Glasgow and the surrounding neighbourhood. The business which Mr. Anderson controls is exclusively wholesale, and his connection extends all over Scotland amongst wholesale and retail grocers and provision merchants, with whom, and whose requirements, he keeps in constant touch by the aid of an efficient staff of travelling representatives.

H. SHEARER, MANUFACTURER AND IMPORTER OF JAPANESE, CHINESE, AND CONTINENTAL GOODS,
42, HOWARD STREET, AND 51, DUNLOP STREET, GLASGOW.

SINCE Mr. H. Shearer, some nine years ago, founded his admirably organised business he has done much to meet the increasing demand for certain classes of ornamental goods which he either manufactures himself or imports from the best sources in Japan, China, and the Continent of Europe. He began his important commercial operations at 42, Howard Street, which premises he occupied as offices and show-room. The special technical knowledge and the sound artistic taste which Mr. Shearer possesses, and which he has turned to the best account in the conduct of his business, soon created for him a very valuable and extensive connection, which necessitated a removal of his commercial headquarters to more central and commodious quarters. These were found at 49 and 51, Dunlop Street, the Howard Street premises being retained as a warehouse in which are held, in readiness for all demands, large reserve stocks of the specialities which have made the reputation of the house. In Dunlop Street the offices are well appointed, and are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. In the spacious show-rooms, which are handsomely fitted up in harmonious keeping with the character of their beautiful and artistically valuable contents, the stocks include bronzes, ivories, cabinets, vases, Japanese swords and curios, Indian mats, &c. A special department is devoted to a thoroughly representative display of specialities for the graves of departed friends, including porcelain, metal, artificial and Cape wreaths and crosses, patented marble pedestals for the support of glass shades containing wreaths and other ornamental memorials, stands, rustic and moulded cases, decorative grasses, artificial plants, &c. Of all these descriptions of goods Mr. Shearer is the manufacturer, having a fully equipped factory for the purpose. In this respect he holds a position which, in Scotland, is almost unique in reference to most of the classes of productions mentioned, and is absolutely so with regard to the patented marble pedestals. For these specialities of his own manufacture there is a steady and extensive demand amongst some of the great wholesale and export houses in London. His import trade is on a large scale, and his trade connections extend all over Scotland and also into some of the leading commercial centres of England and Ireland. Mr. Shearer’s transactions are exclusively wholesale, and he keeps touch with his customers by the aid of an efficient staff of travelling representatives, whose efforts to extend the area of the house’s influence are much facilitated by the high esteem in which the goods which it supplies are held throughout the trade. Mr. Shearer, who is possessed of strong administrative ability, supervises all the details of his rapidly growing business, and thus is able to guarantee the prompt and efficient execution of all orders. To his assiduous personal attention, indeed, is to be attributed the notable success which, within a comparatively brief period, Mr. Shearer has achieved. With all the best sources of supply for the various descriptions of goods which he imports, he maintains such intimate and extensive relations that he is able to offer exceptionally favourable terms to his customers.

JOHN ANGUS &CO., COACH AND SADDLERS’ IRONMONGERS, SADDLE-TREE, HAME, AND CHAIN MANUFACTURERS,
64, WEST HOWARD STREET, GLASGOW.
WORKS: 12, CANAL STREET, PORT EGLINTON.

THIS notable business was established upwards of sixty years ago, and during the whole period has maintained a steady progress, until to-day the house stands acknowledged as a leading and representative one, prepared to undertake the execution of every class of orders coming within the scope of its comprehensive operations. The present sole proprietor is Mr. J. B. Fleming, and to his vigorous and well-directed control the influential standing of the house and the high state of efficiency to which its facilities have been brought are mainly to be attributed. The premises at Glasgow comprise a handsomely appointed suite of private and general offices, and a series of warehouses that have been specially arranged and fitted up for the accommodation of an immense stock of goods of different kinds. The works at Port Eglinton cover a large area, and are equipped in a style that is worthy of the enterprise and liberal policy of the management. Employment is found for a numerous body of workmen, and the factory throughout is conducted with exemplary order and discipline. The works are connected with the city offices by a private wire. The various goods manufactured by the firm are well known in the markets, and are looked upon by competent judges as standards of excellence in their respective lines. The firm are largely occupied in the manufacture of all kinds of cart, plough, and breeching chains, hames, cart bodies and rolls, gig collars, &c. In material and thorough workmanship these goods have no superiors in the country. The house possesses a special reputation for the high-class character of the cart and riding saddle-trees it is turning out, and which are put upon the market, owing to the great productive facilities possessed, at prices which cannot be equalled. Silver and brass plating are taken in hand, and every class of work in connection with the coach and saddlers’ ironmongery trade is executed in a first-class style. The trade done is both home and export, a very large and flourishing business being controlled with the English Colonies. Mr. Fleming is regarded as a valuable and influential member of the field of industrial and mercantile activity in which he is engaged. He is well known in commercial circles, and his name is considered synonymous with everything that is honourable and straightforward in business matters.

JOHN GARDINER, WHOLESALE TEA AND WINE MERCHANT,
18, GIBSON STREET, HILLHEAD, GLASGOW.

IN its special line of business, few houses in Hillhead are better known than the old-established and thoroughly responsible house of Mr. John Gardiner, of 18, Gibson Street, Hillhead, the extensive wine merchant and Italian warehouseman. This noteworthy business was originally established in 1847, by the father of the present proprietor, who commenced operations on the south side of the river. The premises in Gibson Street were secured about twenty-four years ago, and are now the headquarters of the business. Branch establishments were held at 156, Woodlands Road; 247, High Street; and 283, Crown Street, but the two former have been abandoned, the latter being carried on as a wine and spirit business. Of late years the premises in Gibson Street have been occupied solely with the wine and spirit trade. For this they are well adapted in situation, arrangement, and extent. They have a large and very attractive double frontage, while the interior is as pleasant as convenient, the windows being fitted up with tinted glass which casts a subdued and agreeable light throughout the whole place. The various departments are kept in a perfect state of efficiency, and a numerous staff is employed, who give prompt and satisfactory attention to all orders received or to customers that call. Mr. Gardiner has had a long and valuable experience in his business, and shows much taste and judgment in selecting his supplies. No wines of a cheap or trashy kind are offered here, but whatever the price paid, purchasers may be sure of getting a first-class article, one that shall be excellent value for money, and such as well merits approval and continued confidence.

The wine list published by Mr. Gardiner is very complete, and includes judiciously selected wines from France, Spain, Portugal, and the Rhine, clarets, sherries, Marsala, Madeira, ports, Sauternes, red Bergundies, hocks, champagne, and a splendid assortment of sparkling wines. The variety and quality of the spirits offered are no less noteworthy, and comprise brandy, whisky, gin, and rum, the excellence and purity of which can always be depended upon. Special mention should be made of Mr. Gardiner’s famous “Old Blend,” which is ranked by connoisseurs as one of the finest whiskies that Scotland can produce, and is supplied in casks of ten, fifteen, twenty, and thirty gallons and upwards at the very reasonable figure of 18s. 6d. per gallon. Liqueurs and cordials form a special item of the business, the house offering its patrons in this direction a selection not to be surpassed in Glasgow. Malt liquors from the best-known brewers in the Kingdom are supplied in barrels or bottles. Tea is a leading speciality, and the China and Indian teas which he submits to his patrons are such as cannot fail to secure the appreciation of all good judges. They are purchased in the best markets and on the most favourable terms, and prices will be found to be not the least satisfactory item. Mr. Gardiner is the sole agent in Hillhead for Max Greger, the famous purveyor of Hungarian wines to the Queen. By the thorough reliability that can be placed upon everything supplied, a connection has been built up of a very widespread and valuable character among the leading families in the west-end of Glasgow, and in various parts of the surrounding districts. The proprietor is well known in the trading and commercial life of the city, and is everywhere held in high respect for his business ability, strictly honourable methods, and his unfailing courtesy. Mr. Gardiner also holds the rank of major in the Blythswood 3rd Volunteer Battalion Highland Light Infantry, which popular regiment he has been connected with for the last eighteen years.

HAYTHORN & STUART, ENGINEERS AND FOUNDERS,
EASTWOOD ENGINE WORKS, POLLOKSHAWS, GLASGOW.

WITHIN the comparatively brief period of five years the firm of Messrs. Haythorn & Stuart have obtained a position of very creditable prominence in connection with the engineering industry of Pollokshaws. The Eastwood Engine Works rank among the most progressive establishments in the district, and reflect great credit upon the practical skill and organising powers of Mr. John Haythorn and Mr. James Stuart, the founders and joint proprietors of this flourishing business. Both gentlemen are thoroughly experienced, and take an active part in the management of the concern, and in the supervision of everything connected with the routine of the works. The premises are admirably arranged to promote general convenience in the progress of the industry, and the plant in operation is composed of modern machinery of the very best character.

Messrs. Haythorn & Stuart are celebrated for the number and value of their various mechanical patents, the importance of which may be estimated from the fact that some of the leading engineering firms in the United Kingdom have sought for and acquired the privilege of “working” these patents in certain districts. An especially noteworthy instance is that of Messrs. Hicks, Hargraves & Co., Limited, of Bolton — the largest makers of steam-engines in the world — who hold from Messrs. Haythorn & Stuart the agency for England of their various patents as applied to steam-engines and machinery. Among the many patents referred to are the following:— Haythorn’s patent piston and piston-valve packings, Haythorn & Stuart’s patent friction clutch and coupling, and Haythorn & Stuart’s patent clip pulley, and the patent “Vigil” steam trap. Messrs. Haythorn & Stuart are also noted for their superior work in the construction of their patent triple-expansion high-speed electric-light and fan engines, as well as for all types of marine, portable, and stationary engines and boilers, shafting, gearing, and finished brass work. They make a speciality of launch engines and boilers, and also have facilities for turning out very large and powerful engines for mill-work. They have recently shipped to Rangoon a fine pair of engines of two hundred horse-power, for use in a rice-mill there. They maintain a widespread and valuable connection, both at home and abroad, and stand high in the esteem and confidence of a large circle of patrons. The firm’s telegraphic addresses are: “Haythorn, Pollokshaws,” for home messages; and “Haythorn, Glasgow,” for foreign messages and cablegrams.

ANDREW LAIRD, MANUFACTURING CHEMIST AND DRYSALTER, MANUFACTURERS’ AGENT, AND IMPORTER OF ALL KINDS OF MATCHES, VESTAS, AND VESUVIANS,
32 AND 34, BRUNSWICK STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS extensive and notable concern was founded as far back as the year 1832, operations being originally commenced under the title of Messrs. Stephen, Wilson & Co. In 1844 the business became the sole property of Mr. Wilson, who remained alone at the head of affairs till 1856, when he was joined by Mr. Cowan, and the firm became Cowan & Wilson. Mr. Wilson retired in 1868, and Mr. Laird joining the remaining partner, the designation of the firm was changed to Messrs. Cowan & Laird. Since the demise of the former gentleman, which took place in 1878, Mr. Laird has continued the sole proprietor, carrying on the business under the above title. To-day the establishment stands out prominently as the leading and representative one of its kind in Scotland. Large and commodious premises are occupied consisting of a four-story block of buildings, capitally arranged and adapted for the peculiar nature of the trade on hand. On the ground floor is an extensive double-fronted sale-room, with large warehouses at the rear. The upper floors are used as warehouses for dry goods, such as blues, aniline dyes, wax vestas, and tapers. The cellars, which are large, extending for a considerable distance under the adjacent buildings, are filled with heavy goods like soaps, oil, washing powders, candles, &c. A force of about twenty hands is kept employed, and a splendid trade is in operation in the manufacture of the various specialities for which the house is noted. The chief articles of manufacture are carbolic soap, coal tar soap, glycerine soap, candles of all kinds, Brunswick black, black enamel, liquid blue, wax vestas, white and coloured tapers (very special), brushes, and liquid paints. The stocks held are literally immense. In matches alone the firm hold at their Back Wynd premises no less than two hundred cases of fifty gross each. Another item extensively stocked is soap, of which large assortments are kept in hand, not only of their own make, but from all the leading makers in the country. In addition to the goods already mentioned, the stores massed here include drysaltery of every description, furniture polish, dried herbs, knives, laces, oils, medicines, perfumes, spices, stationery, sponges, and a whole host of what are denominated sundries. Mr. Laird is also agent for the following well-known firms:— J.J.L. and Bell & Black (matches); Cowan (household soaps); Adshead (proprietary articles); Jarratt Brothers (extracts of soap); and Pearce, Duff & Co. (black-leads). The business done is entirely wholesale, and extends throughout the length and breadth of Scotland principally among grocers. Three commercial travellers are kept constantly on the road, while the proprietor himself takes occasional journeys. Mr. Laird is showing remarkable spirit and enterprise in the management of his large and comprehensive business, and that he is giving every satisfaction is clearly shown in the fact that the transactions of the house are growing with every passing year. He occupies a position of considerable eminence in the trading world, and wherever known is held in high esteem.

MCINNES & MCLACHLAN, GAS APPARATUS MAKERS,
258, GEORGE STREET, GLASGOW.

ALTHOUGH Messrs. McInnes & McLachlan commenced business at such a comparatively recent period as 1888, their energy and their spirit of enlightened enterprise are so exceptionally strong that they have already come to be recognised, throughout the Glasgow district, as having successfully accomplished a large amount of useful work in popularising gas for the purposes of heating and cooking. Their premises occupy a central and commanding position on the ground floor of an extensive block opposite the Municipal Buildings. The spacious interior of their showroom is well-appointed, and handsomely fitted from end to end. The extensive stocks include a very great variety of cooking stoves, heaters, grillers, bakers’ plates, tailors’ stoves, &c. The firm are well-known throughout the trade, as the manufacturers and patentees of the “Universal” Brick Gas Fire for drawing-rooms, parlours, &c., and also for shops, offices, and warehouses. In addition to the numerous and important operations of Messrs. McInnes & McLachlan, as representatives of the “Main” gas specialities which have created their reputation, the firm hold a number of valuable agencies for the principal gas stove and heating apparatus manufacturers in the United Kingdom. The copiously illustrated catalogue which Messrs. McInnes and McLachlan issue of their specialities constitutes, in reality, a valuable handbook to the most recent developments in gas-heating and cooking. The firm have a valuable local connection amongst ironmongers, hotel proprietors, restaurateurs, &c., while large quantities of their goods are exported, through the great shipping houses, to all parts of the world. They give constant employment to a large and efficient staff of salesmen and workmen.

JAMIES MENZIES & CO., PHOENIX TUBE WORKS,
DALMARNOCK BRIDGE, GLASGOW.

THIS notable firm have a long and distinguished record in the trade, and their productions enjoy a world-wide reputation. It is now fully seventy years since Messrs. Crichton & Eadie started in Glasgow city works for the manufacture of butt-welded gas tubes and other iron tubing of a like nature. That firm was succeeded by Messrs. Eadie & Spencer, which partnership subsequently became Eadie, Menzies & Eadie. The late Mr. James Menzies was a member of the latter firm; but about 1876, the partnership being dissolved, he started the same class of business on the present site at Dalmarnock Bridge, in conjunction with his eldest son, who is now the senior partner of the house. The business at the Phoenix Works was begun in a small way, but was gradually extended, and the works steadily enlarged, until the concern is now one of the largest of its kind extant. In 1882 the firm laid down their first plant for making lap-welded tubes, and these have become the speciality of the business. Meanwhile, Mr. James Menzies, senior, had retired from business on account of failing health, leaving his eldest son, Mr. Walter Menzies, at the head of the concern, and the latter gentleman then admitted into partnership his brothers, Mr. James Menzies, junior, and Mr. William Menzies. Thus the present firm is constituted, the widely-known title of James Menzies & Co. being retained.

The Phoenix Tube Works are of vast extent, and at their south-east corner stand the truly palatial offices, occupying a very handsome and specially designed freestone building of two storeys, and facing Dalmarnock Road. The actual ground now covered by the buildings of the Phoenix Works is about six acres, but the property is larger, and there is ample space for extensions when necessary. Upwards of seven hundred hands are employed on the premises, and the works are splendidly equipped for the purposes of the industry carried on. The arrangements for making lap-welded tubes have been considerably extended since that department was first taken up in 1882, and the firm now manufacture every kind of wrought iron and steel tubing, in diameters ranging from one-eighth of an inch up to twelve inches. The leading specialities embrace wrought-iron gas and water tubes, steam and galvanised tubes, wrought-iron fittings for gas, water, and steam; also lap-welded tubes in iron and steel for marine and locomotive boilers; hydraulic tubes, oil line pipe-boring tubes, artesian well tubes, flanged tubes, bedstead tubes, Field’s boiler tubes, and tubes for use in connection with electric light mains. In these last-named goods, during the year 1892, no less than two hundred miles of tubing were supplied by Messrs. Menzies to the City of London Electric Lighting Company alone. In addition to their works, Messrs. James Menzies & Co. have a warehouse and city offices at 36, London Street, which facilitates the routine of their extensive trade, and stores and offices at Sydney and Melbourne, Australia. They hold large stocks to meet urgent demands, and are in a position to execute all orders with promptitude. Their tubes enjoy a reputation for the highest quality and best workmanship, and they are in demand in all parts of the United Kingdom. Not only is the utmost care exercised in the selection of raw material and in carrying out the manufacturing processes, but when the tubing is made each piece is subjected to severe tests before being passed for the warehouse.

It is worthy of note that Messrs. Menzies & Co.’s manufactures are favourably known and largely used not only in our own country and abroad, and this is particularly so in the case of their boring tubes, which they have supplied extensively to proprietors of oil wells in America, Russia, md elsewhere. In all respects this firm's business is conducted in a most commendable spirit of enterprise, and displays in a marked degree the effects of good practical management. The principals possess a thorough knowledge of the trade in all its aspects, and their constant personal supervision is an assurance of the continuity of those excellent business-like methods that have operated so much to the advantage of the house in the past.
Messrs. Menzies’ telegrahic address is “ Dalmarnock, Glasgow.” Their city warehouse telephone is No. 2,522, and the works telephone No. 2,521.

ROBERT REID, PRODUCE BROKER AND IMPORTER,
105, VIRGINIA STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS responsible house has been prominently occupied in Glasgow with the produce trade for close upon twenty years, and has gained for itself a splendid name for the extent and quality of the commodities it handles. Mr. Robert Reid commenced operations in this direction in the year 1876, locating himself at 33, Hope Street. He removed during last year to more commodious and convenient premises at 105, Virginia Street. These comprise a compact and well-appointed office and store, all on the ground floor of an extensive block of buildings. Mr. Reid’s facilities for obtaining the best class of supplies are unsurpassed, and everything in his stock is of the most desirable and seasonable kind. He is very largely occupied as a broker and importer of butter, cheese, margarine, green fruits, &c. The general stocks of the house are in every case excellent and high-class. The house, too, is extensively concerned in the importation of glycerine, which forms a very important item in their business. It is sold by the firm to dynamite and explosive manufacturers, drysalters, druggists, &c., in various parts of the country, and a considerable export trade is also done by them. In every branch in which he is engaged, Mr. Reid has secured a most influential connection, and no effort is wanting on his part by supplying the best goods at the lowest market prices to secure a continuance of the patronage he is enjoying. He is well known in commercial circles and highly respected and esteemed.

MACKIE & THOMSON, STEEL AND IRON SHIP BUILDERS AND REPAIRERS,
GOVAN SHIPBUILDING YARD, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. Mackie & Thomson opened the old Govan Shipbuilding Yard about five years ago, and have built up a very important and successful business thereat. This yard, it may be mentioned, is the oldest at Govan, and was formerly occupied by the world-renowned firm of R. Napier & Sons, and the first iron warship was launched from there. After that it was occupied by Messrs. John Elder & Co. (now the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited), who removed a good many years ago to their present famous Fairfield Works. Under the auspices of Messrs. Mackie & Thomson, the fortunes of the Govan Yard are being energetically revived. Mr. William A. Mackie and Mr. R. H. B. Thomson, the two principals of this firm, are both gentlemen of high attainments, and large experience in shipbuilding, and are intimately acquainted with both the science and the technique of the trade in its most advanced modern developments. Mr. Mackie came from the noted Linthouse yard of Messrs. Alexander Stephen & Son, where he received his training. Mr. Mackie takes charge of the designing and practical shipbuilding work, and supervises everything done in the yard, while Mr. Thomson looks after the financial departments. The Govan Shipbuilding Yard covers about six acres of ground, and gives employment at the present time to about six hundred men, though this staff is sometimes considerably increased. The entrance to the yard is in the very centre of Govan, and here are situated the fine business offices, drawing offices, and private rooms of the firm. On the river-side, besides stocks, the firm have facilities for building about a dozen ships at one time. The workshops, sheds, stores, &c., are all between the offices and the river, and are very conveniently arranged to promote the smooth progress of the various operations carried on. There are joiners’ and cabinet-makers’ shops, smithies, and all other working departments incidental to this great industry, and in each case the equipment is of the best modern type, highly improved machines being called into requisition for all the processes carried on.

The great speciality of the firm, up to the present, has been the building of trawlers, and of this class of vessels they have launched upwards of sixty in the last three years. The trawlers are usually built two or three on a line, and often three are launched at one time from the same ways. They have been sent to every fishing centre in the kingdom, and are greatly esteemed for their strength and general excellence of construction. At the present time Messrs. Mackie & Thomson have half-a-dozen boats on the stocks, and their capacity for executing large work is indicated in the fact that they are now also engaged upon an order for two vessels of three thousand one hundred tons. It should be mentioned that this firm do not engine the boats they build. Messrs. Muir & Houston, of Kinning Park, do all this for them. Besides building all kinds of steel and iron vessels, Messrs. Mackie & Thomson dock and paint vessels, and execute all descriptions of repairs with the utmost despatch and efficiency. They keep immense stocks of iron and other materials on band, and have a large and competent staff of men available at all times. Every order is carried out under special personal attention, and the firm have made a distinct mark as a reliable, progressive and resourceful concern. Mr. Mackie is a clever and enthusiastic shipbuilder of the modern school, advanced and educated in every scientific feature of his craft. He is a member of the Shipbuilders’ Federation and other kindred bodies, and is a member of the expert committee of the new British Corporation for the Survey and Registry of Shipping, and his opinion is much sought after and appreciated in matters incidental to the trade. Mr. Thomson is also deeply versed in the affairs of the shipbuilding industry.
The firm’s telegraphic address is “Hillock, Glasgow.” Their telephone number is 1,529.

THOMAS DONALDSON & CO., WHOLESALE AND GENERAL WAREHOUSEMEN,
41, HUTCHISON STREET (FORMERLY THE CLOTH HALL), GLASGOW.

THE firm of Messrs. Thomas Donaldson & Co. has been in existence for more than twenty years. Mr. Thomas Donaldson, the original founder of the concern, started in the business in 1873, and he carried it on by himself until his decease, about five years ago, when Mr. Neil Mackillop became a partner in the firm with Mrs. Donaldson. The “& Co.,” was assumed at this time, and since then, up till quite recently, Mr. Mackillop managed the entire business. He has lately been joined in partnership with Mr. J. T. Cuthbertson, the business, however, being carried on under the old title. The premises occupied are admirably adapted for the purposes of the general warehouseman business, comprising two large and commodious flats, the whole being both spacious and splendidly arranged for the purpose. A business office, a warehouse or show-room, with stores, &c., are included in the premises, and the stock held is both heavy and comprehensive. Among the many articles embraced in this stocck are cottons, linens, flannels, blankets and napery, dress goods and shawls, shirtings, hosiery, trimmings and haberdashery, ready-made suits, topcoats, jackets, paletots, dolmans, and ulsters, &c. The whole of the goods supplied are guaranteed in quality and value, and are obtained from the best houses in the line. An efficient staff of clerks and warehousemen is employed, whilst all orders are promptly executed under the able personal supervision of the principals, whose active and enlightened management of the business has secured for the firm a large and increasing connection not only in all parts of Scotland, but throughout the northern portion of Ireland as well.

CHARLES A. BROOK & CO., ELECTRO BRONZERS, NICKEL AND SILVER PLATERS, GILDERS AND OXIDISERS,
WAVERLEY WORKS, 57, MONTROSE STREET, GLASGOW.

FEW trades have made so much, advance of late years in the class of work produced as that of electro-bronzing and electro nickel-plating. The desirability of such an establishment in Scotland was long felt, and its acknowledged efficiency stands foremost in the establishment of Messrs. Charles A. Brook & Co., electro-bronzers, and nickel and electro-platers, of the Waverley Works, 57, Montrose Street, Glasgow. Mr. Brook commenced business here about eighteen months ago, after being manager for many years with Messrs. Brook Brothers, of Sheffield, and bringing to its development a close connection with the trade in all its branches, together with energy and perseverance, he was not long in laying the foundation broad and deep of what has now become such an important factor in this line of business. Applying himself diligently to the study of the scientific aspects of his calling, he has been eminently successful in keeping abreast with the inventions and discoveries that have been made in this department, and is able to turn out work which will advantageously compare with that executed by any similar establishment in the United Kingdom. Ample and commodious premises are occupied, conveniently situated in the midst of a busy manufacturing district, consisting of the second floor of a large block of buildings. There is a compact office at the entrance, together with workshops at the rear equipped with some of the latest and most powerful machinery known to the trade, such as polishing and buffing machines and dynamos, the whole being worked by steam-power. A competent staff of Sheffield workmen is employed, and the place throughout is managed with notable energy and skill.

The firm are carrying on a valuable and fast-increasing business in their special line, the principal features being electro-bronzing, nickel and silver plating, gilding, zaponing, and general metallurgy, polishing or burnishing and lacquering all classes of brass work, japanning, and the re-bronzing in the most artistic manner of French and other bronzes. The work turned out is well known in Glasgow and the district, and is regarded as having few or no successful rivals in the field. Every desirable facility is possessed for producing the best results, and Mr. Brook, who is a thoroughly practical and expert man, personally supervises the whole of the processes so as to ensure the most desirable uniformity and superiority. Special attention is given to art work, articles of virtu, re-bronzing, gilding, and repairing, &c., which is thoroughly artistic in style and finish. All work turned out here is of guaranteed quality, and this fact has helped as much as anything in developing a large and influential connection in Glasgow and its environs among manufacturers, ironmongers, and jewellers. Mr. Thomas E. Atkins, the other partner, is a man of exceptional faculty of representation, is alive to the ability of Mr. Brook, and conscientiously undertakes the duties of the road, with the conviction that all orders entrusted to the firm will meet with that care and attention which is the true index of success, and a continuance of orders sure to result. As previously remarked the principals are unremitting in their able personal application to every part of the business. Both gentlemen occupy positions of eminence in their trade, and are widely known and highly respected for their conspicuous skill, strict commercial integrity, and many personal qualities.

THE NORTH BRITISH RUBBER COMPANY, LIMITED,
106 AND 108, BUCHANAN STREET; AND 9, ROYAL BANK PLACE, GLASGOW.

THE business of this Company was first started by an American gentleman who inaugurated the Castle Mills at Edinburgh, and securely laid the foundations of the vast industry there carried on by the Company, and their manufacturing facilities are practically unlimited. The works comprise a great group of five-story buildings, covering a large area of ground, amounting to about five and a half acres in all, and equipped throughout with every modern appliance of the trade. One of the largest features of the trade done is the manufacture of rubber boots, shoes, and goloshes, which are turned out at the rate of several thousands per day, of all sizes and kinds. The Company’s waterproof goods are justly famous, especially their many articles of waterproof clothing for ladies’ and gentlemen’s wear, all of which display excellent style and finish, as well as superior quality. The fine drab-coloured rubber coats for India are quite unsurpassable. A great reputation is enjoyed for all manner of sporting, domestic, and mechanical goods in indiarubber and waterproof fabrics, and lawn tennis and other requisites are also among the Company’s specialities. This Company are the exclusive manufacturers of the now celebrated “Clincher” tyres and rims for bath chairs, bicycles, &c., including the whole of Bartlett’s patents — the chief advantage of which is to be found in the fact that no cement is required in fixing them, and that they can consequently be separated from each other at any time, and without difficulty. The tyre consists of two parts, namely, the outer band and the inner tube, which is blown up by an inflator, the action of inflating the tube “clinching” the band to the rim. The insertion of cloth in band and tube alike, further reduces the chances of puncture by stones, &c., to a minimum, whilst the valve employed for inflating the tube is made with a check action of special invention, and is so simple in construction that with fair usage it cannot possibly get out of order. Among the important cycling achievements brought off on machines fitted with the Clincher tyre, mention may be made of T. A. Edge’s London to Edinburgh record of 38 hours 40 minutes as against Ransom’s 43 hours 21 minutes, the Scottish Twenty-four Hours’ Record of 231 miles, accomplished by A. M. Donaldson; the Edinburgh to Liverpool record of 15 hours 54 minutes, beating all other times by over 4 hours; the Holbein 100 miles and 12 and 24 hours’ tricycle records; and Allan’s famous run of 300 miles over stiff Scotch roads in 24 hours.

Another novelty recently brought out by the Company, which must be of much interest and importance to engineers, is a high-pressure hose of special construction. So flexible is this hose under pressure that a piece eight feet long of half-inch, or five-eighths-inch bore can be bent in the form of a knot while carrying a pressure of a ton per square inch. Nothing further need be said to establish its utility for iron-bridge builders and shipbuilders. Indiarubber horseshoes have been manufactured by the Company for many years, and they are now producing a ventilated and much-improved shoe, the invention of Mr. Hay Downie, of Corstorphine, which has been tested and proved to be of great advantage and comfort to these noble animals. This shoe projects beyond the iron shoe, thereby cushioning the tread of the foot against the pavement. The compression of the rubber at each step is ingeniously employed to cause a circulation of air through a system of grooves in the shoes, and thus over the under surface of the hoofs, whereby they are kept cool and more comfortable than by the old form of shoes. Their travelling-bag, portmanteau, and golfing departments will be found replete with every requisite. The fine Glasgow warehouse at 106 and 108, Buchanan Street contains a splendid stock, thoroughly representative and well assorted, and is under efficient management.

Other important branches are at 106, Princes Street, Edinburgh; 9, Lord Street, Liverpool; 69 and 71, Deansgate, Manchester; 66, Briggate, Leeds; 39, Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne; and 57, Moorgato Street, London, E.C., besides several foreign agencies. The Company also carry on an immense wholesale trade, and export very largely to the Continent, India, Australia, and the Colonies generally. They employ altogether about sixteen hundred hands, and maintain a leading position for progressive enterprise and the introduction of useful novelties. The wares of this Company are always regarded with confidence — a result of the manner in which the high standard of quality, workmanship, and finish has been sustained from the first.

LEITH, CARDLE & CO., ENGINEERS AND TOOL-MAKERS, PLANTATION ENGINE WORKS,
29, EAGLESHAM STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS firm has now been in business for a considerable time as makers of tools specially adapted for engineers, boilermakers, ironfounders, shipbuilders, &c. The premises consist of a large machine shop, measuring one hundred feet by forty feet, with an extensive yard in the rear. The works are fitted with steam power and are replete with all the necessary and most approved machinery for turning, drilling, boring, &c. A number of skilled and practical hands are employed by this firm, in the manufacture of several high-class specialities. One of these worthy of mention is the new patent “Champion” automatic screw brake pulley block, which is rapidly superseding all others. Its lifting power is much greater than in any other chain block; so also is its sustaining power. One can see at a glance that special attention has been paid to the safety of the user, by the substantiality of its make-up, and the chain being double, is of extra strength and quality. The lifting power is acquired by a combination of the lever and screw, and by the introduction of the patent automatic screw brake the full mechanical efficiency is obtained while the load is being raised, and a sure and safe sustaining power is added while the load is hanging or being lowered. A peculiarity and advantage in this arrangement is the saving of tear and wear, the worm or screw not working on the same journal both ways. This block is considered the speediest and easiest worked, therefore the most economical, and well merits the attention of users of such appliances. This firm also makes the single-chain self-sustaining screw pulley block, on which they have made improvements with marked success, it finding great favour with those who have but limited space.

The blocks and chains supplied by this firm are made of the best material and can be thoroughly relied upon. Messrs. Leith, Cardle & Co. also make self-feeding long roller tube expanders, and short roller tube expanders, and an improved suspended lever weighing machine; is especially adapted for engineers, ironfounders, and warehousemen, and from its simplicity and lightness it can be used with accuracy by any unskilled labourer. The special advantages of the machines need not be enlarged upon. They are also makers of an internal tube cutter for boiler tubes. Boiler tubes can be cut with this tool, either at the ends or inside the tube plate in the re-tubing of boilers. Tube cutters are made of different lengths, to suit every class of boilers. Special estimates are given on application. Also a ferrule extractor for withdrawing ferrules from boiler tubes and removing valve seats. These ferrule extractors and tube cutters we believe are coming more into use than ever, as ferrules are being reverted to for marine boilers, as they are found to be superior where high pressure and forced draught is required, our Admiralty having adopted this means for protecting the tubes. For re-tubing such boilers these tools ought to be of considerable use. Already the firm has achieved a large business for their wares, and their connection is increasing and expanding as the firm becomes better and better known.

DUNCAN STEWART & CO., LIMITED, LONDON ROAD IRON WORKS,
GLASGOW.

THIS eminent firm of engineers and machinery makers originated as far back as the year 1864, at the present headquarters in London Road, and was continued as a private concern until about three years ago, when the business was converted into a limited company, of which the principals are Duncan Stewart, Esq., Arthur Davey, Esq., son of Lord Justice Horace Davey, and W. Graham Loyd, Esq., a member of the great London banking family of that name. In the reconstruction of the concern it is interesting to note that many of the workmen have been enabled to become shareholders, and to participate in the prosperity of the business. The duties of managing director are assumed by Mr. Duncan Stewart, whose father founded a small business in 1844, and who has played an active part in promoting its development. He continues to apply his remarkable practical knowledge and comprehensive experience to the affairs of the business, and gives a large amount of personal attention to the general working of the industry. The London Road Iron Works cover four acres of ground, and form one of the most interesting and important engineering establishments in the district. The Company employ here between seven hundred and eight hundred hands, and every process in a singularly complex industry is carried out in a manner tending towards perfection of result.

Messrs. Duncan Stewart & Co., Limited, are world-famous as manufacturers if the following classes of plant:— Steam engines and boilers of all types, including marine engines and boilers with all the latest improvements; sugar manufacturing and refining machinery; machinery for printing calicoes, bleaching cloth, and finishing cloth and curtains; turkey-red dyeing machines and other machinery for dye works; and all kinds of Millwright’s work on the best modern principles. The firm make a speciality of sugar machinery, in which they do an enormous trade; and they are also justly noted for their special steam-engines for spinning and weaving mills, dynamos, and other purposes requiring regular motion, high speed, and the greatest economy of fuel. Marine engineering is also very largely done for the great shipbuilders of the Clyde. The widespread and valuable connection maintained by Messrs. Duncan Stewart & Co., Limited, includes leading shipbuilders, large jute and cotton manufacturers in all parts of the United Kingdom and abroad, and many of the principal sugar manufacturers of the West Indies, Demerara, and other sugar-growing countries. A very large trade is also done in pumping engines for water supply, and these are in use at many waterworks in various parts of the world. The firm enjoy in a marked degree the confidence of their British and foreign customers, and their business is conducted in a manner calculated to preserve the high esteem in which the house has always been held on the score of trustworthiness and sound commercial methods.

ALEXANDER MALCOLM & CO., PUBLISHERS, LETTERPRESS AAD LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTERS, WHOLESALE MANUFACTURING AND EXPORT STATIONERS, AND FANCY GOODS MERCHANTS,
3I, ANN STREET, CITY, GLASGOW; 75, FINSBURY PAVEMENT, LONDON, E.C.; 38, IMPERIAL ARCADE, BIRMINGHAM; 47, DEANSGATE, MANCHESTER.

IT is now about seventeen years since Mr. Alexander Malcolm established himself as a letterpress and lithographic printer, wholesale and manufacturing stationer, and fancy goods merchant. The extensive business developed in those departments he has handed over to his son, Mr. James S. Malcolm, and Mr. Robert Thomson, the latter managing the practical departments, while Mr. Malcolm himself devotes his attention to colour work, and to the management of his famous “A.B.C.” time-table and diary. Mr. Malcolm is probably the largest buyer and seller of chromo almanacs in Great Britain, and no merchant in this class of goods is more widely known for the variety and excellence of his designs. As an evidence of the great growth of Mr. Malcolm’s business since its inauguration, it may be mentioned that, when he first commenced operations at the premises in Ann Street, seventeen years ago, there were six tenants in the building, whereas now Mr. Malcolm and his son’s firm occupy the entire place as offices, warehouses, and works. The building itself is anything but pretentious, and only the initiated are prepared for the sight of twelve or fifteen clerks all as busy as bees, the moment you enter the place. A very fine plant of the most improved machinery indicates Mr. Malcolm’s ability to turn out work of the best kind with promptitude and at reasonable prices.

A most extensive business is done, and widespread connections are maintained in every quarter of the United Kingdom, the firm being represented by upwards of sixty travellers. A very important export trade is also carried on. Mr. Malcolm is at Glasgow on Saturdays and Mondays; at 47, Deansgate, Manchester, and 38, Imperial Arcade, Birmingham, on Tuesdays and Wednesdays; and at 75, Finsbury Pavement, London, E.C., on Thursdays and Fridays. These arrangements necessarily involve a vast amount of railway travelling, and Mr. Malcolm is the holder of a yearly first-class trader’s ticket, which covers nearly the whole of the Caledonian and London and North-Western Railways system, between Glasgow in the north and London in the south.

It should be remarked that Mr. Malcolm does not confine himself to one class of business, but has brought out several successful patents. One of these is the “Patent Lid” packing case, by which the necessity for roping, nailing, and string-fastening of home trade packing cases is entirely dispensed with. The patent locking screw cannot be lost or removed, and a packing case, when fitted with these irons, will last longer than three ordinary nailed boxes. The economy thus effected is great, and the rapid advance of this patent into the favour of merchants and manufacturers is easily understood under the circumstances. The “patent lid” packing case is manufactured by a limited liability company, of which Mr. Alexander Malcolm is the managing director. Mr. Malcolm takes an active part in every detail of his complex business, and displays great energy and enterprise in the management of the same. His trade has increased to such an extent that he now finds it impossible to devote any time to public affairs, and was for this reason obliged some years ago to resign his membership of the Govan Parish School Board, with which he had been connected for about five years.
The telegraphic addresses of the house are “Almanac, Glasgow,” and “Effacement, London.” The Glasgow telephone is No. 3,344.

MOSES FORSYTH & SON, WHOLESALE GROCERS AND TEA MERCHANTS, AND BOTTLE IMPORTERS,
34, JAMES WATT STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Forsyth’s experience in the business he is concerned with has been of an exceptionally varied and valuable character, and he has all along given his close personal attention to his undertaking down to the minutest detail, thus insuring the prompt filling of all orders entrusted to him. He is now assisted in the management by his son, Mr. William Forsyth, a gentleman who is well fitted by training and aptitude to uphold the good repute of the house in every respect. The premises now utilised have been occupied for the last ten years, and are large in size and thoroughly well adapted for the trade in hand. They comprise a nicely appointed suite of offices and several warehouses admirably fitted up with every requisite. The grocery business controlled here is in a very efficient and flourishing condition, and is the natural consequence of always providing the best class of goods only, and charging such prices as must induce thrifty and careful buyers to patronise the house. All goods are bought either direct from the manufacturers or from the most reliable sources of supply, and being carefully selected by the proprietors can always be relied upon as regards quality. The stocks are exceedingly heavy and are arranged in a manner that reflects much credit on the skill and judgment of the management. The supplies include every article comprehended in the somewhat comprehensive category of the grocer’s specialities. All these goods can be confidently recommended as of the best quality and such as are sure to please all classes of customers. The leading lines with the firm are paraffin oil and paraffin candles, and in these branches a very important trade is in progress, the facilities the house possesses for obtaining large and superior supplies being unequalled by any other similar establishment in this district. As bottle importers the firm occupy a position of special importance, and this section of the business is being carefully nursed at the present time. The stocks are exceedingly large and of the very best class. Included among the wide range of varieties held are wine, claret, and ale bottles of various capacities, clear whisky bottles in quarts and pints, pale green flasks, and flint flasks. These are being quoted at very moderate figures, and the constant increase that is taking place in the demand shows that in quality and price every satisfaction is being given to the local grocers, distillers, and shippers, who constitute the bulk of the customers in this branch of the business. A wholesale trade only is controlled.
For the greater convenience of customers at a distance the house has a telegraphic address, viz., “Wholesale, Glasgow.”

ROBERT RAMSEY SC CO., HIDE, TALLOW, AND WOOL BROKERS,
33 TO 43, GREENDYKE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS extensive business was inaugurated some thirty-five years ago by the present senior partner, Mr. Robert Ramsey. The founder carried on the business in his own name for twenty years, and was then joined by Mr. James Kennedy, afterwards by Mr. A. P. Barr and Robert Ker Ramsey, under the firm- name of Robert Ramsey & Co. The premises in Greendyke Street were destroyed by fire about four years ago, after having been enlarged and rebuilt; but this misfortune has only stimulated the firm to greater enterprise, and the establishment has been again rebuilt in splendid style, the fine red freestone block having a frontage of no less than one hundred feet. Very handsomely appointed public and private offices occupy the ground floor in part, and the remainder of the building is devoted to auction-rooms and storage. Messrs. Ramsey’s business is doubtless the largest in Glasgow in the wool, hide, and tallow trade, and the firm are auction brokers, holding their public sales as follows:— For hides, calfskins, &c., every Wednesday; for sheepskins, every Tuesday and Friday; for wool, monthly; and for tallow, monthly. Wool receives special attention, and consignments are promptly remitted for when disposed of. Messrs. Robert Ramsey & Co. are wholesale agents for McDougall’s, Bigg’s, Cooper’s, and Flockmaster Dips, and for all kinds of dipping materials required on sheep-farms. Among their specialities in this connection may be mentioned Hayward’s sheep dips and veterinary preparations, which enjoy excellent repute. Hayward’s “Combined” Glycerine Dip is particularly useful, being specially suited to the requirements of Scotch sheep, which are so frequently exposed to the effects of cold and damp. Hayward’s Yellow “Paste” Dip will be found as efficacious for summer use as the “Combined” Glycerine Dip is for winter use, and various other excellent specialities prepared by this well-known Lincoln firm are supplied by Messrs. Ramsey. A widespread and influential connection is maintained by Messrs. Robert Ramsey & Co., and all the partners take an active part in the management of the business, which shows signs of continuous development under their able and experienced administration.

BAIRD & STEVENSON, QUARRY MASTERS,
21, CLYDE PLACE, GLASGOW.

THIS firm of quarry masters control probably the largest business of the kind in Scotland, and have been established, with headquarters in Glasgow, for upwards of forty years. During that period they have developed the trade, and have built up a large connection. The various classes of building and other stone supplied by them has an unsurpassed reputation for durability and appearance. Messrs. Baird & Stevenson’s quarries are situated in different parts of Scotland. The white freestone is quarried at Giffnock (south of Glasgow), Dunmore (near Bannockburn), Overwood (Stonehouse), Colston, Bishopriggs, and Grange Quarry, Burntisland, Fifeshire. The firm have also freestone quarries at Monkreddon, Kilwinning. The redstone quarries are at Locharbriggs (Dumfries), and Montgomerie and Barskimining (Mauchline, Ayrshire); and the blue-grey stone comes from their quarry at Linlithgow. Messrs. Baird and Stevenson employ many hundreds of hands at their various quarries. For years they have supplied most of the builders and contractors in and around Glasgow with building stone, &c.; and among the many notable buildings that have been constructed with their stone may be mentioned the following:- Glasgow University, St. Enoch Station and Hotel, the Glasgow General Post Office, the Glasgow Municipal Buildings, the George A. Clark Halls at Paisley, the Gartloch Asylum, the Central Agency Buildings, the Roman Catholic College at Bearsden, the Dumfries General Post Office, the Barracks at Dumfries, &c., &c. Modern Glasgow may be said to have been chiefly built with stone supplied by this firm, and in many other parts of Scotland there are fine buildings which testify to the vast resources of Messrs. Baird and Stevenson’s quarries. The whole business is ably directed from the head offices in Clyde Place, Glasgow, and is under the control of Mr. William Stevenson, senior, and his sons, who are in partnership with their father.

JOHN FERGUSON & SONS, BRUSH MANUFACTURERS,
54, YORK STREET, GLASGOW.

ONE of the largest and best known firms of brush manufacturers in Great Britain is that of Messrs. John Ferguson & Sons, of Glasgow, whose immense business was founded as far back as the year 1817. The concern is thus the oldest of its kind in the city, and the present principals of the firm (Messrs. Ferguson) belong to one of the very oldest families now residing in Glasgow. They can trace their genealogy back in a direct line, on the mother’s side, as far as the year 1631. The firm of John Ferguson & Sons originated in 1817 under the auspices of Mr. John Ferguson, who eventually took into partnership his sons, Messrs. Robert, Peter, and Alexander Ferguson, and these gentlemen are now the joint proprietors of the business, each possessing a sound practical knowledge of its details, and taking an active part in the administration of its affairs. The premises occupied by the firm are very extensive, and the front portion is reserved for the purposes of warehouses, show-rooms, and offices. The large works stand at the rear, and are connected with the warehouse by a bridge or gangway. They are four storeys high, and are Admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade, being equipped with the most improved and effective modern machinery. Gas is the motive power used, and the staff employed on the premises number about seventy hands. Messrs. Ferguson have been complimented upon their works by Her Majesty’s Inspector, who has pronounced it one of the finest brush factories in Scotland. The offices and show-rooms are handsomely appointed, and in the latter we see many specimens of the firm’s noted manufactures, embracing brushes of every description for all kinds of household and domestic work, besides painters’ brushes, tar brushes, stable brushes, whitewash brushes, feather dusters, combs, pails, tubs, washing boards, baskets, bellows, mops, chamois leathers, and a great variety of other articles of a kindred nature. The firm make a speciality of machine brushes, which are made to order, and in all cases they guarantee material and workmanship. Their large resources enable them to secure an immense output without sacrifice of quality, and stocks are held to meet the heavy demand existing for their goods in all markets. An extensive and important wholesale and export trade is controlled, and Messrs. Ferguson’s connections are widespread and influential. The Messrs. Ferguson are well known and much respected in Glasgow, having always evinced a keen interest in the welfare and progress of the city, its people, and its manifold commercial and industrial undertakings.
Telephone No. 990.

JAMES LAIRD & SON, AUCTIONEERS AND VALUATORS,
75, WEST NILE STREET, GLASGOW.

MORE than twenty years have elapsed since Mr. James Laird established himself in business as an auctioneer and valuator in Dunlop Street, and since that date the prosperity and report of the firm have grown and increased by rapid strides. From his original address Mr. Laird removed to Bath Street, and early in 1879 to St. Vincent Street, and from there to Gordon Street, where he remained for nine years, and it was only during the present year that he transferred his business to his present quarters at 75, West Nile Street, on the site that was originally occupied by the old Corn Exchange. These premises consist of a handsome suite of offices and private rooms, and a wide vestibule which leads to the sale-room in the rear. This department is a very commodious and lofty room, and is admirably adapted to the special requirements of this class of business. As auctioneers, Messrs. James Laird & Son control a very large and important trade, and their leading line is in building materials, contractors’ plant machinery, bicycles, and poultry, and they are the only firm in Glasgow that deals in the latter class of goods. They also undertake and execute commissions for the sale by auction of all descriptions of property, including; horses, carriages, wines, pictures, rare books, works of art, household furniture, and every other description of saleable effects. As valuators, the firm undertake to effect appraisement for probate, tenant right, transfer, &c., and the result of the negotiations always gives the fullest satisfaction to all parties concerned. Mr. Laird took down and sold the Glasgow Exhibition buildings, and the first Edinburgh Exhibition buildings, after passing through various hands, were ultimately disposed of by this firm. Mr. James Laird, who is most ably assisted in the business by his sons, Mr. William Laird and Mr. John C. Laird (the business has been carried on since 1891 under the designation of James Laird & Son), is the coming Deacon of the Incorporation of Masons.
The telegraphic address of the firm id “Valuers, Glasgow,” and their number on the telephone is 3,838.

KERR & RICHARDSON, WHOLESALE STATIONERS, ACCOUNT-BOOK MANUFACTURERS, AND DEALERS IN OLD AND RARE BOOKS,
89 QUEEN STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS firm, which, on account of its unique resources in one particular direction, has made a reputation in all parts of the globe, was founded over seventy years ago by Mr. Malcolm Kerr, who was subsequently joined in partnership by Mr. James Richardson, who is now the sole proprietor of the establishment. The premises which are centrally and conveniently situated in Queen Street, comprise a double-fronted warehouse, and the equally spacious basement, which is used as a store. The aggregate resources of the establishment as to space, however, are strained to accommodate the vast stocks which are always held. These consist, in the first instance, of commercial stationery of every description, in which the firm control an extensive business. The warehouse on the ground floor, the basement, and the top floor of the building are scarce sufficient to contain the treasures, in the form of scarce, rare, and valuable books, which it is Mr. Richardson’s delight to collect, to catalogue with care and exceptional knowledge, and to dispose of to bibliophiles who, like himself, can appreciate the value of an edition princeps. Mr. Richardson is both an enthusiast and an expert, and if other evidence of the fact were required it would be found in the copious catalogues which he periodically issues, and whose annotations exhibit a rare and curious knowledge of many of the bypaths of literature. His collections are always appropriately rich in illustrations of Scottish history, and it is evident, too, that there are certain periods of French literature in which Mr. Richardson is more than ordinary erudite. To read, and to be able to appreciate, one of his catalogues is to betray the results of a liberal education. It is well known that luxuries, such as those in which Mr. Richardson deals, find their best market in our own colonies and in the United States; and so Mr. Richardson finds constant occasion to despatch his choicest treasures to all the ends of the earth, and especially to America, Ceylon, Singapore, Madras, Calcutta, &c. Although an ardent bibliophile, Mr. Richardson is no mere bookworm, and takes an active interest in the affairs of the community among whom he lives, and by all classes of whom he is highly esteemed. He does excellent public service as a Justice of the Peace for Lanarkshire. It should be added, as a characteristic trait, that the majority of the large staff of assistants whom he employs have been in the service of the firm for a very long period, and that the registered telegraphic address of his business establishment is: “Ellisland, Glasgow.”

CAMERON BROTHERS, CUTLERS AND GAS-BURNER MAKERS
MULBERRY BANK WORKS, DUMBARTON ROAD, GLASGOW

THE above firm was founded in 1858 by the father of the present proprietors, and has since acquired a noteworthiness and distinction consistent with the enterprise under which the business has been developed. The premises occupied are situated at 169, Dumbarton Road, and comprise well-appointed office, with workshop adjoining, the latter being admirably fitted up with all the necessary appliances and machinery for the successful carrying on of this particular branch of commercial industry. The firm undertake all kinds of repairing, grinding, and setting of razors, knives, scissors, &c. One department for which Messrs. Cameron Brothers are best known is the manufacture of gas-burners. These are made for the various corporations of Glasgow, Paisley, London, Birmingham, Greenock, Dundee, Sligo, and Sheffield, to pass certain quantities of gas per hour at given pressures. Everything manufactured by Messrs. Cameron Brothers bears the guarantee of universal testimony and the firm only turns out goods calculated to afford the utmost satisfaction. The principals, who have had many years’ practical experience under the able tutorship of their father, personally supervise each department, and with the aid of an efficient staff of qualified assistants, the influential interests of the house are capably and energetically preserved. Both are well known in Glasgow commercial circles, and enjoy the esteem due to their vigorous efforts to maintain and promote the reptation they have so deservedly gained.

KELSO & CO., ELECTRICIANS, OPTICIANS, AND MODEL MAKERS,
COMMERCE STREET AND CLYDE PLACE, GLASGOW.

AMONG the many notable industries carried on in Glasgow, a particularly interesting one is that in which Messrs. Kelso & Co. are engaged. This well-known firm of electricians, opticians, and model makers originated in 1874, about twenty years ago, in Jamaica Street, and in 1887 removed to their present commodious premises, comprising two flats in the fine block at the corner of Commerce Street and Clyde Place. The showrooms and offices are situated on the first floor, and the workshops are above. There is not a more interesting sight in Glasgow to our mind, than these workshops of Messrs. Kelso & Co., and none but thoroughly trained hands could properly perform the various intricate processes here carried on. Perhaps the most important work engaged in is that of model-making, and in particular the making of models of ships, a branch in which this firm excel. Messrs. Kelso were at the time of our visit engaged upon the model of a yacht to be constructed for a well-known member of the aristocracy, and five other models, all for the Chicago Exhibition, on various scales such as inch and half-inch, but the majority are upon the scale of a quarter of an inch to the foot, and in these dimensions there was nearly finished an Atlantic Greyhound, a craft of supremely beautiful design, with every detail of its structure clearly defined. The firm have made models of many more notable vessels. They do not confine their model work to vessels already built, but are equally adept in preparing complete models, from plans and drawings of vessels whose construction is still a matter of futurity. All this work is done on the premises, and it is generally allowed that the firm is to-day without a rival in this particular line. Certainly such a reputation is well supported by the excellence and perfection of their productions.

As electricians and scientific instrument makers they are also very favourably known, and are at present employed by the Russian government in some very important work connected with the Imperial Navy. Messrs. Kelso & Co. furnish estimates for complete ship models, with or without glass cases; also for the fitting up of ships with electric or pneumatic bells. They make all kinds of mechanical models, and devote careful attention to the working out of inventions. Other special productions of this house include clocks, engine-counters, indicators, gauges, high range and super-heat thermometers, German silver and glass salinometers, &c. For all work of this class, as well as for the model-making for which they are so especially famous, Messrs. Kelso have a reputation extending to all parts of the civilised world. They display great enterprise in the conduct of their business. Doing all work on their own premises, Messrs. Kelso & Co. of course employ a staff of hands specially skilled and experienced. They have a large number of these skilled artificers in their service, and every operation undertaken is personally supervised by Mr. Kelso, and the position the firm has attained is a reflect of the enthusiastic and vigorous manner the business is conducted.

G. DIXON MARR, WINE MERCHANT, DISTILLERS’ AGENT, AND FAMILY GROCER,
81, STIRLING ROAD, AND 111, ROTTENROW, GLASGOW.

THE dual department of business operations undertaken by the family grocer and wine and spirit merchant finds an able representative at the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. G. Dixon Marr, the rise and progress of whose prosperous business furnishes the theme of the present brief review. The records of the undertaking show that in the year 1886 Mr. Marr took over the old-established business at 111, Rottenrow, from a Mr. Jackson, whose predecessor organised the concern as far back as the year 1840. The marked success which followed upon Mr. Marr’s vigorous and well directed policy of administration led him, in 1892, to acquire a second similar business, which had been founded by a Mr. Fraser in 1849, and was subsequently promoted by a Mr. Bennett at 81, Stirling Road. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in that busy main thoroughfare, the spacious double-fronted shop (now retained by Mr. Marr as his headquarters) is very handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of select everyday groceries, special lines in pure Ceylon and choicely blended teas and coffees, canned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies, and prime provisions of every kind on the one hand; and all the best and most popular brands of wines, spirits, and malt liquors on the other, Mr. Marr being the accredited agent for many of the leading Scottish distillers, and especially noted for the far-famed “Sma’ Still” whisky, which is brought from the great distilleries of the North and blended in bond, and not sent out until it is thoroughly matured, thus ensuring the highest standard of quality; also special old cognac, brandy, whisky, rum, and nourishing stout for invalids. Superior quality, coupled with moderate prices, has been the motto upon which this business has always been conducted; and it is manifestly Mr. Marr’s resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained but steadily enhanced in time to come.

LEGGAT BROTHERS, LITHOGRAPHERS, GENERAL PRINTERS, AND WHOLESALE STATIONERS,
38, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW; AND LONDON AND MANCHESTER.

THIS house was originally founded, some forty years ago, under the style and title of Leggat & Hoffman. On Mr. Hoffman’s retirement the senior partner took into partnership his brother, and the firm assumed its present designation. The decease of the junior partner took place in 1888, and since that date Mr. Robert Leggat, as sole proprietor, has conducted the business with undiminished energy and success. He is well known and is highly respected amongst the leading commercial circles of the city, and the services which he renders to literary and artistic culture are indicated by the position which he holds on the directorate of the Athenaeum. Messrs. Leggat Brothers’ premises comprise four floors with a large aggregate superficial area. There is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices fitted up with telephonic communication, the telephone number being 991. There is a spacious warehouse with excellent fittings which admit of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large and varied stocks of the firm’s productions, which are always held in such quantities as to enable them to execute the most extensive orders without delay. The industrial departments are fitted up with all the requisite mechanical appliances for the several operations which are carried on by the firm in their capacities as designers, engravers, lithographers, embossers, general printers, and wholesale stationers. They have every facility for the execution, under the best possible conditions, of all descriptions of commercial and general printing, and they have successfully made specialities of posters, artistic circulars, monthly registers, catalogues, programmes, &c. First-class engraving and lithography is also executed on the premises by highly skilled experts. The house, too, has a very high reputation for commercial stationery, and large stocks of paper of all sizes and descriptions are always held. The trade is exclusively wholesale, and the connection extends all over the United Kingdom, considerable quantities of goods being also supplied to the export houses for shipment.

JAMES C. ERSKINE, PRINTER,
140, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS important business, of which. Mr. James C. Erskine is now sole proprietor, was founded many years ago by the late Mr. W. G. McLaren, and for some while he carried it on successfully. At his death, the business was left to his widow, and Mr. Erskine entered into partnership with her in 1863. At the expiry of the contract of co-partnery, about fifteen years ago, Mr. Erskine bought Mrs. McLaren’s share in the concern, and it has since been conducted under his management in its present style. The original premises occupied by this firm were situated in Madeira Court, Argyle Street, but soon after Mr. Erskine assumed sole control of the business, he removed to new and larger premises at his present addres3, 140, Hope Street. These premises comprise a splendid suite of private and general offices, and the various working departments of the business, which occupy the whole of the top flat of the building. In this section a very comprehensive plant has been laid down, including all the latest and most improved printing machines, &c. These include seven machines which are worked by gas power, one of them being a quad demy, and is one of the largest of its kind in Glasgow. Three band presses are also employed in this department. Adjoining is the type room, which leads into the warehouse. The folding and cutting processes are carried on here, and the place is fitted with hydraulic presses and stitching machines and a guillotine. Beyond this room is the composing section, where there is a very large stock of superior modern type, obtained from the most noted typefounders of England, America, and the Continent. Mr. Erskine is always adding to this comprehensive stock, and the different varieties of type, borders, fancy rules and ornaments he can supply number no less than four hundred and ninety-nine specimens. This book of specimens which daily becomes larger as new faces are added, is sent to the firm’s customers, and the numbers of the designs are sufficient when ordering by letter. Without the use of these “up-to-date” designs no sort of artistic printing is now-a-days complete. For this reason, among others, the firm is markedly popular, for the work turned out at this establishment is perfect in execution and is displayed in the best style. There is a separate entrance for the workpeople, and a hoist to the workshops; and all the machinery is worked by gas-power. The workshops are exceedingly well lighted both from thereof and sides, and they are lofty and well ventilated, and the factory inspectors have frequently commented upon their excellence. A staff of between forty and fifty skilled hands is constantly employed.

The specialities of the firm’s business are commercial, law, music, and book and trade catalogue printing. One of the most notable books ever produced in Glasgow entitled, “The University of Glasgow, Old and New,” being a record of this institution from 1450 to 1891, was printed here. This magnificent work, which was published last Season by Messrs. MacLehose, is, printed in a large and clear type, and contains, besides one hundred and eighty-nine pages of descriptive letterpress, thirty-five views of the old and new universities, and sixty portraits of the past and present professors, &c., executed in photogravure by Messrs. T. and R. Annan & Sons. The published price is £5 5s. for the crown folio edition, and £10 10s. for the larger paper one. A leading feature is made of music printing, as there are very few firms in Glasgow who undertake this particular branch of the trade. For twenty years the Glasgow Sabbath School Magazine was printed at this establishment, and all the diaries that are supplied by Messrs. Duncan Campbell & Son, the large stationers of St. Vincent Street, are printed by Mr. Erskine. A large amount of municipal work is also done here, the firm being one of the five who print the voters’ lists, of which their portion of three hundred pages has just been completed. Mr. Erskine also receives work from the various trades corporations, including reports, syllabuses, programmes, &c., and although the trade done is chiefly home business, he also supplies a number of export houses. Mr. Erskine, assisted by two of his sons, take3 a most active personal part in the management of the business, and no work is allowed to go out until it has been subjected to a strict examination, and is passed by him, as being of the best class any house produces.

JOHN HURRY (REPRESENTING THE RED STAR WORKS, BOULONNERIES DE BOGUY-BRAUX, ARDENNES),
27, COMMERCE STREET, GLASGOW.

DURING the last ten years, Mr. John Hurry has conducted a business which has become an important adjunct to many eminent industrial establishments. Mr. Hurry’s premises, which form a part of the immense block of building which constitutes the Bridge Street Station of the Caledonian Railway, comprise a well appointed office, adjoining which is a large store containing large stocks of bolts, nuts, coach screws, &c., these articles forming the specialities which have made the Red Star Works famous. They are made in such immense quantities at Boulonneries de Boguy-Braux that they are offered to the trade at exceptionally low prices. This, together with their invariable soundness and durability, have secured a steady demand for these appliances wherever they have been introduced. These bolts, nuts, coach screws, &c., are applied to a great variety of purposes, including shipbuilding, engineering, coachbuilding, and the construction of locomotives. Mr. Hurry has introduced their specialities with notable success. His well equipped establishment in Glasgow therefore constitutes a most valuable medium of communication between the industrial activity of France, on the one hand, and that of Scotland and Ireland, and the North of England on the other. He is, personally, extremely popular amongst a large circle of customers.

ROBERT CHRYSTAL & SONS, FAMILY GROCERS, WINE MERCHANTS, AND ITALIAN WAREHOUSEMEN,
1, CHARING CROSS, GLASGOW.

THE family grocery and wine merchant business of Messrs. Robert Chrystal & Sons, of 1, Charing Cross (the only address of the firm), was founded in 1840, in Sauchiehall Street, by the late Mr. Robert Chrystal, who developed the business with splendid success. Ten years later, he removed into the commodious premises still occupied at the junction of Sauchiehall Street and North Street, and generally known as Charing Cross. Three years ago the business was bought over by Mr. Thomas Young, who is now the sole proprietor, trading under the old-established and respected title. This gentleman has already secured the confidence of the extensive connection over which he has come to preside, and is steadily adding to the amount of business done, and increasing the importance of his ancient house. The premises occupied are amongst the most commodious grocery establishments in Glasgow. The entrance is from 1, Charing Cross, with fine plate-glass show windows on each side, there being no less than five facing North Street. The interior is well arranged, and nothing has been spared to conduce to the display of the goods and the expeditious control of the business. A massive counter runs the whole length of the establishment, while the opposite side of the shop is fitted up with a number of raised stands, on which are ranged for convenient inspection a superior selection of grocery and provisions, and wines and spirits. The wine cellars are in the basement, and are well adapted in equipment and temperature for keeping their valuable contents in the beat possible condition. Mr. Young obtains his goods from the best known sources, and uses personal care in their selection, nothing of an inferior kind finding a place here. Tea is made a leading article, and the kind offered cannot be surpassed in strength and delicacy of flavour, while at the same time, from the special conditions under which he makes his purchases, the proprietor can quote prices such as are usually asked for a very second-rate quality of this universally patronised plant. There are always on hand a large and high-class supply of coffees, cocoas, sugar, fruits, spices, and preserves, as well as a specially fine selection of Italian goods from the most famous manufacturers. In bacon, ham, cheese, butter, and tinned goods and Colonial produce, the house cannot be bettered, either in quality or value for money.

Mr. Young exercises great care and discrimination in selecting his wines and spirits, and he is especially fortunate in possessing a special blend of the finest old Highland whiskies. This blend is the same as was originally sold by the founder of the firm. Champagnes constitute a leading feature of this business, and among the stocks held of this wine will be found the finest and most popular vintages. There is also in stock some special rare brandy of the famous vintages of 1850 and 1865. All these wines, brandies, &c., are imported direct by Messrs. R. Chrystal & Sons. By supplying only the very best class of goods, and by close and courteous attention to all orders, the firm is now in the enjoyment of a connection which, in extent and value, is not surpassed by that of any similar house in Glasgow. The house is situated in the finest residential quarter, and the patrons comprise many of the leading merchants and magnates of the city. Mr. Young is an able and honourable business man, straightforward in his dealing, and courteous in his bearing, and highly esteemed by all that know him.

WILLIAM B. PATERSON, DEALER IN WORKS OF ART,
88, RENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW,

THE flourishing business which Mr. Paterson controls was founded in September, 1892, by Messrs. Grosvenor, Thomas & Paterson. In the latter part of 1893 all the proprietorial rights of the firm were acquired by Mr. Paterson, who is now in sole control of the establishment, and to whose vigorous and enlightened enterprise are due the later developments of the business. The conveniently situated and commodious premises which the firm occupy comprise a well-appointed office and two spacious show-rooms, with every facility for the display of the extensive and varied stocks which are always held. Mr. Paterson, as a recognised expert in the several classes of artistic treasures in which he deals, is specially qualified for the conduct of such a business as that in which he has successfully engaged. Pictures and bric-a-brac of every description form the two leading departments in his establishment, and in each department the cultured collector will always find much that is worth his attention. On the occasion of a recent visit the points of special interest included a fine old oak bedstead, richly carved and in splendid condition, dating about 1600; a grand old oak table, date 1652; bronzes by celebrated Japanese artists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; inlaid cabinets and tables of considerable antiquity, &c. Mr. Paterson, too, unquestionably holds the largest stock in Scotland of rare and valuable etchings, including fine examples of D. Y. Cameron, Strange, Short, Whistler; also rare engravings and woodcuts of Albrecht Durer and others. Mr. Paterson is an enthusiast in etchings, and frequently has in his hands examples of Rembrandt and other early masters of this exquisite art. Mr. Paterson’s collection, too, of oil paintings is always attractive, and important additions are constantly being made to his gallery. In the conduct of a business of this class strong and distinctive personality goes for much; and Mr. Paterson’s success is the result of the unreserved confidence which he has inspired in the minds of a large circle of discriminating customers.

MCNAUGHTON & GOWANLOCK, WHOLESALE AND MERCANTILE STATIONERS, AND ACCOUNT BOOK MANUFACTURERS,
109, ST. VINCENT STREET, GLASGOW.

THE admirably-organised business, established in 1891, by Messrs. Duncan McNaughtan, and George T. Gowanlock, has, during the comparatively brief period which, has elapsed, taken an honourably prominent position in the wholesale and mercantile stationery trade of the city. The premises comprise a commodious and substantially fitted saleshop and warehouse in St. Vincent Street, with a goods entrance at 16, St. Vincent Lane, W. The interior is well-stocked with writing, printing, and packing papers in reams. In the mercantile and office stationery department, there is every variety of account books and other requisites for the counting house, and the intelligent enterprise which Messrs. McNaughtan & Gowanlock have shown in meeting the ever-growing and ever-changing requirements of the great mercantile community of Glasgow in respect to this department, has already gained for them the complete confidence and support of many of the leading commercial firms in the city. The premises comprise a well-appointed office which is furnished with telephonic communication. The telephone number is 4,040.

Messrs. McNaughtan & Gowanlock are also on an extensive scale printers, engravers, lithographers, bookbinders, and paper rulers. Their premises too include a specialistic industrial department for the manufacture of address labels, printed and eyeletted by improved machinery. In this department there are also several paper-cutting machines of the most approved modern type. Messrs. McNaughtan & Gowanlock again are specially appointed agents for the sale of Milner’s Safes, whose popularity is ever increasing. The firm enjoys the constant support of a large and increasing circle of customers in Glasgow and throughout the surrounding districts. They also control a large export trade to India, China, the West Indies, South America, and Africa. The chief factors in the notable success which Messrs. McNaughtan & Gowanlock have achieved, are the exceptional commercial aptitude of the principals, and the large measure of popularity which they have gained by the anxious zeal which they display in meeting the special requirements of each individual customer.

JAMES STEWART & SONS, HOUSE FACTORS,
124, CAMBRIDGE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE business of the house factor is one of great importance in a large city, and one, also, which requires for its successful discharge a large amount of perseverance, shrewdness and tact. Many influential firms in Glasgow are extensively occupied with this branch of commercial activity, and among these may be specially men-tioned that of Messrs. James Stewart & Sons, whose headquarters are at 124, Cambridge Street, branch office at Clydebank. Since the firm commenced operations, nigh upon forty years ago, it is impossible to say how many thousands of houses and acres of building ground have changed hands through their instrumentality, for during the whole of that long period an unbroken and increasing activity has been maintained. A splendid reputation has been achieved for the able and efficient manner in which everything placed in the firm’s hands bas been carried through and the conscientious regard paid in every case to the interest of clients. Handsome and commodious premises are occupied, comprising private and general offices, consulting and waiting-rooms and every convenience for the adequate and expeditious control of a business of this extent and character. The principals have under their immediate control a numerous staff of experienced assistants, and every department is kept in a well-organised and efficient state.

The most marked feature of this noteworthy business is the house agency. In this branch, the leading business in this part of Glasgow is being conducted. Messrs. Stewart & Sons’ lists are always full of eligible residences, large and small, in town or country, many of which are to be let or sold under exceptional conditions. The letting of furnished houses for the season is a special business with the firm, and one in which they have secured the patronage of some of the principal families for many miles round. The firm have always on hand, for sale or to let, houses of every description, business property, tenements, manufactories, ground rents and building plots in and around Glasgow, and those who trust their affairs to this reputable and experienced firm will be sure to receive the most careful attention, their interests will be well watched and prompt and satisfactory settlements will be the ultimatum of the business. Messrs. Stewart & Sons effect insurances with the best societies on the most liberal terms and they are the appointed local agents for the North British and Mercantile Insurance Company, the Caledonian Plate-glass Insurance Company, and several other well-known associations. With their large experience and influential connections, the firm have built up a connection of a widespread and exceedingly influential kind among property owners and residents in town and country. The principals are gentlemen of mark in business and professional circles, and are widely known and respected for their inflexible business integrity and their unfailing courtesy, as well as for the active and disinterested part they take in various public movements. Mr. Alexander Stewart, who is identified with the Clydebank branch, has filled many important public offices, and is at the present time conspicuous as a county councillor for Dumbartonshire.
The telephone number of the house is 175.

JAMES MARSHALL, MANUFACTURER OF MARSHALL’S PREPARATIONS OF WHEAT,
25, EAST CUMBERLAND STREET, GLASGOW.

AMONG the many valuable discoveries of modern times in the improvement of cereal food-stuffs there are none more noteworthy than those effected by Mr. James Marshall, whose various Preparations of Wheat have met with such widespread and well-merited success. Mr. Marshall commenced his business as a manufacturer of this class of dietetic specialities about ten years ago at the Ibrox Flour Mills, and subsequently he was for some years in Adelphi Terrace, South Side. Quite recently the business has been transferred to its present premises, where the warehouses and offices are all admirably situated in new buildings, specially equipped for the purposes of the trade. Mr. Marshall’s Preparations of Wheat comprise a fine series of pure and nourishing foods, produced from the very choicest qualities of wheat, and suitable for simple and high-class cookery alike. They are also light and easy of digestion, and make very elegant and appetising dishes. They form a valuable substitute for starch foods, which are not so nutritious; and by their comprehensive character as farinaceous foods they are equally adapted to the needs of the young and the old, the robust and the delicate, the healthy and the dyspeptic. Leading physicians recommend them highly, and the exceptional awards they have won at exhibitions afford another strong proof of merit. In the manufacture of these specialities Mr. Marshall eliminates all the coarse and undesirable parts of the wheat, while retaining its fine flavour and nutritious properties; and years of experiment and experience have enabled him to reduce the process of preparation to an exact science, ensuring absolute uniformity in results.

The principal specialities in Mr. Marshall’s series are the following (1) “Farola,” a most exquisite preparation for making puddings, &c., and described as being “better than the best arrowroot.” As a nursery diet it is also most valuable, and children are extremely fond of it. “Farola” is used in the household of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. (2) Marshall’s “Semolina,” or “Semella,” a highly refined preparation of this greatly esteemed food, which is now made by Mr. Marshall from selected wheat greatly superior in quality to the ordinary Italian product. (3) “Granola,” containing all the nutrition of the grain, including the phosphates, and very acceptable for making porridge as a substitute for oatmeal porridge. (4) Marshall’s “Oat Flour” and Prepared Groats, concentrating in themselves the unique dietetic properties that have made Scotch oatmeal so celebrated for flavour and nutriment. (5) Marshall’s Best Scotch Oatmeal, prepared in one quality only (the very best), from the finest oats grown in the Lothians. (6) “Ptyaloid,” a pure digestive of starch, which acts on starchy food precisely as healthy saliva does, and, being a perfect flour, can be used in the preparation of many kinds of food. Its value in cases of dyspepsia and fever, when the power of the natural saliva becomes diminished, is very great. Testimonials and analytical reports all pronounce very strongly in favour of Mr. Marshall’s various specialities, and these useful preparations are now in great demand in all parts of the United Kingdom. Moreover, they are being largely exported to all parts of the world, and Mr. Marshall has many agents in the foreign and colonial markets. The entire routine of the business at Glasgow is conducted under Mr. Marshall’s personal supervision.
Telegrams should be addressed “Farola, Glasgow.” Telephone No. 2,637.

GEORGE STEVENSON, FANCY PAPER AND DRAPERS’ BOX MANUFACTURER,
45, MONTROSE STREET, GLASGOW.
[There was no description under this heading.]

SHAW & MCINNES, IRONFOUNDERS,
FIRHILL IRONWORKS, SPRINGBANK, GLASGOW.

THIS extensive and admirably organised industry was founded, in the earlier part of the present century, by Mr. James Shaw, who was Provost of Maryhill, at which place he began his successful enterprise. At an early period in his career Mr. Shaw was able to create the nucleus of the valuable connection which has since been constantly extending; In 1860 the firm found it advisable to remove to the commodious premises which they now occupy, and which are known as the Firhill Ironworks. They are most conveniently situated on the banks of the Forth and Clyde Canal, and cover a very considerable area. The premises comprise a foundry, which extends over no less than two acres. There is, too, a very spacious fitting shop, splendidly equipped with a large number of turning lathes, planing machines, &c., driven by a powerful steam-engine. The commercial headquarters of the firm constitute a detached building, and include a commodious suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of a large amount of business. The telephone number is 29, and the registered telegraphic address, “Ironworks, Glasgow.” Adjoining are conveniently fitted drawing offices. The other buildings on the premises are used respectively as a warehouse, drawing offices, &c.

Messrs. Shaw & McInnes control a very extensive, and, in some respects, uniquely specialistic business as manufacturers of hot-water pipes and fittings, “Lavril” pipes and fittings, rain-water pipes and fittings, flange pipes, gas and water pipes, with spigot and faucet, or turned and bored joints, also ornamental gutters and general castings—especially light castings—made to pattern, drawing or specification. Special care is devoted, in all cases, to the quality of the work produced at the Firhill Ironworks. Messrs. Shaw & McInnes have fully equipped branch offices in London, Birmingham, and Liverpool, and a very large amount of business, export and otherwise, is conducted through each of them, as they ship goods, through the great export houses, to all parts of the world. The home trade connection extends, amongst merchants and wholesale dealers, all over the United Kingdom. In 1889 the control of the business passed into the hands of Messrs. Robert and Archibald McInnes Shaw, sons of the founder. These gentlemen had been, for ten years previously, actively connected with the business, and their ample experience, combined with their spirit of enlightened enterprise, serves fully to maintain the high reputation of the firm. A large and efficient staff of workmen is constantly employed, many of them being expert specialists.

THOMAS C. NELSON, LIVESTOCK AGENT,
89, BELLGROVE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS firm has a record which goes back for fourteen years, when it was founded by Messrs. McQuade & Nelson. In 1888. Mr. McQuade retired from the firm, and the ever-growing business has since been successfully conducted by Mr. Thomas C. Nelson, to whose enlightened enterprise its recent material developments are to be attributed. The commercial headquarters of the firm face Bellgrove Street, and are practically in the Cattle Market. They comprise a suite of splendidly appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication and all the other requisites for the prompt dispatch of business. The telephone number is 1,332, and lie registered telegraph and cable address is “Oxen, Glasgow.” Adjoining the offices are the special cattle-sheds belonging to the firm, whose auction ring in the Market is close at hand. Mr. Nelson annually disposes of very large numbers of home and foreign cattle which are consigned to him, and the absolute regularity of all the firm’s transactions have gained the unreserved confidence of their numerous principals in different parts of the world. The principal feature of the firm’s business consists in their great weekly sale in the Glasgow Market, which takes place each Wednesday. On Monday of each week, too, they hold an auction sale at Yorkhill, where there is a landing stage for United States and Canadian cattle. On the same day they sell weekly at Forfar and at Laurencekirk (Kincardineshire). On Tuesday the principal scene of their selling operations is Shieldhall, where is another landing-stage for Canadian cattle, and on the same day they sell at Brechin. On Thursdays they frequently sell at Brechin, and also at other minor places, and on Fridays their leading operations are at Perth. In addition to these regular fixtures, Mr. Nelson’s connections as a livestock agent extend all over the country. He is gifted with exceptional powers of organisation and administration, and he is, therefore, able to control all the details of his extensive and widespread business.

THOMAS HANNAY, IRON AND COMMISSION MERCHANT,
95, BATH STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Hannay has been associated with this important branch of national industry for upwards of thirty years. He is the eldest surviving son of the late Mr. Hannay, of Rusko, who, along with Mr. Schneider, under the firm of Schneider, Hannay & Co., of Barrow- in-Furness, was one of the pioneers of the now exceedingly important iron and steel trades in that district. From 1863 to 1873 Mr. Thomas Hannay was junior partner, first in the old-established firm of the Blochairn Iron Company, and then of Hannay & Sons, iron and coal masters. Since the latter date he has been engaged in his present business; his training, experience, and very large connection enabled him rapidly to achieve the position and reputation he now enjoys. It should be mentioned that Mr. Hannay, before entering business on his own account, served a full apprenticeship as an engineer, and his thorough knowledge of plans and engineering work generally cannot be over-estimated as an aid to his own success and to his undoubted ability to act for others. Mr. Hannay’s business premises are large and well appointed, centrally situated, and with every facility for conducting the important business that has grown upon him. Besides being in constant touch with all the iron centres in the Kingdom, he is sole agent in Scotland and Carlisle for the following important houses:— the Pearson & Knowles Coal and Iron Company, Limited, Warrington; William Whitwell & Co., Limited, Thornaby Iron Works, Stockton-on-Tees; Durham, Churchill & Co., 9, London Street, London, E.C.; Portland Bolt and Nut Company, Limited, Brookfields, Birmingham; Braibant & Heureux, Charleroi, Belgium; the Leeds Engineering and Hydraulic Company, Cross Stamford Street, Leeds; Henry P. Skidmore & Co., Netherton, near Dudley; T. P. Jones & Co., Rowley, near Dudley; the Municipal Appliances Company, Bamber Bridge; Mr. S. W. Allen, Exchange Buildings, Bute Docks, Cardiff. The sale of new and second-hand machinery forms an important part of Mr. Hannay’s business; photographs of the former and lists of the latter can be seen or had on application. From his engineering knowledge and long and varied business experience Mr. Hannay’& services are often called into requisition in inspecting and reporting upon new and second-hand engines and machinery of all kinds, and upon the quality and finish of iron, steel, or other metals. He also acts as an arbitrator and referee. With the exception that he ships somewhat largely to Rangoon and Bombay, Mr. Hannay confines his attention to the home markets. He has a very large circle of business friends, and his patrons include all the largest shipbuilders, engineers, and iron merchants throughout Scotland. Mr. Hannay is a Justice of the Peace for the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright, his native county.
Telegraphic address: “Neptune, Glasgow;” Telephone No. 137.

ROBERT HILLCOAT & SONS, SCOTCH WHISKY BLENDERS, MERCHANTS, AND EXPORTERS,
39, STOCKWELL STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS old-established and highly reputed house controls a most extensive business which dates from the beginning of the century. The firm hold very extensive stocks, and as blenders of high-class Scotch whiskies they enjoy an unsurpassed reputation, their leading specialities being held in the highest esteem and favour by connoisseurs at home and abroad. One of these, for example, is the celebrated “Queen’s Liqueur Whisky,” a very old and superior blend, as supplied to Her Majesty the Queen. Concerning this splendid liqueur, William Payne, Esq. (for thirty-five years Gentleman of the Royal Cellars), wrote to Messrs. Hillcoat saying that he considered it to be the finest he had ever tasted as a liqueur; also that he did not suppose it could be surpassed, and that it was the only liqueur whisky he had ever bought for Her Majesty’s service. Another choice speciality is the veteran “Methuselah” blend, twelve years old; and yet another is the “Jockey Club,” a whisky of unexceptionable quality and character. Messrs. Hillcoat’s whiskies are emphatically the whiskies for connoisseurs, and the best judges in all quarters of the globe pronounce them unexcelled. The export market is a great test of merit in whiskies, and Messrs. Hillcoat have passed that test triumphantly, their blends being in great demand in the Colonies, and especially in Australia and New Zealand, where they are building up a fine trade. At Melbourne Exhibitions, 1880 and 1888, the firm obtained prize medals, these being the only occasions upon which they have exhibited. The business is in a condition of steady development both at home and abroad, and is supported by an influential and world-wide connection. Mr. William Hillcoat, the sole principal, personally supervises all the operations of the concern. He is widely known and greatly respected in the trade, and is president of the Wine and Spirit Benevolent Institution.
Messrs. Hillcoat’s telegraphic address is “Hillcoat, Glasgow.” Their telephone: is No. 666.

GILMOUR & AITKEN, MAHOGANY AND TIMBER MERCHANTS,
10, STANLEY PLACE, EGLINTON STREET, AND FORTH STREET, GLASGOW.

A leading firm in the Glasgow timber trade is that of Messrs. Gilmour & Aitken, which was founded in 1852 and still retains its original title. Mr. Gilmour, however, retired in 1889, and Mr. Alexander C. Aitken, son of Mr. Aitken, the senior partner, was then taken into partnership. He and his father continue to direct the business with marked success. At the above address in Stanley Place the firm have commodious offices and stores, with a large yard about three hundred feet long by thirty feet wide, containing a large stock of sawn timber, consisting chiefly of mahogany, wainscot oak, American walnut, and various fancy woods. All timber is thoroughly matured before being allowed to leave the premises, and Messrs. Gilmour & Aitken’s customers know that they can always rely upon this firm for perfectly seasoned material. The firm’s home trade extends all over Scotland, and is for the most part with the better class of cabinetmakers and shipbuilders, joiners, coachbuilders, &c. In Forth Street, Pollokshields, Messrs. Gilmour & Aitken have a saw-mill, where they cut the imported logs into planks and other marketable sizes and shapes. It is their intention at an early date to transfer their whole business and plant to the saw-mills in Forth Street, and to concentrate the whole of their operations at this one address, where they have ample space at their disposal. The business is managed with conspicuous ability and judgment, and its present prosperous condition is the outcome of close adherence to a thoroughly straightforward commercial policy at all periods of its career.

PETER BROWN, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL FAMILY BUTCHER,
164, GALLOWGATE; 50, NELSON STREET, S.S., GLASGOW.

THE purveying of prime fresh meat, to supply the demands of a large and widespread wholesale and family trade, finds an able representative and exponent, at the city of Glasgow, in the person of Mr. Peter Brown, who six years ago succeeded to the business which had previously been promoted by Mr. William Brown, and was formed very many years ago by a Mr. A. Hamilton. The records of the undertaking show that its commercial development has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement; and doubtless the most effectual way in which to indicate its true character, scope, and aims, would be to give a concise descriptive sketch of the establishment, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. Eligibly located in a commanding position, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its polished steel fittings, substantial cutting blocks, and white sanitary tiled walls, always present a singularly neat, clean, and wholesome appearance, which tends largely to enhance the inviting character of the stock en evidence. Mr, Brown is careful to employ only expert and courteous assistants, and to maintain an abundant supply of the best home-fed ox beef, wether mutton, house lamb and veal in season, together with choicely corned beef, pickled tongues and the like, all of which are offered for sale at the lowest current market prices. The business is indeed a conspicuous example of substantial success worthily achieved, and all its characteristics are those of a house whose nature has been influenced, and whose methods have been formed by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of trade.

DAVID RIDDELL & CO., GRAIN MERCHANTS,
CATTLE MARKET GRAIN STORES, 3 AND 5, HUNTER STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS now well-known and admirably organised business was founded by Mr. David Riddell, who is still the sole proprietor, and whose thorough technical knowledge has already enabled him to place his firm in the foremost rank of business enterprises in the important class to which it belongs. The premises, which are known as the Cattle Market Grain Stores, are extensive, and have been thoroughly adapted to the requirements of the business. To the front there is a well-appointed office with telephonic communication, No. 4,467, and all the other requisites for the prompt dispatch of business. The adjacent warehouse is ample enough to admit of the systematic disposition of the large stocks which are always held. To the rear and above are spacious stores in which surplus stocks are held, so that there is never any delay in the execution of even the most extensive orders. The specialities, the supply of which forms the bulk of the firm’s trade, may be thus briefly summarised. For horse feeding— oats, beans, barley, Indian corn, cut hay and chop; for cattle feeding — bean meal, Indian meal, bran and thirds, Paisley meal, treacle, pea meal, and muttor meal; pig feeding — damaged grain, feeding meal, Indian and oat meal; poultry feeding — wheat, oats, maize, dari and buckwheat, mixed grain, &c.; dog feeding — biscuits (broken), oatmeal (cheap). Mr. Riddell also controls an extensive business in the sale of hay and straw, and, likewise, linseed and cotton cakes, nutted or in meal. The connection of the firm lies amongst farmers, horse contractors, and others all over the United Kingdom. Messrs. Riddell & Co. have a specially strong commercial hold on the West Highlands, where their specialities have highly recommended themselves to large breeders and holders of livestock. Price lists on application.

HUGGINS & CO., HOMOEOPATHIC CHEMISTS,
289, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS business was established, in 1873, by Mr. W. H. Huggins, who is still the sole proprietor, trading under the above title. During the twenty years he has been identified with the business, he has succeeded in building up a good reputation for the reliable excellence of the goods he handles, and of gathering together a connection of an exceedingly valuable character. Mr. Huggins is thoroughly qualified, and the business receives the full benefit of his close personal application. The premises occupied consist of a single-fronted shop, with fine plate-glass window, containing a choice and well-arranged selection of various articles, and a spacious shop handsomely fitted up with stands, show-cases, and everything requisite or desirable for the effective display of the goods. Great care and knowledge have been exercised in selecting the stocks, which include all kinds of homoeopathic remedies, fresh and pure drugs, and preparations, choice perfumes from the most famous makers, a splendid assortment of toilet requisites, numerous surgical appliances, and English and foreign mineral waters. The house is widely known for many valuable specialities, among which reference should be made to Huggins’ solvent for hard or soft corns, warts, &c.; Huggins’ toothache specific; Huggins & Co.’s chillie paste, recommended by many eminent physicians as an effectual remedy for rheumatism, chest complaints, sore throats, or stomach complaints; Huggins’ infallible embrocation; Huggins & Co.’s petroleum pomade; Huggins & Co.’s diamond cement; Huggins & Co.’s extract of glycerine, cucumber, and elder flowers, an indispensable adjunct to a lady’s toilet table; Huggins & Co.’s areca nut tooth paste; and Huggins & Co.’s floral elixir. The dispensing department is presided over by Mr. Huggins personally, and prescriptions and recipes are compounded with accuracy and promptness. Mr. Huggins is a gentleman of high standing in his profession, of a courteous and obliging disposition, and is held in high esteem in business and social circles.

ALLAN & FERGUSON, LITHOGRAPHERS, ENGRAVERS, DRAUGHTSMEN AND STATIONERS,
126, RENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS commercial and industrial business dates back in its foundation some sixty years. At the present day it occupies a high position in the manufacturing stationery trade, while its valuable connection is ever being extended. The sole proprietor of the establishment is Mr. James Andrew Allan, who is well known on Change, the son of the original senior partner in the firm. The premises occupy a commanding position in Renfield Street, and comprise two commodious floors, one being reserved for offices and warehouse space, while the other is fully equipped for the purposes of the industrial departments. The suite of general and private offices is well-appointed, and is furnished with telephonic communication (No. 1,197). Each of these departments is thoroughly equipped, the working plant including all the necessary labour-saving mechanical appliances. The house has gained a widespread reputation for the skill and accuracy with which parliamentary and ship plans are prepared. As printers, bookbinders, account-book manufacturers, lithographers, and stationers, they are equally well known as producing excellent work at the cheapest prices. Messrs. Allan & Ferguson thus control a very important home trade, their goods being regarded as representing the cheapest and best work in the market. They have, too, all facilities for the engraving of seals, stamps, and dies, and likewise of brass, zinc, and glass plates for doors, windows, &c. They are, moreover, agents for the sale of Milner’s safes.

J. DAVIDSON & CO., AUCTIONEERS,
22, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. John Davidson initiated this business in 1843 at Paisley. After successfully establishing the concern, it was thought desirable to enter upon a more extended field of operations, and the business was removed to Glasgow, where Mr. Davidson was joined by Mr. R. Campbell and Mr. George Beck, under the title of J. Davidson & Co. This partnership continued until 1858, when the firm was dissolved and Mr. Davidson continued it on his own account alone, until he died in 1864. Mr. Davidson was joined in 1861 by his nephew, Mr. Arthur Davidson, and under their joint control the business maintained a highly gratifying progress, every year in passing adding to the extent and value of the transactions engaged in. Mr. Arthur Davidson is now the sole proprietor, and is fully upholding the well-established reputation of the house in every respect. The premises in Argyle Street have been occupied for the last nine years, and are both capitally well situated and convenient in arrangement. The accommodation comprises a well-appointed suite of private and general offices, extensive and well fitted-up warehouses, and a spacious sale-room. The firm employ an efficient staff, and the organisation of the business leaves nothing to be desired. Mr. Davidson has had a large and valuable experience in the trade and is influentially connected with all classes of buyers. Goods intrusted to him are disposed of in the promptest manner at the best possible prices, while settlements are speedily and satisfactorily made. All kinds of goods are disposed of, but the principal business of the firm lies in unredeemed pledges, in which branch the proprietors have a special and well-recognised position. Works of art, furniture, general merchandise, jewellery, textile fabrics, wearing apparel, &c., are among-the principal goods handled, and in the firm’s capacious warehouses will always be found an extensive selection of such articles. The house has gathered round it a widespread and substantial connection, and the sales held are always largely and influentially attended.

JOHN MCFARLANE, CALENDERER AND PACKER,
68, GORDON STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. John McFarlane established his business so recently as 1889, and already his thorough technical knowledge of the trade has made for him a most valuable connection. His premises are very extensive, and the mechanical equipment includes all the labour-saving requisites of the most approved modern type; thus, every facility has been provided for such operations as calendering and packing. These processes are applied to plain and fancy dress and piece goods, shawls, handkerchiefs, scarfs, &c., and Mr. McFarlane also controls a large amount of business in rolling, folding, making-up, and packing all such goods for the home and foreign markets. A most important department of the firm’s industrial operations consists in “finishing” for Glasgow houses Manchester goods of all descriptions, and these are, for the most part, exported to the Mexican markets. Mr. McFarlane employs a large and efficient staff, including several expert specialists. He has gained the reputation amongst a wide circle of influential customers of turning out all work in a thoroughly business-like manner.

MURRAY & DONNELLY, PRINTERS, LITHOGRAPHERS, BOOKBINDERS AND WHOLESALE STATIONERS,
74, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE worthy proprietors established the above business some four years ago, and bringing to its development a sound practical knowledge of every branch of the business, joined to energy and perseverance, they soon gained a well-recognised position among their competitors, and established for themselves a notable reputation for the thoroughly reliable character of the work turned out. Large and commodious premises are occupied, capitally located at the corner of Argyle and Queen Streets, and comprising a suite of private and general offices, and numerous workshops. All the latest and most modern plant and machinery known to the trade have been provided, and a numerous staff is kept constantly employed upon the premises. Every department is under separate and responsible control, and the business throughout is maintained in a thorough working and efficient state. As letterpress printers the name of the firm is synonymous with good sound workmanship, and the superior character of everything turned out in this department reflects the greatest credit upon the enterprise and skill of the proprietors and the ample executive resources of the establishment. General and commercial printing in all its various forms is undertaken. In the lithographic branch, the character of the work executed by the firm is well known and appreciated by an ever widening connection. Bookbinding is made a speciality, and every kind of work is turned out in a manner that cannot fail to give the greatest satisfaction. The stocks of stationery goods held by the house are large in their extent, and have been selected with a thorough acquaintance with the wants and requirements of the trade. They include plain and fancy stationery, account-books, ledgers, day-books, journals, letter-copying books, school requisites, and a high-class selection of every description of stationers’ sundries. The connection lies principally in the locality, among the leading business houses in Glasgow and the immediate district. The partners are Mr. J. G. Murray and Mr. H. Donnelly, and each takes an active part in the management of the concern, giving their patrons the full benefit of their long experience and acknowledged superior skill. In all their dealings they are strictly fair and honest, and they deservedly secure the respect and esteem of all with whom they come into business contact. They are rapidly building up a very prosperous business, and the large measure of success they are enjoying has been honourably won.

MURRAY & STEWART, PAVEMENT, LIME, FIRE-CLAY GOODS, AND CEMENT MERCHANTS,
98, COMMERCE STREET, GLASGOW.

ONE of the best known and most substantial houses employed in this line of business in Glasgow is that of Messrs. Murray and Stewart, which has been established for upwards of twenty years. Mr. Alexander Murray, the original founder of the concern, commenced business in the premises still occupied by the firm at 98, Commerce Street. He was subsequently joined by Mr. Stewart, and the name was changed to its present form. The premises consist of a spacious office, a sample room, and & sample yard for all descriptions of fire-clay goods, &c., and a large and substantial business is done in Caithness and Arbroath pavements, Scotch and Irish lime, Portland cement, Roman cement and plaster of Paris. Another important agency which Mr. Murray has held since he started in business is that of Messrs. J. and M. Craig, of Kilmarnock. Messrs. Craig’s goods include fire-bricks, flooring tiles, flue covers, glazed pipes, gas retorts, vent linings, chimney cans, ground fire-clay, wall coping, cattle troughs, white enamelled and coloured glazed bricks, white enamelled scullery sinks, milk coolers, washing tubs, cabinet stands, plug basins, closet basins and traps, urinals, and glazed wall tiles. They are also sole makers of Buchan’s patent ventilating drain pipes, patent grease traps, patent drain and access pipes, and Maguire’s patent safety joint drain pipes, and of Craig’s “Silent” flush-out closet, and “Shell Pattern” ornamental pedestal closet, and Armstrong’s patent automatic flushing urinals. The name of Messrs. J. and M. Craig secured eight gold, silver, and bronze medals at the London International Health Exhibition 1884, and the Edinburgh International Exhibition 1886, and they received the only gold medal awarded at Edinburgh for fire-clay goods. This agency forms a large and important item in the business, which, however, apart from this department, is very extensive, and the firm’s influential and increasing connection is spread over Glasgow and the whole of the North of Scotland. Messrs. Murray and Stewart’s telegraphic address is “Japstane,” Glasgow, and their number on the telephone is 965.

A. CLARK & CO., MANUFACTURERS OF CHANDELIERS, BRACKETS, PENDANTS, GASFITTINGS, &C.,
VICTORIA WORKS, 35 AND 39, BUCHAN STREET, GLASGOW.

FOUNDED in 1873, this firm’s business has developed from the first at a rapid rate, and is now one of the principal concerns in the district. The premises occupied in Buchan Street are the property of Mr. A. W. Clark, head of the firm, and are of large extent. They have the advantage of being remarkably well-lighted throughout, and the buildings being of modern construction are very conveniently planned for industrial purposes. Over a hundred workmen are employed here, and the output of the establishment embraces a wide variety of goods in such fines as hall lamps and chandeliers, gaseliers, pendants, brackets, billiard lights, pillar lights, running lights, church and hall fittings, boiler couplings, beer fittings, window rods, curtain poles, picture rods, desk rails, window fittings, and other high-class brass work. Messrs. A. Clark & Co. are patentees and sole makers of the celebrated “Radiant” Patent Regenerative Gas Lamp, which has gained much favour, and which is certainly a highly efficient and economical gas lamp for general use in houses, shops, &c. Their list of specialities also includes the “Kalaphote” and the “Victoria” lamps, both of which are deserving of the success they have achieved. Messrs. Clark’s manufactures in chandeliers, brackets, &c., have a high reputation for substantial quality, good workmanship and finish, and highly artistic, design. The firm’s illustrated catalogue will indicate not only the large variety of these goods turned out, but also the beauty and elegance of the various patterns. Ship fittings of different kinds now engage a considerable share of Messrs. Clark’s attention, and as these are always in large demand on the Clyde, they have become quite an important feature of the firm’s local trade. The aptitude of this house to keep pace with the times is further evidenced in the fact that they are now making all the various electrical fittings which modern science has called into existence. Messrs. A. Clark & Co. are well and favourably known to a large and constantly increasing connection, and all the affairs of their extensive business are directed with conspicuous ability and enterprise. The firm have also a show-room at 55, York Place, Edinburgh.

WILLIAM MILLER (LATE OF MESSRS. ALEX. MACKENZIE & CO.), CABINETMAKER AND UPHOLSTERER, JOINER, AND PARQUET-FLOORING MANUFACTURER,
165, NORTH STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS business was originally founded by Mackenzie & Crawford over half a century ago in the premises still occupied. The firm was subsequently changed to Messrs. Alex. Mackenzie & Co., and in this partnership Mr. Miller was associated for twenty-five years before he assumed sole control of the concern. The premises consist of a large block of buildings five stories in height, and possessing a frontage in North Street of one hundred feet. The ground floor of the building, which is used as a warehouse and showroom, extends to a considerable distance in the rear, and this department is most attractively arranged with a large and choice display of art furniture and upholstery, cabinets, suites of furniture, carpets, tapestry, and almost everything that one can think of in this class of goods. The upper floors and premises behind the show-rooms, which cover a wide area of ground, are devoted to the uses of the workshops and practical departments of the business. Here also are situated the saw-mill and timber yard, and the firm have in their constant employ from fifty to seventy joiners, cabinetmakers, upholsterers, &c. The specialities of workmanship for which this establishment is so justly renowned is in architectural woodwork, carving and modelling, and as parquet-floor manufacturers they have gained a high repute. The firm was the first to introduce the manufacture of parquet-flooring in Scotland nearly thirty years ago. These goods are exported to all parts of the world. Steam-power is employed for turning and sawing and the other work connected with the making of Venetian blind mouldings, veneers, &c., while the firm also does a large trade in curtains, cretonnes, silks, velvets, &c. A department that receives particular attention at the hands of Mr. Miller is the conducting of removals by covered vans, &c., and in this, as in the other sections of the business, Mr. Miller is in the enjoyment of a wide and influential connection.

NEILSON BROTHERS, IRON AND STEEL MERCHANTS,
94, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE above business was established upwards of seventeen years ago, and the firm have occupied their present premises for the last five years. These premises are both handsome and spacious, and are in every way fitted up to suit the special requirements of the business. They consist of a suite of splendid offices, both private and general, a large counting-house, and waiting and consulting rooms. The counting-house is arranged and decorated in grand style for the accommodation of a large staff of clerks, and the private offices are handsomely furnished. The entire place is lighted by electricity, and nothing appears to be wanting to render each department a model of what such a concern should be. In the iron and steel trade the name of Neilson Brothers is a household word. In every branch of the business they deal with the leading houses, and they supply most of the vast workshops, factories, and shipbuilding yards throughout the United Kingdom. The firm’s telegraphic address is “Plates, Glasgow,” and their number on the telephone is 808.

WALTER CRAIG, JUNIOR, WHITING AND SALT MERCHANT,
26, CARLTON COURT, BRIDGE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS influential firm was established over thirty years ago by the gentleman whose name still remains as the title. Mr. Craig controlled his business down to 1890 when, at his death, Mr. William J. Kerr, his nephew, became the sole proprietor. The premises occupied consist of an extensive range of stores located in Carlton Court, in close proximity to the shipping quays, and the buildings are constructed to afford every facility for the landing and shipping of this heavy class of goods. An immense stock of both whiting and salt is held by the firm, and these commodities are stored in bins, which are divided by wooden partitions; the limestone variety of whiting being set apart for one special purpose, and the chalk whiting for another. The universally consumed article, salt, is, in Mr. Kerr’s hands, an item of great commercial value, and in this article his stock is very heavy. Mr. Kerr is not in any sense a manufacturer of these different goods, but acts as a merchant and distributor only, and in this business he does by far the best and most extensive trade in Glasgow. Mr. Kerr’s important and extensive connection is chiefly amongst ship’s chandlers, bakers, grocers, and provision merchants, and he delivers his goods throughout Glasgow and far into the surrounding country.

PETER MCDONALD & CO., RECTIFIERS, DISTILLERS, AND BLENDERS, WHOLESALE WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANTS, FURNISHERS FOR THE WINE AND SPIRIT TRADE,
4, CARLTON PLACE, GLASGOW.

LIKE many of our leading commercial undertakings the business of this well-known firm was inaugurated in a comparatively small way, but since Mr. Peter McDonald first laid its foundations in 1874, it has increased and developed at such a remarkable rate that it now ranks as one of the largest concerns in Scotland engaged in the wine, spirit and beer trades. Mr. Peter McDonald, to whose energy and perseverance. the rapid rise and progress of the house is entirely due, still remains sole proprietor of the concern, and devotes his personal attention most assiduously to its management. He is also the owner of the fine premises in Carlton Place, in which the business is carried on. This establishment comprises wine and spirit stores and cellars, cork and glass show-rooms, offices and stock-rooms containing great quantities of furnishings and fittings for the trade, all licensed victuallers’ utensils and appliances being included in the comprehensive list. As wholesale wine and spirit merchants Messrs. Peter McDonald & Co. hold a very large and valuable stock of standard goods. They have many notable specialities, such, for example, as their two famous brands of whisky, “Scotland’s Best” (“Lord of the Isles”), and “Ireland’s Best” (“Faugh a Ballagh”) There is also a cigar department in this large and well-organised business, with a choice selection of Havana and other brands of good repute, and the firm have developed a substantial trade as wholesale tea merchants. Messrs. McDonald exercise the greatest care in maintaining a high standard of excellence in all their goods. By close adherence to straightforward methods the firm have gained the support and confidence of a widespread and valuable connection, and the phenomenally rapid development of their business in all departments bears witness to the favour in which it is held. Messrs. McDonald’s catalogue and price-list is a most useful publication, and is particularly interesting as a convenient index to all the various furnishings and fittings supplied by the firm for the use of wine and spirit merchants, licensed victuallers, hotel-keepers, &c. Messrs. McDonald’s premises are conveniently situated in the centre of the city and in proximity to the quays and docks, and they afford ample facilities for the satisfactory conduct of a business which is certainly one of the most notable of its kind in the country. Telephone No. 4,192.

STEVENSON & PAE, PRODUCE IMPORTERS AND AGENTS,
25, COCHRANE STREET, GLASGOW.
Telegrams: “Pae, Glasgow”; Telephone No. 3,465.

ORGANISED under the auspices of its present enterprising proprietors in the year 1882, the commercial development of this undertaking has been both rapid and continuous from the commencement. Occupying the whole of the basement and first floor of the extensive block of buildings forming 25, Cochrane Street, in the very heart of the mercantile quarter of the city, the premises comprise a splendid suite of general and private offices, with sample-room and warehouses for dry goods on the first floor, and commodious store-rooms in the basement for heavy goods, such as butters, margarine, beef in barrels, and mess pork in casks, &c. Messrs. Stevenson & Pae operate on an extensive scale as importers and merchants in all manner of British and foreign produce, and act as the accredited agents in Scotland for many of the most noted producing houses in the world, notably for the Armour Packing Company, of Kansas City, U.S.A.; Messrs. Swift & Co., Chicago, the largest cattle slaughterers in the world, for oleo and neutral lard; Messrs. John Morrell & Co., Limited, of Ottumwa, U.S. A., and Liverpool, lard refiners and ham and bacon curers; the Amalgamated Match Companies, of Holland; Messrs. Zucchini Brothers, of Leghorn, salad and olive oil refiners; MM. Bayle, Fils, Freres, of Bordeaux, preparers of imperial plums; Signor Manuel Utrera (successor to Signor Aurelio Pau), of Malaga, for raisins, and other dried fruit; and the leading sources of supply for margarine, American cheese, butter, lard, and canned provisions generally. The business entails the regular employment of an indoor staff of fifteen clerks and warehousemen, and is sedulously promoted exclusively amongst wholesale grocers and provision merchants throughout the Kingdom, through the agency of a well-organised staff of commercial travellers, and the house stands high in the estimation of in exceptionally large and widespread trade connection.

SMITH BROTHERS & CO., KINGSTON ENGINE WORKS,
GLASGOW.

THIS firm’s extensive and thoroughly representative business was founded in 1854 under the title it now bears. It has been very ably managed from the first, and now ranks with the largest engineering concerns in the neighbourhood. The works have a long frontage to Park Street, Kinning Park, and extend back over a hundred yards. Each department is admirably organised, and possesses a full equipment of the best modern machinery for its particular purpose. The buildings are substantially constructed of brick, and the various workshops are spacious and well-lighted. All industrial operations can be carried out here under conditions ensuring the most satisfactory results; and with their skilled staff of over one hundred hands, and their superior mechanical resources, Messrs. Smith Brothers & Co. are well able to fully maintain the high reputation they have gained as engineers and machine makers. The speciality in which they have been conspicuously successful is the manufacture of all kinds of machine tools of the heaviest description for shipbuilders and boilermakers, and in these they have introduced not a few valuable improvements. Their hydraulic machine tools have also met with much favour, and are in considerable demand both at home and abroad. Messrs. Smith Brothers & Co. have facilities for turning out the highest class of work, and the manner in which those facilities are employed is evidenced in the splendid workmanship and finish of the many labour-saving machine tools they produce. A widespread trade is controlled, and the entire business presents an example of steady advancement under the personal control of Mr. James Smith, who possesses a very extensive practical knowledge of the trade, and whose policy of management is marked by excellent qualities of energy and enterprise.
The firm’s telegraphic address is “Planer, Glasgow,” and their telephone No. 1,652.

LEAL, MITCHELL SC CO., INVENTORS AND PATENTEES,
32 TO 34, JOHN STREET, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. Leal, Mitchell & Co. began their commercial operations so recently as 1893, and they have already created for themselves a valuable and rapidly growing connection. They have been fortunate in acquiring most convenient premises, which are situated in a commanding position in the midst of the leading mercantile quarter of the city. Messrs. Leal, Mitchell & Co. have already made their reputation by the introduction of two patented inventions, which — both of them — are of universal utility. Sweeping has always been considered as drudgery, fit only for a menial, but by the use of Messrs. Leal & Mitchell’s patent Anti-Dust Brush the work of sweeping floors becomes almost an agreeable exercise, neither poisoning the lungs nor soiling the clothes of the sweeper, while it can be performed with ease and dispatch. This admirable invention is represented by a circular brush. Inside the handle is a steel rod, with which is connected a spring which opens a valve, arranged in a metallic vessel, placed over the brush head. This pan contains a certain quantity of a dust-allaying liquid which has been named “Stouroline,” and which is ejected when the spring is touched. Thus a warehouse, shop, or domestic apartment may be swept at any hour without the necessity for the watering-can, &c., while at the same time no particle of dust is raised to injure furniture, pictures, or merchandise. Nor is this the only advantage of the patent, since the liquid “Stourolene” which is supplied by Messrs. Leal & Mitchell at a trifling cost per gallon, is not only a layer of dust but a perfect disinfectant. The second of the new inventions which Messrs. Leal, Mitchell & Co. have placed on the market has been equally successful. It is an automatic disinfector, and has been named “ Ukal.” The appliance takes the form of a neat little mechanical apparatus, which, when in use, is fitted up in the closet, where it is attached to the flush plug by a wire or chain. When the flush plug is drawn the action lifts a valve in the little machine in question, thus allowing a defined quantity of the disinfecting fluid “Ukal” to descend into the basin. On contact with water the fluid produces a pretty coloured liquid with a delightful floral aroma, and it may, therefore, be freely used in lavatories with the best results. “Ukal” is one of the most powerful disinfectants ever invented, while, unlike chloride of lime and many other compounds, it has no corroding effect on the metal of the connecting pipes. The two members of the firm, Messrs. Leal & Mitchell, are always pleased to show their patent in operation at their offices, and it should be added that, in order thoroughly to test the merits of the “Ukal,” they are prepared to fit up the disinfector anywhere, and allow its use for a fortnight free of any charge. The firm have created a valuable and substantial connection amongst hotels, public institutions, and the proprietors of leading warehouses, shops, &c. Messrs. Leal, Mitchell & Co. are also the sole licensees for the manufacture of a very novel and useful postage stamp affixer, which is of great service in banks, offices, or anywhere where large numbers of letters are sent out daily. This patented invention supplies a long-felt want.

JAMES GRAHAM & CO., WRIGHTS AND TIMBER MERCHANTS,
184, GEORGE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS extensive business was founded in Candleriggs about the end of last century, the present premises being acquired in 1812, and here the operations of the firm have since been conducted upon a steadily increasing scale. The founder of the house, Mr. James Graham, was succeeded in due course by his son, Mr. James Graham, and that gentleman continued the business very successfully until 1871, when the concern was taken over by Mr. William Greig, who for many years previously had been Mr. Graham’s right-hand man in the management of the business. Mr. Greig is now sole proprietor, and trades under the old and widely-known name of James Graham & Co. The premises — admirably situated in George Street, with an extra entrance at 57, Montrose Street — cover a large extent of ground, and the works are fully equipped with the best modern machinery for wood-working purposes, the large plant in operation being driven by steam-power. Messrs. James Graham & Co. have long carried on a very extensive business as joiners and builders, and have made a leading speciality of high-class woodwork in connection with public buildings. They have executed successfully many important contracts of this kind, among which may be mentioned those for the New Asylum for the Blind at Glasgow, the extensive warehouses of Messrs. Stewart & McDonald in Buchanan Street, Messrs. J. & W. Campbell & Co.’s, Ingram Street, the beautiful mansion-house of Glen Caladh, Kyles of Bute, belonging to George R. Stephenson, Esq., and St. Mungo’s College. Interior and other woodwork for the construction of warehouses receives special attention, and in this the firm excel. They also do an important trade as timber merchants, and have always on hand a large and varied stock of well-seasoned timber. The manufacture of packing-cases and boxes for the use of merchants and manufacturers forms another notable feature of this extensive business. It is, however, as joiners that the firm are most widely known, and in this principal branch they have an unsurpassed reputation for high-class and thoroughly reliable work. Mr. Greig personally supervises the entire concern, and brings to bear upon its administration the advantages of a long and thoroughly practical experience in all branches of the trade, and an efficient staff is always employed. The firm have a large and valuable local connection, and stand high in the esteem and confidence of all their customers.

MARRIOTT & GRAHAM, MAKERS OF LOCOMOTIVE, PORTABLE, LAND AND MARINE BOILERS,
PLANTATION BOILER WORKS, BROOMLOAN ROAD, GOVAN, GLASGOW.

THE Plantation Boiler Works rank among the most noteworthy industrial establishments of their kind in Govan, and form the headquarters of the large and important business which has been carried on in this district by Messrs. Marriott & Graham since 1868. Mr. Graham retired from the firm in 1873, and soon afterwards Mr. Reuben Marriott, who is still the sole proprietor of the concern, built the present works in Broomloan Road. This establishment covers an area of about two acres, and comprises large boiler-sheds, several smaller sheds, stores and warehouse, and an engine and boiler-house. The place is admirably arranged, and the plant in operation is of the best and most effective type. Two powerful overhead travelling cranes sweep the main boiler- shop, while several smaller cranes in various positions afford valuable assistance. The firm employ upwards of one hundred hands, and every process of their large and interesting industry is carried out under the most favourable conditions, and upon the most approved modern methods. Messrs. Marriott & Graham are makers of all kinds of locomotive, portable, land and marine boilers, and rank among the leading Glasgow firms engaged in this trade. Their specialities in small boilers for yachts and launches are widely known, and are among the most esteemed productions of this class. Marriott’s patent vertical boiler is another speciality of a most successful character, and of which this firm are the sole makers. It has solid welded cross-tubes, which are a great source of strength and efficiency. Cornish boilers, with patent welded cross-tubes, are also produced at these works, and all kinds of rivetted and welded work in general come within the scope of the firm’s operations, such as tanks, chemical and brewing pans, and improved wrought welded boilers for hot water apparatus and various other purposes. Not long ago the firm issued a comprehensive illustrated price list and catalogue of their patented and improved specialities in wrought welded boilers, &c., and this will be found to contain full particulars of these excellent articles. Messrs. Marriott & Graham control a very large and widespread trade, and all the affairs of the business are directed with conspicuous ability and enterprise under Mr. Marriott's personal supervision. Drawings and estimates are furnished on application, and it should be said that this firm have been particularly successful in meeting the demand of the period for first-class work at reasonable prices, being associated in this direction by the liberal support of an extensive connection, and by the superior productive facilities at their command.

W. AND R. HATRICK & CO., WHOLESALE AND EXPORT DRUGGISTS,
152 TO 170, RENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW.

THE manipulation and widespread home and export distribution of all manner of drugs, pharmaceutical chemicals and preparations, finds an able representative and exponent at the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. W. Lindsay Hatrick, the present sole proprietor of a business which, under the style and title designated above, was organised as far back as the year 1860. Having outgrown its original accommodation, the business was transferred, in 1885, to its present more convenient and commodious quarters in Renfield Street. The premises occupied comprise a large and substantial four-storied building, with large basement stores; and a laboratory and well-equipped grinding mills at Bishop Street, where the machinery is driven by steam power. At Renfield Street the well-appointed offices are on the ground floor, while the second, third and fourth storeys are divided into laboratories and warerooms for the storage of druggists’ sundries and a large rolling stock. Messrs. Hatrick & Co.’s resources and facilities enable them to offer many special advantages to buyers both at home and abroad, and to execute all orders, however extensive or urgent they may be, in a prompt and satisfactory manner. The firm do a considerable business in indents for tea gardens and plantations, and can ship all tinctures and spirits from bond.

ROBERT GARDNER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TEA AND COFFEE MERCHANT,
171, MAIN STREET, BRIDGETON, GLASGOW.

THIRTY years have now elapsed, since this representative business was organised in the populous district of Bridgeton, under the able auspices of the late Mr. Robert Gardner. About six years ago, after the decease of Mr. Gardner, the business was continued by his family, with his son, Mr. Alexander Gardner, as the active and experienced manager. Eligibly located, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout, and contains a stock which has manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the leading sources of supply, both at home and abroad. The choicest growths and blends of Indian, Ceylon, and China teas, and fine freshly roasted coffees, have long been special features for which the house has been largely favoured, but in addition to these Mr. Gardner maintains a fairly exhaustive supply of select everyday groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith; British and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies of the highest order, and prime provisions of every kind in the way of butter and cheese. All these goods are maintained in the very finest condition, and are offered for sale at the lowest prices, and it is doubtless due to these facts, coupled with the prompt and courteous attention accorded to customers, that such an extensive and thriving business has been developed.

JOHN HORN, PRINTER, LITHOGRAPHER, AND STATIONER,
42, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS important and influential concern, which, forms one of the leading houses in the printing trade of Glasgow, was established fourteen years ago, under the title of Messrs. Horn & Connell, in Dunlop Street. For five years the business was conducted at this address, but the increasing popularity of the firm rendering a removal to more commodious quarters necessary, they took premises at 42, Argyle Street, where they are still located. Fully four years ago the partnership was dissolved, and since that time Mr. John Horn has been the sole proprietor. The premises now occupied for the purposes of this business are very extensive and commodious, and comprise a suite of three offices, warehouses, two case-rooms, stereo foundry, large machine room, which are all replete with the most modern and improved kind of machinery and plant. The work includes all branches of letterpress printing and lithographing, and every kind of commercial printing is also undertaken and executed in the very best style. The superior and artistic qualities of the work done by Mr. Horn has gained for him the confidence and patronage of public companies, banks, trade and insurance societies, and publishers of weekly and monthly magazines, his contracts in this department being exceptionally large and important. Mr. Horn also prints and publishes railway, tourists’, and steamboat guidebooks, &c., which are produced in the most attractive fashion, with lithographic covers and illustrated with well-drawn and engraved wood blocks*. The large circulation of these books, combined with the fact that they go amongst the best class of people, make them a first class advertising medium. The establishment is widely known for the excellence and effectiveness of their one, two, and three-colour posters, especially for the latter, which are largely used for railway companies, steamboats, and the Transatlantic liners. Special machinery is employed for every class of work, and a large number of hands are engaged under an experienced manager and various foremen, while the whole concern is managed with rare ability by the proprietor, who personally superintends every department, and thus guarantees the excellence of all the work turned out at his establishment. The firm is certainly one of the foremost in the trade, and the extensive and substantial connection that is maintained throughout the whole of Scotland is due entirely to the artistic merits of the work produced, and the personal and practical attention that Mr. Horn devotes to his flourishing business.

R. S. DICKSON, WHOLESALE SMALLWARE AND TRIMMING WAREHOUSEMAN,
164, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE history of this representative business dates from the year 1874, when it was founded by the present sole proprietor, Mr. Dickson, and since 1880 it has occupied the large and commodious premises at 164, Argyle Street. Here, in admirably arranged show-rooms, Mr. Dickson displays an immense stock of the latest novelties in fashionable dress and mantle trimmings, ruchings, edgings, braids, beaded bodice sets, vests, ornaments, buttons of every kind, buckles, waist-belts, skirt linings and hair cloth for lining the new shaped skirts, skirt braids, bodice steels, all sorts of fringes, laces, yarns, wools, haberdashery, and an infinite variety of small wares generally. Every requisite for dress and mantle-making departments is kept in stock by Mr. Dickson, and all special orders in this and other connections receive the most careful and prompt attention. There are many notable specialities in all branches of the trade to be seen at this warehouse, and the stock in its entirety is well worthy of a personal inspection. Mr. Dickson’s “show days” are on Tuesdays and Wednesdays throughout the season, and visitors in the trade will meet with every courtesy and attention. Of course, the business is exclusively a wholesale one. Mr. Dickson obtains his goods from the very best sources of supply in England and on the Continent, and he is supported by a large and influential connection in all parts of Glasgow and Scotland generally, having won the confidence of his customers by the unvarying excellence of his wares and the soundness of his commercial principles. A native of Amisfield, Dumfriesshire, Mr. Dickson came to Glasgow at an early age, and received his practical training in the great warehouse of Messrs. Stewart & McDonald, Buchanan Street. Subsequently he entered into business with Mr. Morrison at premises in Union Court, and on the expiration of that co-partnership in 1884 he took over the business a& 164, Argyle Street. In the administration of this thriving concern he employs his large experience to great advantage, and displays a degree of enterprise which has placed his house in the front rank of the trade it represents.
Telegraphic address: “Haberdashery, Glasgow.”

SPEEDIE BROTHERS, LIVE STOCK AGENTS,
233B, DUKE STREET, GLASGOW.

BOTH the members of the above firm, Messrs. John and Matthew Speedie, possess a thorough technical knowledge of all the details of the business, and they have also such an exceptional amount of commercial aptitude and such a spirit of liberality, evidencing itself in all their transactions, that they have deservedly gained a large measure of personal popularity among all with whom they have dealings. Messrs. Speedie Brothers’ headquarters are in Stirling, where they sell by auction every Thursday, and throughout the year they hold very large special sales for all classes of store and pedigree stock, their special sales of Highland cattle being the largest in Scotland, and Stirling the principal centre for the disposal of this class of stock. At their annual spring show and sale the average numbers of stock shown during the last four or five years have been as follows:— four to five hundred fat cattle, twelve to fifteen hundred fat sheep, fifty to sixty milch cows, as well as a large display of store stock. They also sell privately at all the principal fairs in Scotland. Their headquarters in Duke Street comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with all requisites for the prompt dispatch of business. The Messrs. Speedie have a spacious private cattle yard adjoining the offices, and conveniently opposite to the Cattle Market; while, in the Market itself, they have a sale ring and stand where, on Mondays, they sell by private treaty and on Wednesdays by public auction. The firm have also fully equipped establishments at Cupar, where they have sales by public auction every Tuesday. The numbers of the different classes of stock sold by the firm for the year 1893 comprised 552 horses, 44,267 cattle, 141,717 sheep, and 5,391 pigs. They conduct a large number of grass parks roups in the spring, and also a very large number of farm displenishing sales in the autumn, throughout the Lothians, Fifeshire, Perthshire, Kinross-shire, Clackmannanshire, and Stirlingshire. The partners of the firm also hold a number of farms and grazings in the counties of Fife, Perth, and Stirling. Both the principals are gifted with strong powers of organisation and administration; and thus they are able to personally supervise all the details of their extensive business.

ALEXANDER LAIRD, AMERICAN AND FRENCH PRODUCE IMPORTER,
28, WEST CAMPBELL STREET, GLASGOW.

THE importation and widespread distribution of American, French, and foreign produce of every description, and the exportation of similar products, principally to New Zealand, but also to several other parts of the world, finds an able representative at the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. Alexander Laird, who formed the nucleus of his extensive business a quarter of a century ago. The premises occupied are comprised in one large two-storied building at 28, West Campbell Street, with a warehouse entrance in Cadogan Street. They consist of a well-appointed office and showroom on the first floor, the remainder of the building forming a well- stocked warehouse. There is always on hand and ready for inspection a well-assorted quantity of samples of every kind of foreign produce, including American, French, Spanish, and other preserved goods, while particular attention is called to the preparations of the Patent Borax Company, Limited, for which Mr. Laird is the sole agent in Scotland. The business in all its branches is directed with the exemplary energy and ability that have formed the foundation of its past and present prosperity.

JOHN BOWMAN & CO., ENGINEERS,
19, NICHOLSON STREET, S.S., GLASGOW.

THIS well-known firm of engineers and merchants in contractors' plant and machinery commenced business in 1880, and have their headquarters at the above address in Nicholson Street, South Side, where they occupy large and admirably appointed premises. Here a fine display of machinery and engineering plant is made, embracing a wide range of apparatus for a great variety of purposes, and comprising also a considerable stock of the smaller kinds of miners' and contractors', quarry and builders’ requisites, such as pulleys, stone and ashlar shears, drills, picks, hammers, &c. Messrs. John Bowman & Co. are especially noted for their derrick cranes, portable cranes, foundry cranes, steam and hand hoists, winches, and lifting tackle of all kinds. They are also agents for Messrs. Larmuth & Co., of Salford, whose celebrated rock drills, rock-drill carriages, engines, air compressors, and mining plant are among their leading specialities. In addition to the warehouses and show-rooms in Nicholson Street, the firm have also Muirhouse Iron Works at 19, Maxwell Road, S.S., which are admirably equipped and where they chiefly engage in the repairing of machinery and boilers, and the manufacture of cranes and other contractors’ plant. For this work they keep a staff of thoroughly experienced and competent hands, and all general repairs can be carried out with promptitude and economy. The firm have a first-class reputation for the reliability of everything they supply, and their business is continuously increasing under the able management and personal supervision of the principal. We may add that Mr. John Bowman, the sole proprietor of this useful and prosperous concern, is a son of ex-Bailie Bowman, one of Glasgow's most respected citizens, whose premises in Nicholson Street are adjacent.

THOMAS MURDOCH & CO., IRISH AND CONTINENTAL PRODUCE AGENTS,
111, STOCKWELL STREET, GLASGOW.
Telegrams: “Mastiff, Glasgow.”

MR. Thomas Murdoch formed his present extensive business, now removed to Stockwell Street, in Bridgegate, some six years ago. The premises occupied are precisely adapted to the requirements of the vast business, and comprise a suite of offices replete with every modern facility and convenience, and a commodious, heavily stocked warehouse, where samples are available for careful inspection. In its early days the firm confined their attention to the importation of Irish produce, but during the past twelvemonth they have very largely extended their business by receiving consignments from the Continent as well. They are in touch with all the leading houses in Ireland and the Continent for the importation of Irish and Danish butters and eggs, and of the various grades and classes of margarine. Messrs. Murdoch’s business relations extend practically to every part of Scotland, being promoted sedulously through the agency of a well-organised staff of commercial travellers, amongst wholesale and retail grocers and provision merchants, and their house stands high in the estimation of a very large and widespread connection by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always characterised their business transactions.

J. CONCHAR & CO., WHOLESALE IRONMONGERS,
108, MAIN STREET (SOUTH SIDE), GLASGOW.

ESTABLISHED fifteen years ago, the above business has been conducted from the first in an enterprising and able manner. The proprietors are men of large experience in this complicated and diverse branch of commerce, and give their close personal attention to the concern in its entirety. The premises occupied are ample in size and thoroughly convenient in arrangement for the accommodation of the various stocks. The two large windows in Main Street always contain a finely displayed selection of the leading lines held by the firm. These collections may be looked upon as showing the present state of manufacturing in every class of goods exhibited. The shop is spacious and fitted up with everything requisite in the shape of counters, shelves, drawers, showcases, and every accessory, and the same may be said of the saloon or show-room at the rear, where the bulk of the stock is kept. The goods handled are recognised by the trade and private consumers as of superior quality, and a bond of confidence has been established between the patrons of the house and the proprietors, which is every day increasing in extent and strength. The supplies have been obtained from the best-known sources of supply, both at home and abroad. They include furnishing and cabinet ironmongery, all the principal items being represented by a wide and choice selection. Tools for every class of artisans are to be found here in ample abundance. The leading specialities of the firm are gasaliers and hall-lamps, kitchen ranges, and dining-room, drawing-room, and bedroom grates. Gas cooking-stoves are shown in great variety, among which are several improved specimens that deserve special recommendation on the threefold point of efficiency, price, and handsome appearance. By diligent attention to the wants of customers, and always supplying the most desirable class of goods, an extensive and influential connection has been established, and under vigorous management its permanence and increase seem fully assured. The partners are exceedingly popular in the trade, and deservedly command the respect and esteem of all with whom they are brought into contact, whether in the way of business or in private life.

A. FLETCHER & CO., MANUFACTURERS OF LADIES’ UNDERCLOTHING, CAPS, BABY LINEN, &C.,
37, MITCHELL STREET, AND 54, UNION STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS old-established and well-known firm commenced operations in 1857. From their original establishment in Miller Street, Messrs. Fletcher removed to Exchange Place, and thence, owing to greatly increased business, they came to their present quarters in Mitchell Street, acquiring at the same time suitable premises for their factory at 54, Union Street. The stock here is of a most comprehensive character, and embraces all the firm’s manufactures. Great care is bestowed upon the production of these goods, which range from the plainest to the most elaborately worked articles, and the variety thus secured is sufficiently large to meet almost every requirement. For quality of material, excellent workmanship, and superior finish, Messrs. A. Fletcher & Co.’s productions enjoy an eminent reputation. They are turned out under the most favourable conditions at the firm’s spacious factory in Union Street, which gives employment to a numerous staff of experienced hands, and is fully equipped with the best modern machinery and appliances for the important industry here carried on. In the matter of new and attractive designs in all classes of ladies' underclothing, baby-linen, fancy caps, &c., this firm are always in the front rank of the trade, and their enterprise in this respect has attracted a great increase of patronage in recent years. The firm manufacture for retailers only, and their widespread and representative connection includes most of the leading drapers and ladies’ outfitters in Glasgow, as well as in many of the large towns and cities of Scotland, England, and Ireland. They also do a considerable and increasing Colonial trade. Mr. James Fletcher, who is now the sole proprietor, has had the management of the concern for the past seventeen years, and has been largely instrumental by his energy and enterprise in advancing the house to its present prosperous and influential position in the trade.

HINSHAW & DARROCH, WHOLESALE WAREHOUSEMEN,
38 AND 76, HOWARD STREET, ST. ENOCH SQUARE, GLASGOW.

ALTHOUGH established only three years ago, already a position has been acquired in the trade second to that of very few houses. The managing partner is Mr. Archibald Darroch; this gentleman has had a long experience in this department of commerce, having gathered his knowledge from practical connection in responsible positions with some of the leading and most, influential firms. The premises occupied have been well selected, being in the midst of merchants and importers, and are capitally located in every respect. They are situated at 38 and 76, Howard Street, near St. Enoch Square, and comprise offices and spacious warehouses. No. 38 occupies a prominent corner position, with a frontage of about twenty-four feet in Howard Street, and of eighteen yards in Dixon Street, and having principal entrance and two show windows in the former thoroughfare, together with entrance and five show windows in the latter. The principal makes all his selections personally, and exercises unflagging energy in securing all the most saleable and choice goods. In variety, general high-class excellence, and value, the stocks the firm hold cannot be excelled, while the conditions under which the purchases are made enable the proprietors to quote the most favourable prices, and to offer their patrons such inducements as cannot readily be duplicated elsewhere. Some idea of the magnitude of the business may be formed from the following list of the departments:— Floorcloths and linoleums, hearth rugs and mats, bed chairs, and camp chairs, table baize, smallwares, perambulators, brushes and baskets, hardware and cutlery, handbags and purses, mirrors, writing-desks and workboxes, and electroplate. The business is principally wholesale, but a small and good-class retail trade is being done. The wholesale operations of the firm extend to every part of Scotland and Ireland, the interests of the house being looked after by a number of commercial travellers. Mr. Barroch is conducting the business with spirit and energy, and is continually adding new names to the list of his customers. By prompt execution of orders, novel and reliable goods, and moderate prices, he secures the confidence of all who come into business connection with him, and he is deservedly held in high esteem for his strict business integrity, genial and pleasant manners, and personal worth.

KINNAIRD & FERGUSON, QUEEN’S PARK FOUNDRY,
CAVENDISH STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS well-known and highly reputed firm of ironfounders originated upwards of thirty-five years ago, under the style of Kinnaird & Ferguson; but for the past twenty years the entire business has been in the hands of Mr. George Kinnaird, senior, and since his decease has been carried on by his son, who is row the sole proprietor. The premises, known as Queen’s Park Foundry, are of great extent, and the large area of ground at the disposal of the firm is almost wholly covered by the various buildings in Which their industrial operations are carried on. These buildings are of a substantial character, and have their main entrance in Cavendish Street, where the offices are situated. The equipment of the works is excellent, and the firm have called into requisition a large and valuable plant of the most effective modern machinery. They employ upwards of one hundred hands in the various departments of their industry, and their leading manufactures comprise all kinds of stoves, grates, and ranges of the better class, besides general castings for a great variety of purposes. The special feature of the stoves and grates made by; Messrs. Kinnaird & Ferguson consists in the elegant and artistic manner in which they are embellished with enamelled and encaustic tiles, in many new and beautiful patterns. The designs they produce in goods of this class are equal to anything of the kind in the market, and are so attractive as to be always in large request. The specialities of the firm are the Unique, Superb, Thistle, and Lividia patent open and close fire ranges, all under royal letters patent, and with many years yet to run. It is noteworthy that Messrs. Kinnaird & Ferguson carry out every process of their industry upon their own premises, including the grinding and fitting as well as the casting, pattern-making, &c. This will account for the superior finish that characterises all the firm's manufactures, a result obtained by careful supervision. The trade controlled by Messrs. Kinnaird & Ferguson is wide-spread and well connected, and all the affairs of the business are personally administered by Mr. Kinnaird with conspicuous ability and enterprise.

ALEXANDER DOBBIE & SON, CHRONOMETER AND NAUTICAL INSTRUMENT MAKERS, &c.,
44 AND 45, CLYDE PLACE, GLASGOW.

THIS old-established and highly-reputed firm was founded in the year 1841 by the late Mr. Alexander Dobbie, father of the present proprietor, Mr. John C. Dobbie. The business was first started at 20, Clyde Place, and was subsequently removed to the present very commodious and suitable premises, and during recent years it has expanded and increased, till now it is the largest business of its kind on the Clyde, if not in Britain. Here the firm have every facility for the special line of business they pursue, and they hold a large stock and make a fine display of their various productions in nautical instruments, chronometers, &c., for which they have an international reputation. Practically all the scientific requisites and appliances for navigation are obtainable at this well-known establishment, and the firm are also the agents for all the Admiralty publications of charts, books, &c., and also those of private publishers. They give special attention to that important branch of nautical instrument work, the adjusting of compasses in iron ships, and are largely patronised in this connection. The leading speciality of the house is, however, “Dobbie’s Patent Compass,” embodying improvements which have brought it into great favour in maritime circles. This compass bases its claims to approval upon three principal merits:- (1) Facilities for complete adjustment, which enable the master of a ship to make his compass correct when any change of deviation takes place consequent upon the natural diminution of the magnetism in a new ship; (2) The complete elimination of the quadrantal and heeling errors; (3) The great steadiness of the card, which keeps quite free from oscillation, usually caused in other compasses by the rolling of the ship, and in steam vessels excessive vibration. These points of superiority have been attained by a number of clever mechanical contrivances, the result of careful experiment and long experience, and the firm have issued a neat little illustrated pamphlet in which the said contrivances and their effects are fully described. In the same pamphlet will be found a list of the many large and notable shipping concerns that have adopted this compass, and also a selection from the numerous testimonials the firm have received from those who have used it. This pamphlet may be obtained on application to Messrs. Dobbie.

In 1887, this firm instituted at 44, Clyde Place, a nautical academy which has been highly successful. Here candidates for the various grades of Board of Trade certificates in the mercantile marine are thoroughly prepared for the examinations they have to undergo, and they also receive sound practical instruction in the art and science of navigation and seamanship. This academy is under the immediate personal charge of Captain James R. Knight, who passed his ordinary master’s examination in London, and his extra master’s examination at Glasgow. Captain Knight is a man of long and varied experience, having been in command in all classes of both sail and steam vessels trading to all parts of the world. Consequently he is thoroughly acquainted with the requirements of the maritime education of to-day, and well aware of what candidates at the examinations will be expected to know and do. Mr. John C. Dobbie, the head of this firm, is also a director of the house of T. S. Mclnnes & Co., Ltd., manufacturers of engineering instruments, 86, York Street, Glasgow. The London house is Dobbie, Son & Hutton, 113, Fenchurch Street, E.C., who are also agents for Messrs. McInnes & Co., Ltd.
Telegrams:— “Logglass, London,” “Compass, Glasgow.” Office telephone, 1,193; house telephone, No. 337.

THE GARNKIRK FIRE-CLAY COMPANY,
OFFICES AND SHOWROOMS: 243, BUCHANAN STREET, GLASGOW.

FEW industries have been so usefully developed in modern times as that of fire-clay working, and in this important line of manufacturing operations numerous well-known Scottish firms are engaged. Among them a position of well-earned distinction is held by the Garnkirk Fire-clay Company, whose works are at Garnkirk, near Glasgow, and who have their offices and show-rooms in Buchanan Street, and a depot for fire-bricks at the head of Glebe Street, St. Rollox. This notable concern was founded upwards of seventy years ago at Garnkirk, and has had a highly successful career in the manufacture of all kinds of fire-clay goods. The works cover an area of about thirty-five acres, on the Caledonian Railway line, about six miles out of Glasgow, and are intersected by branch lines which afford every convenience of transport. They are splendidly equipped for all the purposes of the industry, and occupy a property in which there is one of the most valuable deposits of fire-clay in the country — six hundred feet vertical of fire-clay minerals. It is worthy of mention that the Company started, in the first place, with the intention of working coal, but finding these extensive beds of fire-clay, they took to the manufacture of that article, and have been remarkably successful therein. One of the principal seams of clay is seven feet thick, and is worked at a depth of twenty-eight fathoms. It differs from other Scotch clays, being comparatively free from iron; and is of a dark colour from a small portion of carbonaceous matter. This latter, however, is expelled in the firing, leaving only silica and alumina. The quality is considered equal to that of the best Stourbridge clays, and the experience of many years has proved it to be eminently suited for the manufacture of the following articles, all of which are specialities of the Garnkirk Works:— Fire-bricks and blocks, to withstand the highest heats, for iron blast furnaces, puddling and steel furnaces, forge and rolling furnaces, potteries, glass furnaces, copper calcining furnaces, chemical works, coke ovens, boiler seat blocks, locomotive bricks, &c.; also special bricks for Siemens’ Patent Regenerative Gas Furnace, for which it is preferably specified by Mr. Siemens. Besides the above the Company are famous for their gas retorts and all necessary furnishings in fire-clay ware, flue-covers, ornamental chimney-cans, glazed sewerage pipes, vases, figures, fountains, and every description of terra-cotta work. They also supply fire-clay, either ground, unground, or fine selected, for crucibles, pots, and steel converters. For details and illustrations of the Company’s many manufactures, and for prices of the same, we must refer the reader to their excellent catalogues and price lists, which contain drawings of the numerous original and handsome designs in which fire-clay goods are turned out at the Garnkirk Works.

An immense wholesale home and export trade is carried on by this Company, whose manufactures have gained great favour in all parts of the United Kingdom and throughout the world, and whose resources are often heavily taxed to meet the widespread and increasing demand for their reliable goods. Mr. James Gillespie is now the sole principal of this great concern, and displays a commendable spirit of enterprise in its management. He keeps the works in a high state of productive efficiency, and exercises a constant personal supervision over the entire industry, the steady development of which has been in a large measure due to his able and energetic administration. The registered trade-mark of this firm is the word “Garnkirk,” which is stamped on all goods of their manufacture, and which is widely accepted as a guarantee of excellence. Telegraphic address: “Fireclay, Glasgow.”

PETER B. WILKIE & CO., TIMBER MERCHANTS,
45, MAXWELL ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE partners in this business are Mr. Peter B. Wilkie and Mr. James Dewar, and they carry on their trade as timber merchants under the foregoing designation. The business is conducted on the lines in vogue at the London and Liverpool centres, which is to have the timber cut at regular saw-mills and season it in specially constructed sheds. The premises occupied by this firm at 21 and 25, Maxwell Road, near Eglinton Toll, are so arranged, and they contain a large quantity of sawn timber which is now maturing. These timber stocks are in great variety, and include African, Mexican, and Honduras mahogany, American ash and birch, Danish oak, Canary wood, and other cabinet woods, Waney board wood, Pitch pine, Baltic deals and battens, and planks and boards of many kinds for floorings and linings. Other considerable stocks of timber are held at York Hill wharf and landing depot, as well as at the various saw-mills, where it lies ready for further manipulation. Messrs. Peter B. Wilkie & Co. are also importers of wood from Ireland, and frequently act as brokers for the shippers there. The large practical experience that Mr. Wilkie has acquired during a lengthy and intimate connection with the trade in some of the largest firms of timber merchants in Glasgow and Grangemouth, as well as a residence of eighteen months in Ireland, during which time he was engaged in the timber trade there, has been of immense advantage to him in this business, and has enabled him to acquire a large and increasing connection in the trade.

G. BURRELL & CO., SHIP STORE MERCHANTS, SHIP CHANDLERS, AND SAIL MAKERS,
5, WEST STREET, GLASGOW, S. S.

THE excellent record of this business goes back for thirty years, when it was established, in York Street, by Messrs. Burrell & Chamberlain. For the last eight years the firm have conducted their prosperous business, under the style and title of G. Burrell & Co., in the commodious premises which they now occupy in West Street. They comprise a large double-fronted warehouse ample enough, with its complete fittings, to admit of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large and varied stocks which the firm always hold. The situation is specially well adapted to the requirements of the trade. The warehouse is opposite the Kingston Dock, adjacent to York Street Ferry. At the rear is a well-appointed office, furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of clerical work. There is also a large amount of storage space in which are held heavy surplus stocks, in readiness for all demands. Messrs. G. Burrell & Co. possess every facility for the supply of all descriptions of ships’ stores for the cabin, the cook’s galley, the deck, and the engine-room at the shortest notice, and on the largest scale. They always hold large quantities of such necessaries as flour, butter, and rice, with tinned meats, fruits and fish. Their commissariat department also includes tea and coffee, sugar, ships’ bread and biscuit, and all descriptions of wines, spirits, and ales. The ship chandlery department, too, is thoroughly equipped, and comprises lamps, sails, ropes, and all other requirements. Of course the most valuable part of the stock in a comprehensive business of this class is held in bond, Messrs. Burrell & Co.’s bonded warehouse being in Dundas Lane. With all the principal sources of supply for the various descriptions of goods in which the firm deal, they maintain such intimate and extensive relations that they are able to offer the most favourable terms to their customers, in the list of which are included the names of many of the most eminent houses connected with the shipping trade of the Clyde.

J. & P. WILSON, LAPPET AND MUSLIN MANUFACTURERS,
167, INGRAM STREET, GLASGOW.
WORKS: MARQUIS STREET, BRIDGETON; AND KILSYTH.

OPERATIONS were commenced by the above firm half a century ago under the same title as now used, and under that designation the house has won its reputation and high standing among similar establishments in the North. The premises at Ingram Street are situated in the midst of manufacturers’ and merchants’, and comprise a suite of offices, general and private, large warehouses, and packing-room on the first floor of an extensive block of building. An adequate staff is employed here for controlling the commercial and forwarding part of the business, the manufacturing being carried on at the firm’s works at Marquis Street, Bridgeton, and at Kilsyth. Both factories are large in extent, and thoroughly well equipped with looms and appliances of the latest construction. A numerous body of workpeople is employed, and in every department there prevails a system of discipline which must tend to the production of the best class of goods under the most favourable conditions. The business carried on consists in the manufacture of every description of plain and figured muslins. These goods are well known in the trade and everywhere regarded as thoroughly reliable and high-class articles. The muslins manufactured are specially adapted to various uses, such as for dress goods, overalls, window blinds and curtains, each variety being of the very best material, make, and finish. Speaking generally, they have no superiors in the markets, and wherever they are once introduced they create a permanent demand; a good substantial connection has been established among the local shipping houses, the firm’s goods finding ready sales in every part of the world. The proprietors are thoroughly practical and expert manufacturers, possessing an intimate knowledge of every detail of this important industry and the requirements of the most critical patrons. In all their transactions they are strictly fair and honourable, and they are no less respected in social life than in business circles.

W. B. MACIVER & CO., MERCHANTS AND IMPORTERS,
30, GEORGE SQUARE, GLASGOW.

THIS influential house was founded in 1871, and from the beginning has been splendidly organised. Its career has been eminently successful and there can be no question of the beneficial influences it has exercised among its contemporaries. The premises occupied are well situated in the centre of the famed George Square. They comprise offices which are large and commodious and admirably arranged, and fully equipped and furnished to meet the requirements of the business. Messrs. MacIver & Co. carry on operations 6n a very extensive scale as merchants in all kinds of goods, shipping principally such commodities as are most suitable for the West African and Morocco markets, notably printed cotton goods and dress pieces. The firm’s well-established relations with manufacturers enable them to select the best class of goods for their purpose, and to place them on the market at prices which are sure to induce ready sales. All the leading novelties are obtained, as soon as introduced to the trade, and the enterprise and energy infused into the management insure the increased success and prosperity of the firm. Extensive and valuable relations are maintained with the leading business centres in West Africa and Morocco, and some idea of the trade may be formed from the fact that a numerous staff of clerks is required to control the counting-house business. The firm also import African produce in large variety, buying direct and disposing of the commodities to the leading merchants and manufacturers in the United Kingdom. The specialities handled in this branch of the business are gold-dust, ivory, palm-oil, and indiarubber, which are collected at their various stores in West Africa, and are there prepared for shipment to this country. These stores are some of the largest and best constructed factories in these districts. Under the able personal administration of Mr. Charles MacIver, the house has obtained the highest reputation for the quality and superiority of its goods, and is meeting the extensive demands of its widespread connection in the promptest and most satisfactory manner. He is well known in commercial and local circles, and is much respected for his inflexible integrity.

WILLIAM STEVENSON & CO., LEAD MANUFACTURERS AND METAL MERCHANTS,
74, 76, AND 80, BROWN STREET, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. William Stevenson & Co., who are extensive metal merchants as well as lead manufacturers, have been established upwards of forty years, and have a very large and noteworthy place at the above address in Brown Street. The metal warehouse contains a very large and comprehensive stock, which is kept in a constant state of completeness, so that all orders can be executed without delay. Adjoining are the works which are fully equipped with the most perfect modern plant and machinery. Messrs. Stevenson produce large quantities of sheet-lead, lead pipes, lead composition, and block-tin pipes, lead wire and lead washers, and also turn out a variety of sanitary appliances. They execute orders for gas and water fittings, bell fittings, and plumbers’ furnishings, and are widely and favourably known for the excellent quality of all their productions in these lines. A speciality is made of zinc manufacture, and also of block tin tubes for gas and chemical works. For these latter the firm have long enjoyed a high reputation. Messrs. William Stevenson & Co. employ a numerous staff of skilled and experienced hands in their works, and are always busy in meeting the demands of their widespread and constantly increasing home and export trade. A large amount of export business is done, and at home the firm have an influential connection among ship-builders, contractors, and other large users of their products in all parts of the country. The entire business is under the personal direction of the sole proprietor, Mr. Robert Stevenson, a gentleman of large practical experience and sound commercial principles, whose straightforward methods and careful attention to his customers’ wishes are much appreciated by all with whom he has dealings.
Telegraphic address:— “Lead, Glasgow.** Telephone No. 3275.

It may be mentioned that Mr. Stevenson is the principal partner in the firm of Stevenson & Turner, Pilot Street, Belfast, in the same line of business.

THE COUSTONHOLM WEAVING COMPANY,
POLLOKSHAWS, GLASGOW.

THE manufacture of muslin, as one of the staple textile industries of the Glasgow district, is conducted under the most favourable conditions possible at the Coustonholm Weaving Company’s establishment at Pollokshaws. This well-ordered business was founded forty years since, and its record has been one of uninterrupted progress. All the best traditions of the establishment are maintained by the present sole proprietor, Mr. Alexander Martin, under whose enlightened control the commercial influence of the Coustonholm Weaving Company is constantly being extended. The premises, which are very extensive, covering an area of about two acres, comprise a series of weaving sheds, with outbuildings for warping, sorting, and packing processes. The power looms in use represent the most approved modern type, and the excellence of the working plant constitutes the establishment a model of its class. The productions are plain and figured muslins, which are, for the most part, intended for the foreign and Colonial markets, and chiefly for India. They are well known in the trade all over the world, and are regarded as invariably representing standard qualities. So large is the demand and the consequent normal output that the regular staff employed includes four hundred hands or more.

ANDREW CAMPBELL & CO., SHIP CARPENTERS, JOINERS, BOAT-BUILDERS, BLOCK-MAKERS, BLACKSMITHS, AND PAINTERS,
SPRINGFIELD QUAY, GLASGOW.

AS far back as twenty-six years ago this well-known and eminently successful firm was established under the title of Messrs. Campbell, McDonald, & Co., and for fourteen years their extensive business of shipbuilders, joiners, boat-builders, block-makers, blacksmiths, and painters was carried on under that name. Twelve years ago, however, Mr. Andrew Campbell took over all the interests of the firm, his son, Mr. Archibald Campbell, joining the firm shortly after. About three years ago the firm moved into their present quarters at Springfield Quay. These splendidly situated premises are close to the Clyde Street Ferry, and command a fine river prospect. The large three-story building, constructed of red and white bricks, cannot fail to be seen from the river steamers, and the name of the firm is painted in bold letters across the length of the building. On entering the gateway the business offices and paint stores are to the left, and an extensive yard leads to the workshops and general stores. Here is to be found the firm’s stock of timber, masts, spars, and oars, sawn boards and dunnage-wood blocks, &c., which are stored in astonishingly large quantities. To the mind of the outsider the problem resolves itself — how can one firm find use for so much material for in addition to these articles there is also a huge selection of iron chains, anchors, and every requisite connected with shipping and steamers of all descriptions. The blacksmiths' shop and the joiners’ shop adjoin the stores, and there is every facility for the docking of ships for repairs. The firm employs a large staff of competent workmen, and squads of even up to over one hundred and fifty men can be despatched with material to repair ships and iron steamers, either in dock or in the river at the shortest possible notice. Both members of the firm are thoroughly practical men, and personally superintend their extensive business, and all works undertaken by the firm are completed to their satisfaction, and that of their numerous patrons.
The telegraphic address is “Shipwright, Glasgow,” while their number on the telephone is 1,567.

JOHN M. PICKEN, PASTRYCOOK AND REFRESHMENT CONTRACTOR,
375, 377, AND 379, PAISLEY ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. Picken commenced operations in the premises he still occupies, some twelve years ago, and soon brought his house into prominence and popularity. An eminently gratifying progress has been maintained, every year in passing adding to the efficiency of his resources, and the extent and value of his clientele. Extensive and commodious premises are occupied in a leading business thoroughfare, and having an extended and attractive frontage of sixty feet in length, together with five massive plate-glass windows, and two entrances. The interior is fitted up in a tasteful style, and the dining and tea rooms are replete with every comfort and luxury. The extensive bakeries are adjoining, where an immense trade is done in making plain, fancy, and other kinds of bread, cakes, &c., a great speciality with the house in this department being wedding-cakes, shortbread, currant-buns, and seed-cakes. The kitchens are equipped with the latest and most improved apparatus and appliances for the efficient control of the business, and an accomplished chef presides over a numerous body of well-trained assistants. Mr. Picken is an able and experienced caterer, and is every day providing first-class luncheons, dinners, teas, and suppers for hundreds of patrons. The menu is varied daily, while the promptness, cleanliness, and style with which everything is served cannot but recommend the house. The establishment is celebrated for its mutton-pies, and no less so for its fish and tripe suppers, which are largely patronised by city men. The superior confectionery made by Mr. Picken needs a special word of praise. But the proprietor’s principal reputation has been obtained as a refreshment contractor — in providing in summer-time for picnic and excursion parties; in the winter, for evening parties, soirees, and balls, and all the year round for wedding breakfasts, banquets, and convivial gatherings.

The able proprietor has contracted for dining as many as one thousand persons at a time, and larger numbers than this can be successfully provided for, if due notice be given, the resources of the house, after a dozen years of varied experience and continual progress, being practically unlimited. Mr. Picken is often called upon to supply the banquet for those attending the trial trips of steamers, and on these occasions he always provides every accessory. The same remark holds good at the camp messes, and similar gatherings, for which his services are retained. It should be noticed that Mr. Picken attends personally to all banquets and parties placed in his hands, supervising and directing his numerous and well- trained corps. At the memorable and highly successful Glasgow Exhibition of 1888, Mr. Picken distinguished himself as the only individual caterer — all the others being companies. On that occasion he gave ample proof of his resources as a restaurateur, and so well did he arrange to meet all possible requirements that his perfectly served luncheons, dinners, and teas will long be an agreeable remembrance to hundreds of visitors to the attractions then set forth on Kelvinside. Wisely recognising the fact that no one requires more careful gastronomic attention than the man who is out for a day’s sight-seeing, Mr. Picken left nothing undone to please his patrons and sustain his reputation, and his dining and tea rooms soon became a noted and popular feature of the exhibition, contributing largely to the enjoyment and satisfaction of visitors.

In addition to his chief establishment in Paisley Road, Mr. Picken has excellent licensed premises at 69, Shields Road, affording superior facilities for a wholesale and retail wine and spirit trade, and enabling him to supply all the wants of his customers in this direction. Mr. Picken is an attentive and obliging gentleman, one who can be thoroughly relied upon to carry out whatever he undertakes with absolute punctuality. He is exceedingly popular with all ranks of people in Glasgow and the surrounding districts, and is held in high esteem as a thoroughly skilful restaurateur, an honourable business man, and a genial and courteous gentleman.

ANDREW CLEMENT & SON, PRODUCE IMPORTERS AND PROVISION MERCHANTS,
21 TO 27, SOUTH ALBION STREET, GLASGOW.

LIKE many of the large industrial and manufacturing establishments of the present day, the huge business now controlled by Messrs. Andrew Clement & Son had a modest beginning thirty years ago in the premises known in Glasgow as the “Cheese Market.” Mr. Andrew Clement, the senior partner, commenced as a cheese merchant, and has gradually and safely extended business till his firm has become the most extensive importers into this country of butter, cheese, and other provisions. The premises occupied by the firm in South Albion Street are immensely large, having great floorage space with flat above, which, for facility of working, is connected with the ground floor by a powerful hoist. The whole area is fixed with extra strong shelving, on which are piled such quantities of cheese and butter as are seldom or ever seen together in this country, a sight of which would make the uninitiated stare with wonderment. To the front of the large building is a suite of splendid offices, substantially fixtured and in which are employed a full clerical staff. During the development of his business Mr. Clement senior had some years ago occasion from time to time to visit America in the furtherance of Ms interests, and while there he took particular notice of the scientific and economical manner in which the large cheese and butter factories of the United States were conducted, and he determined to turn his acquired knowledge of these matters to good account in this country. He, therefore, in conjunction with Mr. Robert McCracken, a most enterprising Wigtownshire farmer, commenced in the year 1882 the creamery called “Dunragit,” which is situated about six miles from the town of Stranraer in the extreme south-western district of Scotland. After surmounting the obstacles almost always attending the starting of a new venture, the Dunragit Creamery became an established success, and the name (under the heading of the United Creameries, Limited) is now extensively known over all parts of the three kingdoms for the excellent quality of its production of margarine, the purity and sweetness of its fresh butter, and the usefulness and economy of its oleine cheese. The success attending the operations of the Dunragit Creamery encouraged Mr. Clement and Mr. McCracken to begin another creamery at Tarff, Kirkcudbrightshire, to which they have given the rather euphonious name of “Valleyfield,” and soon thereafter they established a third creamery at Sorbie in another part of Wigtownshire. These three creameries — Dunragit, Valleyfield, and Sorbie — are situated in the midst of the finest pastoral land in Scotland, the adjoining counties of Ayr, Wigtown, Dumfries, and Kirkcudbright being the most celebrated in the Kingdom for their rich pastures and equally famous for their superior dairy cattle and likewise for their high-class farming.

Recently Mr. Clement and Mr. McCracken, the originators of this vast concern, wisely resolved for business purposes to convert these several creameries into a limited company, under the provisions of the Limited Companies Act, to which many of the well-to-do farmers of the south-western district subscribed, as also a large number of the merchants and traders doing business with the company, thereby giving them a very special and substantial interest in the welfare of the huge undertaking, which was registered under the title of “The United Creameries, Limited.” The chairman of this limited company is Mr. Alexander Osborne, one of the honoured citizens of the city of Glasgow. These United Creameries being a limited and, therefore, to some extent a public company, there is no breach of confidence in giving figures from the last audited balance to illustrate the magnitude of their operations. The authorised capital is £60,000, of which £45,000 is fully paid up, and against which the balance shows property and assets to the value of £53,696 18s. 7d. In this valuation are included over one thousand pigs, which are fed for the most part on whey and skimmed milk. During the financial year the sales of butter, cheese, margarine, milk, farm produce, and pigs amounted to a total of £153,647 13s. 3d.

The quantity of milk received into the creameries daily amounts to an average of twelve thousand gallons, all of which, after being tested, is immediately operated on, first by separation, then scalding, then refrigerated, when it is put into suitable vessels and sent to all parts of the country, and it is affirmed that this is the most wholesome milk that can be used at table. The cream resulting is put into sealed vessels for better preservation, keeping fresh for fourteen days, and in this manner it is sent great distances. A portion of the milk is retained for treatment with the animal fat that forms the basis of margarine, which forms one of the large items of the company’s productions. These come under various headings of separated milk, cream, fresh butter, margarine, and oleine cheese. Mr. William Clement, a cousin of the originator of these concerns, whose office and stores are in East Nile Street, Glasgow, has obtained the agency for the sale of the company’s fresh butter and cream, which he distributes daily all over Glasgow and all the populous places of Scotland, sending fresh butter to most parts of the Highlands during the summer holiday and excursion season. It is, however, on the enterprising firm of Messrs. Andrew Clement & Son that the Creameries Company have to rely for the extensive distribution of their various productions, and for this purpose they have established agencies in London, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Leeds, and several other great centres in England. The creameries are connected with the Port Patrick Railway, which is the joint property of the Caledonian, Glasgow, and South-Western, the London and North-Western, and the Midland Railways, and, therefore, give direct access to all the principal portions of the United Kingdom.

Such are the remarkable facilities of the United Creameries Company, Limited, and show the superior judgment and foresight of the original projectors. It is, however, not alone to the Creameries Company that the Messrs. Clement devote their energies. Their other business connections extend largely to the United States and Canada, and likewise to our Colonies of New Zealand and Australia. The senior Mr. Clement in his earlier years opened up the American trade of the firm as stated. He more recently visited the Colonies referred to and formed valuable business connections with the dairy farmers there, and in consequence is now receiving from the Antipodes from forty to sixty tons per week of the most excellent butter, the quality being so good that it is fast ousting the Danish butter from our home markets. The firm being resolved to be “up to date” in all matters relating to their special business, have deputed Mr. Clement, the junior partner, to proceed along with his brother to Australia, where they now are, opening up new Channels of business in the same direction, while Mr. Clement senior presides over and controls with an agreeable courtesy his large establishment in South Albion Street.

JAMES RITCHIE & CO., MANUFACTURERS,
77, QUEEN STREET, GLASGOW.

A specially important branch of the textile industry is very successfully exemplified by the above-named firm, who have recently become middle- or high-class productions in fancy cotton and woollen goods for dress and skirting purposes. Messrs. James Ritchie & Co. commenced their extensive business in 1843, and originally occupied premises on the opposite side of the court, but from the beginning, the concern manifested a tendency towards continuous growth and development, extending its scope and resources very rapidly, and eventually the present more commodious premises were acquired. These are most centrally situated in the fine business thoroughfare of Queen Street, and embrace spacious and convenient warehouse and sale-room accommodation, with well-appointed offices all on the one flat, whilst the flat above is utilised as a pattern-weaving shop. Both flats have the advantage of an excellent light— a circumstance of great importance in view of the fact that beauty and variety of colouring are constantly aimed at in the firm’s productions. Very extensive stocks are held in the warehouse, and in the course of a superficial survey of the many attractive textiles here shown we note that Messrs. James Ritchie & Co. make a special feature of fleshers’ aprons. These are produced in all the latest styles and colours, novelty of design being in all cases a special characteristic. Many of the new shades and patterns of skirtings that came under our notice were exceedingly pretty and effective. These manufactures reflect high credit upon the firm’s practical skill and productive resources, and we were not surprised to find the weaving-shop fitted up in the most complete modern style. Indeed, only a large and complete equipment could enable the firm to keep up a large output and maintain the high standard of excellence that distinguishes all their goods. Messrs. James Ritchie & Co. have rapidly developed a very extensive trade, and their connection is widespread among the leading wholesale firms and shipping houses. Through the latter they send their manufactures to all parts of the world. The house is well represented by travellers throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the principal export trade is done with Australia, Norway, Sweden, and Canada, the whole business being most capably administered under the direct personal supervision of the present sole proprietor, Mr. William Ritchie, whose commercial methods meet with unqualified approval and inspire general confidence. The firm’s resident agents are — London: Messrs. Lillie & Pollock, 21, Gresham Street; Manchester: Mr. William Clague, St. Margaret’s Chambers, Newton Street; Bradford: Mr. H. Simpson, 6, Swaine Street.

THE FORTH GLASS WORKS (PROPRIETORS: MESSRS. A. M. ALLAN & CO.),
FIRHILL ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE reputation which Glasgow possesses as an important centre of the glass manufacturing industry has, during the last quarter of a century, been considerably augmented by the magnitude of the operations conducted at the admirably equipped Forth Glass Works. This extensive establishment was founded in 1868, by Messrs. R. B. Watson & Co., who created the nucleus of the valuable connection which was materially extended by their successors, the present proprietors, who acquired the business in 1874, since which date it has undergone several important developments. The premises, which are conveniently situated on the banks of the Forth and Clyde Canal, cover an acre of ground, and in their equipment constitute a model of their class. They comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. The telephone number is 22, and the registered telegraphic address is “Tumbler, Glasgow.”

The industrial departments are fitted up throughout with all the most approved modern appliances for facilitating the processes of production. The several buildings include three glass-houses, a pressing-house; packing-rooms, with all the adjuncts for the rapid expedition of goods; and a warehouse in which are held large stocks of the specialities which have made the reputation of the firm. All the machinery is driven by a powerful steam-engine. Messrs. A. M. Allan & Co. are large manufacturers of all kinds of table glass, such as water jugs, tumblers, butter dishes, &c. They also make great quantities of clear glass bottles, such as are used by medical men and chemists. The valuable and ever-growing connection of the house extends all over the United Kingdom, amongst wholesale glass and china dealers, and glass-bottle merchants. Throughout the trade generally, the productions of this firm are well known and are in constant demand; thus the output is so large that, notwithstanding the economy of labour which is effected by the excellence of the working plant, the firm give employment to a staff of skilled workmen varying from seventy to a hundred in number. The principals, who personally supervise all the details of the business, industrial and commercial, keep constant touch with their customers and their special requirements, by the help of an efficient body of travelling representatives.

LOBNITZ & CO., ENGINEERS AND SHIPBUILDERS,
RENFREW.

AMONGST the great engineering and shipbuilding houses on the Clyde, a position of unique importance is held by the firm of Messrs. Lobnitz & Co., of Renfrew, as the result of their notable success in the introduction of certain special classes of vessels, and of machinery for use in connection therewith, for canal excavation and similar purposes. This firm owes its existence, and, in a great measure, its distinguished place in the engineering world, to the large technical knowledge, combined with the exceptional energy and enterprise, of Mr. Lobnitz, the present senior partner, and who, esteemed by his neighbours of all social degrees, has lived to see the establishment take its place amongst the leading shipbuilding yards of the world. With Mr. Lobnitz are associated, as members of the firm, Mr. W. A. Young and Mr. Frederick Lobnitz, both of them highly accomplished mechanical engineers, gifted with much commercial aptitude and administrative abilities. The works of the firm, which cover no less an area than fifteen acres, occupy a very convenient situation. A siding of the Glasgow and South-Western Railway runs into the yard, and the Clyde, which is deep and broad at this point, affords great facilities for the launching of the large steamers which are frequently built at Messrs. Lobnitz’s yard. The facilities afforded by the river, in this regard, are largely the result of the employment of some of the specialities in dredging appliances which are produced by the firm.

The premises include a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt dispatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The registered telegraphic address is “Lobnitz, Renfrew.” The works are on the Admiralty list, and are absolutely complete in themselves, with large building slips, joiner and cabinet shops, saw-mill, engine and boiler shops, &c. The industrial departments are equipped throughout with all the most recent applications of modern mechanical engineering science to the business of shipbuilding and cognate industries. So excellent is the working plant throughout that the firm turn out work of the highest class very rapidly, while, the cost of production being reduced to the minimum by the economies effected in labour, they are able to make most moderate quotations in their estimates. The premises comprise a wet dock with sheerlegs capable of raising a hundred tons.

Messrs, Lobnitz & Co. are extensive builders of all sizes of ocean and passenger vessels, as well as high-class cargo steamers, yachts, and launches. All vessels are completely built, engined, and fitted out ready for sea within their own works, and their paddle and screw engines, boilers, &c., are well known in the world of marine engineering for their excellence of design, materials, and workmanship. One of the specialities which has made the firm famous is their light-draught, high-speed, stem-wheel steamer, which is made specially for use on shallow rivers. But the firm is perhaps known best all over the world as the makers of the Lobnitz Patent Sand and Pump Hopper Dredgers, which are regularly used by the Suez Canal Company, and others who have the largest experience of this class of work. The firm’s Couloir or Long Shoot Dredgers are, again, the most rapid and economical machines known, when canals or channels have to be cut through land where the “spoil” can be discharged directly on to the banks. Their Marine Ladder Dredgers, whether hopper dredger, or barge-loading dredger, has the advantage of being navigable to any part of the world; while their beautifully ingenious special Rock-Excavating Dredger was built by Messrs. Lobnitz & Co. to operate on some very hard rock at the Suez end of the great canal. This system is far more rapid and less costly than explosives, and is certain in its action. A modification of the system is found in Lobnitz’s patent rock-cutting rams, for use on land. These specialities, and others, are lucidly explained and admirably illustrated in a beautiful catalogue issued by the firm. The numbers of skilled workmen who are employed by them necessarily vary in proportion to the magnitude of the contracts undertaken, but the permanent staff always includes several expert specialists in the various departments.

J. H. CARRUTHERS & CO., ENGINEERS,
POLMADIE IRON WORKS, HAMILTON STREET, POLMADIE, GLASGOW.

DURING the past eight years the above-named firm have been carrying on an important business at Polmadie, and have gained a prominent position among the representative engineering concerns of the district. The business was started here by Mr. J. H. Carruthers, who remains the sole proprietor, and under whose energetic management these works have been brought to their present high state of operative efficiency. The premises are large and admirably arranged, and display very complete equipment in all departments. The machinery and steam plant are of the best modern type, and there are excellent facilities for the conduct of a large engineering trade. The various processes of an interesting and important industry are carried out in a masterly manner, and the work turned out is remarkable for sound quality and first-class finish. Steam pumps are the speciality of Messrs. J. H. Carruthers & Co., and for these they enjoy a very high reputation. Their duplex steam pumps for boiler feeding and other purposes are much esteemed, and are always in request. They also make high-speed steam-engines and various important classes of machinery, in all of which they maintain a uniform standard of excellence and reliability. The firm’s trade is widespread and steadily increasing, and they enjoy the support and confidence of a very valuable connection, including home and foreign governments. Mr. Carruthers, whose practical attainments as an engineer and mechanician are of a high order, personally supervises the entire business and directs its affairs with the enterprise and energy that are indispensable to success in these competitive days. He is to be congratulated upon the honourable position he has gained in the trade within a comparatively short space of time.
Telegraphic address: “Hoisting, Glasgow.” Telephone No. 3,601.

DAVID CROSS, SEED MERCHANT AND FLORIST, &c.,
138, QUEEN STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS business was founded as recently as January, 1891. Mr. Cross, however, brought to bear upon this concern a very valuable experience gained during a twenty-eight years’ association with the noted firm of Alexander Cross & Sons, Hope Street, Glasgow, and marked success has attended his enterprise. He occupies well-appointed and commodious premises at the above address in Queen Street, opposite the Royal Exchange, where there are excellent conveniences for the conduct of the trade, including superior storage accommodation. The special feature of the trade is vegetable and flower seeds, of which a large and comprehensive stock is always on hand. The windows of the shop make an exceptionally fine display of all the choice flowers and plants of each current season, and this attractive show is kept up all the year round. High-class wreaths and bouquets, beautiful table plants, and remarkably large and handsome palms, indiarubber plants, araucarias, &c., for decorative purposes, are specialities of this house; and Mr. Cross’s superb displays of plants of this class not only attracted great attention at the Glasgow Horticultural Society’s Autumn Show this year (1893), but obtained a first-class certificate of merit from the judges. Mr. Cross imports hyacinths and all other varieties of bulbs of the choicest quality direct from the most noted sources of supply. He also has a high reputation for roses, deciduous trees and shrubs, evergreens, climbers, fruit trees and bushes, and all culinary plants; while his agricultural seeds have gained a great name for quality and reliability. This department is receiving the special attention due to its importance, and Mr. Cross is always prepared to meet the requirements of farmers. His stock is particularly complete in the matter of clovers, timothy, perennial ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, and natural grass seeds, which are all listed at moderate prices. Mr. Cross personally supervises, and enjoys the confidence of a good connection.

JOHN LITHGOW & SON, STEAM-POWER PRINTERS,
76, WEST HOWARD STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS business was established in 1876, and originally occupied premises in Ann Street. From the very commencement, however, the concern manifested a tendency towards continuous growth and development; and eventually Messrs. Lithgow were fortunate in acquiring the present more commodious premises in West Howard Street. These comprise extensive and well-arranged composing and press rooms, containing a very large assortment of old-style and modern type, litho.-rooms and paper stores. In each department everything that facilitates the dispatch of business is ready at command. The principal feature of the business is colour printing, the firm laying themselves out to execute colour work, posters, &c., of every description. It would, indeed, be difficult to find anything of its kind better than the work this house produces in pamphlets, reports, programmes, &c., &c., and an equal amount of praise is due to all the commercial and artistic printing turned out at these works. A number of thoroughly experienced printers are engaged. The connection, which is very extensive, has mainly accrued through the reliability and high excellence of the firm’s work, and the economical, prompt, and satisfactory manner in which all orders are executed. The whole concern under the constant personal supervision of the proprietors, is conducted on the soundest commercial principles, and the marked success that has thus far attended its operations fully justifies the anticipation of its development into one of the largest and most important institutions of its kind in the city of Glasgow.

J. WHYTE, PACKING-BOX MAKER,
200 AND 202, ROTTENROW (OFF JOHN STREET, CITY), GLASGOW.

BUSINESS operations were commenced in 1884 by Messrs. W. Patterson & Co., who were followed by Messrs. Foster & Co. Subsequently transactions were conducted under the title of Dunn & Whyte, and in 1893, Mr. John Whyte, son of the last-named partner, became the sole head of the concern. Mr. Whyte is a practical and experienced workman, thoroughly conversant with the trade, and cognisant of the special requirements of the city in his line. He has laid himself out to supply these wants and can offer such inducements to users as can hardly fail to insure their commands. Ample and commodious premises are occupied, consisting of various single-storey buildings with a compact office at the entrance. The equipment includes every desirable mechanical aid in the shape of saws, planing-machines, grooving-machines, &c., driven by steam-power. A force of about twelve skilled hands is employed. Among the numerous and influential firms that patronise the house, particular mention may perhaps be made here of that of Messrs. Arthur & Co., the most extensive dry goods merchants in Scotland. Mr. Whyte is giving his close personal attention to the business, and is displaying much ability and energy in seeing that the wants of customers are supplied. He can be relied upon to give even satisfaction.

SOMERVAIL & CO., BUILDERS OF STEEL AND IRON BRIDGES, ROOFS, AND GENERAL STRUCTURAL WORKS,
DALMUIR, NEAR GLASGOW.

A very material addition was made in 1887 to the mechanical engineering resources of the Clyde Valley by the establishment of the already famous firm of Messrs. Somervail & Co. The notable success which, within a comparatively limited period, has thus been achieved by the firm is the result of the strong personality of Mr. Peter Alexander Somervail, who is an accomplished mechanical engineer, possessed of an exceptional degree of practical skill and knowledge, combined with a large amount of commercial aptitude. The works, which are known as the Dalmuir Bridge and Roof Works, cover a large area, and, for purposes of transportation, are situated most conveniently between the Helensburgh branch of the North British Railway and. the Forth and Clyde Canal, with both of which the firm have convenient communication for the reception and forwarding of goods. At the entrance to the works is a fine suite of handsomely-appointed general and private offices (including drawing-offices), which are furnished with every possible requisite for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The registered telegraphic address is: “Somervail, Dalmuir.” To facilitate the conduct of their extensive commercial operations in London, the firm have a fully-equipped branch office at 7, Laurence Pountney Hill, E.C.

The series of buildings utilised for the industrial departments is substantially constructed of brick, and the roofs are slated. Everything which matured experience could suggest, and which a judicious expenditure of capital could command, has been provided in the shape of the most approved modern appliances for economising labour, and perfecting results in such processes as the planing, punching, boring, and bending of iron, as well as in other operations requisite for the production of the specialities which have made the reputation of the house. Messrs. Somervail & Co. have every facility for the execution of all sorts of general engineering work. They are best known, however, as builders of steel and iron bridges, roofs, and other structural works, and also as merchants for the supply of builders’ girders and rolled beams, cast-iron work, tanks, &c. Of late years the firm have successfully made a speciality of the construction of railway bridges, and for this and kindred classes of work they have, whilst these lines are passing through the press, accepted orders which will keep their works going almost day and eight during the remainder of 1894. In the course of 1893 they completed the bridges — no fewer than nineteen, of different spans — for the Forfar and Brechin Railway Company. Of these the two most important were the bridge over the South Esk, and that over the Noran Water. The firm, during the same annual period, also completed the Mary hill contract for the Lanarkshire and Dumbartonshire Railway Company, including the erection of five bridges, the most important of which is that over the North British Railway, near Possilpark. In the erection of this bridge the resources of Messrs. Somervail & Co. came triumphantly through a severe test, as, in order to avoid delay in the North British traffic, the whole of the work had to be executed on a single Sunday, and it was carried through without mishap. They also completed the bridges on the Alloa to Kincardine Railway. In the work there were no fewer than thirty-three bridges, the largest of which was over the Dunfermline Road, near Clackmannan. They were likewise engaged upon what is known as the “Partick Contract,” and the “Dumbarton Contract” of the Lanarkshire and Dumbartonshire Railway. In the former there are nineteen, and in the latter twenty-one, bridges. Messrs. Somervail & Co. have, moreover, accepted the contract for all the bridges and subways in connection with the Bridgeton Cross and Carmyle Railway.

The firm have recently taken out letters patent for “Somervail’s Patent Bridges and Roofs,” embodying several very important improvements. In another class of work they are executing a large contract, in connection With the hydraulic power supply for the Corporation of Glasgow, by manufacturing a tank for storing the water which will hold nearly a thousand tons. As a natural result of the enormous amount of work which they have now in hand, Messrs. Somervail & Co. are making very considerable extensions in their premises, and are adding materially to the resources of their working plant. A new shed is being erected which will be about four hundred feet long and a hundred and twenty feet wide. Within this shed will be a series of powerful overhead steam cranes, and also a large number of hydraulic rivetting machines, and new hydraulic plant. A large staff of skilled workmen, including several expert specialists in the various departments, is permanently employed by the firm, under the supervision of the principals. Both Mr. Somervail and Mr. Davidson are gifted with strongly, developed organising and administrative ability, and are thus able to control the conduct of all the details in their extensive and rapidly-growing business.

THE GLASGOW PICKLE AND SAUCE COMPANY, MANUFACTURERS FRUIT WINES, PICKLES OF EVERY DESCRIPTION, WORCESTER AND CHUTNEY SAUCE, MUSHROOM KETCHUP, LIQUID BLUE, &c.,
10 TO 18, SURREY STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS reliable and increasingly popular manufacturing firm was established as recently as six years ago at 194, Main Street, Gorbals, but the rapid growth of the business demanded more extensive accommodation, and in May last the basis of operations was shifted to their present quarters in Surrey Street. These spacious premises consist of the ground floor of an extensive building, and the interior which is very commodious is admirably suited to the requirements of the business. On entering the main gateway there is a large yard which is bounded by the offices of the firm on the left-hand side, and by the stables to the right. The warehouse is advantageously arranged and fitted up with all stock vats and casks for the manufacture of ketchups, sauces, fruit wines, &c. The price list, which bears witness to the variety of these manufactures, includes best “guaranteed” and family pickles, chutney pickles, which are made with a rich chutney sauce, and are equally excellent with all kinds of meat, while they have the additional advantage of being harmless to the most delicate stomach. This is one of the specialities of the Glasgow Pickle and Sauce Company, while another is the celebrated Balmoral relish, of which they are the sole proprietors. The firm also supplies sauces, ketchups and vinegars of every variety. The dozen different kinds of unfermented fruit wines that are manufactured by this firm are well-known for their flavour and soundness, while they also supply essence of coffee and chicory, curry powder, sardines, sundries, castor oil, and a special quality of highly-perfumed hair oil. Between forty and fifty hands are employed in the carrying-on of this extensive business, and the company’s horses and vans deliver the goods in the city and suburbs, and to the railway stations and steamers. Mr. William McDonald, who has been connected with the firm from its commencement, and has had twenty years’ practical experience, is the managing partner, and under his personal supervision this splendidly managed business has been founded on a substantial commercial basis that ensures its growing and increasing success.

FRASER & NIVEN, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL WAREHOUSEMEN,
459 TO 463, PAISLEY ROAD TOLL, GLASGOW.

THIS firm continue the business started eight years ago in the same premises by Messrs. Johnston & Hardie, and since they assumed control of it they have influenced its development by energetic and progressive methods. The firm occupy premises which afford every facility for the satisfactory conduct of such a business as this. The warehouse has a frontage of fifty feet, with two entrances and four large show-windows. Internally the appointments are excellent, and the principal sale-room on the ground floor extends back for upwards of one hundred feet, with four counters running from front to rear. There is an excellent light from the roof at the back, and the whole place is admirably arranged from the point of view of general convenience. On the first floor are work-rooms and fitting-rooms. Messrs. Fraser & Niven hold a large and comprehensive stock, as may be judged from the fact that their principal departments comprise the following:— Millinery, mantles, jackets, costumes, corsets, underclothing, children’s outfitting, umbrellas, sunshades, dresses, prints, silks and velvets, flannels, blankets, calicos, linens, flannelettes, shirtings, skirts and skirtings, napery, curtains, table-covers, quilts and bed mats, hosiery, gloves, smallwares, trimmings, ribbons, laces, shirts, gents’ hosiery, collars and cuffs, braces, gents’ scarfs, floorcloths, &c. The establishment enjoys the patronage of a large and valuable retail clientele, besides having the support of a good wholesale connection, and it is conducted upon the most systematic lines under the watchful eyes of Messrs. Fraser & Niven, the co-partners, who exercise an effective general supervision over the entire business, and give their personal attention to the important matter of buying, &c. About thirty hands find employment in this well-known warehouse, and contribute, by their efficiency and courtesy, to the continued progress of. a business which has had a development as rapid and as substantial as any in Glasgow.

JAMES MCNEILL & CO., PAINT, COLOUR, VARNISH, SOAP, CHEMICAL AND SEALING-WAX MANUFACTURERS,
ST. ENOCH WORKS, BARROWFIELD, GLASGOW.
OFFICES: 38, FRENCH STREET, BRIDGETON.

THIS admirably organised business was founded in 1866, by Mr. James McNeill, the sole proprietor, to whose exceptional energy and intelligent enterprise is to be attributed the notable success which the firm has achieved. The extensive premises, which cover an area of five acres, occupy a commanding position, bounded on the north by French Street, and on the south by the Clyde, with a frontage to the river of seven hundred feet, the intervening space being beautifully laid out as gardens, surrounding the old residence of Barrowfield House. Just at the principal entrance to the works, the handsome new Rutherglen Bridge crosses the Clyde. At 38, French Street, Bridgeton, is a suite of well- appointed general and private offices, furnished with telephonic communication and all other requisites. The telephone number is 2,529, and the registered telegraphic address is “Vermillion, Glasgow.”

The St. Enoch Works include a series of blocks of buildings, varying in height from two to four stories, and equipped throughout with all the requisite appliances of the most approved modern type, for facilitating the numerous processes of manufacture. To the student of the present economic conditions of Glasgow the St. Enoch Works are specially interesting, because half of the premises are devoted to the manufacture of sealing-wax, a commodity which, although not used so much as it formerly was for ordinary correspondence, is yet largely employed by the Post Office, as well as in various industries. About a century ago the sealing-wax manufacturing industry was commenced in this country, mainly in London, and by one firm in Edinburgh. Some twelve years ago Messrs. McNeill & Co., whose operations as paint, colour, and chemical manufacturers were already on a scale of great magnitude, introduced the making of different classes of these goods, and they have carried it on with such success that it may now be regarded as an important addition to the industries of Glasgow. The red sealing-wax, which forms the bulk of the firm’s productions, is composed of shellac, resin, camphor, and turpentine, and is perfumed with fragrant essential oils. The shellac and resin are boiled together in a pot over a furnace, after which the turpentine and camphor are added. After the mixture has been strained into a second pot, the pigments are thrown in along with the perfume. After more boiling, the wax is strained into two other pots in succession, whence it is poured into an iron mould, which, folding in halves, forms the sticks, which are joined together in a row by a thin filament. After being polished, they are taken, one by one, and gently heated over a Bunsen burner, and then stamped with the brand of the firm, a thistle, together with an indication of the quality. The commodity is supplied in red, black, blue, green, white, &c. The firm also produce bottle wax, for the use of chemists and others, and also parcel wax, which is of an inferior quality. Kindred classes of goods manufactured by the firm are sealing wafers, which are produced of various sizes for specific requirements; also the circular gummed labels used for legal documents.

Messrs. James McNeill & Co. are also largely engaged in general chemical manufacture, and produce a great variety of varnishes, which are well known in the markets for their excellence. They control a large and ever-growing trade in supplying oils of many kinds, including linseed, olive, animal, mineral, cylinder, fish, and other varieties. They send out, too, large quantities of paints, ground from the purest pigments, without adulteration, and ground to the utmost degree of fineness. Dry colours, and specially-prepared artists’ oil colours in collapsible tubes, are also largely made in the works, and held in stock. Certain specialities which they have introduced have proved particularly successful. These include their drilling composition, for engineers and iron-ship builders; their Vulcan and Asbestos cement for steam-jointing; their anti-corrosive composition for polished iron, steel, and brass, their National soap powder for painters, type printers, dyers, scourers, &c. The principal, Mr. James McNeill, is gifted with administrative and organising abilities to an exceptional degree, and he is therefore enabled personally to supervise all the important details of his vast and ever-growing business, which has fully equipped branches in Liverpool and in Cardiff, and ramifications in all parts of the world. In the Liverpool and Cardiff branches a large amount of business is transacted, especially in engine waste, and sponge cloth, manufactured at the St. Enoch Works. Mr. McNeill is one of the members of the old Highland clan of that name who have sought and achieved distinction in the ranks of industrial and commercial enterprise, and he bears a close relationship to the present chief of the McNeills. Eight years ago he purchased the fine estate of Nellfield, Gallow Hill, and Berry hill, which, in addition to its residential amenities, contains large quantities of valuable coal and ironstone.

MATHIESON & CO., FRUIT BROKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
75, INGRAM STREET, GLASGOW; AND AT LIVERPOOL.

THE above firm was established as recently as 1892, by Mr. John Mathieson, who is the sole proprietor of the already prosperous business, and brought to the enterprise such a thorough knowledge of its requirements that he soon created a most valuable connection which is steadily increasing. His premises comprise office with telephone communication, the telephone number being 4,470, and the registered telegraphic address is “Seguro, Glasgow.”

The premises, otherwise, consist of a commodious sale-room in which the most important part of the firm’s business is transacted, and an abundance of outdoor storage space, the capacity of which, however, during certain busy seasons, is often severely taxed. Messrs. Mathieson & Co. constantly receive large consignments of fruit from leading growers in England, Scotland, the continent of Europe, Canada and the United States, including damsons, plums, English and American apples, pears, grapes, oranges, &c., with English, French, Spanish, and Portuguese onions, and other varieties of fruits and the rarer kinds of vegetables in their due season. Mr. Mathieson’s sales take place daily, and are attended by buyers from all parts of Glasgow and the district. The sales are conducted personally by the principal, who employs an efficient staff of clerks and porters. Mr. Mathieson is well known in the fruit trade, and much esteemed by all with whom he comes in contact.

THE SORN DAIRY SUPPLY,
GOWER STREET, KELVINSIDE, GLASGOW
PROPRIETOR: MR. SOMERVELL, OF SORN.

THE problem of supplying the highest quality of dairy produce, under the best possible conditions, has been solved, in a most satisfactory and thoroughly practical manner, by the enlightened enterprise of Mr. James Somervell, late M.P. for Ayr Burghs, who has made an exhaustive study of this and kindred economic subjects. His valuable pastoral estate of Sorn, in Ayrshire, has lent itself admirably to the experiments which he has tried, and & large dairy farm on the estate is the source of supply for Mr. Somervell’s splendidly equipped establishment in Glasgow. The commercial operations of the Sorn Dairy Supply were begun in 1884, at Sorn, and in 1885 premises situated in Byers Road, Glasgow, were rented as a town branch;, and in order to meet the increased demand, which soon arose, upon the resources of the establishment, additional premises were taken in Bothwell Street. For a similar reason the proprietor, in 1893, found himself justified in proceeding to the erection in Gower Street, Kelvinside, of the present premises of the Sorn Dairy Supply, which constitute a model establishment of their class. The building occupies a quarter of an acre of ground, and is detached. It is handsomely constructed of stone and brick, and is three stories in height, while the internal arrangements are in accordance with designs specially made to meet the several requirements of the business.

The cows from which the supplies of the Sorn Dairy are drawn are, in all cases, reared and fed in the open country. The milk is cooled by special apparatus adopted in all scientifically arranged dairies, within a few minutes of the milking, and abundantly oxidised before being sent to the dairy. At the Gower Street establishment there are large and constant supplies of infants’, sweet, separated, and butter milk; double and single cream, fresh and salt butter, cream cheese, and breakfast, country, and cooking eggs. The appointment of the several departments is most complete and elegant. There is a handsome suite of general and private offices, with telephonic communication and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. The telephone number is 2,099.

On the ground floor is an elegant refreshment and reception room, adjoining which is an engine-room, fitted with dynamos for producing the electric light, with which the whole building is illuminated in order that nothing deleterious to the milk may be exhaled within the premises. A show-room for the exhibition of separators and churns in motion is also on this floor, in a separate room; as are also the chambers for receiving and packing goods. An elevator runs the milk through into large tin vats, with taps. Adjacent is the bottling-room where the milk is eventually run into stone bottles, which are then sealed in order that they may be thus delivered to customers. The wash-house, which is to the rear, is equipped with a large Tangye boiler, with a pressure of seventy pounds to the square inch. The stone bottles are here washed and brushed inside, and then thoroughly steamed. There is also at the rear of the main building an extensive van-shed, with stabling for the eight horses employed in the admirably organised service of daily delivery. The first floor is occupied as a store-room; and while a portion of the second floor serves as a residence for the manager, the remainder is utilised as living-rooms for other members of the large and efficient working staff. An air of delicious coolness pervades the premises by the use throughout of white enamelled tiles for the walls, while the sanitary arrangements are perfect. A speciality has successfully been made of the supply of milk for infants, for the production of which the cows go through a special process of feeding. The eggs are obtained from Mr. Somervell’s farm at Sorn, and are individually stamped, the shells being previously rubbed with butter, by which means the white is curdled when soft-boiled. On the farm, where the pasture is of the richest and the water is of the purest, a large number of milch cattle are specially housed and fed. Goods are delivered to customers twice daily — the first delivery being at six in the morning, and the second in the afternoon.

The valuable and ever growing connection of the establishment extends throughout the city and suburbs generally, amongst hotels, restaurants, public institutions, and private families. A dozen or more experienced assistants are employed in the dairy. Mr. Somervell has every reason to be congratulated on the success of his enterprising experiment. He is, even at the moment when these lines are passing through the press, engaged in extending the area of his operations, and, as the result of his experience, he is prepared to fit up dairies, on the model of his own, for persons who desire to embark in the business, and, following the example of the large London dairy companies, has added the sale of all dairy appliances and utensils to his milk business.

WILLIAM HORN, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DAIRYMAN,
14, ASHTON PLACE, BYARS HOAD, DOWANHILL, GLASGOW.

THE supply of fresh milk and dairy produce of exclusively the best quality to meet the daily demands of private families, as well as of large buyers and consumers, such as confectioners, restaurateurs, hotel keepers, and others in all quarters, but more especially throughout the west-end districts of the city of Glasgow, finds an able representative and exponent in the person of Mr. William Horn, who is valuably assisted in his executive departments by his capable and energetic wife, who superintends the making and baking of the fresh home-made scones and oat-cakes, and the general routine of the dairy department. The records of the undertaking show that it was organised thirty years ago under the able auspices of its present talented proprietor, who, about eighteen months since, removed from the Pollokshaws Road, S.S., to the present eligible quarters, which are accounted to be the best of their kind in the vicinity. The spacious shop, with its sanitarily tiled walls, marble counter, and brightly burnished utensils and modern fittings, always presents a scrupulously clean, neat, and wholesome appearance, which tends largely to enhance the inviting character of the abundant supply of pure fresh milk and new cream, special milk for babies and invalids, country eggs, fresh and powdered butter, and home-baked scones and oat-cakes. At the rear there is a neat baking department provided with a large modern gas-stove, while still farther back comes the model dairy, which was erected at a cost of £300, and is elaborately equipped with the latest and most improved machinery driven by a neat gas-engine, and apparatus for refrigerating* scalding, and cooling milk. Mr. Horn contracts for his daily supplies from farmers, where everything is subject to constant and strict sanitary supervision. He, moreover, keeps a service of three vans for delivery to all parts of the city, and employs only courteous and efficient servants to call for, and promptly deliver, orders with strict punctuality, and it is doubtless largely due to a knowledge of these facts that the house has become so widely popular, and that such an extensive and thriving business has been developed.

ALEXANDER SCOTT & CO., UPHOLSTERERS, HOUSE AND SHIP FURNISHERS,
29, ROBERTSON STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Alexander Scott, who trades under the style and title of Alexander Scott & Co., began his industrial and commercial operations on his own account seven years ago. The record, however, of the admirably organised business which he successfully conducts extends back for thirty-five years, as, in 1858, it was founded by Messrs. Ballardie Brothers. Mr. Scott brought to his enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the trade and a most valuable experience, having spent the whole of his working life in the service of his predecessors, and having latterly occupied a position of great responsibility in their establishment. It may also be noted that Mr. Scott’s father was in the service of the Messrs. Ballardie during almost the whole of their business career, so that the present proprietor’s claim to represent the old firm is exceptionally strong. When he took over the concern, the premises were at 41, Robertson Street, whence he removed in May, 1893, to more commodious quarters at No. 29, in the same Street. The original premises of the Messrs. Ballardie, it may be recorded, were in Carlton Place. Mr. Scott’s new quarters comprise a sale-shop, show-rooms, and workshops, all of which are very commodious, and have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the business in its different departments. The stock of furniture is at all times very large and varied, every requisite for a household, or for the saloon or state-room of a ship being obtainable. The stock of carpets, and of soft goods generally, being specially representative of the choicest productions of English and Oriental looms. The goods manufactured by the firm are well known as combining the best of materials with the most skilful and experienced workmanship. The speciality which has made the reputation of the firm — fully sustained by Mr. Scott — is ships’ upholstery, and the present proprietor has the unreserved confidence and constant support of many of the leading ship-owners and ship-builders on the Clyde. He ensures the continuance of that confidence by his strict personal surveillance of all the details of his business.

J. & R. RODMAN, CHEMISTS AND DRUGGISTS, KING’S CROSS APOTHECARY HALL,
285, DUKE STREET, GLASGOW.

IN the rapidly rising district of Dennistoun the practice of pharmacy in the highest phases of its modern development finds able representation at the hands of John and Robert Rodman, who conjointly organised their present prosperous business about twenty years ago. The King’s Cross Apothecary Hall, as it is called, is eligibly located in a prominent position in Duke Street, near to the head of Bellgrove Street, and consists of a spacious double-fronted shop, recently thoroughly refitted and elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and most neatly arranged to hold a comprehensive stock of goods that may be stated to be exhaustive, of drugs and chemicals of ascertained purity and standard strength; all the popular patent medicines of the day, choice toilet, nursery, and sickroom requisites up-to-date; and all the numerous sundries and proprietary articles incidental to a thoroughly first-class modern pharmacy. Some years ago Robert Rodman, the older member of the firm, graduated in the University of Glasgow as M.B. and C.M., and removed to Chas Comus, Buenos Ayres, where he has formed a large and lucrative practice. Since then the perfectly equipped laboratory in Duke Street has been conducted under the old name and under the management of John Rodman himself, efficiently helped by his assistants, and operate in every branch of practical pharmacy, devoting the most careful and competent attention to the dispensing of physicians’ prescriptions and the compounding of family recipes, by reason of which the firm have won the complete confidence of all the leading local practitioners of medicine, and the esteem and liberal support of a very large and still rapidly increasing clientele, drawn practically from all classes of the neighbourhood and the districts adjoining.

A. STENHOUSE, BOOKSELLER AND STATIONER,
UNIVERSITY BOOK EMPORIUM, COLLEGE GATE, HILLHEAD, GLASGOW.
Telephone, No. 2,321.

THE special department of business operations undertaken by the modern bookseller and stationer, who caters for the needs and requirements of university students, finds an able representative at the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. A. Stenhouse. The business was organised by Mr. Stenhouse in 1860, in the Great Western Road, Hillhead, when that neighbourhood was first beginning to attract notice as a fashionable west-end suburb. The present premises were opened by him for his brother, but as he showed no liking for commercial life, he entered the university and took his medical degree in 1875, and has since been in practice at Dunedin, New Zealand. The importance of this business necessitated his giving up the original establishment, and he has since confined his attention entirely to it. The spacious shop, with its fine frontage of fully seventy feet, and extension for a considerable distance to the rear, is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is literally packed from floor to ceiling with books in all branches of literature, including many handsomely bound tomes, and editions de luxe, but the feature par excellence of Mr. Stenhouse’s stock is its richness in copies of all the text books and works of reference, &c., required by students attending the university, together with note-books, MSS. [manuscript] paper, et id genus omne. Every medical book is kept in stock, and the trade extends to foreign parts, and it is about the only establishment of its kind in Glasgow. Mr. Stenhouse also is the special agent for Messrs. J. & A. Churchill, of London; Messrs. Balliere, Tindall & Co., of London, Paris and Madrid; Mr. F. A. Davis, of Philadelphia and London, and other leading medical publishers, and though catering principally for the students by whom he is very largely patronised, also keeps up a heavy supply of school, commercial, and fashionable fancy stationery, and stationer’s sundries of every description, and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large connection, both “town and gown,” by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always marked its business transactions.

WILLIAM BUCHANAN, FAMILY GROCER AND PROVISION MERCHANT,
313, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS house has been in existence for over a quarter of a century, Mr. Buchanan’s control extending over the last eight years, and during that period, he has succeeded in placing the concern on a higher level than it ever reached before, and every year he is adding to the extent and importance of his patronage. The business premises possess every advantage in location and attractive exterior. They have an extended frontage with two large windows, admirably adapted to the purposes for which they are employed, one being used for the display of grocery goods, and the other containing a choice assortment of delicious fruits. The shop is throughout well fitted up with everything requisite for the proper control of a business of this kind, everything being done in the best manner possible, while the wants and wishes of customers are promptly attended to by a well-trained staff of assistants. The grocery handled is obtained from the best-known sources of supply, the proprietor being noted as a good judge of this class of goods. The teas are specially noteworthy as being some of the choicest productions of the most famous gardens. The blendings, too, are recognised as superior kind, being the result of many years’ practical acquaintance with the trade. The stocks of grocery held are exceedingly large and very choice, including teas as aforesaid, coffee, cocoa, spices, dried and candied fruits, sauces, pickles, bacon and ham, cheese, butters, Italian goods, and tinned and potted delicacies in great variety. In the fruit department Mr. Buchanan makes a splendid show, his selections including everything in season. The finest class of goods only are handled, and fresh supplies of both fruit and^ vegetables are received every day. In variety of selection, as well as reliable excellence of goods, the house cannot be easily surpassed, while the efficiency of the management, and the judgment shown in buying, enable such prices to be quoted as are sure to lead to the continued support of all who once come into business connection with the house. A widespread and valuable family business is in operation. Mr. Buchanan is respected by a large circle of friends and acquaintances for his well-deserved success and his strict commercial integrity.

BINGEL & CO., IMPORTERS OF FOREIGN PRODUCE,
64, INGRAM STREET, GLASGOW.

THE importation and wholesale distribution of foreign produce from the city of Glasgow, as a centre of supply for the whole of Scotland, finds able representation at the hands of this noted firm. The records of the house show that it was organised in the year 1892, under the able auspices of its enterprising principals; and, doubtless, the most effectual way in which to indicate its true character, scope, and aims would be to give a concise descriptive sketch of the establishment as it now stands, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. Eligibly located in a central situation, the premises occupied consist of a handsome warehouse, entered from Ingram Street, and having a fine frontage of fifty feet, facing North Albion Street. The large, light, and lofty interior, with its fine suite of offices at the end, and commodious, heavily stocked basement stores, is replete with every modern facility and convenience up to date for the rapid and effective transaction of business. Messrs. Bingel & Co. operate on a very large scale as direct importers of Danish, French, and Dutch produce, principally of the best butters from the finest dairies, and of the most noted brands of margarine, and blends from the leading manufacturers of the day. Being the sole importers of “Confectine, the only cheap produce which will make a first-class pastry,” they are well patronised by the leading biscuit manufacturers and confectioners of Scotland. Their trade extends practically to every part of Scotland, being sedulously promoted through the agency of a well- organised staff of travellers, who periodically call upon grocers, provision merchants, bakers, and others, and are enabled to offer them many special advantages, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. The business is, indeed, in a splendid condition of progressive development, and the house already stands high in the estimation of a very large and widespread connection, by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always characterised its business transactions.

CAMPBELL, SMART & CO., ENGINEERS, MACHINE AND TOOL MAKERS,
ARTIZAN WORKS, 212, OLD DUMBARTON ROAD, GLASGOW.

AN important business that has been for more than a quarter of a century a prominent feature in the Glasgow trade, is that of Messrs. Campbell, Smart & Co., of the Artizan Works, the well-known and extensive engineers, and machine and tool makers. Operations were originally commenced in Stobcross Street, and were carried forward with noteworthy energy and success. Repeated enlargements of the premises took place to meet the augmented demands, and twelve years ago the present extensive and commodious premises were erected. The sole proprietor of this important concern is Mr. E. Vogel, who carries on the business under the original title, the founders having all left the firm. This gentleman is successfully upholding the well-recognised reputation of the concern, while every year adding to its extent and importance. The works cover a large extent of ground, and have been built with a full knowledge of the requirements of the business on hand. The principal building is a large block three-storey high, with frontage into Old Dumbarton Road. The ground floor is occupied by a machine shop, which extends beyond the building and is splendidly lighted from the roof. The other departments comprise drawing offices, pattern shops, and general and private commercial offices, all of which have been well arranged and fitted up with every requisite for the expeditious and successful control of the business. The equipment of the workshops is of a complete character and includes turning and drilling lathes, and punching, slotting, planing, and shaping machines of the latest and most improved make. A force of from fifty to sixty skilled workmen is employed, and in every branch a thorough system of control and organisation is in force. A large and valuable business is being done in all kinds of land and marine engines, and the manufacture of every description of tools for engineers, mechanicians, and others. The firm have brought their productions to the highest state of efficiency, and have introduced many valuable and important improvements with which their name is now inseparably associated. The complete nature of the works and the general excellence of the plant employed, place the proprietor in a position to execute contracts and work of any magnitude on the shortest notice. The connection is a widespread and valuable one, and its requirements are being provided for with ability, energy, and enterprise.

HUGH KIRKPATRICK, PLATE-CHEST, JEWELLERY AND INSTRUMENT CASE MAKER,
14, QUEEN STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS notable business was established in 1871 by Mr. Hugh Kirkpatrick, who, previous to commencing business for himself, was manager to his brother for fourteen and a half years in the same trade in Glasgow. He originally commenced operations in premises at 63, Mitchell Street, and was not long in laying a secure foundation, on which has been built the present large and valuable business. He was afterwards succeeded by his sons, William John Adam and James Miller Kirkpatrick, who trade under the above title. Suitable accommodation is possessed at 14, Queen Street, consisting of a good-sized warehouse, fitted up with every requisite for the adequate despatch of the business on hand. The works are well equipped with every appliance, and a competent staff of operatives is kept continually employed under the close supervision of the principals. The articles manufactured by the firm have established themselves in the appreciation of the best judges and most critical buyers in the district, being looked upon as standards of excellence in their respective lines. The material chosen is of the best, while the workmanship cannot be beaten in its soundness and finish. The facility enjoyed for manufacturing and the extent of the business carried on, enable the proprietors to offer their customers inducements of an exceptional character. The principal items for which the firm have gained celebrity are plate-chests, jewellery cases, pocket-books, instrument cases, writing-desks, pattern-books, &c., &c., and orders of any magnitude can be filled with promptness and satisfaction. A speciality with the firm consists of the manufacture of travellers’ sample cases, in which branch an exceedingly large business is being done. Well-assorted stocks of the high-class goods manufactured by the firm are always kept, and special goods are made to order on the shortest notice. The proprietors give the business the full benefit of their close personal supervision, and are indefatigable in their endeavours to uphold the reputation their house enjoys. They are of good status in the trade life of the city, and wherever known are held in high respect for their business ability and personal worth. This firm is the leading one in the trade in Glasgow, and thoroughly well merits the patronage and prosperity it enjoys.

PORTEOUS & CRAWFORD, ANDERSTON GALVANIZING WORKS,
94, ELLIOT STREET, GLASGOW.

THE galvanizing of iron goods must now be regarded as one of the staple industries of Glasgow, and its importance has of late years been materially enhanced by the magnitude of the operations of Messrs. Porteous & Crawford, the proprietors of the Anderston Galvanizing: Works. Their notably successful business was established in 1865, their original premises having been in Clyde Street. The thorough technical knowledge possessed by both Mr. Porteous and Mr. Crawford, combined with their exceptional commercial aptitude, enabled them to form a valuable connection at the outset of their career. The volume of their business now grew so rapidly that they found it requisite to remove to more commodious quarters, which they acquired at 94, Elliot Street. They comprise a well-appointed office, furnished with all the appliances required for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work, necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The stores are ample enough to admit of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large and varied stocks of nails and hoop-iron, &c., which are always held, and are equipped with all the mechanical adjuncts of the latest and most approved type, for the process of production. Facilities have been provided for the manufacture of many descriptions of ironwork, which are subjected to the operation of galvanizing. They have successfully made a speciality of galvanizing ships’ tanks; and in this branch of their business the firm execute large contracts; and they galvanize enormous quantities of iron scoops, waterloos, buckets, tubs, pails, wire screens, &c. Their goods are well known in the market, where they are universally recognised as representing standard qualities; and a very extensive business is now controlled by the firm. The growing success of this admirably organised business is the result of the assiduous supervision which is exercised over all departments by Mr. William Porteous, who is now the sole proprietor. Notwithstanding the large amount of his attention which is absorbed by his extensive business, Mr. Porteous has such a strongly developed faculty of administration and organisation that he is able to devote much of his valuable time and energy to the service of the public as well as in other capacities.

JOHN LEE, CABINETMAKER AND UPHOLSTERER,
179, SHAMROCK STREET, GLASGOW.

MODERN cabinetmaking and the kindred craft of the practical upholsterer find an able representative and exponent at the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. John Lee, who entered upon his present prosperous career at Cowcaddens over twelve years ago. Having outgrown his original accommodation, Mr. Lee, in May, 1893, removed to his present more convenient and commodious premises The spacious shop is neatly and handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and contains a complete and thoroughly representative stock of goods, composed of many excellent suites for the dining, drawing, and bed room; single pieces of furniture of artistic designs, upholstered sumptuously; cottage and kitchen furniture of sound and substantial make; carpets, rugs, linoleums and oilcloths; bedsteads and bedding, and a variety of other household effects to meet the needs and requirements of all classes of buyers. In his well-equipped workshops Mr. Lee, with a staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen, operates in every branch of cabinetmaking and upholstery work, using none but soundly-seasoned wood and other materials of the best quality, by reason of which he has won an unsurpassed reputation for the reliability and high excellence of all his productions — a reputation that has led to the formation of a very large and still rapidly growing local and district patronage; and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has secured shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.

R. & C. J. CRUICKSHANK, BISCUIT MANUFACTURERS
LAMBHILL STREET, GLASGOW

THE reputation of Glasgow as a centre for the manufacture and distribution of biscuits and cakes, has been very considerably enhanced since 1848 by the magnitude of the operations of Messrs. R. & C. J. Cruickshank, who, in the year mentioned, established their business in Portland Street, under the style and title of the English Baking Company. At an early period in the history of their enterprise, their special productions so strongly recommended themselves to the public — and, therefore, to the trade — that their output became very large, with a tendency to constant development. Fifteen years ago their remarkable success was emphasised, in the most substantial manner, by the erection of the model bakery, which now constitutes their premises. Although the firm now trade directly under the designation of R. & C. J. Cruickshank, their premises, from old and pleasant associations, are still known as the English Baking Company. The frontage to Lambhill Street is of freestone, and is, architecturally, very effective. Here is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work, necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The buildings devoted to the industrial processes surround a large paved yard, entered by a commanding gateway, and used for the standing of the numerous vans which are employed in the excellently organised delivery service of the firm. The works, throughout, are fitted with all the requisite machinery — the outcome of the most recent developments of applied science — for the saving of labour and the perfecting of results. The working plant thus includes mechanical appliances for mixing, travelling ovens, &c., and the firm are thus able to hold their own, often with a good deal to spare, in the markets. All the machinery is driven by a powerful steam-engine, of recent construction. Notwithstanding the great economy in labour which the excellence of the machinery effects, the output is so great that a large staff of experienced hands are permanently employed in the works. The productions of the firm comprise largely the manufacture of biscuits and cakes; but, on the other hand, the quality of their biscuits and cakes is never excelled, and, in the case of many of their specialities, is unequalled. Their copious price-list gives the names of no less than ninety-two descriptions of biscuits which they manufacture, and of sixty-five kinds of cakes. For their oatmeal specialities, in particular, they have gained a widespread reputation. The organisation and administratioa of this great industrial establishment are perfect.

J. & W. CAMPBELL & CO., WAREHOUSEMEN,
INGRAM SHEET, GLASGOW.

FOUNDED as far back as the year 1817, this house owes its origin to the energies of two brothers, James (afterwards Sir James) and William Campbell, and under their auspices it commenced its operations in one of Glasgow’s most historic and ancient thoroughfares, the Saltmarket. Thence, in consequence of the continuous growth of their trade, the firm moved to Candleriggs, where the further development of the business was so marked that in time it became necessary to find premises affording larger accommodation. For this reason it was that the house came to Ingram Street in 1856, and in this fine central thoroughfare Messrs. Campbell erected the stately premises now occupied by the many departments of their colossal business. The ideas and suggestions of the late Sir James Campbell (then head of the house) were largely followed out in the construction of this striking block of buildings, and no finer textile warehouse exists in the Kingdom. The structure is appropriately national in design, and presents a fine example of the “Scottish Baronial” style of architecture, its noble facade to Ingram Street and the side frontage to Brunswick Street giving it an appearance that at once commands attention and admiration. Within it says much for the foresight and sound judgment employed in its original designing that, although the building is for the most part over thirty-five years old, it adapts itself completely to modern requirements. Indeed, Messrs. Campbell possess some conveniences which even the latest of modern warehouses lack, and they are particularly fortunate in having an abundance of natural light. Their second floor is unrivalled as a show-room by anything of the kind in the trade, and every portion of the huge block seems to have been carefully planned to suit the particular department to which it is devoted.

The departments Messrs. Campbell give their attention to include the following:— Muslins, shawls, skirtings, mantles, umbrellas, furs, prints, dress stuffs, hosiery, gloves, silks, cloths and mantlings, winceys, wool shirtings, Irish linens, Scotch linens, carpets, flannels, slops, laces, ribbons, millinery, skirts, stays, small-wares, moleskins, linings, grey cottons, Scotch and English tweeds, handkerchiefs, scarves, shirts, collars, ready-mades, and straws. The whole range of the drapery, outfitting, clothing, and fashion trades is thus fully covered by the firm — this has been the aim of Messrs. Campbell for years past, and their house has become specially famous as a complete emporium for retailers in all these trades and their various branches.

The organisation of each department is perfect. All the best products of the United Kingdom and of the chief foreign sources of supply are fully represented; and from season to season and year to year the enormous stocks are replenished and maintained in a manner which speaks volumes for the firm’s resources, for their knowledge of the markets, and for their mastery of the science of trade, both in purchase and in distribution. Not only as merchants do Messrs. J. & W. Campbell & Co. maintain a leading position; they are prominent also in the sphere of actual production, and carry on extensive operations as manufacturers of mantles, this work being centred in their admirably equipped factory in Ingram Street, where the best modern machinery is employed. For the wholesale manufacture of clothing the firm have built a very large factory at Leeds. Altogether they employ a small army of hands, and the regular staff at the Glasgow warehouse numbers from four hundred to five hundred clerks, warehousemen, salesmen, and others. Messrs. J. & W. Campbell & Co.’s connection extends all over the United Kingdom and the outer world, and their vast operations in the home and export markets are conducted upon methods which clearly indicate that those fine qualities of commercial honour and sagacity which placed the founders of this house among the most eminent and respected British merchants of their time are inherited by their descendants, who control the fortunes of the firm to-day.

The estimable founders of the firm left behind them a name long to be honoured in the scene of their varied labours as business men and public- spirited citizens. The elder brother, James Campbell, became a Town Councillor of Glasgow in 1831, and maintained his connection with the Corporation uninterruptedly for twelve years. In 1840 he was elected to the high honour of the Lord Provostship, and duly completed his term of three years in that supreme civic office. Being Lord Provost in 1842, the birth-year of the Prince of Wales, he was knighted in commemoration of that happy occasion, and from 1847 he was known as Sir James Campbell of Stracathro, from the fine estate of that name which he then purchased. At the ripe age of eighty-seven he died (September 10, 1876), but his works live after him, and it will be many a year ere his valued services to Glasgow, her trade, and her people, high and low, are allowed to pass into forgetfulness. His two sons have achieved distinction in the political world. The eldest, Mr. J. A. Campbell, LL.D., of Stracathro, is member of Parliament for the Glasgow and Aberdeen Universities, while the second son, the Right Hon. H. Campbell-Bannerman, is well known as one of the most prominent members of the Liberal party, and has filled important posts in Mr. Gladstone's ministries. The late Mr. William Campbell of Tullichewan, brother of Sir James, and one of the founders of the business, was father to the present head of the house, Mr. Jame6 Campbell of Tullichewan, with whom are associated as partners his nephews, Messrs. William A. and Matthew Pearce Campbell, and his son, Mr. Adair Campbell. Under the able and experienced administration of these gentlemen the prosperity of the great concern over which they preside receives continuous promotion, and its high reputation in the commercial world is carefully guarded. The successful control of such a gigantic business as this calls for the display of many special qualities of energy, practical ability, and judgment, and it is gratifying to note that these are present in full force, and that the management continues to be marked by all those excellent features of mercantile policy which in time past have so powerfully influenced the welfare and progress of this typical wholesale house.

R. AND W. DAVIDSON, PRODUCE BROKERS AND COMMISSION MERCHANTS,
MOODIE’S COURT, 31, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

IN nothing, perhaps, has the great change that has taken place within the last twenty years in the habits and manners of life of the people of this country been so marked as in the vastly increased variety, as well as the enormously augmented quantity, of food products now consumed by all classes of the community. The rapid and continuous growth and development of our national industries during the period mentioned have immensely increased the wealth of the people in the aggregate, while the enterprise displayed in connection with the importation and distribution of food products under our system of free trade has realised what were once only remote possibilities, and has brought within the reach of the million many articles which were at one time regarded as luxuries, and available only to the wealthy few. The result of all this is that nowadays every industrious and thrifty man has it in his power to enjoy the good things of life in a measure probably undreamt of by his less fortunate forefathers. Many discoveries have contributed to the establishment of this satisfactory state of things, notably those connected with the preserving of meats, fish, fruits, and vegetables. Such products are now rendered available for all climates and seasons, and can be placed in every market at prices which make the choicest of home and foreign dainties quite compatible with the purchasing powers of even the most modest incomes. To show how well this is appreciated by a people whose one great and inalienable right is certainly their common title to the enjoyment of the fruits of the earth, we need only instance the tremendous development of the trade in all kinds of foods packed in hermetically sealed cans — such as meats of every description, from beef to game and rabbits, also potted meats, poultry, prepared soups, fish of every kind, and all manner of fruits and vegetables, even to the indispensable potato and the tender green pea. Again, the process of artificial refrigeration has been so perfectly adapted to the requirements of perishable food stuffs, that we now have delicious fresh mutton and beef from New Zealand, Australia and South America, while fresh butter comes from the most distant quarters of the globe, and when our own native fruits fail us, we replace them by Tasmanian and Canadian apples and Californian pears and peaches, all of which come to our tables in faultless condition. We rapidly grow accustomed to all sorts of luxuries and conveniences, and seldom trouble ourselves with thoughts concerning our methods of living in days when we had them not. Only those who have a vivid recollection of our country and our people as recently as a quarter of a century ago, can fully realise how truly wonderful are the strides that have been made since then in providing for the wants of our increased population, and affording to all classes of society that wholesome variety which is as essential in food supplies as in everything else that pertains to the daily round of life. The importations into this country of some of the chief products above referred to amounted,^in 1893 to the following quantities respectively:—

Butter - 2,327,473 cwts. valued at £12,754,233
Cheese - 2,077,482 cwts. valued at 5,160,918
Beef - 1,867,972 cwts. valued at 3,974,378
Mutton - 1,971,500 cwts. valued at 3,873,863
Hams and Bacon - 4,187,298 cwts. valued at 11,370,067
Lard - 1,118,106 cwts. valued at 2,808,549
Apples - 3,463,917 bushels valued at 844,312
Oranges - 4,593,157 bushels valued at 1,368,957
Lemons - 1,081,670 bushels valued at 336,886
Eggs - 11,025,908 great hundreds valued at 3,875,639
Condensed Milk - 879,729 cases, value not obtainable.
Lobsters - 145,054 cases, value not obtainable.
Salmon - 1 554,003 cases, value not obtainable.
Sardines - 235,630 cases, value not obtainable.
Canned Meats - 908,001 cases, value not obtainable.
Canned Fruits - 357,002 cases, value not obtainable.

And when the above figures are considered, it is possible to form some idea of the immense forces of capital and labour employed in bringing in these gigantic supplies from all sources, and distributing them among consumers in the United Kingdom. Let us glance for a moment at the operations of one of the largest and most representative firms engaged in this great and useful work in Scotland, viz., that of Messrs. R. and W. Davidson, of Moodie’s Court, Argyle Street, Glasgow. This important concern was founded about thirteen years ago by Mr. Robert Davidson, under whose able management it was most successfully continued until 1888, when the founder was joined in partnership by his brother, Mr. William Davidson, junior, who had been with him from the first. Both partners possess an exhaustive practical knowledge of the produce and commission trades in all their branches, and their joint administration of the business has been productive of the most gratifying results. Their younger brother, Mr. John C. Davidson, is also now associated with them, and finds ample scope for his energies in superintending the distribution of the very large shipments of hams, bacon, beef, &c., with which the firm are entrusted by numerous large packers in America.

The spacious premises occupied by Messrs. Davidson at the above address, and comprising warehouses and offices admirably arranged, are equipped with all appliances and facilities for the rapid and efficient transaction of business, and afford ample accommodation for the heavy and comprehensive stocks held by the firm. These stocks embrace a great variety of produce and provisions of standard quality, and in them the specialities of many of the foremost American, Colonial, and Continental packers and shippers are fully represented. Messrs. R. and W. Davidson are sole agents and consignees in Scotland for Messrs. ARMOUR & Co., Chicago, packers of the famous Armour brand of hams, bacon, lard, beef buttocks, compressed corned beef, brawn, ox tongues, lunch tongues, soups, fancy meats, extract of beef, &c.,&c. This agency is a most important one, as Messrs. Armour are by far the largest packers in the world of hog and cattle products, and Messrs. Davidson have the advantageous position of being their sole representatives in Scotland.

Among the many other agencies held by this enterprising Glasgow firm are those for the following noted houses: - Messrs. EASTMANS, New York, who ship to them beef buttocks, roast beef and mutton in tins, &c.; the CURTICE BROTHERS COMPANY, of Rochester, New York, who are the largest packers of canned fruits and meats in the world; the KING MORSE CANNING COMPANY, of San Francisco, packers of choicest Californian fruits in tins; E. M. DADELSZEN, Bordeaux, packer of sardines, plums, prunes, &c.; AMIEUX FRERES, Nantes, whose specialities are sardines, peas and all kinds of vegetables in tins; IRVING, SON & JONES, of the Vauxhall Rice Mills, Liverpool. Messrs. Davidson are also importers of the ATCHISON PACKING COMPANY’S “Pioneer” brand of hams, shoulders, and bacon, which are admittedly the finest fancy meats imported from America. Messrs. Davidson’s trade, in its entirety, is an immense one in all kinds of canned meats, fruits, fish, and preserved comestibles. These goods, together with hams, bacon, and lard, they import and distribute in enormous quantities to a widespread connection. All the firms for whom they are agents are of the highest standing in their several lines, and their names are a sufficient guarantee of superior quality in the goods supplied.

Carrying their enterprise into a wider sphere of action, Messrs. Davidson have within the last three years opened a department for the importation and distribution of butter and cheese, and have already taken a leading position among Scotch firms in this line. During the summer months they distribute many thousands of packages of finest Irish creamery butter; whilst in winter, they have a still larger trade in Australian and New Zealand butters, the choicest qualities of which are incontestably finer in colour, texture, and flavour than any other kinds procurable during the season of the year in which they are available. In Canadian, American, and Colonial cheese the trade of this firm is already a very large one, and is constantly developing.

In order to keep all their consignments of these perishable goods in the finest possible condition, and thus to protect the interest of their shippers by avoiding the necessity of forcing sales on a dull market, Messrs. Davidson have fitted up refrigerating chambers in their own warehouses, where all such goods are carefully preserved against deterioration of quality while waiting for the most favourable market. In all respects Messrs. Davidson's business is carefully and capably conducted, receiving the close personal attention of the principals, and the firm enjoy the support and confidence of a most extensive and valuable connection. The partners are personally well known and highly esteemed in the trade, the welfare of which has always enlisted their interest and sympathy; and Mr. R. Davidson was for two years secretary to the Glasgow Provision Trade Association.
“Marvida, Glasgow,” is Messrs. R. and W. Davidson’s telegraphic address, and their telephone is No. 768.

HUNTER, BARR & CO., MANUFACTURERS AND WAREHOUSEMEN,
27, JAMAICA STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS important house, originated as far back as the year 1843, was founded by the late Mr. William Hunter, who commenced business operations in Glasgow, but who soon extended the scope of his trade so much that the firm have now several important branches at London, Leeds, Edinburgh and Belfast. The headquarters of the house, at the above address in Jamaica Street, form a very extensive building containing six storeys at the front and, seven at the rear, the whole of this establishment, along with extensive premises on either side of it, being occupied by Messrs. Hunter, Barr & Co., with the exception of the shops. The premises are admirably arranged to meet the requirements of a large wholesale trade, and the show-rooms and sale-rooms (spacious and well lighted) afford every facility for displaying to advantage the firm’s extensive and varied stock. As general warehousemen, Messrs. Hunter, Barr & Co.’s trade covers a very comprehensive range, and they have a large number of departments of which the following are chief:— Silk and felt hats, cloth caps, Scotch bonnets, umbrellas and parasols, bags and portmanteaus, waterproof goods, sewing machines, braces and belts, scarfs and ties, collars and cuffs, white shirts, wool shirts, ducks and slops, ready-made clothing, smallwares, boots and shoes, handkerchiefs, hosiery and yarns, stays, mantles and furs, underclothing, ribbons, silks, velvets, laces, muslins and curtains, flowers, feathers, straw hats and bonnets, millinery, skirts, pinafores and fancy wool hosiery, stationery and packing papers. In these various and important wares a very large trade is done, and as the firm manufacture a great proportion of the goods they deal in, having large manufacturing premises in Glasgow and Leeds, they are in a position to quote very advantageous terms to the trade.

Upwards of one thousand hands are employed in Messrs. Hunter, Barr & Co.’s five establishments, and the whole business is organised upon an immense scale, its connections being widespread and influential in all parts of the United Kingdom. The principals of the firm are Mr. Richard H. Hunter and Mr. James Barr, each of whom takes a very active part in the management of the business, bestowing close personal attention upon all the details of its varied and complex routine. As an evidence of the good relations subsisting between the firm and their employees, we may mention the fact that the latter presented the principals with a handsomely illuminated address, along with two beautiful silver-gilt caskets, commemorating the auspicious attainment of the jubilee of the house (1843—1893).
Messrs. Hunter, Barr & Co.’s telegraphic addresses are “Hunter, Glasgow,” and “Clothiers, Leeds.” Their Glasgow telephone is No. 3,571.

JOHN CRAWFORD, LETTERPRESS PRINTER, LITHOGRAPHER, AND ENGRAVER,
104, WEST GEORGE STREET, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 4,507.

MODERN letterpress printing and the kindred crafts of the lithographer, engraver, and bookbinder find an able representative and exponent in the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. John Crawford, who formed the nucleus of his now prosperous business as far back as the year 1870. The records of the undertaking show that it was originally organised in St. Enoch’s Square, where now stands St. Enoch’s Railway Station, afterwards in George Square, where now stand the Municipal Buildings, then in Mitchell Street, but, by reason of disaster by fire, was temporarily transferred to 57, Argyle Street, from whence a final removal was effected to the present eligible quarters in the spring of 1893. The new premises are in every way precisely adapted to the requirements of the brisk business. They consist of a fine suite of general and private offices, and of large works adjoining, elaborately equipped with a magnificent plant of all the latest and best forms of machinery and appliances incidental to the perfect progress of the various operations of letterpress and lithographic printing, engraving, bookbinding, account- book making and the like, in which a large staff of skilled and experienced hands is regularly employed, under the constant personal supervision of Mr. Crawford, and a staff of expert foremen. Mr. Crawford’s work has always been characterised by its correct typography and general artistic excellence, and upon these recommendations, coupled with a moderate tariff of charges, and the prompt and punctual execution of all orders, he has won the complete confidence and liberal support of a very large and influential mercantile and trade connection throughout the city and its suburbs; and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has gained shall not only be well sustained but steadily enhanced in time to come.

WILLIAM MCCOLL, WHOLESALE WINE MERCHANT AND FAMILY GROCER,
230, CROWN PLACE, DUMBARTON ROAD, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

MR. William MCColl nine years ago acquired the thriving Dumbarton Road business, which had been organised fifteen years previously by a Mr. George T. Trotter, and developed it with such marked vigour and success that he now holds busy branch depots at 42, Anderson Street, and 14, Castlebank Street, Partick, and 12 and 14, Albert Street, Govan. Eligibly located in the commanding position called Crown Place, at the corner of Dumbarton Road and Hyndland Street, Partick, the spacious shop, with its splendid array of six large plate-glass windows, and handsome modern internal fitments, is carefully arranged to hold and to effectively display the vast and varied stock of bottled brandies, whiskies, wines, liqueurs, &c., and the various favourite blends of Mr. MCColl’s fine old matured whiskies, including his celebrated V blend, as sold for upwards of twenty years — a selection of five varieties of fine whisky, blended in such proportions as will secure a uniform and agreeable flavour. Being kept to mature some years in bond before taken into stock for sale, it will be found entirely free from that acrid and fiery taste so easily discernible in all newly made whiskies. It is now put up in clear glass bottles, each containing the sixth part of a gallon, and only requires to be once used by those who have not yet given it a trial in order to be appreciated as a really pure and high-class old whisky. One moiety of the shop is set apart for the sale of family groceries of exclusively the best description. Mr. William MCColl’s resources and facilities are, indeed, of a distinctly superior character, enabling him, to offer many special advantages to his clients and customers, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Personally, Mr. MCColl is well known and much esteemed in local and city circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

H. B. MACPHAIL, ARTIST IN STAINED GLASS, MIRROR SHOW-CARD MANUFACTURER, AND OPAL LETTER MAKER,
125 AND 127, LONDON STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Hugh B. Macphail founded his business thirteen years ago in the premises still occupied, and was not long in establishing his right to a prominent position among those following this skilful calling. A splendid name was early secured, and the house has gone on steadily progressing in popularity and patronage until the present day. The premises utilised are large and handsome in appearance, comprising a suite of offices and spacious show-room in the front and workshops at the rear. Additional working accommodation is also provided on the opposite side of the street. The arrangement and equipment of the establishment throughout leaves nothing to be desired, and as every department is under vigorous and capable supervision, a first-class and reliable business is being done. Employment is found for a force of over twenty skilled hands, but the principal personally supervises every important piece of work placed in his hands for ecclesiastical and other purposes. Stained windows and leaded work of a very high character is turned out, and many contracts in these upper walks of the business have fallen to his share. It need hardly be said they have been filled with every success, and it is probably in this direction of art work that Mr. Macphail is best known. In these branches he enjoys a reputation of an enviable character, and on these finished and artistic productions his prosperity is in no small degree based. The mirrors he manufactures in the elegance and novelty of their designs are admirably adapted to the purposes intended, and as every facility is possessed for carrying on this branch in the most effective manner he is able to quote such prices as cannot fail to induce business. He is largely occupied in supplying hotels and restaurants with these splendid goods. Mr. Macphail is also extensively engaged in the manufacture of glass show-cases and picture frames. The trade controlled is not confined to the United Kingdom, but extends to America, Egypt, and the British Colonies. Travellers are kept out in the home counties, and an unceasing enterprise and activity is manifested in keeping well abreast with the times and maintaining the high and superior excellence of the goods handled. Mr. Macphail enjoys the respect and esteem of a large number of persons in commercial and artistic circles, and is everywhere regarded as a man of superior accomplishments and cultured taste.

THOMAS BISHOP, SHIP-CHANDLER, SHIP FURNISHING IRONMONGER, &c.,
52, CLYDE PLACE, AND 1 TO 7, DALE STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Bishop began his notably successful operations in Main Street, Gorbals, some sixty years since. In 1839 the rapid growth of his business induced a removal to the commodious quarters now occupied, which have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the several commercial and industrial departments, including ship-chandlery of all descriptions; ship furnishing ironmongery; blacksmith, coppersmith, tinsmith, and plumbing work, and the manufacture of galley ranges and ventilators. For the last twenty-five years the members of the firm have been Messrs. John and William Bishop, the sons of the founder. The ample experience of these gentlemen, combined with their energetic enterprise, enables them fully to maintain the prestige of the old-established house, while at the same time they are possessed of facilities for the supply of all modern shipping requirements. The premises occupy a commanding and specially convenient position, close to the harbour, and in the vicinity of the several new docks on the river. They comprise a double-fronted sale shop, facing Clyde Place, and also presenting an important facade to Dale Street. The workshops are situated in a building three stories high, each floor having an area of sixty feet by thirty. Here a staff of fifty or more skilled workmen, including some expert specialists, are permanently employed. In addition to the large amount of business which the firm control in these directions, they hold large and fully representative stocks of all sorts of ship-chandlery and ship-furnishing. They have justly gained a high reputation for the supply of cooking ranges specially adapted for the galley. They are also extensive manufacturers of every kind of flags for shipping. The workshops and the sales department are in immediate communication, and every facility exists for the prompt and effective execution of all orders. There is a well-appointed suite of general and private offices, furnished with telephonic communication and all the other requisites, the telephone number being 1,326. The Messrs. Bishop are personally well known, and are highly respected amongst the leading shipping circles on the Clyde, and in their business capacity they retain the unreserved confidence of many influential firms.

J. CAMPBELL & CO., MANUFACTURERS OF TRUNKS, PORTMANTEAUS, &c.,
148, TRONGATE, GLASGOW.

THIS excellently organised business was founded, upwards of fifty years since by Mr. H. Campbell, father of Mr. J. Campbell, the present senior partner. The members of the firm at the present time are Messrs. John Campbell and John Lennox, both of whom conduct the business, and contribute largely to the notable success of the enterprise in which they are engaged. The premises occupy a commanding position in Trongate, comprising a building of four storeys, three of which are utilised by Messrs. Campbell & Co. The first floor forms a well-appointed show-room, in which are displayed to advantage examples of all the specialities which have made the reputation of the house. On the second floor, which forms the warehouse, are always held heavy stocks of the classes of goods which are generally in largest demand in the market. On this floor, also, there is a suite of well-appointed offices. The telephone number is 4,698.

The factory on the third floor is fully equipped with all the required mechanical appliances, of the most approved modern type, for the saving of labour and the perfecting of processes. A large and competent staff of experienced workpeople of both sexes is permanently employed. In regard to the extent of their operations and the high reputation which their productions bear, the firm have practically no rivals in Glasgow, and they supply all the leading retail establishments in the city and throughout a wide surrounding area. Messrs. J. Campbell & Co. manufacture in large quantities all descriptions of trunks, portmanteaus, Gladstone and carpet bags, leggings, &c. The business which they control is both wholesale and retail, but by far the greater part of it is of the former class, and the firm are supplying increasing quantities of their specialities to the great shipping houses for export. Mr. Campbell possesses a thorough technical knowledge of the details of the manufacturing processes, and the large amount of time and attention which he gives to the factory constitutes a guarantee of the excellence of all the work produced.

CURRIE & CO., MANUFACTURERS, MERCHANTS AND AGENTS.
OFFICES: 27, WELLINGTON STREET, GLASGOW.

FOUNDED in the year 1873, and steadily developed from the first, this notable business commands attention as the largest concern of its kind in Scotland. The headquarters of the firm for commercial purposes are situated in Wellington Street, where they occupy a handsome and commodious suite of offices, but the practical routine of the business is carried on at the extensive premises adjoining Kingston Dock, comprising stores, stables, &c., and extending over a great, area of ground. This large establishment is admirably organised and equipped, and in its several departments it gives employment to a considerable number of hands. Messrs. Currie & Co.’s trade is a very comprehensive one, and embraces a wide range of important branches. The most recent development is that of the Anderston and Kingston Storage Company, for general storing, which arose to utilise adjoining property purchased some years ago. Then there is the concern known as the North British Asphalt Company, which also lies into Messrs. Currie & Co.’s connection. Most of the important buildings are now under-coated with a preparation of pitch for damp-proof purposes, and it is used by contractors for covering iron bridges, &c., to prevent corrosion.

The commodities which Messrs. Currie & Co. deal in principally are: Portland cement, Scotch and Irish limes, pavement, freestone, crushed granite, Arran sand, slates, fireclay goods, barytes, umber, plaster of Paris, whiting, &c. In all these lines Messrs. Currie & Co. hold large stocks, and are ready to meet any demands with promptitude. Their standing is accepted as a guarantee of quality, and they spare no effort to maintain their high reputation for reliable material. The business in every department receives the direct personal attention of its founder and sole proprietor, Mr. John P. Currie, a gentleman whose commercial capabilities are well demonstrated in the success that has attended this influential concern. The business in which Mr. Currie is now so actively engaged derives its support from a thoroughly representative and increasing connection, and continues to develop. The firm have quite recently purchased the very large concern carried on at Edinburgh and Leith under the designation of Joseph A. Currie & Co., a similar business in every respect except that the connection is in the east Country. This practically means the duplicating of their extensive concern, which will then become the largest of its kind in the country. A good idea of its extent may be formed from the fact that the Company keep thirty horses for delivery of goods locally. Great care is taken in supplying material of the best quality only. We give an interesting sketch of a German double-lever cement-testing machine, for which Messrs. Currie & Co. are sole agents, also a view of the Company’s exhibit at the Glasgow Exhibition

THE CLYDE HOTEL,
18, ANDERSTON QUAY, GLASGOW.
PROPRIETOR: MR. WILLIAM WADDELL.

THE Clyde Hotel — originally known as Gray’& Clyde Hotel — has an honourable record, which dates back to the year 1832. Throughout the whole of the long interval the house has maintained a high reputation as a comfortable temporary home for officers of the merchant navy, tourists, and others. That reputation has been amply maintained by Mr. William Waddell since, four years ago, he assumed the duties of proprietor and manager, while, at the same time, he has so much increased its attractiveness by the addition of modern and newly devised comforts that the house has gained an added popularity amongst the classes for whom Mr. Waddell caters. The situation of the Clyde Hotel is most convenient, being close to the docks and the berths of the English, Irish, and American steamers. There is a large, number of well-ventilated and comfortably fitted bedrooms, besides coffee, commercial, drawing, and smoking rooms, all suitably appointed. Good substantial breakfasts and dinners, and toothsome teas are provided at the shortest notice, and the cellars of the Clyde have a long-established fame for rare brands of wines and spirits. Having regard to the sound and substantial fare provided, and the excellent house accommodation, the charges at the Clyde Hotel are remarkably moderate.

Largely frequented as the house is by steamship captains and other officers, there is always plenty of congenial company in the smoke-room and at the dinner-table; and therefore tourists arriving or departing by the steamboats will find the house a most agreeable place of sojourn during their stay in Glasgow. Indeed, so popular is the Clyde Hotel with steamship officers that the proprietor has sometimes found it difficult to accommodate all his patrons. To obviate this in future, Mr. Waddell has lately enlarged the hotel by the addition of another flat, devoted to bedrooms, and an extension at the rear, including a fine billiard- room, and the entire building has been redecorated and renovated. It may, too, be noted that the Manchester Canal ships berth directly opposite to the Clyde Hotel. The hotel, under Mr. Waddell’s energetic control, is sure of a notably successful future.

G. & J. MACLACHLAN, CASTLE BREWERY, MARYHILL; WHOLESALE WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANTS:
OFFICES AND STORES, 23, 25, AND 27, ST. ENOCH SQUARE, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. G. & J. Maclachlan began their extensive and eminently successful industrial operations, as brewers, in 1889; and during the comparatively brief period which, has elapsed, the invariable excellence of their productions has firmly established their reputation all over Scotland. Since the date mentioned, their premises at Maryhill, which are known as the Castle Brewery, have from time to time been enlarged, in order to meet the exigencies created by the rapid growth in the firm’s volume of business. They now cover a very considerable area, and include a series of fine buildings three storeys in height, and of modern construction. At the commanding main entrance is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which, are furnished with telephonic communication and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of the clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The telephone number is 3,281, and the registered telegraphic address is “Maclachlan, Glasgow.”

The equipment of the industrial departments, which is on what is technically known as the “tower” system, represents the most approved modern applications of the skill of the mechanical engineer to the requirements of the art of brewing. The machinery is driven by a powerful steam-engine. The working premises include admirably fitted mashing, fermenting, and cooling rooms, with, large cellars and store-rooms; and the brewery has the capacity for turning out six to seven hundred barrels per week. The malthouses occupy a separate building. The productions of the Castle Brewery are mild and bitter ales, porter, and stout, of various qualities, all of which have highly recommended themselves to the favour of different sections of the public, and all of which are brewed exclusively from pure malt and hops. An analysis of the water used shows that it possesses properties which render it peculiarly suitable for brewing purposes. The bottling stores form an important department of the premises, and here, in addition to the productions of the brewery itself, the firm bottle large quantities of the finest English ales and stout. Messrs. G. & J. Maclachlan control a very extensive export trade to many parts of the world; and their home trade connection extends, not only throughout the Glasgow district, but all over Scotland, amongst “free” houses. The principals keep constant touch with their customers, by the aid of a large staff of experienced commercial representatives. About thirty hands, including several expert specialists, are employed in the industrial departments.

The Messrs. Maclachlan also conduct an extensive and old-established business as wholesale wine and spirit merchants. Their premises for the conduct of this department of the business, which also constitute the city offices of the brewery, are centrally situated at 23, 25, and 27, St. Enoch Square. Here there is a commodious suite of offices, with telephonic communication, the telephone number being 586; while adjoining, there are spacious warehouses, ample enough to admit of the systematic classification and arrangement of the valuable and varied stocks of wines and spirits which are always held. It may here be remarked that the firm are the sole proprietors of the celebrated “Iona” and Castle Blend whiskies, which are in constant and increasing demand. The business of the firm is exclusively wholesale, and extends all over Scotland amongst “free” hotels and public-houses. The firm are also large military contractors, and supply regiments in different parts of the country with all kinds of liquors, and have received many first-class testimonials from the officers of the different regiments supplied. They also cater for the American lines of steamships, and do an extensive trade in the North and Highlands of Scotland amongst the hotels, gentlemen’s shooting-boxes in the season, while their specialities are known as household words in the Colonies for many years. Their agents in Calcutta, Messrs. G. F. Kellner & Co., have long held the contract for the one thousand five hundred miles of Indian railway for the now far-famed “Iona” Blend of Scotch whisky. In addition to the large stocks of choice wines and spirits which are always held in bond, considerable quantities are kept in the cellars and warehouses, ready for delivery. The firm have a high reputation in the trade for some of their old vintage wines, all of which have been bottled and matured in their own cellars.

MAITLAND, HANDS & CO., CLYDE SHIP FURNISHING WORKS,
KELVINHAUGH, GLASGOW.

THE enormous demand in the country for necessary furnishings, in iron, tin, and copper work, for both steam and sailing vessels has, during the last four years, been very largely supplied by the Clyde Ship-Furnishing Works at Kelvinhaugh. At the beginning of the period indicated, this admirably organised business was founded by the present proprietors, Messrs. John Maitland and Stephen Hands. When the premises which they occupy were taken over by these gentlemen they were old and dilapidated, and in the interval they have been so much altered, improved, and extended as to present almost the aspect of newly erected works. Messrs. Maitland and Hands both brought to their enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the requirements of the trade, and by their assiduous supervision of all the processes of manufacture they have gained the unreserved confidence and the constant support of many leading shipbuilding and ship-owning firms in Scotland, England, and Ireland. They are on an extensive scale, iron, tin, and coppersmiths, brass, copper, and sheet-iron workers, and makers of cooking ranges and stoves of all kinds. They have, with signal success, made a speciality of the fitting up, on board ship, of the last-mentioned classes of appliances. They are also manufacturers of copper, brass, and iron ventilators, water, oil, and bread tanks, oil and tallow cups, engine-room furnishings, signal, cabin, engine, and other lamps, cooking and pantry utensils, steam heaters, boilers, presses, &c., lighthouses and fittings, &c., brass, copper, and iron funnels, electric and pneumatic bells, gas fittings, &c. Estimates are given for all kinds of ship furnishings, chandlery, and other work, and the excellence of their working plant enables Messrs. Maitland, Hands & Co. to reduce their quotations to the lowest possible figure. The premises include a well-appointed office which is furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of business.
The telephone number is 3,518.

HUGH FINDLAY & CO., WHOLESALE TEA DEALERS,
15 AND 17, INGRAM STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Hugh Findlay formed the nucleus of his present prosperous business in the year 1887. The records of the undertaking show that its commercial development has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement. Eligibly located in Ingram Street, the spacious double-fronted ground floor warehouse, with its neat office and sample room at the entrance, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, with every facility and convenience for the rapid and effective transaction of business. The firm’s modus operandi consists essentially in the importation of the choicest growths of India and Ceylon teas from the various districts, which they blend on the premises by means of patent machinery to suit the exact requirements of any particular district; this work being done under the personal supervision of Mr. Hugh Findlay, who is an expert buyer, taster, and blender of extensive experience. The firm’s business operations reach practically to every part of the country, being sedulously promoted through the agency of commercial travellers, who not only place out the firm’s quarter-pound and half-pound packet teas, but carefully study the individual wants of their numerous clients amongst grocers and retail tea vendors, who are supplied upon the lowest wholesale terms. Messrs. Hugh Findlay & Co.’s resources and facilities are of a distinctly superior character, enabling them to offer many special advantages to buyers, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Personally, Mr. Findlay is well known and much esteemed in city and provincial trade circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man, well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

D. MCKAY & SON, CARTAGE CONTRACTORS,
15, WELLINGTON STREET, GLASGOW.

THE requirements of a great populous city like Glasgow find ample employment for the able and reliable cartage contractor, and among the firms so occupied a prominent place is held by that of Messrs. D. McKay & Son, of 15, Wellington Street, whose business has been established since the year 1852. At that time a start was made in the immediate neighbourhood of the present quarters. The concern was there developed with an energy and tact that soon carried it into the front ranks of houses engaged in a similar line. A good name was early gained for the thorough reliance that could be placed upon the firm in all matters intrusted to it, as well as for the extent and efficiency of its resources. The premises now occupied at Wellington Street were taken possession of in 1875. They consist of a compact suite of offices, capitally fitted up, and in connection with the telephone system (No. 3,143), where a staff of clerks is kept occupied in the management of the commercial part of the business. The stables are at 220, Berkeley Street, and also at Regent Mills, Partick. These have been built upon the best principles, and afford first-class accommodation for the large stud of horses owned by the firm, as well as for the various kinds of vehicles in use. Every facility is possessed for carrying out an extensive business of this kind in the quickest and most economical manner, and those placing work in the hands of Messrs. D. McKay & Son can confidently rely upon the utmost satisfaction being given in despatch, cost, and method of doing the work. Many important contracts are held by the firm, and in their line they distinctly stand as the leading house. Mr. Samuel McKay, the sole partner, is well known in the trade circles of the city, and is held in much respect by a large and ever-increasing connection for his strict business integrity and thorough trustworthiness.

THE ALEXANDRA HOTEL,
MR. W. R. CUDDEFORD, PROPRIETOR,
148, BATH. STREET, GLASGOW.

ONE of Glasgow’s most popular first-class hotels, and one which, has fully earned its popularity, is the Alexandra, in Bath Street, in which the advantages of an excellent situation, a fine modern building, and thoroughly capable management are combined. Founded in 1877, the Alexandra Hotel is now under the painstaking control of Mr. W. R. Cuddeford, who is highly qualified by long experience and personal aptitude to direct the affairs of such a house as this. The handsome and substantial building is most conveniently and centrally situated in Bath Street, and has been laid out and arranged with special regard to the requirements of a superior hotel. It contains five storeys, of pleasing design and commanding architectural appearance, and throughout the commodious interior the appointments and decorations are in excellent taste. Everything has been well done, without regard to expense, and it would be very difficult to find a hotel in which the elements of comfort and elegance are more happily united. All the private apartments are neatly and comfortably furnished, and the public rooms (such as the coffee, smoking, billiard, and other rooms) would do credit to any hotel in the kingdom, so complete are they in all details of equipment. There is also a well-fitted bar, where the choicest qualities of wines, spirits, cigars, &c., are dispensed, and where one is always sure of obtaining sound and carefully selected articles. At the Alexandra Hotel special attention is paid to the cuisine, and in this important respect the house has a deservedly high reputation. The attendance also is efficient, and the servants of the hotel in all departments are favourably known for promptitude and politeness in the discharge of their various duties. Altogether, visitors to Glasgow may be commended to the Alexandra Hotel, where there is ample accommodation of a superior character for upwards of sixty guests. It is quite evident that nothing has been omitted that money, experience, or energy could supply to perfect the organisation of this excellent establishment. Mr. Cuddeford is a very popular and successful host, and under his proprietorship the Alexandra Hotel continues to enjoy the favour and confidence of a very large circle of patrons, including many families and gentlemen of position.
The hotel telephone is No. 75.

ANDREW MUIR WRIGHT & SON, LIVESTOCK AGENTS AND AGRICULTURAL AUCTIONEERS,
GLASGOW, EDINBURGH, AND PERTH.

THIS firm was founded by the late Andrew Muir Wright on 1st June, 1880. Mr. Wright was one of the oldest members of the cattle trade, having been up to the date mentioned in the service, and latterly a partner, of that well-known and now defunct firm, Thomas Spence, Son & Co. Combined with his business of livestock agent, he carried on the trade of a produce commission merchant, acting in the interest of Thomas Lockhart, Esq., of New York and Chicago. In this department he was assisted by his son, Andrew Muir Wright, who had formerly learned the business while in the service of Houston Brothers, of Glasgow. Mr. Wright’s cattle business prospered beyond anticipation, and at a later period his brother-in-law, Mr. William Patrick, joined him in his American business. A few years afterwards Mr. Patrick took over this department entirely on his account, and carries it on still in Glasgow under the style of Wright, Patrick & Co. In March, 1885, Mr, Wright instituted a series of auction sales, now known as the “Glasgow Livestock Sales.” These are conducted every Monday and Thursday, and on Wednesdays stock is sold in the Glasgow Cattle Market by private treaty. In 1887 Mr. Wright assumed as partner his son mentioned above, The firm from that date being carried on under the name and style of Andrew Muir Wright & Son. On the sudden and unexpected death of the senior partner, on 24th February, 1893, Mr. Wright junior took over sole control of the concern, and has added thereto the business of Agricultural auctioneers. The firm also disposes of all classes of store cattle, attending regularly the markets of Edinburgh and Perth for this impose. Their connection in the cattle trade is exclusively a home one, their consignment coming entirely from the Scotch Highland and Irish districts. The offices and stock-yards are situate at 271, Duke Street. These being very commodious, and their staff of assistants being throughly efficient, Messrs. A. M. Wright & Son are quite able to cope in a satisfactory and successful manner with the large and important business with which their numerous customers favour them.
Registered telegraphic address: “Wright, Glasgow;” telephone No. 3,726,

ALEXANDER IMRIE, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DEALER IN POULTRY, LICENSED TO DEAL IN GAME,
58, CANDLERIGGS AND BAZAAR, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 3,271.

THE greatest scope is afforded in connection with the food supply of the people, for, whatever else may be dispensed with, food is a necessity of existence. The important business of catering in poultry and game for the community in and around Glasgow was taken up by Mr. Alexander Imrie upwards of a quarter of a century ago. This enterprising gentleman has been fortunate in securing premises of the most suitable description for carrying on the business situated at the corner of Bell Street and the Candleriggs, having a good double frontage and excellent arrangement for the display of stock, and, moreover, most convenient for customers in and around the district. A large and valuable patronage has already been accorded to the concern by some of the best families in Glasgow, and the circle of supporters of the enterprise is steadily widening. Special arrangements have been made by Mr. Imrie for the supply of game of all kinds direct from the shooting grounds, and his stock of rabbits, hares, grouse, partridges, pheasants, blackcock, snipe, wild duck, pigeons, &c., &c., when in season, is very large. The country around is famous for its poultry, and from this practically inexhaustible supply of farm-fed birds Mr. Imrie receives daily consignments. A business of this description is by no means an easy one to conduct, for a class of customers such as that for which Mr. Imrie caters are inclined to be fastidious and insist upon perfection of quality. Great care has therefore to be exercised by him as well in respect of his own sources of supply as in respect of the distributive arrangements. The scale upon which he carries on business gives him a very great advantage, for while he is able to secure the trade benefits attending upon the purchase of large consignments, the considerable sale ensures that the goods are invariably fresh as well as of admirable quality. With respect to the manner in which Mr. Imrie exemplifies the best features of a high-class poultry and game trade, it is impossible to add anything to the very enviable name and reputation he has so long held for the prompt and satisfactory character of his dealings.

JAMES RAMSAY & SONS, CARTWRIGHTS, SMITHS, SPRING-VAN AND LORRY BUILDERS,
202, RUTHERGLEN ROAD, GLASGOW.

THIS, besides being one of the most prominent establishments in the business, is, also, one of the oldest in the city, having been established as far back as the year 1848. Mr. James Ramsay first commenced operations in the same premises as still occupied, the present proprietors being his two sons, Mr. John Ramsay and Mr. James Ramsay, who give their close personal attention to the concern in its entirety, and the uniform and high-class work turned out is much appreciated by a wide-spread and annually increasing body of customers. Ample and commodious premises are occupied which have, from time to time, been added to and altered to keep pace with the growing trade. They comprise large smiths’ shops with several hearths, together with well-equipped workshops. Every class of work in connection with the business of the cartwright and smith is undertaken, special facilities being possessed for carrying it out in a manner that cannot fail to give the utmost satisfaction. Good material, sound workmanship, and prompt attention can always be depended upon, while charges will be sure to give every satisfaction by their moderateness. Hurley, navvy and hand-barrows constitute a speciality with the firm, and the spring vans, carts, and wagons turned out enjoy an excellent name for miles round for their strength, durability, and smart finish. Whatever work is taken in hand here is sure to be executed in the best possible manner, the skilful proprietors being unceasing in their endeavours to retain the support of all with whom they come into business connection. Messrs. Ramsay are well-known in the trade of which they are such old representatives, and are looked upon as sterling business men of sound commercial principles and thorough reliability.

R. S. MUIR & CO., CONTRACTORS FOR MILITARY, NAVAL, POLICE, AND RAILWAY UNIFORMS,
146 AND 150, INGRAM STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS firm originated under its present title as far back as the year 1841. The extensive premises occupied in Ingram Street comprise a warehouse and general and private offices, covering a large floorage area on the first flat of an admirably situated block of buildings. For many years Messrs. R. S. Muir & Co. have been well known as manufacturers of shirts in woollens, linens, fine cottons, and flannelettes; but the principal department of their business has now become that of contracting for uniforms for various public services and Volunteer regiments. The firm’s shirt department, it should be remarked, is still in active operation, and is carried on in a separate building at the rear of the clothing warehouse. The tailors’ workshops are at 19, Cochrane Street. Messrs. R. S. Muir & Co. do a large export trade in shirts and shirtings, and at home they maintain a very extensive connection among Volunteer regiments, devoting special attention to the making and supplying of uniforms and complete accoutrements for all ranks, police uniforms for corporations, and uniforms of station masters, guards, porters, and other officials, for railway companies. The entire business is carried on under the supervision of Mr. James Pilkethley, who is now the sole principal.

ROBERT MCNAB, TINPLATE WORKER,
171, GALLOWGATE, GLASGOW.
WORKS: 66, MONCUR STREET, OFF KENT STREET.

THIS noteworthy business is one of the oldest of its kind in Glasgow, its origin going back to the year 1779, at which remote date operations were commenced by a Mr. Lyon, a man of large experience in the business. After garnering round him a good and influential connection he was succeeded by Mr. Robert MCNab, the father of the present proprietor, also named Robert, and so to the present representative of the house. During its career of one hundred and fourteen years the house has maintained a steady progress, and has been kept by the energy of its management well in touch with the special requirements of the different periods through which it has passed. The premises at Gallowgate are ample in size and convenient in arrangement, consisting of a large single-fronted shop thoroughly well fitted up with every requisite for the accommodation and display of an immense quantity of tin goods. The manufactory covers a good extent of ground, and has evidently been equipped with much care and a thorough knowledge of the business. The latest and most improved machinery has been provided, together with several special labour-saving appliances. The extent of the transactions necessitate the employment of a numerous body of work-people, and the various departments are kept up to the highest state of efficiency. The material used is of the best and most suitable kind, while the various processes of manufacture are gone through under responsible control, with the result that the high excellence of quality can always be depended upon. The stocks held (among the largest and most comprehensive of the kind in the city) include an almost numberless assortment of tinplate and tinsmith’s work and dairy utensils of every description. A first-class connection is kept up, no effort being wanting on the part of the proprietor to give every satisfaction to his customers in the three great features of business success — reliable goods, low prices, and prompt attention. Mr. MCNab is controlling his ancient business with much spirit and energy, and in every way he well merits the prosperity he is enjoying. He occupies a good position in business circles, and is well known and widely respected for ‘his straightforward methods and the strictly honourable lines on which all his transactions are conducted.

JAMES ROBERTSON, BOOKBINDER,
126, RENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW.

PRACTICAL bookbinding in the highest phases of its modern development finds an able representative and exponent at the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. James Robertson, the nucleus of whose now extensive business was formed in George Street, as far back as the year 1872. Thirteen years had barely elapsed before it was found imperative to remove to the present more convenient quarters. Eligibly located in Renfield Street, the premises occupied consist essentially of a neatly appointed office, replete with every modern facility and convenience for the effective transaction of business, and of a large workshop, thoroughly equipped with a splendid working plant of modern machinery and appliances for the execution of bookbinding and kindred operations in all their branches. Mr. Robertson, himself a practical expert craftsman, employs a full staff of skilled and experienced hands, and is thus enabled to undertake extensive orders for the execution of both plain and elaborate bookbinding in the newest styles, together with the stamping of beautifully illuminated leathers for cabinetmakers and others, the covering and rolling of desk and table tops, and the like, and to execute all such work in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Personally Mr. Robertson is well known and much esteemed in city trade circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man.

SMITH & SOMMERVILLE, HOUSEHOLD DRAPERY WAREHOUSE,
208, GREAT WESTERN ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE firm of Messrs. Smith & Sommerville was established only two years ago, by Mr. John A. Smith, trading as Messrs. Smith & Sommerville. Mr. Smith formerly occupied a position of responsibility in the well-known house of Messrs. Copland & Lye, of Sauchiehall Street. The spacious premises, which are double-fronted, occupy a commanding corner position at the junction of Great Western Road and Burnbank Terrace. Three large show windows afford an excellent light which is much appreciated by customers in the selection of colours, and their tastefully arranged displays of textile fabrics, which always include many novelties, form points of never-failing interest. The commodious interior is admirably adapted to the requirements of the business, and the large and varied stocks are systematically classified and arranged. They are selected with thorough technical knowledge of the trade which is possessed by the principals, and include the finest descriptions of household drapery, napery, and cotton, linen, woollen, flannel, and fancy goods. There is, too, an excellent assortment of muslins, laces, damask, frilling, gloves, silks, velvets, ribbons, art-muslin prints, cretonnes, &c. Mrs. Smith, whose naturally excellent taste has been assiduously cultivated by a long course of practical experience, specially attends to the requirements of ladies, and is always prepared to show them many attractive novelties in underclothing, corsets, &c. Messrs. Smith & Sommerville have already established such intimate and extensive relations with the best sources of supply that they are able to offer exceptionally favourable terms to their large and rapidly growing circle of customers.

ANGUS T. KIRKLAND, FAMILY GROCER, WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANT,
134, CANNING STREET, GLASGOW.

THE honourable record of this firm goes back for forty years, when it was established by Mr. John Kirkland. Six years since Mr. Kirkland practically handed over the establishment, which, some fifteen years since, had been granted a wine and spirit licence, to his son, Mr. Robert Kirkland. His decease took place four years ago, and he was succeeded by his brother, Mr. Angus T. Kirkland, who, gifted with exceptional energy and enlightened enterprise, has very materially extended the area of the firm’s influence in several directions. The venerable founder, who is highly esteemed throughout the district, although he has retired from active responsibility in the conduct of the business, continues to interest himself actively in the affairs of the establishment. The firm occupy premises at Bridgeton Cross, opposite Bridgeton Railway Station, and in a line of thoroughfare which is at all times exceptionally busy. The appearance of the spacious double-fronted shop is thoroughly in keeping with the excellent and well-maintained traditions of the firm. There are two show-windows, with appetising displays of succulent comestibles and choice beverages, and the interior is a picture of orderly arrangement and appropriate fittings. To the rear is a spacious store in which are held large surplus stocks, comprising tea, coffee, cocoa, tinned meats and fruits, spices, essences, preserves, pickles, dried fish, meal, flour, peas, beans, ham, bacon, cheese, butter, and eggs, with every requisite for the kitchen. There is, too, a splendid assortment in the spacious cellars of wines and spirits, as well as of bottled ales and stout in prime condition. The firm have gained a reputation which is more than merely local for their special blend of old Scotch whisky. The relations of the Messrs. Kirkland with the principal sources of supply for all these classes of goods are so intimate and of such long standing that they are able to offer specially advantageous terms to their customers, and their connections extend all throughout the Bridgeton district and the whole of the East-end of the city. Four years ago a new departure was made when Mr. A. T. Kirkland acquired the old licensed premises at 93, Dalmarnoch Road, where he succeeded Mrs. Cowan, who had successfully conducted the establishment for many years. It is interesting as probably the oldest established licensed grocer’s shop in the East-end of Glasgow. Mr. A. T. Kirkland is naturally proud of this bit of local commercial archaeology, and he spares no effort to maintain the excellent traditions of the premises.

E. W. MUIR, ENGINEER,
97, ST. JAMES’S ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE large and important engineering business carried on at the above address by Mr. R. W. Muir has developed very rapidly, having been started by the present proprietor in 1885. Mr. Muir occupies spacious and commodious premises in St. James’s Road, and has excellent working facilities here, the establishment being elaborately equipped with improved modern machinery of the most effective type for the purposes of the industry carried on. As a general engineer and machine maker, Mr. Muir enjoys a high reputation and does an extensive trade. He is well and favourably known for his excellent productions in land and marine engines, in which he embodies many valuable improvements, and in recent years he has made a distinct success with his high-pressure expansive steam-engine, with improved governor. In this type of engine the bed-plate, front cylinder cover, guides, and crankshaft plummer block are all cast in one piece. The cylinder is bolted to end of bed, and the crosshead slippers and connecting rod bushes are made adjustable. The connecting and eccentric rods, cylinder cover, and crank-disc are all bright, and the fly-wheel is turned for belt pulley as required. A plummer block and plate are supplied for the outer end of the crank shaft. Moreover, these compact, strong, and useful engines are fitted with improved governors of simple construction, having governor, throttle, and stop valve in the space usually occupied by an ordinary stop valve. Perhaps Mr. Muir’s leading speciality is his double-acting piston pump, which has been remarkably successful in winning the approval of engineers and steam users. It will be found specially suitable for feeding boilers, ship-ballast pumps, and for chemical, oil, and bleach works. It has suction and delivery on each side, and occupies but a small space. All working parts coming in contact with water are made of gun-metal and brass, as are also the bearings, valves, and seats. Each pump is thoroughly tested before delivery, and may be relied upon to do its work efficiently. Mr. Muir also constructs engines for electric lighting, and is a large maker, to order, of all kinds of machinery for all users of steam power. He maintains a valuable and increasing connection in all parts of Scotland, and is now employing fully one hundred hands in the various branches of his important industry. The entire business is under the personal supervision of Mr. Muir himself, to whose energy and skill its gratifying success is wholly due.

NEILSON & MAXWELL, IRON AND METAL MERCHANTS,
88 AND 90, CADOGAN STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS notable business was founded more than forty years ago, the present proprietors being Mr. A. Maxwell and W. R. Maxwell. Large and commodious premises are occupied, which in convenience of arrangement and accommodation are thoroughly well adapted to the requirements of the trade. The well-appointed offices are at No. 90, Cadogan Street, and the extensive warehouses at No. 88. The proprietors’ long acquaintance with the iron trade has familiarised them with all the best sources of supply, and as all their selections are made personally, the goods they handle comprise the best-known and most reliable brands in the trade. These include every description of manufactured iron and steel, best cast, double shear, and Bessemer steel, and bar, rod, sheet, hoop, and angle iron. All the leading brands are copiously represented, and orders of any magnitude or any diversity can generally be filled promptly. By close attention to the requirements of customers, a splendid connection has been formed among manufacturers and shipbuilders on the Clyde and district, while the export trade extends to India, Bombay, Calcutta, Rangoon, Australia, Manilla, and other foreign markets. The business receives the close personal supervision of the principals, who spare no efforts to keep up the high reputation of their house. Messrs. A. and W. R. Maxwell are prominent and popular in the trading and commercial circles of the city, being held in much respect and esteem for their conspicuous business ability as well as for the active support they give to public movements and charitable institutions.

ROBERT SHANKS, FAMILY BAKER AND PURVEYOR, PASTRYCOOK AND CONFECTIONER, POLARENA MANUFACTURER,
310, DUMBARTON ROAD, AND 3, GRAY STREET, RADNOR TERRACE; AND BRANCH BAKERY AT GLADSTONE PLACE, 37 AND 39, KELVINHAUGH STREET, GLASGOW.

AMONG the representative houses engaged in the making and baking of bread and kindred culinary operations in the Dumbarton Road district of the city of Glasgow, there are perhaps few that are as well known, or more liberally patronised by the leading local families, than the one which has been chosen as the theme of the present brief historical review. The records of the undertaking show that it was organised in the year 1883 by a Mr. P. Dunlop, but passed in 1892 into the hands of its present able and experienced proprietor, Mr. Robert Shanks, who had previously conducted a similar business in Bank Street, Hillhead. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position at the corner of the Dumbarton Road and Radnor Terrace, with a separate entrance to the model hygienic bakehouse from 3, Gray Street, Radnor Terrace, the spacious shop is elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and always presents a singularly bright, clean, and attractive appearance, which tends very largely to enhance the inviting character of the stock of good things there temptingly displayed, in the way of an abundant supply of plain and fancy breads and biscuits in great variety, toothsome pastry, cakes, and confectionery; and table delicacies of every description, such as ices, creams, jellies, meringues, souffles, and the like.

A speciality of Mr. Shanks’s is his patent Polarena Food, for infants and invalids. It is digestible, nutritious and delicious, and has been tested chemically by the most distinguished analysts, and has also been examined physiologically by the highest medical authorities, and pronounced superior to anything yet produced. This new patent cooked food has been carefully prepared from nine of the finest ingredients, combined in proportion, which prove nourishing, digestible and delicious. It is an article of diet which will prove of inestimable value to persons of weak constitution. One trial of this luxury will confirm the verdict of the most eminent medical authorities.

In his perfectly equipped hygienic bakery, Mr. Shanks, with a picked staff of experts, operates on a large scale in the production of bread and biscuits, cakes and confectionery, and so forth, for the daily supply of his numerous regular customers in the district, at whose dwellings deliveries are punctually made; and has, moreover, won a widespread and well-merited renown as a maker of plain and aesthetically ornamented wedding, christening, and birthday cakes, and also as a past master in the art of purveying perfectly for banquets and ball suppers, marriage dejeuners, church soirees, garden and picnic parties, and other festive functions, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation enjoyed by his house shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.

THOMAS FLINT & CO., FLINT’S SUPPLY STORES,
397, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

THE well-known and popular supply stores now controlled by Messrs. Thomas Flint & Co., at the above address, originated as far back as the year 1820, and have from the first occupied a premier position in the tea, wine, grocery, and provision trade of Glasgow. The present energetic and enterprising firm acquired it in the year 1875, and they have since then conducted it upon the most advanced lines. The premises have a fine situation at the corner of Sauchieball Street and Elmbank Street, and always present a very handsome and attractive appearance. In addition to a vast assortment of all kinds of groceries, this firm keep a stock of teas to which special attention may be called. Teas are, in fact, a leading feature of the business, the principal of the house having had many years’ practical training as a buyer, tea taster, and blender. Messrs. Flint’s choice blends of teas at various prices combine a delicious aroma, great strength and fine flavour, and they have met with the unqualified approval of all classes of tea drinkers. In coffee, also, this firm excel. They supply the choicest growths, roasted by a process which retains all the characteristic richness and fragrance of this wonderful berry, and their trade in coffee is consequently a very large one. Provisions of the finest quality are sold by this firm, and a great reputation is maintained for fine English and other brands of butter, best Wiltshire hams and bacon, cheese of every kind (both British and foreign), and a great variety of superior tinned and preserved goods, imported comestibles, &c. There is also a well-stocked department for patent medicines and proprietary articles.

Messrs. Flint do a large trade as wine and spirit merchants and importers, and hold a splendid stock of choice growths and vintages in ports, sherries, still and sparkling French and German wines, Australian wines, and a large assortment of bottled spirits of reliable quality. Their invalid port, special claret, and old Scotch whisky, are well known and much esteemed; and they supply the leading brands of high-class ale and stout in bottle. Altogether, this business is a thoroughly comprehensive one, and the firm do a remarkably large wholesale and retail trade, besides some export. Mr. Thomas W. W. Flint, the sole proprietor, exercises a keen personal supervision over every detail of the business, and spares no effort to sustain the excellent reputation of the house for fine quality in all its supplies, and for prompt execution of town and country orders. A large number of prominent families in and for many miles round Glasgow, draw their regular household supplies from this establishment, which can always be relied upon for fresh and carefully selected goods in each department. The firm’s telephone is No. 89.

Mr. Thomas W. W. Flint is one of the best known men in Glasgow, and is prominent alike in business, municipal, and benevolent affairs. He is a director of several important institutions, and a member of the Trades House of Glasgow. He was also visitor (otherwise chairman), in years 1889 and 1890, of the Incorporation of Malt-men in Glasgow, which is one of the wealthiest benevolent institutions in the city, having a capital of nearly £70,000 for distribution in pensions. Mr. Flint is likewise a member (and was director for some time) of the Grocers’ Company of Glasgow, another wealthy organisation, largely benevolent in its operation.

JAMES MCFARLANE, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL IRONMONGER,
22 AND 24, GALLOWGATE STREET (AT THE CROSS), GLASGOW.

THE records of the above undertaking show that it was organised as far back as the year 1842, at No. 65, Trongate Street (at Tron Steeple), under the auspices of a Mr. William Spence, from whom the business was acquired in 1886 by its present capable and enterprising proprietor, who removed from his original establishment, No. 11, Trongate Street. Having outgrown his accommodation, Mr. J. MCFarlane, in 1892, found it imperative to purchase his present more convenient and commodious quarters at the Cross, Gallowgate. Occupying a conspicuous position, the spacious double, shop and five flats, with, its ample storage accommodation, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, having hydraulic lift and four stations, Lamson’s patent cash railway system, and displays a thoroughly representative stock of ironmongery goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the leading manufacturers of the day, principally at home, and also from abroad. All manner of general and furnishing ironmongery goods in the way of stoves, grates, fenders and fire-irons, kitchen utensils, and the like, locks, bells, and brass and iron fittings of every kind, for cabinetmakers, joiners, and others; special lines in carpenters’, joiners’, carvers’, masons’, plasterers’, moulders’, and engineers’ tools; agricultural, horticultural, and butchers’ implements, shop-fittings and lamps, cutlery and kindred commodities; and the numerous other items incidental to the trade, or usually associated therewith, are all fully en evidence, and are all offered for sale at the lowest possible prices consistent with equitable trading. In every department of the business, high-class quality is made a feature of special importance, to which the proprietor’s attention is particularly directed; and it is doubtless largely due to this fact, coupled with sounds and straightforward dealing, that the house has become so widely popular and that such an extensive and thriving business has been developed.

J. MCINNES & CO., FAMILY AND WHOLESALE AND RETAIL BUTCHERS,
130, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD, GLASGOW.

PROJECTED in the year 1864, under the auspices of Mr. John McInnes, and acquired in 1891 by Messrs. D. and J. Sloan, who, however, continue to trade under the old title, this representative purveying establishment stands to-day as one of the leading concerns of its kind in the city of Glasgow. Eligibly located in a commanding position in the St. George’s Road, the spacious double-fronted shop presents a singularly attractive and inviting aspect by reason of the excellent display always there en evidence of neatly dressed carcasses and joints of fresh prime beef, mutton, pork, veal, lamb, &c., in due season, for the supply of a large and superior family trade connection; but in addition to this the firm have developed a very substantial trade for corned beef, pickled tongues, and salt and spiced rounds. Everything in this establishment is maintained at an exclusively high class level, but the resources and facilities at the command of the firm are such as to enable them to offer many special advantages to regular customers, and to execute all orders in a prompt and Satisfactory manner; and that the present proprietary succeeds to the full in sustaining every typical tradition and feature of this old-established and representative house, is the best possible evidence of, and tribute to, the ability and sound judgment of its personnel. This shop is fitted with one of Roberts’ patent chill rooms, and customers can rely on having their goods in first-class condition during the summer months. Ships, yachts, hotels, shooting lodges, &c., are supplied at moderate prices, which can be readily obtained on application.
Telephone, 241.

JAMES W. BRIGGS, PRACTICAL VIOLIN, CELLO, DOUBLE- BASS AND BOW MAKER,
97, CAMBRIDGE STREET, GLASGOW.

ALTHOUGH Mr. Briggs only opened his shop in May last he has been in the business for sixteen years, latterly at North Street, Leeds. His removal from Leeds was a matter of deep regret to all his patrons in that city, and especially to the members of the orchestra of the Grand Theatre, by whom he was presented with a unanimously signed testimonial in which his services are alluded to in the most eulogistic terms. As a violin-maker Mr. Briggs enjoys a high reputation, for he was taught the art by the late William Tarr, who was in his day at the head of his profession, and that the pupil profited by his master’s teaching is evidenced by the fact that he carried off the gold medal for excellence of work at the Leeds Exhibition in 1891. Since he started in business in 1877 he has made sixty-eight violins and fifteen basses, making together a total of eighty-three instruments, which must be considered a goodly result of the work of one pair of hands. These brief particulars are proof enough that Mr. Briggs has come to Glasgow with the best credentials, and it is safe to prophesy that his sterling practical merit will soon be as widely recognised in this city as it was in Leeds. The premises which he has taken in Cambridge Street comprise an admirably appointed shop fitted with good windows, and with an extensive workshop in the rear. Here is to be found every appliance for the making of violins of all sizes, and as he makes all his goods himself, he can guarantee them in every respect. For the purposes of his business, Mr. Briggs has, perhaps, the largest stock of highly seasoned wood in Scotland. When the old Cloth Hall of Leeds was pulled down a few years ago he purchased an immense quantity of wood of which the roof was constructed, and as the building was erected in 1758, this stock of pine-wood, which is used for the bellies of violins, may safely be said to be one hundred and fifty years old. He has also a large stock of bird’s-eye maple and sycamore, of which the backs, sides, and necks of violins are constructed. In his workshop Mr. Briggs may be seen making a violin from the wood in its raw state. Mr. Briggs makes his own “purfling,” which is used for inlaying the back and belly of the instruments, and it consists of three pieces of veneer — a white piece between two black pieces — which are together not more than a sixteenth part of an inch in thickness. He has also invented a gauge which is invaluable on account of its being quite automatic, and may be used all over the surface without being re-adjusted, as is necessary in the case of calipers. Another special feature which is claimed for all these goods is that they are as •well-finished without as within.

At the request of Messrs. Cassell & Co., Mr. Briggs wrote a series of admirably clear and instructive articles on the art of violin making, and these were printed in their periodical entitled ‘Work’ some four years ago. The large show window in the front the premises in Cambridge Street is rendered most attractive by a splendid display of violins, guitars, violas, cellos, mandolins, and other stringed instruments, and amongst the objects of interest he has on view must be mentioned a mandolin which is one hundred and thirty-five years old, a piece of wood cut from a tree which was felled by Mr. Gladstone, the last solo bow of De Beriot, and a violin which was made by Master Harry Briggs, who is not yet fifteen years of age. Mr. Briggs is naturally proud of this instrument, which is finished with great skill and is correct on every detail, and it would seem to show that the skill of the father has descended in a great measure upon the son. After what is explained here of Mr. Briggs's practical skill as a craftsman, it is almost unnecessary to reiterate that he is a perfect master of his profession, and as he attends always to the business in person, and pays strict attention to the executing of all orders, it is not by any means rash to prophesy that he will speedily a very considerable connection among the musicians of this city.

JOHN WATSON, HOUSE PAINTER AND DECORATOR,
135, DUMBARTON ROAD, GLASGOW.

IT is now considerably more than a quarter of a century since the above gentleman commenced business on his own account, operations having been begun in 1860 in Main Street. He soon succeeded in obtaining a recognised position among kindred houses, and further accommodation being needed, he removed in 1870 to his present address. During the whole time the business has been in existence, a splendid name has been enjoyed for the high-class excellence of the principal’s work, and for the thorough reliability that could be placed upon him. Ample and commodious premises are occupied, consisting of a large warehouse (or salesroom), with two extensive windows, in which are displayed some fine selections of painters’ and decorators’ materials, special mention deserving to be made of a series of oil-paintings of Scotch scenery, Which are finished with much artistic merit. The interior of this department is well fitted up, and contains numerous patterns of wall-papers of every kind and price, together with many examples of the proprietor’s skill in graining and ornamental decoration. On the one side is a neatly-appointed office and a spacious showroom on the other, and the rear is occupied with stores and a number of well-equipped workshops. A numerous staff of competent workpeople is employed, in some seasons amounting to as many as sixty pairs of hands. The house covers all branches of the trade with equal success and elegance of execution, but its services are principally called into requisition in better class work. Everything placed in Mr. Watson’s hands is carried out in the most perfect manner, and no pains or trouble are spared to give perfect satisfaction in workmanship, price, and prompt attention. Many of the leading contracts in the district have fallen to the principal’s share, and among these may be specified the painting and decorating of the Barnhill Poor House, Barlinnie Prison, Combination Hospital, Govan, Combination Hospital, Cloverhill, and many city and local public institutions. The well-known St. Vincent Crescent has been painted, decorated, and kept in order by this firm for the last twenty-three years, as well as many other public properties all over Partick, Sandyford, and the West End. Extensive stocks of wall-paper are shown, sanitary papers of all kinds, and pulp papers of all grades and shades. There is also a well-selected supply of paints, oils, colours, brushes, and other painter’s requisites. Mr. Watson occupies a prominent position in trade circles and is well known in the city and suburbs. All his dealings are marked by honourable and liberal methods, and he enjoys the respect and confidence of all who have business relations with him.

MESSRS. LANGFIER, PORTRAIT ARTISTS AND PHOTOGRAPHERS,
202, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW.

PHOTOGRAPHY as practised at Glasgow is in a high state of perfection, and the business done is no less extensive than valuable. Many first-class and influential houses are engaged in this branch of art, and among the latest and most promising candidates for public favour is that of Messrs. Langfier, portrait artists and photographers, whose art studio is situated at 202, Hope Street, corner of Sauchiehall Street. Operations have been commenced here only a few months, yet in that brief period a highly favourable impression has been created among a better class of patrons, who regard the firm’s work as being unsurpassed in certain special and desirable features. The premises occupied are well and centrally situated, and are spacious in dimensions and admirably arranged. The reception rooms are handsomely appointed in the Oriental style, and no trouble or expense has been spared in providing everything for the comfort and convenience of patrons. The walls, tables, and sideboards are rich with a profuse display of photographs and paintings in oil, water-colour, and monochrome, all of which reflect the greatest credit on the executive skill and artistic taste of the principals. The studio as regards lighting, surroundings, and equipment is — well, perfect; all the latest and most improved appliances and accessories are provided, and the firm are to be heartily congratulated on the marked success that has crowned their efforts to make their establishment one of the finest and most complete in the city. The instantaneous process is used, and the productions of the house are acknowledged as chefs d’oeuvre in their line, being characterised by clearness and softness of tone, and faithful regard to the most minute details. The same perfect finish is observable in all the firm’s outdoor work, groups, animals, machinery, and landscapes. Portraits are taken from photos or life in oil, black and white, water-colour, crayons, and monochrome, on paper, canvas, or opal; a staff of experienced assistants is employed, and the work executed is of the highest artistic merit. A speciality is made of photographic enlargement, and in all the branches of this interesting art Messrs. Langfier are actively occupied and producing work of exquisite beauty. As under courteous and able management the business is rapidly increasing, appointments should be made a few days in advance in order to prevent delay or inconvenience. It is an important and much appreciated feature of this business that all negatives are kept and registered, and copies can be obtained at any time. The principals enjoy the respect and esteem of all who are brought into business relations with them; they are well known in trade and professional circles, and are highly regarded for their conspicuous ability, their courteous and gentlemanly style of doing business, and their strict personal probity.

T. M. STOBO, TOBACCONIST,
181, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

AMONG the notable houses engaged in the tobacco trade of the city of Glasgow there are perhaps few that are possessed, of as high a reputation, or one that has been so capably sustained for such a long period, as that of Mr. T. M. Stobo. Mr. Stobo opened his present prosperous business at 131, Sauchiehall Street, as far back as the year 1847, and still continues to direct the concern with his customary vigour and success. His spacious shop has the advantage of being centrally situated in one of the busiest thoroughfares in the city, and is always rendered conspicuous by reason of the splendid display made in its artistically dressed show window. The shop per se is elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is augmented by the welcome addition of a fine smoking - saloon at the rear. Mr. Stobo maintains a particularly large and comprehensive stock of exclusively superior goods, from which he is prepared to supply both retail and wholesale customers at the lowest prices consistent with equitable trading. In addition to all the choicest crops and brands of Havana, Mexican, Manilla, and Indian cigars, and Egyptian and Turkish cigarettes, his specialities include Persian smoking mixture, Havana tobacco, Cut Golden Bar, Honeydew, Sauchiehall mixture, and Havana cigarette mixture; all the latest novelties in meerschaum and briar pipes, cigar and cigarette cases, amber tubes, and smokers’ fancy goods, &c., suitable for presentation, and everything incidental to a thoroughly first-class establishment of the kind. The business is, indeed, a conspicuous example of substantial success worthily achieved, and all its characteristics are those of a house whose nature has been influenced and whose methods have been formed by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of trade.

ROWAN & CO., MERCHANT TAILORS AND JUVENILE OUTFITTERS,
104, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS eminent firm of merchant tailors and boys’ outfitters was founded in the year 1846, under the style of Gardner & Macintosh, and was subsequently continued under that of Macintosh & Fleming. In 1881, the large and successful business was acquired by the present proprietors, Messrs. Rowan & Co., and the sole principal now is Mr. James Rowan, whose extensive experience and well-known enterprise have enabled him to make this one of the foremost concerns of its kind in the city. It is worthy of mention that Mr. James Rowan commenced operations in the same line of business a good many years ago at Greenock, where his original establishment is still carried on by his brothers. In 1881 the business in Argyle Street was entirely remodelled and greatly enlarged at heavy cost, and there is not a handsomer establishment now to be seen in this fine thoroughfare. The firm give employment to a staff of skilled tailors and cutters, and all branches of high-class tailoring and outfitting are engaged in. A leading feature is made of juvenile outfitting, and the firm have been eminently successful in every department of boys’ tailoring. They show many neat and stylish designs in school suits, evening dress for juveniles, cricket and tennis suits, and artistic fancy suits for small boys, while the picturesque Highland dress is carefully produced with accuracy and completeness, in all the leading Clan Tartans. Messrs. Rowan’s sailor suits for boys of various ages are immensely and deservedly popular, and so are their “Fauntleroy” and “Court” suits, specially adapted for little boys’ evening dress. Messrs. Rowan & Co. do an exceedingly large trade in their juvenile department, and so excellent is the work they turn out that they have been appointed tailors and outfitters to a number of schools and colleges in all parts of Scotland. Their work in gentlemen’s tailoring and outfitting is always distinguished by good taste, correct style, and faultless cut and finish; while the range of cloths to choose from is always large and satisfactory. Sound quality, good workmanship, and moderate prices are the three principal elements in Messrs. Rowan & Co.’s system of trading. Mr. James Rowan personally supervises the entire business, and his courteous attention to the requirements of patrons, as his unfailing promptitude in carrying out orders, has gained widespread approval and won the confidence of a very large and important town and country clientele.

J. MATHISON, HAIRDRESSER AND PERFUMER,
9, BOTHWELL STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. J. Mathison, one of the founders of the Glasgow College of Hairdressers, opened his now popular establishment at 9, Bothwell Street, but one minute’s walk from the Central Station, in the year 1890. After having won his laurels in the profession, as an artiste, and having also acted in the capacity of hairdresser for seven seasons on “David MacBrayne’s” Royal Mail Steamer, “Columba”; and still further distinguished himself as the winner, in open competition, of the first prize and gold medal and coiffure diplomas of the Glasgow College of Hairdressers, in 1884, there can be no room for doubt that Mr. Mathison occupies an unsurpassed position in his profession. Within, the emporium is elegantly appointed in the best modern style, and is most tastefully arranged to effectively display a complete and varied stock of select goods, composed of all kinds of fashionable perfumery and choice toilet requisites, in the way of combs and brushes, razors, hand-mirrors, dressing-cases, hair-washes, restorers, dyes, cosmetics, and the like, many of the last-named of which are skilfully prepared from his own formula. Mr. Mathison has attained great success with his recently introduced perfume, the “Ivanhoe Bouquet,” named after the well-known steamer on the Arran route. Adjoining this refined emporium are separate hair-dressing saloons and private rooms for ladies and gentlemen respectively, these being sumptuously furnished and elaborately equipped in the best modern style, and calling into active requisition the services of a full staff of skilled artistes, who also courteously attend upon families at their own residences. Mr. Mathison and his staff operate in every branch of their art, devoting the most careful and competent attention, not only to ordinary hair-cutting, trimming, shaving, singeing, and shampooing, but also to the higher branches of coiffeur construction on fashionable and original lines, high-class perruquier’s work, the making-up of ladies’ hair-combings on the shortest notice, and all manner of ornamental hairwork, examples of which may be seen in the showrooms and its splendidly-dressed windows. Upon these weighty recommendations, coupled with a moderate tariff of charges and prompt and courteous attention to patrons, Mr. Mathison has won the esteem and liberal support of a very large and desirable clientele; and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has gained shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in days to come.

WILLIAM KING, COOPER,
71, DUNDAS STREET, AND 7 AND 9, HIGH STREET;
WORKS: 223, PARLIAMENTARY ROAD, AND 186 TO 188, ALBERT STREET, GLASGOW.

AMONGST the industrial establishments in Glasgow which have a distinctly historical interest must be included that of Mr. William King. He conducts, under the best possible conditions, an important business as a cooper, which was established so far back as 1768 by one of his ancestors. The succession of Kings as principals in the business has since been maintained in an unbroken line, and the present proprietor, in pointing to the succession which has now continued for over a century and a quarter, may be as laudably proud of the record as if it were a charter of nobility. The premises of the firm consist of a large double-fronted shop and show-room in a prominent position at 71, Dundas Street, and 4, Cathedral Street; also a well-appointed sale-room and warehouse at 7 and 9, High Street. At these places large stocks of the firm’s goods are always held, including harness casks, ship buckets, milk casks, churns, and all dairy utensils, &c. Mr. King has gained a widespread reputation for the high quality of his spirit stock casks, which he justly regards as a speciality of his business. The large variety of small fancy casks kept in stock, some stained and polished with handsome platinoid hoops and cranes to match, present a very smart appearance. The works of the firm are situated at 223, Parliamentary Road. Mr. King has recently added to this the large adjoining four-storey building, 186 to 188, Albert Street, and has embraced another branch of the trade. Having fitted up all the latest and most complete machinery, he has now one of the best-equipped cooperages in the country, and is in a position to produce dry ware and cement casks and principally brewers’ and distillers’ casks of the very best quality at the lowest possible prices. Mr. King’s valuable connection extends over the whole of the United Kingdom, amongst dairymen, farmers, wine and spirit merchants, and others; and by sustaining his reputation for the supply of sound and substantial goods his connection is rapidly increasing with the brewers and distillers of the country. He possesses naturally an unsurpassed] technical knowledge of the trade, and much of his success is due to that personal supervision he gives to all the details of his business.

WILLIAM VERNAL & SON, BOOTMAKERS,
17, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. William Vernal & Son organised their present prosperous business at Crown Street, South Side, in the year 1882. Having outgrown their original accommodation, the firm early found it expedient to remove, first of all to 406, Parliamentary Road, a few doors east of Buchanan Street, and subsequently, quite recently, to their present more centrally situated premises in Sauchiehall Street, between Buchanan Street and West Nile Street. Thus favourably located, and forming part of the newly reconstructed property, Messrs. Vernal & Son’s place of business has had the rare advantage of being specially fitted and handsomely appointed throughout to meet their exact requirements, with a particularly elegant show window for select displays, neat shelves and glass cases all around, a perfectly equipped cutting and repairing room at the rear, and an additional cutting department and commodious stores in the large basement below. Messrs. Vernal & Son make boots, shoes, or slippers to measure, according to any special requirement that may be specified or suggested by their patrons; such, for instance, as tanned or patent leather boots, &c., French shoes, boots for riding, fishing, shooting, hunting, promenade, evening wear, and for all other occasions. They employ a picked staff of expert outdoor craftsmen to do the work from materials of exclusively the best quality, and by careful attention to details, scientific morphology, and the fashions for the time being, every pair of boots, shoes, or slippers emanating from their establishment is endowed with a correctness of style, a perfection of fit, and a faultless finish that indubitably proclaims the master craftsman’s handiwork. Upon these recommendations, coupled with moderate charges and the prompt execution of all orders, the firm have won the confidence and liberal support of a very large yet select clientele, and it is manifestly their resolution that the high reputation they have gained shall not only be well sustained but steadily enhanced in time to come.

JAMES BENNIE, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DAIRYMAN AND COW-FEEDER,
37, WHITEVALE, GLASGOW.

THE records of this undertaking show that it was organised about thirty years ago under the auspices of a Mr. John Ramsay, who was succeeded eleven years later by a Mr. James Shaw, and it was finally acquired, in 1886, by its present able and enterprising proprietor. Eligibly located, the premises comprise a spacious front shop, neatly appointed in the best modern style with sanitary tiles, &c., and are in their entirety the finest dairy establishment in the East end, having been recently built. Here is held an abundant supply of pure fresh milk, cream, cheese, bread, homemade scones, and fresh prime butter and new-laid eggs; and a spacious yard at the rear, giving access to a sanitary byre, where over twenty fine milch cows are maintained, and well-appointed stables, van-sheds, hay and grain lofts, and general stores adjoining; a service of four large vans being specially kept for the delivery of wholesale orders to all parts of the city, while the local retail trade is attended to by a staff of courteous assistants and milkmen with hand-carts. Mr. Bennie, moreover, derives large supplies of milk from noted surrounding farms, all his sources of supply being under strict sanitary supervision. Mr. Bennie is well known in city trade circles, as well as locally, and is much esteemed as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man, liberal and fair in all transactions, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

DAVID TURNER, PURVEYOR, FAMILY BAKER, COOK, AND CONFECTIONER,
441, VICTORIA ROAD, CROSS HILL, GLASGOW.

MR. Turner, in addition to being a born artist in confectionery and the more elegant branches of the business, is devoted to the art of purveying, and he has been trained in one of the best schools in existence. For sixteen years he was with Messrs. Ferguson and Forrester, purveyors to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, in the capacity of head pastrycook, receiving a training that could scarcely be equalled anywhere. Having acquired the necessary knowledge, Mr. Turner saw his opportunity of building up a splendid business in Cross Hill. Five years ago he accordingly took over the business which had been conducted by Mr. John Brownlie at 37, Winton Terrace, and set himself to remodel it and bring it up to date. The elegantly appointed premises are fitted with every facility for carrying on a strictly first-class business, and Mr. Turner spared neither trouble nor expense to ensure the ultimate success of his venture. The front shop has a double window and central door, and occupies the most central position in Victoria Road. The shop contains all the usual confectionery, bread and biscuits, of a high-class family baker, cook, and confectioner; and a staff of neat and obliging attendants. In the rear of the shop is arranged a tea-room, which must prove a great boon to suburban ladies out shopping. Beyond is the office and private workroom of the principal, where he executes his fancy modelling of pastry and bridecakes. Divided from the main building and immediately to the rear is the cake-house or bakery, which is fitted with very substantially built ovens, and embellished with a frontage of white-glazed bricks. Over the bakery are the store-rooms for the glasses, china, and table decorations that are required for large dinners, parties, pic-nics, &c., and here also is the storage compartment for flour and other commodities that require to be kept in a dry atmosphere.

A very special feature of the business is the bride-cake department. For many years Mr. Turner has been regarded by the trade as one of the most experienced and artistic workmen in Scotland, and this reputation is sufficiently evidenced by the work he toms out. His album of designs contains many hundreds of beautiful models that he has constructed, ranging in price from £1 1s. upwards. One large cake which was despatched to Buenos Ayres, weighed three hundred pounds and cost £52 10s., while another cake was a model of the famous steam-hammer, “Samson,” of Messrs. Beardmore’s, Parkhead Forge, and was exact in every detail, not even forgetting the workmen at their posts. These cakes are sent to Australia, India, Canada, and to all parts of the world. In the cake-house about a dozen workmen are constantly engaged in preparing every imaginable kind of pastry and fancy bread. Two other specialities that are supplied at this establishment are Christmas cakes and Scotch buns, which are made to perfection and dispatched to all quarters; another article of manufacture is real calf’s-foot jelly for invalids. The enterprising proprietor has all along prepared his calf’s-foot jelly upon his own premises from the calf’s feet, obtaining the feet and boiling them down and otherwise preparing a reliable and pure article. Mr. Turner is still a young man of conspicuous ability and untiring energy, and on all sides he is personally popular, and the skilful personal management that he exercises over every department if his large business, is the main factor in the prosperity and success of the firm.

THE ROYAL HOTEL,
GEORGE SQUARE, GLASGOW.
PROPRIETRESS: MRS. CUTHBERT.

LONG ago the premises occupied by this noted hostelry were the residence of Mr. Dunn, the Laird of Duntochar, and they appear to have been first converted into an hotel above half a century since. In 1875 the premises were purchased by the North British Railway, and were thoroughly adapted to the purposes and requirements of a high-class hotel, the tenant at that time being Mr. McCrae. Eventually, in 1885, the establishment was taken over by the present proprietress, Mrs. Cuthbert, who has considerably improved the premises to meet the needs of the present day, and who has contributed largely to the increased prosperity of the hotel. A very large and commodious block of stone buildings, three and four stories high, is now taken up by the Royal Hotel, and the situation is quite unsurpassed for convenience and pleasant outlook, overlooking the broad space of George Square, with its monuments of eminent Scotchmen. All the railway stations are in close proximity, while the principal steamboat wharves are within easy access. In George Square is the principal entrance, through a spacious porch which gives access to the large hall handsomely paved and decorated. Internally all the arrangements of the hotel command admiration, and the various public rooms for the use of guests, including reading, writing, and coffee rooms, are all splendidly furnished. The coffee-room commands a most attractive view of the whole of George Square. The grand dining-room at the rear is a noble saloon, eighty feet long by sixty feet wide, and furnished in sumptuous style. The artistic decorations here are particularly noteworthy, and the frescoed ceiling is considered one of the finest in Scotland. The Royal Hotel contains many suites of private apartments, bedrooms and sitting-rooms, and single bedrooms, all most comfortably and tastefully appointed, and commercial gentlemen will find excellent stock-room facilities. The spacious billiard-room contains two fine full-size tables.

The commercial clientele of the Royal Hotel is of a very superior order, including representatives of the foremost mercantile houses at home and abroad, and special provision is made for the satisfactory accommodation of this important section of the hotel’s patronage. A word of high praise is due to the perfect sanitary arrangements of the house, and it is worthy of note that ample conveniences exist for hot and cold baths. The culinary and domestic departments are conducted in an eminently satisfactory manner, and the Royal has long been noted for the excellence of its cuisine and cellar, in which respect its reputation is more than sustained under Mrs. Cuthbert’s capable and painstaking rule. The special hot luncheon served at 1.30 p.m., and the table d’hote dinner at 6 p.m., are notable “functions” of the day, and are well patronised. On the whole, the Royal is distinctly one of the most comfortable, most select, quietest, and best managed hotels in Scotland, and visitors who have once enjoyed its hospitality are not in the habit of betaking themselves elsewhere. In the routine work of the establishment the esteemed proprietress is loyally assisted by a numerous and capable staff. Travellers will find at this old-established hotel a most agreeable combination of comfort, proprietary courtesy, and reasonable charges for really high-class accommodation.

CAMERON & MCLEAN, PAINTERS AND DECORATORS,
219, WEST GEORGE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS business was established by the present proprietors about ten years ago, in the premises they still occupy. Here they have arranged their offices and showrooms, while in the rear of the building are situated their workshops, which are replete with all the appliances and requisites necessary for the various branches of the business. The show-rooms are artistically decorated with a choice selection of handsome mural tablets, panels, and similar ornaments for halls and libraries, and all the latest art decorations such as Lincrusta Walton, &c., are on view in this department. A large and varied stock of English and Continental paper-hangings is to be found here to suit the tastes of every customer, while pedestals, busts, and statuettes form a specially attractive display. Messrs. Cameron & McLean engage an efficient staff of the most experienced workmen, and among the several branches of the business that they undertake may be mentioned the cleaning and restoring of pictures, the gilding of frames and furniture, and the touching up and repairing of all art work. They also execute lettering and gilding on glass in all styles, and give estimates and submit designs for church and house decoration and the ornamentation of ships’ panels. All branches of the trade are cultivated, and workmen are dispatched to any distance to execute orders. The business is under the personal supervision of Mr. Peter H. Cameron and Mr. James McLean, who take an active part in the administration of affairs, and it is by reason of the skill and the admirable manner in which they conduct their business, that the rapid success they have achieved is mainly due. Mr. McLean is an artist of marked ability, and is a teacher of painting at the technical school. The few specimens of his work which are to be seen in the show-room are sufficient evidence that both in oils and water colours he is a perfect master of his art. One of Mr. McLean’s special features is that of marbling, and to people who are acquainted with the difficulties of this most difficult art, his work will be found to be unusually attractive. The pedestals, which are on view in their handsome show-room, are so perfect that without sounding them it would be impossible for a connoisseur to discover that they are not marble in reality.

WILLIAM AULD, SHIRT MANUFACTURER,
96, MILLER STREET, GLASGOW.

A most important addition was made, in 1892, to the resources of the shirt-manufacturing industry in Glasgow when Mr. William Auld began his extensive and highly successful operations as a manufacturer of linen, cotton, and, especially, of woollen shirts. His commercial headquarters are situated on the first floor of a handsome block of buildings in Miller Street, and they are thus conveniently placed in the midst of the chief mercantile quarter in the city. The premises comprise a well-appointed office, which is furnished with all the requisites for the prompt dispatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. In the adjacent commodious warehouse there is ample space for the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large stocks which are always held of the manufactured specialities which have made Mr. Auld’s reputation throughout the trade. The most extensive orders, therefore, are executed with the utmost promptitude, while in the adjoining packing-room are all the adjuncts necessary for ensuring the quick dispatch of goods. Mr. Auld’s factory is situated in Hutchinson Street, and is fully equipped with all the required labour-saving mechanical appliances which enable the firm to compete, on the most favourable conditions, with any other first-class house engaged in the trade. The working plant includes a large number of sewing-machines by various eminent makers. Such is the reputation which Mr. Auld’s productions have already achieved in the markets, where they are regarded as representing standard qualities, that he already controls a very considerable export business to various parts of the world. His home connection extends all over the United Kingdom, and the magnitude of Mr. Auld’s transactions is indicated by the fact that his dealings are exclusively with wholesale merchants and warehousemen, of which class many leading members are already his customers. The house is represented, in the more important centres, by specially appointed agents, who have fully equipped offices and stock-rooms. Mr. Auld is possessed of an exceptional faculty of organisation, and he personally supervises all the details of his extensive and flourishing business. He gives permanent employment to a staff varying in number from a hundred to a hundred and fifty, most of whom are women and girls.

JAMES SWAN & SON, UPHOLSTERERS, CABINETMAKERS, GILDERS AND FICTURE-FRAME MAKERS,
114, 132, 134, & 138 BYRES ROAD, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. James Swan & Son founded their admirably organised business eight years since, and in the interval their establishment has become one of the most popular of its class in the whole of the Glasgow district. The members of the firm are Mr. James Swan, and his son, Mr. Archibald Swan. Both of these gentlemen brought to their enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the various branches of the business in which they are engaged. Before beginning his industrial and commercial operations in Partick, Mr. James Swan had for thirty years been in the employment of Messrs. Cree & Co., of Bothwell Street, City, and for the last sixteen of these years Mr. Swan held the responsible position of foreman. Mr. Archibald Swan, too, served his apprenticeship in the establishment of one of the best cabinetmakers in Glasgow. The headquarters of this enterprising firm are at 138, Byres Road, where the extensive premises have an attractive glass frontage, displaying to advantage many useful and artistically valuable articles of cabinet work and upholstery, the productions of the firm. Large and representative stocks of these goods are held in the well-appointed warehouse, and the workshops, to the rear, are equipped with all the requisites of the most approved modern type, for wood-working and upholstering processes. At No. 134, in the same road, the firm have large stores, so that orders upon the most extensive scale can be executed without delay. The premises at No. 132 were opened by the Messrs. Swan. In its arrangements the interior is similar to that at headquarters. The same remark applies to the premises at No. 114, also in Byres Road, which were acquired in 1892, as the result of the rapid and still progressing growth of the firm’s valuable connection. The several sets of premises belonging to the firm, although separated, form portions of the same great block.

The stocks which are always held by the Messrs. Swan include dining, drawing, and bed-room suites in great variety, carpets, oil cloth, linoleum, and other floor coverings of the latest and most attractive design, with beds and bedding in all sorts of materials. The firm have, with notable success, made a speciality of holding stocks, which are constantly being replenished, of artistic furniture, both antique and modern. This carefully supervised department includes many fine examples of book-cases, cabinets, cupboards, china cases, tables and chairs, &c. Throughout the show-rooms, too, will be found many highly artistic ornaments, and articles of archaeological interest, together with ancient and modern lamps, screens, &c. The firm are gilders and picture-frame makers, and their large staff of skilled workmen includes experts in the art of cleaning and renovating pictures. In their bedding factory all kinds of bedding are carefully “re-done,” and the most approved styles of wool, hair, and spring mattresses are made to order. Blinds of all kinds are repaired, and made in accordance with special designs, furniture is stuffed and covered, and slips are cut. Special attention is given to such operations as the dyeing and making up of curtains, the beating of carpets, the re-caning of chairs, the upholstering of bassinettes, the covering of piano fronts, and the making of draught screens; and also contracts for removals for the district and other parts of the country. The connection of the Messrs. Swan is very valuable, as their establishment largely serves the requirements of all classes of residents in the districts of Hillhead, Dowonhill, Partick, and Kelvinside, whilst they have many regular or occasional customers from all parts of Glasgow, and, indeed, from every quarter in the West of Scotland. The Messrs. Swan both take an active part in the assiduous supervision of the details of their extensive and well-ordered business.

ROWAT & CO., IMPERIAL PICKLE WORKS,
GOVAN, GLASGOW.

THIS flourishing business was founded a few years ago in South York Street, Glasgow. In 1892, the firm built and removed to their present works at Govan, which form a model establishment in every respect. They are entirely on the ground level and are equipped throughout in the most complete style. Here Messrs. Rowat & Co. employ upwards of two hundred hands, a fact which indicates the extent to which their business has developed. They manufacture a great variety of pickles, and have several brands in this department, such as their “Superfine Quality,” “Imperial” brand, “Guaranteed” quality, “Standard” quality, and Chutnee Pickles. All these are excellent goods, prepared, with the greatest care from the very best ingredients. Messrs. Rowat’s pickles, it should be noted, are all specially prepared for export to hot climates, and it would be impossible to surpass them in quality or cheapness. This firm are also famous for their high-class sauces of various kinds, ketchups, vinegars, East Indian curry powder, and essence of coffee and chicory, prepared by the vacuum pan process. Each of these is a first-class production, and the curry powder may be specially recommended as very valuable in cases of indigestion. Another important and rapidly-increasing department of Messrs. Rowat’s business is the manufacture of unfermented fruit wines. These are produced in about eighteen favourite varieties, and, being warranted free from spirit, form most wholesome temperance beverages. The firm also make fermented fruit wines and bitters of a superior quality, and are large bottlers of castor and hair oil for both the home and export trade. This firm do an ever-increasing trade, both in the home and export markets. Their connection extends throughout the United Kingdom, and they have a branch at Liverpool, and resident agents in most of the chief ports in the country. Shipping and ship store dealers are supplied, special terms are quoted to large buyers, and export orders receive the most careful attention. The whole business presents a notable example of progress, accomplished upon a basis of good organisation and able management, and reflects great credit upon its energetic principals, Mr. Dewar Rowat and Mr. John Fullerton.
Telegrams: “Pickles, Glasgow.” Telephone No, 1,822.

ALEXANDER GRANT, GAS FITTER AND ELECTRIC BELL HANGER, HEATING ENGINEER, AND SANITARY PLUMBER,
81, BYARS ROAD, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

AFTER a long experience in the trade in its various branches, Mr. Grant commenced business on his own account some eleven years ago, the site of his initial operations being 30, Church Street, Partick. Here he was not long in getting together a very good connection, and being in want of further accommodation, a removal was made in 1892 to the more central and commodious premises now occupied. These consist of a large front shop, with good show window, together with office and warehouse at the rear, and a capitally fitted-up workshop lighted from the roof. Employment is found for an efficient staff of experienced hands, who carry on their business under the personal supervision of the principal. A good trade is in operation in every kind of gasfitting. Everything placed in Mr. Grant’s hands receives his special attention, and his absolute reliability in every respect has become fully recognised in the district. As, an electric bellhanger he has received many important commissions, and a special department is made of sanitary engineering. Mr. Grant has, for many years, given close study to this important question, and is familiar with the best known systems for effecting the most desirable results. He has been entrusted with many large and difficult contracts in this direction, and the fast-increasing patronage he is receiving testifies unmistakably to the fact that his efforts are being appreciated by those best competent to judge. The house also undertakes every description of hot-air and steam heating for residences, conservatories, churches, schools, and public buildings. In connection with the various branches of this enterprising business, large and well-selected stocks are held, including baths fitted with all the latest improvements, water closets, lavatories, gasfittings of every kind, chandeliers, brackets, electric bells and other electrical appliances, drain pipes, traps, and syphons, sheet lead and lead pipes, and builders’ and plumbers’ requirements in great variety. Mr. Grant is a highly respectable man, energetic and able in his business, and straightforward in all his dealings, and he is held in much esteem by all those that come into contact with him.

JAMES A. KIRKWOOD, FAMILY BUTCHER,
521, NEW CITY ROAD, AND 127, BYARS ROAD, HILLHEAD, GLASGOW.

THE department of business operations undertaken by the modern family butcher, in order to supply the demands of a soundly established connection, which practically extends throughout the districts of Hillhead, Dowanhill, Kelvinside, and Partick at the West End of the City of Glasgow, finds an able representative in the person of Mr. James A. Kirkwood, who formed his present prosperous business in the New City Road fifteen years ago, and was previously in business in Stirling Road for over twenty years. Mr. Kirkwood was President of the Glasgow United Flesher Society in the year 1889, and in the same year he was also Chairman of the great Soiree. He was also one of the witnesses summoned by the House of Lords to give evidence on behalf of the trade on the various Meat Marking Bills; he also takes great interest in all affairs connected with the trade, even having drafted a bill giving the trade direct representation on the Markets Trust. He was also successful in carrying through a scheme of amalgamation of the Wholesale and Retail Fleshers Societies. The commercial development of the business became so rapid, that Mr. Kirkwood found it expedient seven years ago to open a branch establishment at 127, Byars Road, Hillhead. The headquarters in the New City Road are located in a commanding position, and the spacious double-fronted shop, with its elegant polished steel fitments, tiled walls and windows, substantial cutting blocks, corner office desk, machine-room at the rear and modern sanitary appointments throughout, always presents a singularly neat and wholesome appearance, and enhance the inviting character of the abundant stock there maintained of expertly dressed carcasses, sides, joints, and cuts. Home-fed ox beef and wether mutton, house lamb and veal in their respective seasons, minced collops, and sausages freshly made day by day, together with prime pickled tongues and choicely corned beef, are always well en evidence at their best for immediate consumption, and are all available at the lowest city market prices.

ROBERT WALKER, PLUMBER, GASFITTER, AND ZINC WORKER,
131, GOVAN STREET, HUTCHESONTOWN, GLASGOW.

THIS business is one of the oldest and best known of its kind in Glasgow, having been established for more than forty years. A first-class connection has been secured through the thorough efficiency with which all work undertaken is carried out, and for the punctual way in which all engagements are met. Commodious and well-situated premises are occupied, consisting of offices, stores, and workshops. A staff averaging twelve in number is kept employed, and large and well-selected stocks are held. They comprise lead in pipes and sheets, zinc; bath, lavatory, and other sanitary appliances; gas, steam, and water cocks and fittings of every description; gas chandeliers, brackets, &c.; beer engines, spirit cocks, and general beer appliances; gas, water, and steam tubes and fittings; and rain-water pipes and connections, together with every description of plumbers’ requisites. Every kind of plumbers’ work is taken in hand and carried out in an eminently satisfactory manner, as is shown by the constantly increasing amount of business done. In sanitary matters he can be relied upon to leave nothing undone that will tend to carry out the object in view in a thoroughly efficient and satisfactory manner. A leading speciality with him is the fixing of hot, cold, and shower baths, wash-hand basins and bidets, also the supply and fitting up of water-closets and water-pumps on the latest improved principles. Every attention is given to repairs, which are executed promptly and at the lowest possible charges. A connection of a substantial and influential character has been built up, extending not only throughout Glasgow but for many miles round. Mr. Walker occupies a position of no inconsiderable prominence in the trade ranks of Glasgow, and is everywhere respected for his business ability and many good qualities.

A. F. MACPHERSON, THE OLDEST-ESTABLISHED GROCER, WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANT, IN OATLANDS,
472 AND 476, RUTHERGLEN ROAD, GLASGOW.

ORGANISED seventeen years ago, under the able auspices of its present courteous and enterprising proprietor, Mr. A. F. Macpherson, this representative grocery and wine and spirit depot stands to-day, not only as the oldest, but by far the best patronised establishment of its kind in the populous district of Oatlands. The premises occupied consist of two spacious adjoining shops, a large double-fronted one reserved for general family groceries, Italian wares, and wines and spirits, while the other is devoted to the storage and display of choice teas and coffees, general groceries, household sundries, and excisable liquors. Both shops are handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and literally packed to their, utmost limits with goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading sources of supply both at home and abroad, and are clearly maintained in the very primest condition, Mr. Macpherson’s large turnover enabling him to keep everything perfectly fresh, and to offer the pick of goods at the lowest market prices. In the wine and spirit department Mr. Macpherson has won a widespread and well-merited renown for his “Medicinal Blend” of old-matured Scotch whiskies, which, as its name suggests, is greatly appreciated by connoisseurs in all parts of the kingdom by reason of its “roundness” and fine “bouquet.” Personally, Mr. Macpherson is well known, and much esteemed in local and district trade and social circles, as an enterprising and thoroughly capable business man, well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

DAVID LAWRIE, GENERAL DRAPER, MILLINER AND HOSIER,
116, BYARS ROAD, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

MR. David Lawrie opened his already popular emporium in the Byres Road in April, 1893. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position facing that main commercial thoroughfare, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its neat office and ample storage rooms at the rear, is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style with a stock that is remarkable for its richness in fashionable novelties and articles of standard worth and excellence. All manner of everyday drapery goods, in the way of household linens, calicoes, sheetings, shirtings, flannels, blankets and heavy Manchester wares generally; hosiery, gloves, and corsets; fancy drapery goods of every conceivable kind; baby linen, and children’s and gentlemen’s underwear and outfitting items of every kind; and the numerous sundries coming under the designation of small wares and haberdashery, are all fully represented, and are all offered for sale at the lowest prices. Order, system, and courtesy are salient characteristics of this carefully conducted business, and the large and liberal patronage enjoyed by Mr. Lawrie is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

ALEXANDER MCLAREN, JOINER AND GLAZIER,
128, MAINS STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Alexander McLaren, who for thirteen years has been a prominent member of this branch of industry, has acquired an excellent name for the character of everything he turns out, and for the manner in which every class of work placed in his hands is executed. Large and commodious premises are occupied at the above address. The yard is of ample size, and is well stocked with timber in various stages of preparation. It should be mentioned here that Mr. McLaren has exceptionally good facilities for drying his wood, and is noted for the uniform excellence and reliable condition of all the material he uses in his joinery work. A staff of competent workmen is kept constantly employed under the close personal superintendence of the principal, and in consequence customers can always place the most implicit trust in everything procured from this establishment. The window sashes, doors, stair frames, and other manufactured goods turned out here are much esteemed by better-class users. Glazing of every description is carried out with commendable promptness, and in a style that cannot fail to give satisfaction, while in the matter of charges every inducement is offered to patrons. Stocks of sheet, crown, patent plate, and rough plate glass are kept on the premises. A valuable and fast-increasing business is in operation, the transactions of the house extending to every part of Glasgow. Mr. McLaren is widely known in the trade ranks of the city, and held in much respect by a large and influential section. He is also prominent in the social life of Glasgow, having been High Messenger to the High Court of the Pioneer order of Foresters, a very flourishing society that has recently been established here by Dr. Oronhyateka, who can lay claim to direct descent from one of the renowned chiefs of the Mohawk Indians. He is also a prominent member of the Good Templar Order.

JOHN M. CLELAND, FAMILY GROCER, TEA, WINE, AND SPIRIT MERCHANT,
141 AND 143, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD; 286, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD; 2, QUEEN MARGARET’S DRIVE, KELVINSIDE, AND 56, PARK ROAD, GLASGOW.

NOTABLE amongst commercial enterprises of recent inception in Glasgow, for its remarkably rapid development and the magnitude which it has already assumed in different parts of the city and its suburbs, is the admirably organised business which Mr. John M. Cleland established as a family grocer, and tea, provision, wine and spirit merchant in 1885. Mr. Cleland brought to his undertaking a thorough technical knowledge of his business and an exceptional amount of enlightened enterprise, which have had their natural result in the creation of his widespread connection and the multiplication of the thoroughly equipped branches of his business. He began his commercial operations in the premises 141 and 143, St. George’s Road, which now form the headquarters of the establishment. These premises, as well as those at 286, St. George’s Road, in addition to serving the other requirements of his business, are fully licensed for the sale of wines and spirits; the other two branches, which are respectively in Park Road and Queen Margaret’s Drive, Kelvinside, are restricted to the grocery and provision departments. These three branches have been opened out at various dates since 1885, as a result of the growing popularity of the establishment and the success of the commercial principles upon which its affairs are conducted. The headquarters comprise a commodious double-fronted shop, whose handsome appointments are in harmonious keeping with the high class of the business which Mr. Cleland controls. The massive plate-glass windows, with their appetising assortments of excellent comestibles, form attractive points of interest in the thoroughfare. The stocks, which in spite of their magnitude and variety, are most systematically classified and arranged, are representative of all the descriptions of goods which would be naturally looked for in a grocery and Italian warehouse of the highest class. To the rear is a spacious store which, with the extensive cellarage, permits of the holding of large quantities of wines and spirits, ales and stouts, as well as of great surplus stocks of the more bulky and less perishable kinds of grocery and provision goods which are kept in readiness for all demands. Here too, are all the requisite labour-saving appliances for the bottling of malt liquors. The premises include well-fitted offices, furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other required adjuncts for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work involved in the numerous and important transactions of the firm. The telephone number is 341, and the direct communication by this means with the branches of the house much facilitates their supply from headquarters, a process which is continually going forward.

Mr. Cleland is agent for Messrs. W. & A. Gilbey’s wines and spirits, for the ales of Allsopp and of Bass, and for the stout of Guinness. He has gained a specially high reputation for his whiskies, and his St. Mungo blend is increasingly popular. Much of the notable success which Mr. Cleland has achieved is the result of his exceptional skill as a judge and blender of tea. His special blends, of which there are several, all offered at remarkably low prices, having regard to their high quality, are prepared, when intended for consumption in Glasgow, with special regard to the chemical characteristics of the water supply. The biscuit department has with success been made a speciality, and includes examples of the popular productions of McVittie & Price; Peek, Frean & Co.; Carr & Co.; McCall & Stephen; McFarlane, Lang & Co.; Cruikshanks; John Walker & Co.; Gray, Dunn & Co., &e. All kinds of water, milk, ginger, cracknell, and other biscuits are to be had, in tins and by weight. Mr. Cleland is also the agent for the sale of Marshall’s preparations of wheat and oats, including “Farola.” In another department there are in specially large quantities jams and jellies manufactured specially for the firm, of the finest cane sugar and choice growths of fruit from the best districts of Perthshire. These jams and jellies are becoming increasingly popular among Mr. Cleland’s customers. Bacon of the Royal Wiltshire brand, and also of the famous Ayrshire description, Cheddar and Gorgonzola cheeses are amongst the other delicacies which have made the reputation of the establishment. The supply of tinned meats, salmon, lobster, fruits, &c., is enormous and frequent. A copious price list, which is periodically issued by the firm, is consulted to great advantage, as a valuable work of reference, by a large circle of thrifty housekeepers. The connection which has been made by Mr. Cleland’s exceptional commercial aptitude is wholesale as well as retail, and extends throughout the Western Highlands, as well as other parts of Scotland.

G. A. H. DOUGLAS & CO., LAW STATIONERS AND PRINTERS,
172, 174, AND 176J, HOPE STREET, AND 81, BATH LANE, GLASGOW.

IT is twelve years since this well-known firm began their active industrial operations. Their premises occupy a central and commanding position in Hope Street, and have been thoroughly adapted to the requirements of the business. In the extensive frontage there are three large show windows, with most attractive displays of specialities belonging to the several branches of the business in which the firm are engaged. There is a commodious retail shop, with well-appointed offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication, and all other requisites. The telephone number is 3,929. A commodious warehouse affords ample space for the heavy surplus stocks. The printing department is completely equipped, and a set of rooms is devoted to stamping. One of the indications of the new developments of the business is the recent acquisition of new premises at 176 and-a-half, Hope Street, used exclusively for stamping purposes. The retail sale-shop is handsomely appointed, and is fitted up with a view to admit of the systematic classification of the varied descriptions of mercantile, legal, scholastic, and general stationery. In the printing department there is a splendid variety of plain and fancy founts of type; while the machinery, driven by a powerful gas-engine, is of the most approved modern type. Particular attention is given to the production, either for stock or to order, of all kinds of mercantile stationery and office and library requisites, also law stationery and Custom House forms.

Messrs. G. A. H. Douglas & Co., have thus gained the confidence of many of the leading mercantile and legal firms in the city, and their valuable connection is constantly increasing. Their staff of workmen includes highly skilled experts in each department. Crests, monograms, mottoes, &c., are stamped either plain, or in gold, silver, or colours, and in each of these branches the work is done in the most artistic manner possible. Quite recently the firm have purchased an improved new stamping machine, which performs the work both of stamping and of cleaning automatically, and performs all its other operations at a much faster rate than any mechanical appliance which has heretofore been in use. This machine is the first of its class which has been introduced into Glasgow, and it has been fitted up in the additional premises to which reference has been made. The enlightened enterprise exhibited in reference to this matter characterises the whole policy of the firm. In addition to their valuable retail connection in Glasgow, Messrs. G. A. H. Douglas & Co., control a large wholesale business, extending throughout the country. They retain the services of a strong staff of travelling representatives, and the principal, Mr. G. A. H. Douglas, whose exceptional powers of organisation have made the success of the house, keeps touch with his wide circle of customers and their requirements by himself making frequent commercial tours.

JAMES ORR, HOUSE AND CHURCH DECORATOR,
15, ASHTON PLACE, HILLHEAD, GLASGOW.

THE rapid growth of Glasgow, and more particularly the west end of the city, has been quite phenomenal, and given an impetus to the building, painting, and decorating firms in the district, chief of whom among the latter is Mr. James Orr, the well-known and old-established house and church decorator, whose connection with this branch of an important industry has been of a highly successful character. For many years a partner in the firm of Messrs John Orr & Co. (an establishment of thirty years’ standing), he was the recognised practical head. He retired from the firm in the year 1890, commencing business on his own account. His energy, courtesy, and thorough knowledge of all branches of the trade guaranteed his success, and he has gathered round him a valuable and influential connection. A large staff of competent workmen, under his personal supervision, enables Mr. Orr to undertake any class of painting or decorative work, the firm being chiefly noted for the latter, he having made this branch a careful study, and many specimens of his skilful and artistic work may be seen in the neighbourhood. His stock of goods are selected with the greatest care, and of best quality, to suit the varied tastes of his patrons. Lincrusta Waltons and high art hangings (English, French, and Japanese) are always in stock, and of the latest designs, Mr. Orr being always up to date. With skilled workmen, using only the best materials, his patrons may rest assured that all orders entrusted to him will be executed in a thorough and efficient manner, under his own personal inspection. Mr. Orr is recognised as a representative man in his business, and is held in the highest respect and esteem for his sterling worth and honourable dealings, not only by his patrons but by a large and influential circle of friends in the neighbourhood of Partick and Hillhead, where he has pursued his calling for upwards of thirty-five years.

R. STIRRAT & CO., COACH, VAN AND LORRY BUILDERS,
THISTLE WORKS, 80 AND 82, PORT DUNDAS ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE record of this well-ordered business dates nack to 1783, when it was founded by Mr. R. Stirrat. The sole proprietor is now Mr. William Welsh, who has long been connected with the firm. The business was originally established in Renfield Street. The rapid extension in the volume of the business compelled the firm to build their present commodious quarters, which are known as the Thistle Works, and are conveniently situated in Port Dundas Road, adjoining Buchanan Street Station. The premises have a fine frontage, the buildings facing the thoroughfare including a spacious and well-fit showroom, where examples of the productions of the firm may be inspected to advantage. Here, too, is a suite of well- appointed offices, furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other requisites for the prompt dispatch of the large amount of clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. The Telephone number is 3631; and the registered telegraphic address is “Van, Glasgow.”

The buildings to the rear are utilised for the several industrial departments. Thus, on the ground floor, are smiths’ shops, wheelwrights’ shops, and fitting and machinery shops. The upper floors are occupied by painters, finishers, and repairers, together with stores for materials. A commodious yard, with a spacious shed, serves for the storage of finished vehicles, and also of those awaiting repairs. In the timber yard and its adjacent stores are large quantities of valuable hardwoods, undergoing the process of seasoning, the invariably matured condition of the timber which they employ being one of the secrets of the notable success which the firm have achieved. Messrs. R. Stirrat & Co. are extensive manufacturers of every class of vehicle for the conveyance of goods, from the hand barrow to the heaviest waggons, lorries, and vans. A leading speciality is the making of furniture removing vans, both of heavy and of light construction. They are, also, large manufacturers of vans for laundries, wholesale grocers, bakers, &c. They likewise build, under the best possible conditions, the lighter classes of vehicles, such as gigs, dog-carts, Whitechapels, light brakes, omnibuses, milk carts, travellers’ trucks, and hawking vans. The premises are excellently lit throughout; and are provided with all the requisite machinery for the saving of labour and the perfecting of results, of the most approved modern type. So excellent is the working plant, the motor of which is a powerful steam engine, that the cost of production is reduced to the minimum.

The company are largely indebted for their success to the enterprising and judicious control of Mr. William Welsh, the present proprietor, who is a practical coach builder himself, which gives him an advantage over works of a similar class in the district for style and finish. Mr. Welsh has had a long experience in van manufacture, and he has devoted much study to the subject of van construction, his experience having enabled him to improve many features in the art of waggon building, both in respect of improvement of design and in introducing new modes for the more effective and economical production of manufacture. His success in these respects has been emphasised by the award of a Memorial Diploma at the Glasgow Exhibition of 1888, and of the gold medal at the Glasgow Exhibition of 1890-91. They have just registered another new design in bread-vans, travellers’ barrows, &c., which gives them a very genteel and elegant appearance. The firm conduct a large export trade to most parts of the world, and especially to Africa and Buenos Ayres; while their home connection extends all over the United Kingdom, and there is hardly a town of any importance in which examples of Messrs. Stirrat & Co.’s work may not be seen. So large is the output that, notwithstanding the important economies in labour which are effected by the excellence of the working plant, it is necessary to give constant employment to forty or more skilled workmen—several of whom are expert specialists. The firm publish a large and copiously illustrated catalogue, carefully edited by Mr. Welsh, of the vehicles which they are in the habit of constantly making; while many other specimens are to be seen in their showrooms or in photographs. Any class of vehicle is built to pattern, drawings, or specification. Catalogues and sheets showing every class of design can be had on application.

J. GEMMELL BRUCE, WATCHMAKER AND JEWELLER,
210, NEW CITY ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. J. G. Bruce formed the nucleus of his now thriving business in the year 1886, and the records of the undertaking show that its commercial development has been rapid and continuous from the commencement. The neat and compact single-fronted shop is elegantly appointed throughout. The valuable stock comprises British and foreign gold and silver watches and chains of the best manufacture, marble and other clocks and timepieces, together with artistic bronzes; a goodly assortment of superior cutlery and electroplated goods, suitable for presentations and gifts; a singularly fine series of handsome table lamps, spectacles and eyeglasses, and all kinds of opticians’ wares, and a varied and charming assortment of fashionable gold, silver, and gem jewellery and fancy bijouterie. In his well-equipped workshops at the rear Mr. Bruce, with a staff of capable assistants, undertakes the cleaning md repairing of watches and clocks, and jewellery and plate, with economy, efficiency, and dispatch, and the large and liberal patronage be enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

DAVID B. ROSS, GROCER AND PROVISION MERCHANT,
538, GALLOWGATE, GLASGOW.

MR. David B. Ross, in May, 1893, acquired the old-established business which had, till recently, been carried on by a Mr. Wm. McOuat. Eligibly located in a commanding position in the busy Gallowgate, the spacious single-fronted shop, with its ample storage accommodation at the rear, is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading sources of supply, both at home and abroad. All manner of every-day groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith; special lines in pure and choicely blended teas and coffees; British and foreign comestibles and table delicacies, canned and in bottles; and prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams, bacon, butter, cheese, flour, meal, potatoes, lard, and fresh country eggs are all fully represented at their best, and. at the lowest prices. The business is indeed in a splendid condition of progressive development, and under the vigorous regime of Mr. Ross the house promises to continuously | eclipse its past successes in the bright prospect of time to come.

W. & W. BRYCE, GENERAL DRAPERS AND HOSIERS,
171, NEW CITY ROAD, GLASGOW.

UNDER the style and title designated above, Mr. William Bryce formed the nucleus of his present popular drapery store at 165, New City Road, in the year 1879, where business expanded with such rapidity, that ten years had scarcely elapsed before he found it imperative to remove to his present more convenient and commodious quarters. The spacious double-fronted shop, with its commodious heavily-stocked basement stores, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and displays a comprehensive stock of superior goods, essentially up-to-date, all of which have been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading manufacturers of the day, both at home and abroad. All manner of every-day drapery for household use and personal wear, including all the latest dress fabrics and materials, house linens, cottons, blankets, calicoes, flannels, and heavy goods generally; ladies’, children’s and gentlemen’s underwear; hosiery, corsets, and gloves; men’s mercery of every description; wools, small wares, and haberdashery goods generally; household drapery, linoleums, and floor-cloths; and, in short, everything incidental to a thoroughly typical general drapery store, are here at their best, and are all available at the very lowest prices on the ready-money system. In addition to a very large and soundly-established local family and general trade, Mr. Bryce has sedulously cultivated a far-reaching wholesale business, himself travelling to all parts of the country, even to the north of Scotland, from Perth to Aberdeen, and throughout the Highlands and the West, and his house stands high in the estimation of a very valuable connection, by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always characterised its business transactions. Mr. Bryce was born near Stirling, where he served his apprenticeship with Messrs. W. and A. Johnston of that town.

ROBERT THOMSON, R.P.. PLUMBER, GASFITTER, HEATING, VENTILATING, AND SANITARY ENGINEER,
281, DUKE STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Robert Thomson founded his business fifteen years ago, two doors from the address he now occupies, and during the whole time it has been in existence has kept well in touch with the remarkable strides that have been made in sanitary plumbing within the last twenty years. A splendid name has been secured for the character of his work, and the thorough reliance that can always be placed upon him to carry out whatever he undertakes in the best and most efficient manner. The premises utilised consist of offices and show-room in the front with stores and workshops at the rear. The latter have received special care and are equipped with the most modern and improved plant and appliances. A competent staff of experienced workmen is retained, but all work is carried out under the close personal supervision of the principal. Plumbing in all its branches receives prompt and satisfactory attention, though it is as a sanitary plumber and engineer that Mr. Thomson has achieved his special reputation. All the latest improvements are used in laying down drains, water-closets, and hot and cold shower baths, &c. The heating and ventilating of all descriptions of buildings is made an important feature in this business. The worthy proprietor has been favoured with some of the most extensive contracts in the district in his special line, including the plumbing, gasfitting, and sanitary arrangements of many local residences, mansions, churches, and public buildings. In every case the utmost satisfaction has been given in material, efficiency of work, and the prompt manner in which the contracts were executed. Mr. Thomson has recently completed contracts for two schools at Shettleston, Belvedere Hospital, and a considerable amount of property about the rapidly increasing district of Dennistoun. Ample and carefully selected supplies are held of plumbers’ requisites of every description, the latest improved water-closet and lavatory fittings, hot and cold water appliances, and everything to carry out his business successfully and without loss of time. Reliable work and close attention have built up the business to what it is, and Mr. Thomson enjoys a large share of popularity with the trade and is everywhere respected as a worthy citizen.

HIGHET & ROXBURGH, GENERAL AND FURNISHING IRONMONGERS,
14, BOTHWELL STREET, GLASGOW.

IT is now upwards of twelve years since operations were first commenced by Messrs. Highet & Roxburgh. The partners were men of large experience in the trade, energetic and enterprising, and when they began at 111, Hope Street they were not long before they made it apparent that their establishment was destined to take a leading position in the trade. Alterations and additions had frequently to be made to the premises, in order to keep pace with the requirements of the trade, and two years ago a removal was made to the present more convenient quarters. These have a bold and attractive frontage, with two large windows, that effectively display a numerous assortment of superior goods. The interior has been capitally well arranged for a business of this character, and fitted up throughout with every desirable convenience. At the rear of the establishment is a handsome saloon, in which a charming selection is always to be seen of hall lamps, chandeliers, drawing-room and library lamps, and superior gasfittings. The sole proprietor of this large concern is Mr. Thomas C. Highet, and to his enterprise, ability, and judgment must be ascribed the success which has marked its career of late years. The stocks he holds are probably the largest and most diversified in the city. Although this trade is probably the most intricate of any, and concerns itself with the greatest variety of objects, there is scarcely any article of ordinary use in this line but can be found at this notable, establishment. There are excellent and ample selections of baths, stoves, tiled, and other hearths, brass or steel fire-irons, fenders, brasses, cutlery of every kind, electroplated goods of elegant and novel designs, brass, copper, and tin ware, kitchen utensils, wringers, mangles, knife cleaners, mincing machines, and numerous other domestic labour-saving appliances. There are also the latest makes of lawn mowers, garden syringes, and wire-work, together with japanned goods, travelling trunks, lacquered goods, brass and brass- mounted coal vases, &c.

The counting-house and the builders’ ironmongery department are downstairs, the latter being replete with every description of tools and appliances. Special mention should be made of two important articles for which Mr. Highet is the local agent, and in which a large and fast increasing trade is being done. These are the “Main” gas heating stoves, which have now stood the test of many years’ use, and are pronounced by the public at large as the most effective, economical, and handsome in the market; and the Rippingille’s oil warming stoves, which are no less saving and durable than they are comfortable, clean, and easy in operation. Of both these useful articles, the latest designs and patterns can be always seen at this establishment. Both a wholesale and retail business is being done, the transactions of the house extending to every part of the North of Scotland. The proprietor enjoys the respect and confidence of his fellow-tradesmen, by whom he is looked upon as a thoroughly representative man. He is strictly fair and just in all his dealings, and leaves no effort untried to retain the confidence and support of has widespread and valuable connection.
The telephone call of the house is No. 3,263.

T. IRVING, MANTLE AND JACKET MANUFACTURER,
87, RENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW.

ESTABLISHED in the year 1888, under the able auspices of its present talented proprietor, this notable business has advanced within a comparatively brief period to a position of much prominence and celebrity in the mantle trade of the city of Glasgow. Mr. Irving employs a large staff of expert hands, and operates as an exclusive manufacturer of ladies’ and children’s mantles, jackets, ulsters, waterproofs, and furs of every description, upon an extensive scale; placing these goods on sale at his splendid sumptuously appointed saloon head-quarters and at his fine branch depots at 82, Argyle Street, and 114, Cowcaddens Street. The spacious showrooms, at Renfield Street and the branches, are always most tastefully arranged with a most varied and interesting display of new and fashionable productions, all of which are remarkable for stylish elegance, good taste, and finished workmanship, and take prominent rank among the best and most acceptable novelties of the season. Personally, Mr. Irving is well-known and much esteemed in both social and commercial circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man; liberal and fair in all transactions, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

ALFRED S. MAWER, HAIRDRESSER AND PERFUMER,
37, UNION STREET, AND 170, NEW CITY ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. Mawer, after serving an apprenticeship with Mr. Bacon, Sleaford, Lincolnshire, his native county, and acquiring a large amount of general experience in some of the principal shops in London and Glasgow, commenced business on his own account in the latter city in 1877. The premises at 170, New City Road are still kept on as a branch establishment, but in order to meet the requirements of a rapidly developing trade larger and more commodious quarters were secured some three years ago in Union Street. These consist of a large shop with fine plate-glass front, in which a highly attractive display is made of the various handsome goods Mr. Mawer handles. The interior is spacious and elegantly fitted up with every requisite for the comfort of visitors. There is a special saloon for ladies, and the establishment throughout is equipped with the most modern and improved appliances known to the trade. The proprietor gives the business the benefit of his close personal attention, and he is ably supported in his efforts by a well trained staff of assistants. Every facility is possessed for carrying out the various branches of the business — hair-cutting, shampooing, singeing, and shaving — and while the style in which everything is done cannot be surpassed, prices will be found exceedingly moderate. A leading speciality is made of dressing ladies’ hair — an important branch in which the worthy proprietor has won the highest distinction. For his skill in this art he has been awarded the following prizes in open competition: First Prize (Gold Medal and £5) for Historical Powder, Glasgow International Exhibition, 1888. Also prize presented by the British Hairdressers’ Academy, Manchester; Prize of Honour (highest award) “Coiffure Fantaisie,” Glasgow, 1885, and second prize at the International Competition, Manchester, 1887. Large stocks are held of well-made tails, switches, fringes, rolls, and similar articles, as well as choice supplies of perfumery of every description, puffs, powders, pomades, hair and tooth brushes, scented soaps, and all kinds of toilet requisites. These selections, in choiceness and variety, will favourably compare with those of any other high- class establishment in the city. The connection of the house is of a superior kind, its patrons including many of the leading families in the district. Mr. Mawer is well-known and held in the highest respect for his recognised skill in his craft and his courteous and gentlemanly demeanour.

SHAW, WALKER & CO., FURNISHING IRONMONGERS, CITY IRONMONGERY STORE,
14, UNION STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS large and important business has been established upwards of half-a-century, its position at the present time being among the leading concerns of the kind in Glasgow. Mr. Shaw, the founder of the house, was succeeded in 1888 by the present proprietors, Mr. John M. Shaw and Mr. David Walker, who continue the business very successfully under the style of Shaw, Walker & Co. Large and commodious premises are occupied in Union Street, and these afford facilities for the effective display of an immense stock of furnishing ironmongery of every description, together with garden tools of all kinds, and a great assortment of kitchen requisites. In their spacious showrooms Messrs. Shaw, Walker & Co. make a fine exhibit of chandeliers and other gas-fittings in bronze and brass, besides beautiful work in fancy lamps, ormolu floor lamps, &c., in all the newest and most artistic designs. A very notable department is that for tiled and enamelled register stoves, in which line the firm show a superb stock of new and elegant goods. The “Sine Qua Non” range is one of Messrs. Shaw, Walker & Co.’s leading specialities. The advantages of this improved range are numerous and
striking. It can be used either as a close or open fire range at pleasure, the arrangement being exceedingly simple. There is no smell of cooking, and great economy of fuel is secured by a contrivance which raises the fire close to the hot-plate, and thus enables a saving of fifty per cent, to be effected in consumption of fuel when cooking. This range can also be made slow combustion, and will burn for many hours without attention by using the economiser. It is a perfect cure for smoky chimneys, and develops an extraordinary heating power in the ovens and on the hot-plate by means of the patent combined cold air excluder and smoke consumer. Equal heat is obtained at the top and the bottom of the ovens. Many testimonials speak for the satisfaction it has given in actual use. This range obtained the only prize medal for open and close fire ranges at the Sanitary Exhibition, Glasgow, 1883, and it also won medals at London (Health Exhibition), 1884; Edinburgh, 1886; and Glasgow, 1887. A “Sine Qua Non” range may always be seen, with fire lighted And in full working order, in Messrs. Shaw, Walker & Co.’s show-rooms.

It is gratifying to know that a business so thoroughly representative and so ably managed as that of this well-known firm is making steady progress. They have lately added a large show-room, ninety feet long by forty feet broad, for kitchen goods, iron beds and chairs, &c., &c., to meet the requirements of an increasing trade. This new show-room and front warehouse are lit by electric light. They have just secured the shop next door as additional premises, and this will admit of two extra windows for displaying their goods, besides giving them more counter accommodation. Messrs. Shaw, Walker & Co. have certainly one of the most complete and most interesting furnishing ironmongery establishments in Glasgow, and retain the favour and confidence of a very large and valuable connection.

JOHN BENNIE, THE STAR ENGINE WORKS (HYDRAULIC AND GENERAL ENGINEER),
149 TO 155, MONCUR STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS extensive business was founded twenty years ago in McFarlane Street, by its present proprietor, Mr. John Bennie, and has been greatly developed under that gentleman’s able and energetic management. Some years ago, in consequence of the growth of his trade, Mr. Bennie built the fine works he now occupies in Moncur Street. This establishment has been constructed, arranged, and equipped throughout with special regard to the requirements of the business, and affords every facility for the important and comprehensive industry to which Mr. Bennie devotes his attention. The frontage of the premises is a hundred feet in length, and the elevation is a handsome one of four storeys in freestone, with three large gateway entrances for goods and machinery. At the rear is the spacious machine shop, comprising several lofty bays splendidly lighted by electricity, and covering a ground area sixteen hundred feet square. Mr. Bennie gives employment to about one hundred and fifty skilled hands, and his leading manufactures embrace the following:— (1) Hydraulic, steam, and hand-power hoists, lifts, and cranes, for warehouses, stores, hotels, railway stations, docks, &c., &c. (2) Hydraulic filter and screw presses; the “Bennie Patent” Hydraulic Gravitation Packing Presses, which dispense with the use of pumps. (3) Hydraulic, steam, and hand-power yarn-bundling presses. (4) Water engines for pumping presses; steam and hand power hydraulic pumps and accumulators. (5) Horizontal and vertical steam-engines and boilers. (6) Flour and paint mill machinery, and machinery for tobacco manufacturers. (7) Cast-iron tanks, valves, and fittings, engineers’ tools, shafting, and every description of iron-work.

The principal speciality of the business consists in hydraulic machinery, and Mr. Bennie is particularly noted for the valuable improvements he has introduced in hoists and lifts. His hydraulic double-action safety balance passenger lift is a noteworthy example of what he has done in this direction. This lift is fitted with quadruple steel-wire ropes and patent safety apparatus, so arranged that, should any of the ropes stretch or give way, the car is instantly brought to a standstill. It is handsomely upholstered, and can be fitted with patent electric signalling apparatus and incandescent gas for electric light. Mr. Bennie’s other lifts, cranes, &c., for hydraulic, steam, or hand power, all possess special merits which strongly recommend them; and fine examples of his work in this branch of mechanics may be seen at the Central Station and Hotel, Glasgow; the New Bridge Street Station, Glasgow; Paisley Street; Ayr Station Hotel; Perth Station and Hotel, and the New Club, Glasgow, besides many other places too numerous to mention here. Mr. Bennie’s hydraulic presses have gained a high reputation for efficiency, and the same may be said of his special machinery for flour and paint mills and tobacco works, and of his steam engines and boilers. Great care and practical skill are bestowed upon the manufacture of all these various-classes of plant, and Mr. Bennie has been highly successful in international competition, winning two gold medals and six silver medals at Glasgow (1887), and the highest award at Edinburgh in 1886. He is prepared to submit estimates on application for all kinds- of machinery, and to execute repairs with promptitude. Mr. Bennie is also a machinery valuator and adjuster of insurance claims, and is much consulted in these matters on account of his long experience and well-known practical qualifications. The whole of this large and flourishing business comes directly under his personal control and supervision, and he enjoys the support and confidence of a very extensive and valuable connection in all parts of the Kingdom.

COLIN COLQUHOUN, CORK MANUFACTURER,
179, BOTHWELL STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Colin Colquhoun has been engaged in this industry since 1887 at the above address in Bothwell Street, and having had long practical experience therein he has developed a business of more than ordinary magnitude. Mr. Colquhoun’s premises are commodious and well arranged, and, in addition to offices and warehouses, they comprise spacious works, which are most completely equipped with the best modern appliances for cork-cutting. Regular employment is given to a numerous staff of experienced men. In the stock-rooms and warehouses may be seen a large quantity of cork in bundles, as imported from Spain, Portugal, Algeria, &c., and also many sacks, baskets, &c., filled with all kinds of corks for all purposes. The work of sorting, making, packing, &c., in which Mr. Colquhoun so largely engages, is all done on the premises under his own careful supervision, and he well maintains his reputation for goods of reliable quality and satisfactory finish. An extensive home trade is carried on, both wholesale and retail, and the house enjoys the support of a wide and representative connection. Mr. Colquhoun is one of the few genuine cork-cutters in the kingdom. He is consequently widely known in the trade, and his large resources and. enterprising methods enable him to meet satisfactorily all the demands of an extensive connection.

MARION WHITTAKER’S FRENCH AND ENGLISH MILLINERY SALOONS,
431 AND 433, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, NEAR CHARING CROSS, GLASGOW.

THIS fashionable establishment was opened by Miss Marion Whittaker in March, 1892, with a choice stock of French and English millinery of the highest class, and it has already been successful in attracting a large amount of superior patronage. The premises occupy a good position in the West End of Glasgow, and are spacious, commodious, and handsomely appointed. The two large show-windows are rendered attractive by a tasteful display of stylish novelties, and the ground floor is elegantly fitted up as a show-room and general reception room for customers. On the first floor, which is approached by a handsome staircase, are the principal show-rooms, and these charming saloons, it may safely be said, are unsurpassed in Glasgow. The furniture has all been, specially designed, and the carpets, hangings, upholstery, and decorations produce a most harmonious and artistic effect. In such show-rooms, amid elegant surroundings, and with the advantage of an excellent light, the stock is seen to advantage, and the many specialities in hats, bonnets, caps, headdresses, and other items of fashionable millinery on the latest Paris and London models may here be inspected under the most favourable conditions. Everything seen here is a careful selection from the best and latest novelties of the season, and the ladies of Glasgow can have no need to consult the modistes of London or Paris while Miss Whittaker adheres to the policy that has thus far governed her interesting establishment and won for it such well-merited approval. The work done on the premises is accomplished by a numerous and thoroughly efficient staff, under the immediate supervision of the experienced principal and her thoroughly competent forewoman; and customers may confidently rely upon obtaining not only the best materials in all cases, but also the most highly finished and satisfactory workmanship that skilled hands can produce. Close attention is paid to every change of style and fashion, and to ensure complete conformity with prevailing modes, the principal is in direct communication with the recognised centres of the trade, and visits the Continental markets herself twice a year. The entire business is admirably conducted, and includes a department for fashionable furs, this feature being obviously a very important one in the winter season. As in millinery, so in furs, only the newest and best goods are dealt in, and customers always have a wide range of choice in styles and prices. Miss Whittaker has had extensive and valuable London experience, and as an expert in fashionable millinery she has few equals in Scotland. Her professional talent has met with wide recognition, as the rapid development of her business upon strictly first-class lines amply testifies. Besides her influential clientele at home, Miss Whittaker has many patrons abroad, and is constantly sending goods to Switzerland, America, India, South Africa, and other distant parts of the world.

DANIEL WALKER, RESTAURATEUR, COOK AND CONFECTIONER,
186, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW.

ABOUT two years ago, Mr. Daniel Walker opened this excellent restaurant and confectionery establishment, and the large amount of patronage he has thus far received is a proof that the public are always ready to recognise and appreciate first-class catering. Mr. Walker is thoroughly versed in all the requirements of his business, having been head confectioner to the Queen’s Restaurant Company, and also to Mr. John Forrester, of Gordon Street — two leading concerns, whose operations afforded him ample opportunity to acquire a thoroughly practical acquaintance with the details of high-class restaurant routine. Having secured excellent premises in a very favourable situation, Mr. Walker has fitted them up in superior style, and made them highly attractive. The handsome shop at the front displays a choice stock of the many edible dainties peculiar to pastrycooks’ and confectioners’ establishments, while at the rear are the large and well-furnished refreshment and luncheon rooms, where Mr. Walker can seat close upon one hundred guests, and with the aid of his expert and obliging staff he caters to the daily needs of a clientele which generally taxes his accommodation to the full. Mr. Walker’s bill of fare is always a varied and comprehensive one, and includes every favourite dish in season. The tariff is particularly moderate and reasonable, and visitors to this restaurant will find that Mr. Walker is equally prepared to serve breakfasts, dinners, luncheons, or afternoon teas, as may be required. He is agent in Glasgow for Horniman’s famous teas.

As a confectioner Mr. Walker has a splendid reputation for brides’ cakes, christening cakes, and birthday cakes. At the time of the East-End Exhibition, about three years ago, Mr. Walker designed and ornamented a short cake which was sent by the committee to Her Majesty, and received her gracious acceptance. He is also noted for jellies, creams, and ices, and keeps a most complete stock of general and fancy confectionery of the purest quality. It should be remarked that Mr. Walker, as a caterer for all kinds of public and private festivities, supplies everything necessary in the shape of plate, china, glass, cutlery, table linen, &c., besides contracting for all requirements in choice viands for suppers, wedding breakfasts, public banquets, picnics, &c. He also purveys all kinds of made dishes, entrees, soups, jellies, ices, potted meats, game, fish, &c., &c., all of which are of his own production, and of guaranteed excellence. Cakes of every conceivable description are made to order or kept in readiness for immediate requirements, and everything that appertains to the trade of the cook, confectioner, and restaurateur comes within the scope of the business. Mr. Walker’s professional abilities are of a high order, and he has gained the support and confidence of a large and constantly increasing connection, and by careful and unremitting personal attention is making his business one of the very best of its kind in Glasgow.

JAMES LOUTTIT, BOOT AND SHOE MAKER,
204, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS business has been in existence for the last seventy years. Operations were originally commenced by Mr. Robert Hepburn in 56, George Street, in 1825, Mr. Louttit becoming the sole proprietor in 1861. For more than thirty years he has successfully conducted this first-class business, and has built up a connection of a widespread and specially valuable character. He removed to his present commodious and handsome premises in 1885, which are of ample size, and admirably fitted-up with every appliance for the proper display of the splendid specimens of boots and shoes always on view. The well-arranged workshops are at the rear. A staff of experienced workmen is employed, who follow their occupation under the direct and constant supervision of the able proprietor. All work is fully warranted for strength, durability and perfection of fit. Appearance, too, is never neglected, Mr. Louttit’s productions in smartness and style always giving the completest satisfaction. As an anatomical bootmaker the proprietor bears a widespread reputation, and he is constantly being recommended by some of the most eminent medical authorities to those suffering from any kind of pedal malformation. A great speciality is made of cork boots.

Mr. Louttit has made bootmaking a close study for many years, and bringing to the subject much practical knowledge and aptitude, has become recognised as a leading and representative man in his craft. The distinctive characteristics of his make may be said to be the short leg, broad tread, and long heel. This worthy disciple of St. Crispin maintains that with the short leg to a boot the ankle has very nearly as much play as in a shoe, while having, at the same time, as much support as with the ordinary boot. With the broad tread, properly made, he holds the boot cannot get out of shape, and he considers that the long heel adds materially to the firmness and stability of the boot. As to the truth and practical value of Mr. Louttit’s principles they are best shown by the extent and value of the connection he enjoys. His patronage is not confined to Glasgow and the surrounding districts, but orders are frequently received from London, North Wales, Cheltenham, Africa, Australia, Canada, and, in fact, from every part of the world. Mr. Louttit is a specialist in making slipper bottoms, brogues, and dress boots. It should be distinctly noted that no part of the proprietor’s boots or shoes is bought ready-made, but everything is made on the premises. In the show-window of the establishment may be seen the only diploma that was given to the bespoke boot and shoe trade at the Glasgow International Exhibition in 1888. The worthy possessor is very proud of this recognition of his skill, as well as of the literary notices which appeared in various journals at the time, viz., ‘Leather Trade Circular and Review,’ June 12th, 1888; ‘Boot and Shoe Trade Journal,’ May 12th, 1888; and in the ‘Shoe and Leather Record’ for June 16th, 1888. Mr. Louttit commands the respect of a large circle of friends and acquaintances, and for more than twenty years has been prominently connected with the Freemasons, having occupied the chair as the Right Worshipful Master for the second time.

WILLIAM LOW, DRAPER, HOSIER, AND HABERDASHER, LIVINGSTONE PLACE,
310, DUMBARTON ROAD, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

MR. William Low formed the nucleus of his now prosperous business in the year 1875, at No. 384, Dumbarton Road. Having outgrown his original accommodation, Mr. Low early found it expedient to remove to his present more convenient and commodious quarters, which are most favourably located at the commanding position at the corner of Dumbarton Road and Gardner Street. The spacious emporium, with its grand array of ten large and always artistically dressed plate-glass show-windows, extends backwards for a distance of seventy feet, and is elegantly-appointed throughout in the best modern style; the floor above being well equipped as millinery and dressmaking workrooms. The shop, with its neat office at the rear, is fitted and furnished in first-class style, while everywhere there are evidences of the care and attention bestowed by the proprietor in arranging for the convenience of his numerous patrons. Mr. Low constantly maintains a vast and varied stock, rich in fashionable novelties and articles of standard worth and excellence, and embracing all the latest London and Paris fashions in millinery, mantles and costumes, dress stuffs, household linens, and. drapery of every kind, including shirtings, calicoes, prints, flannels, blankets, and so forth; fancy drapery goods, in the way of feathers and flowers, laces and ribbons, embroideries, and the like; hosiery, corsets and gloves, ladies’ lingerie, babylinen and children’s and gentlemen’s underwear and mercery; carpets, floorcloths, and linoleums, and the numerous items and sundries coming under the designations of smallwares and haberdashery. Mr. Low makes a speciality of millinery, and in this department, as well as in dressmaking, keeps a staff of expert workers fully employed. Every branch of the business receives the personal supervision of the principal, and is conducted with a careful competence that is well calculated to sustain it in the public favour it has for the past nineteen years so deservedly enjoyed.

D. AND R. FULTON, REGISTERED PLUMBERS, GASFITTERS, SANITARY, HEATING, AND HYDRAULIC ENGINEERS,
104 AND 106, WOODLANDS ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE above business has been established upwards of sixteen years, and from its inception has been managed with ability, energy, and enterprise, and in point of thorough efficiency has no real superiors in the city. The partners are Mr. David Fulton and Mr. Robert Fulton, both men of wide experience, who have devoted many years to the study of the various branches of sanitary work. Mr. David Fulton is the appointed lecturer on Plumbing at the Technical College, Glasgow. At the City and Guilds of London Examinations during the last five sessions the following prizes and medals (open to the United Kingdom) were gained by Mr. Fulton’s students, viz.: Honours Grade — first and second prizes, with silver and bronze medals; Ordinary Grade — two second, one third, and one fifth prizes, with bronze medals. The premises are prominently located at the corner of Woodlands Road and Arlington Street. There are no fewer than six fine show-windows, in which an exceedingly attractive display is made of the various superior goods and appliances the house is handling. The show-room is spacious and admirably fitted up with everything calculated to facilitate the exhibition of the stocks. A compact suite of offices is at the rear, and in the basement flat are the various workshops. The firm employ a large staff of experienced workmen, and they have intrusted to them much of the principal work in the city and district, and the constantly increasing demands made upon their services show conclusively that their efforts are giving unqualified satisfaction.

They undertake all kinds of plumbing, sanitary, heating, and hydraulic work, and gasfitting in all its branches forms an important department of the business. Well-selected supplies are held of the latest improved water-closets, wash hand-basins, hot and cold shower baths, hip and sponge baths, heating and ventilating appliances, all kinds of gasfittings, bells, and plumbers’ requisites in great abundance. In the management of an extensive and widespread business of this character, branch houses have been found indispensable, the establishments occupied being at 19, Prince of Wales Terrace, Hillhead; 33, Portland Street, Kilmarnock; Magdala Place, Uddingston; and 34, West Blackhall Street, Greenock. By perseverance, and executing the best class of work in every department, an extensive and substantial connection has been built up, and it is pleasurable to note that the patronage is increasing in extent and importance with every passing year. The principals are esteemed for their ability, business energy, and honourable methods and command the confidence of all who have business relations with them.
The telephone communication of the house is No. 34.

THE LONDON AND PARIS MANTLE COMPANY,
MAISON DE MODES, 163, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.
MANAGING PARTNER: MR. J. E. WATSON.

THIS fashionable establishment, founded in 1878 at its present headquarters, has had a highly successful career, and is recognised as a house of the first standing. The premises occupied comprise Nos. 163, Sauchiehall Street, and 154 to 160, Wellington Street, and are admirably adapted to the requirements of the business. Internally and externally the establishment presents a handsome and highly attractive appearance, and every arrangement for the proper conduct of a large and first-class business is most complete. The stock is one of the best of its kind in the city, and includes all descriptions of mantles, jackets, ulsters, furs, costumes, shawls, skirts, and other items of fashionable attire for ladies. In all these lines the newest styles of London and Paris are displayed, and the Company are well known for their enterprise in immediately securing all the latest novelties as they make their appearance in the great centres of fashion. Wedding trousseaux are a speciality for which the establishment has a high reputation, and in this connection goods of the greatest excellence in style, quality, and workmanship are supplied. Another department to which special attention is devoted is that for family and complimentary mourning, and visitors to the establishment of the London and Paris Mantle Company will find the stock not less perfect in this respect than in any other branch of the comprehensive business in which this firm are engaged, and the attendance afforded to customers by a numerous and competent staff is all that can be desired. The work-rooms are on the premises, and only the most skilful and experienced hands are employed, great care being exercised to secure accuracy of fit as well as correct style, good taste, and faultless finish. The establishment reflects great credit upon Mr. J. F. Watson, the energetic managing partner, who personally supervises the entire business, and visits the leading centres of fashion (particularly London and Paris) at frequent intervals, thereby keeping constantly in touch with every movement in the great world of “mode.”

WILLIAM LEITCH, SMITH, SPRING-VAN AND LORRY BUILDER,
6, NORTH OSWALD STREET (OFF PARLIAMENTARY ROAD), GLASGOW.

ESTABLISHED as far back as 1882, the business was originally carried on in Kennedy Street, until the year 1887, when it was found necessary to remove to the more commodious premises situate at 67, Parliamentary Road. The ever-increasing business, however, soon proved that in order to facilitate the ordinary routine another move would have to be undertaken, and consequently, in the present year the above premises in North Oswald Street were acquired by Mr. Leitch. These comprise spacious smiths’ and work shop situate on a ground-floor building, containing all the most suitable appliances and accessories of a large and thoroughly organised establishment. A large number of hands have constant employment in the works and stores connected therewith, preparing, fitting, painting, and all else being performed upon the premises. A very representative staff of the best workmen in their respective trades, smiths, coachbuilders, wheelwrights, &c., has been gathered together. The work produced is mostly of a commercial class, and intended mainly for heavy purposes, such as lorries, carts, spring vans, &c., &c., which are turned out in great numbers. A large quantity of wheels is always in stock, made of the very best and thoroughly seasoned materials. Besides these, a first-class trade is done in repairing vehicles, while axles, springs, and contractors’ plant are also made to order. Mr. Leitch has good local connection, especially among contractors, carriers, furniture removers, wholesale grocers, brewers, and all users of heavy vehicles. Careful supervision is exercised over every branch, and by this means the proprietor is able to guarantee the excellence of every detail of the work executed in his noted establishment. The success that has been already achieved is the result of thoroughly business-like ability and sound practical experience, coupled with honourable and straightforward commercial methods, which have secured for this house the confidence and liberal support of the large and desirable connection it has already so long and deservedly enjoyed.

ROBERT ESSON, POULTERER, &C.,
BOGTON HOUSE, CATHCART, GLASGOW.

THE solution of the great problem of how best to utilise the land in the neighbourhood of great centres of population is being most successfully illustrated, on a sufficiently extensive scale, by Mr. Robert Esson, at Bogton House, Cathcart. Mr. Esson hails from Lumphanan, in Aberdeenshire, and possesses his full share of the enterprising shrewdness which is characteristic of the sons of the Granite County. Twenty years ago he came to Glasgow, where he found ample scope for his well-directed energy. Seventeen years ago he established a cooperage, whose subsequent record has been one of uninterrupted progress. The notable success which Mr. Essen has achieved has enabled him to accomplish a long cherished project, involving the acquisition of Bogton House, Cathcart, which is situated at a few miles’ distance from Glasgow, and the small farm of six acres adjoining it. His experience here has already shown what satisfactory commercial results may be obtained from the thorough equipment of such an amount of land as a poultry farm, combined with the production of other specialities, to be disposed of in the great market created by the commissariat requirements of the neighbouring city. That the communities of Glasgow and of other great centres of population in Britain should depend very largely upon foreign countries for their supplies of poultry, eggs, and choice vegetables is, it is justly urged by eminent economists, a national reproach. Thousands of acres are going out of cultivation on account of the competition of foreign grain, which it is impossible to withstand; but the poultry farmer, and the grower of fruit and fine vegetables, who has a practically unlimited demand, almost at his own door, for such commodities, need fear no foreign rivalry. In Mr. Esson’s case, the practical application of this obvious economic truth has proved so successful that he has already created a valuable trade connection. Finding it necessary therefore to devote the whole of his energies to developing the resources of his farm, he has recently disposed of his valuable cooperage. Mr. Esson has now been in possession of the Bogton House Farm for over a year; and his operations in several departments of his business have assumed considerable magnitude. The buildings include the spacious mansion house which forms Mr. Esson’s residence, and which is surrounded by gardens and grazing grounds. The gardens contain a fine range of glasshouses which are utilised, amongst other purposes, for the forcing of tomatoes, of which Mr. Esson is an extensive grower. A series of poultry-houses and another of piggeries have been constructed in accordance with the views of leading experts on the rearing of poultry and of pigs respectively. A large duck-pond has been made for the delectation of these amphibious fowls. Mr. Esson’s livestock now includes six hundred hens, a hundred ducks, and about fifty pigs. The methods which have been adopted for the utilisation of every square yard of ground render the Bogton House Farm a model of its class. Mr. Esson has already gained the control of a select market, where the invariably excellent quality of his supplies of eggs, chickens, ducks, pork, &c., is fully recognised. The notable success which Mr. Esson has achieved in his interesting enterprise is largely owing to his exceptional organising and administrative abilities, which enable him personally to supervise all the details of the business.

JOHN SHAW, DRAPER AND MILLINER,
335, DUMBARTON ROAD, OVERNEWTON, GLASGOW.

THE distribution of general drapery and kindred commodities to meet the daily demands of a large and rapidly growing select family connection which extends not only throughout the immediate neighbourhoods of Overnewton and Partick, but practically to every part of the west end of the city of Glasgow, finds an able exponent in the person of Mr. John Shaw, who formed the nucleus of his already prosperous business in the Dumbarton Road some five years ago. The spacious double-fronted, shop, with its neat office, and ample storage accommodation at the rear, is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a thoroughly representative stock of goods, rich in fashionable novelties and articles of standard worth and excellence, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading manufacturers of the day, both at home and abroad. All manner of everyday drapery goods, for household use and personal wear, including domestic drapery and linens, calicoes, flannels, blankets, and other heavy Manchester wares; dress stuffs up to date, from the most noted British and foreign looms; hosiery, gloves, corsets, and stays; ladies’ lingerie, baby linen, and children’s and gentlemen’s mercery and underwear; fancy drapery goods of every kind in the way of flowers and feathers, ribbons and laces, and the like; special lines in the latest London and Paris fashion fancies in millinery and millinery materials, and the numerous sundries coming under the designations of smallwares and haberdashery, are all fully represented at their best, and are all offered for sale at the lowest prices. The large and liberal patronage enjoyed by Mr. Shaw is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

JAMES MILLAR, WRIGHT AND BUILDER,
152—158, PARLIAMENTARY ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE uniquely important business which in its several departments Mr. James Millar conducts has an honourable record extending back to 1853, when it was established by his father, Mr. Thomas Millar, the present proprietor succeeding to the sole control in 1868. The premises have been materially improved and enlarged from time to time, as the business has increased. On the ground floor is a commodious suite of well-appointed general and private offices. On the upper floor is the joiners’ workshop, which is equipped with all the requisite appliances for the expedition of the industrial processes. Mr. Millar conducts an extensive business as a wright and builder, executing large contracts in the woodwork of important new structures. Amongst the important public buildings with which he has thus been associated may be mentioned the Free Church at West Kilbride, the woodwork of which is regarded by experts as exceptional in its artistic excellence and other good qualities. Mr. Millar also executed the woodwork for the new Ardrossan Academy. He has, however, especially made his mark by his skilful application of his thorough technical knowledge as a builder to the acquisition and improvement of valuable house property. Thus, some years ago, he purchased for £75,000 the commanding block at the junction of Renfield Street, Gordon Street, and Drury Street, and altered it completely so as to meet modern commercial requirements. In this connection, it may be mentioned that he was. the first builder in Glasgow to show the example of making the most of basements for business purposes. Mr. Millar’s policy in this respect has since been extensively imitated by other builders. He has a large local connection, and employs an efficient staff of experienced workmen. All the details of the business are under the supervision of the principal.

J. J. MULLENS, TOBACCONIST,
5, GORDON STREET, GLASGOW.

IT is now some thirty years ago that Mr. J. J. Mullens established his cigar and tobacco business in Argyle Street, and about fourteen years later he moved into his present splendid premises at 5, Gordon Street, in the very heart of the city. These premises consist of a handsome and very spacious shop, having a large plate-glass window, in which Mr. Mullens makes a most attractive and inviting display of his goods. His commodious shop is amply stocked with an extensive assortment of the choicest British and foreign cigars, while cigarettes, snuffs, and tobaccos are to be obtained there in every variety and by all the well-known manufacturers. These tobaccos include Wills’s, Lambert and Butler’s, Player’s, and many other kinds of guaranteed excellence. Mr. Mullens has also in stock a large assortment of meerschaums, briar, and other pipes, and every style and variety of pouches and smokers’ sundries, while the same excellent quality is observable in all the goods supplied at this establishment. The shop is elegantly fitted with all the latest improvements, and in the showcases and stands the stock is displayed to the best advantage. Mr. Mullens also keeps a large assortment of cigars constantly on hand, and a very great quantity of Egyptian cigarettes. Mr. Mullens’ business is of a high class character, and he numbers very many influential people among his customers. By attending to hio business in person, and by his thorough knowledge of every branch of the trade, he is in possession of a flourishing business which has been built up by his individual perseverance and commercial talent.

YOUNG & HANNAY, PRACTICAL CABINETMAKERS AND UPHOLSTERERS,
360 AND 364, PAISLEY ROAD, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. William Young and John Hannay entered into partnership eighteen years ago, and the business is now under the sole proprietorship of Mr. Hannay, Mr. Young having recently retired. Occupying a commanding position in the Paisley Road, to which they present a frontage of forty feet, with four fine show windows, the spacious shop is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold, and display to the best advantage, a splendid selection of soundly constructed and artistically designed and finished furniture, including complete suites, cabinets, and single pieces, together with carpets, rugs, linoleums, and general household effects. All these goods are effectively arranged on the ground floor, the offices and commodious heavily-stocked store-rooms being on the floor above. Adjoining these stores are the well-equipped workshops of the firm, where a staff of skilled and experienced hands is constantly employed in french-polishing, upholstering, and general cabinet-making work, under the constant critical supervision of the principals. Messrs. Young & Hannay’s resources and facilities are, without doubt, of a superior character, enabling them to offer many special advantages to customers, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Mr. Hannay is well known and much esteemed in local circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man, liberal and fair in all transactions, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

WILLIAM CRAIG, GROCER AND PROVISION MERCHANT,
98, CROWN STREET, GLASGOW.

ORGANISED at 127, Crown Street, as far back as the year 1871, as a general grocery and provision store, under the able auspices of its present talented and enterprising proprietor, Mr. William Craig, the commercial development of this thriving undertaking has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement. Occupying a prominent position in Crown Street, the spacious double-fronted shop is divided into two distinct parts, one of which is neatly fitted with enamelled tiles and other sanitary appointments, and is reserved for the display and sale of fresh fish, rabbits and poultry in season, this department being a subsequent development in expansion of the original provisioning and grocery trade, which is still vigorously promoted in the other moiety of the handsomely fitted shop, surplus stock being held in the commodious stores at the rear. Mr. Craig has always been noted in the neighbourhood for the freshness and prime quality of all his goods, and his stores are always heavily stocked with all manner of everyday groceries; British and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles, and prime provisions of every kind, in the way of hams and bacon, butter and cheese, lard, and the freshest of eggs, all of which are maintained in the best condition, and are offered for sale at the lowest prices consistent with equitable trading. Order, system, and courtesy are salient characteristics of this carefully conducted business, and the large and liberal patronage enjoyed by Mr. Craig is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

GEORGE A. BROWN, DEALER IN PIANOFORTES AND AMERICAN ORGANS,
678, EGLINTON STREET, AND 2, MAXWELL ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. G. A. Brown established his admirably organised business in Pollokshields, in 1878. During the succeeding decade his thorough technical knowledge of the trade enabled him to create such a valuable and substantial connection, that in 1888 he found it judicious to remove to the splendidly commodious premises which he now occupies. The premises stand upon a commanding corner site at the junction of Eglinton Street and Maxwell Road. The position forms one of the stations of the tramway system, and it is the point at which the Pollokshaws Road, the Maxwell Road, and Eglinton Street diverge towards several important residential suburbs of the city. Nor do the special advantages which Mr. Brown has secured end here. The premises themselves are more commodious than those of any other establishment of the same class in Glasgow. There are two ample show-windows facing Eglinton Street and three to Maxwell Road, which, with their splendid assortments of novelties in the specialities which have made Mr. Brown’s reputation constitute never-failing points of attractive interest in the two thoroughfares. The interior, which has a depth of fifty feet, affords copious space for the effective display of a great variety of pianofortes by the most celebrated makers, Mr. Brown’s intimate and extensive relations with whom enable him to offer their choicest productions to his customers on exceptionally advantageous terms. Even more thoroughly representative is Mr. Brown’s assortment of American organs, of which he holds one of the largest and best stocks in Scotland, being, in particular, the sole agent for Newman Brothers’ celebrated American organs. Amongst the stocks of other musical instruments which Mr. Brown holds, the violins are entitled to special notice for their number and rare tone, some of them being regarded by experts as equal to the work of the old masters. In the warehouse will always be found a choice and comprehensive selection of sheet music, including all approved novelties, and a very full collection of popular old English, Scotch and Irish songs and ballads. To the rear is a well-appointed office with all the appliances for the convenient despatch of commercial business.

J. AUSTIN & CO., FAMILY BAKERS & CONFECTIONERS,
167, PARLIAMENTARY ROAD, AND 161, COWCADDENS STREET, GLASGOW.

THE records of this undertaking show that it was organised at 167, Parliamentary Road, in the year 1886, under the able auspices of J. Austin, who, upon extending his business in 1893, by opening a branch depot at 161, Cowcaddens Street, assumed the augmented style and title designated above. The firm’s headquarters in the Parliamentary Road consist of a spacious double-fronted shop, facing the busy main tramway thoroughfare, and always present a singularly attractive appearance by reason of the abundant and varied stock of good things there temptingly displayed, in the way of plain and fancy breads and biscuits, home and foreign flour, a speciality in superior breakfast rolls, toothsome pastry, cakes and confectionery, and various dainty dishes and table delicacies of the highest order. In their elaborately equipped kitchen and bakery with four large modern ovens, Messrs. Austin & Co., with a staff of expert hands, operate, not only in the daily production of a very large stock to supply their shops and extensive round of regular customers, but also undertake the covering and baking of dishes, and the making of special cakes, artistically ornamented to any specified or suggested design, for marriages, christenings, birthday anniversaries, and the like; while they have additionally achieved a widespread and well-merited renown as complete purveyors for wedding breakfasts and luncheons, ball suppers, church soirees, garden and picnic parties, &c. The business continues to increase, both rapidly and substantially, and under Mr. Murdoch’s vigorous regime the house promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the prosperity of the future.

ALEXANDER FULTON, FAMILY AND SHIPPING BUTCHER, NAPIER PLACE,
129, DUMBARTON ROAD, GLASGOW.

ABOUT ten years ago Mr. Alexander Fulton acquired the thriving business which had been formed as far back as the year 1860 by the late Mr. Danks. Favourably located in proximity to the river and dockyards, in Napier Place, facing the busy Dumbarton Road, the spacious single-fronted shop, with its sanitarily tiled walls and window, polished steel fitments, and refrigerators for keeping the meat cool in hot weather, substantial cutting blocks, machine-room at the rear, and corner desk-office, presents a particularly neat, clean, and wholesome appearance, which tends very ,largely to enhance the inviting character of the abundant stock always there maintained of expertly dressed carcasses, sides, joints, and cuts of fresh meat, of exclusively the best quality. Home-fed ox beef and wether mutton, house lamb, veal, and pork in their several seasons; minced collops and sausages freshly made day by day, choicely corned beef and prime pickled tongues, and the like, are all fully represented at their best, and are all offered for sale at the lowest current city market prices. As a ships’ purveyor, Mr. Fulton supplies all the China boats, and many other lines of steamships and sailing vessels, with not only fresh butchers’ meat, but also live stock, sheep, pigs, and poultry, general provisions, vegetables, potatoes, fruit, &c., and bonded stores, in the way of wines, spirits, ales, tobacco, &c. His business, apart from a very large family connection, and the shipping trade above alluded to, extends also to supplying hotels, clubs, restaurants, and the like, and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large and widespread retail and wholesale connection, by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always marked its business transactions.

ARCHIBALD STEVENSON, REGISTERED PLUMBER AND GAS-FITTER,
221, GAIRBRAID STREET, MARYHILL ROAD, GLASGOW.

PRACTICAL plumbing and the kindred crafts of the modern gasfitter and sanitary engineer, find no abler representative and exponent at the rapidly rising district of Maryhill in suburban Glasgow than Mr. Archibald Stevenson, a registered member of the Worshipful Company of Plumbers of London, whose experience of the craft extends over a period of three decades, during twelve years of which he discharged the onerous duties of a foreman. The records of this undertaking show that it was organised by a Mr. J. Barry in the year 1875. Six years later the business passed into the hands of Messrs. D. & R. Fulton, with Mr. Stevenson first as their foreman, and afterwards, in 1886, their successor. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in one of the principal business thoroughfares of the district, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its neat office attached, is made to subserve the purposes of a show-room for the effective display of all the latest improvements in sanitary appliances, together with plumbers’ and gasfitters’ tools, materials, and requisites of every description. In his perfectly equipped workshop at the rear, Mr. Stevenson retains the services of a staff of some six picked craftsmen, in constant readiness to proceed to any part of the district for the purpose of executing work by contract or otherwise. Mr. Stevenson has from time to time carried out local contracts of considerable importance — to wit, the water fittings for the Cassell Gold Extracting Company’s works, and gas and water fittings for the oil refineries of Messrs. Sandeman Brothers; and also throughout the extensive lead works of Messrs. Ferguson & Co., and many other local works of magnitude. Personally Mr. Stevenson is well known in local circles, and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large and valuable connection, as much by reason of the reliability and high excellence of all his work, as for his moderate charges, and the honourable principles which have always characterised his business transactions.

JOHN EWING & CO., GROCERS, &C., CENTRAL TEA, COFFEE, AND WINE STORES,
210, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

UNDER the railway arch, but three doors west of the entrance to the Central Station, in the heart of the city of Glasgow, this representative grocery establishment, which is now under the joint proprietary control of Mr. John Ewing and Mr. John Smith, has been conducted since the year 1879. Previous to that date, however, the business was organised by its present senior proprietor, in the year 1837, at 436, Argyle Street, and was subsequently conducted at 221, Argyle Street for a period of sixteen years. The spacious double-fronted shop, with its bold frontage of thirty feet, extends backwards for a distance of forty feet to commodious stores at the rear. The shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is very neatly arranged to hold and effectively display a splendid stock of goods, all of which have been selected with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading sources of supply both at home and abroad. To wit, in addition to the leading line in teas and coffees of the best crops and brands from India, Ceylon, and China, there are all manner of everyday groceries, and English and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies of the highest order. Confectionery of every kind is also conspicuous; while the stock of wines, spirits, and ales is fairly exhaustive. Unseen by the public, in the stores at the rear, are vast consignments of all the goods enumerated above, in bulk, prominent amongst these being large casefuls of English and American confectionery and Australian wines in casks and flagons, including Burgoyne’s noted Harvest Burgundy and Tintara. From this vast stock Messrs. Ewing & Co. supply retail grocers and confectioners in the city and suburbs, and throughout the Highlands; while from the front store already described they conduct a brisk retail trade of a superior class. From what has been noted it will readily be gathered that Messrs. Ewing & Co.’s resources and facilities are of such a character as to enable them to offer special advantages to both retail customers and buyers in the trade and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner.

D. ROSS, HOSIER, DRAPER, AND MILLINER,
227, DUKE STREET; 245, STIRLING ROAD; AND 96, ALEXANDRA PARADE, GLASGOW.

THE success that has attended Mr. Donald Ross’s business career since he first established himself at 245, Stirling Road, about thirty-two years ago, has been very marked. About eleven years after opening his premises in Stirling Road, Mr. Ross’s connection had increased and multiplied until it became necessary to take a more extensive establishment, and he accordingly instituted his shop at 227, Duke Street, which now forms the headquarters of the concern. About a year ago the third branch was established at 96, Alexandra Parade, and the three shops are now in full swing. A splendid display of choice articles are always to be seen in the windows. The interior, which is most conveniently arranged, is fitted with two serving counters, while shelves and cases, filled with a large variety of goods, line the walls, and a number of stands containing further articles are distributed about the place. In the store to the rear is to be found a heavy and valuable surplus stock. A speciality is made by the firm of ladies’ and children’s underclothing, plain and fancy hosiery, ribbons, laces and frillings, and all nioknacks and fancy goods. The drapery department includes flannels, blankets, prints, cretonnes, shirts, house napery, curtains, and all the usual household drapery. Another leading feature is made in the millinery section, and every variety of ribbons, feathers, hat and other trimmings and ornaments are kept, while the department reserved for gentlemen’s underwear is replete with a large selection of shirts, scarfs, collars, cuffs, gloves, &c. A similar business is carried on at Alexandra Parade in the North-end, and in the locality of Stirling Road, although the premises at the latter address are small, and Mr. Ross only retains it for the sake of old times. The general trade of the firm is very widespread throughout Dennistown, being the oldest established in this district, and under Mr. Ross’s practical and enlightened policy of management, his already large connection is ever increasing.

JAMES WHITE, FAMILY BOOT AND SHOE MAKER,
15, PRINCE OF WALES TERRACE, HILLHEAD, GLASGOW.

THE above well-known business was originally organised in 1874, and removed afterwards to Buckingham Buildings, Hillhead, and has for the past fourteen years been promoted by its founder, Mr. James White, at 15, Prince of Wale« Terrace. The spacious double-fronted shop, with its neatly contrived separate departments for ladies and gentlemen, and well-equipped workshop adjoining, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and displays a large and first-class stock of ready-made boots, shoes, and slippers for ladies’, gentlemen’s, and children’s wear, in a great diversity of styles, shapes, and sizes at moderate cost. Mr. White, himself a practical expert, is valuably assisted by a picked staff of skilled and experienced hands in the making to measure and repairs of all kinds of high-class boots, shoes, and slippers, from exclusively the best materials, correct in style, of perfect fit, and faultless finish. Constructing boots and shoes upon true morphological methods, Mr. White constantly aims at securing the greatest amount of comfort for the feet, with a due share of graceful form and attractive appearance. His efforts have been recognised and appreciated at their true value by a large and increasing circle of patrons, and his entire business is conducted in a manner which promises a steady continuance of this satisfactory condition of affairs.

MUNGO WALLACE, DISPENSING AND FAMILY CHEMIST,
193, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE inception of this important business goes back for at least half-a-century, and during the whole of the time a prosperous and gratifying progress has been maintained. Mr. Robert Glen had possession of the business for fourteen years, and he was succeeded in 1895 by the present proprietor, Mr. Mungo Wallace. Although but a short time has elapsed since Mr. Wallace became proprietor, he has already shown how thoroughly suitable he is for conducting a business of this kind and extent, and has placed himself high in the esteem of the old patrons of the house. He is a duly qualified member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, and his experience has been gained in some of the leading pharmacies, including that of Mr. John McMillan, of St. George’s Cross. The premises occupied are large and commodious, and prominently located at the corner of St. George’s Road and West Princes Street, with fine frontages and entrances in both thoroughfares. A very attractive display is made in the large plate-glass windows, and the interior of the shop, which is of very good size, is elaborately and elegantly fitted up with stands, show-cases, mirrors, and all those accessories which go to make a chemist’s shop the most charming of business establishments. At the rear of the shop is the dispensing department, where physicians’ prescriptions, and family and other recipes are carefully dispensed under the personal supervision of Mr. Wallace. The stocks held are large and comprehensive, while the admirably effective manner in which they are arranged gives the establishment a special and unique character. They include extensive selections of first-class drugs and chemicals, electuaries, distilled waters, toilet requisites, perfumes from Atkinson, Rimmel, Grossmith, and others; fancy soaps from Pears and Cleaver; proprietary and patent medicines in large variety; tooth and hair brushes, high-class medicinal waters, surgical appliances, and numerous kinds of druggist’s sundries. While everything offered here can be fully guaranteed as the best of its kind, the prices are, in all cases, such as cannot fail to give every satisfaction. Mr. Wallace, with his eminent qualifications and his courteous and obliging manners, is evidently the proper person to preside over the fortunes of this reputable and old-established house.

ROBERT HARVIE, BREAD, BISCUIT, AND PASTRY BAKER,
170, MAIN STREET, BRIDGETON, GLASGOW.

MR. Robert Harvie, who organised his present prosperous business in the year 1879, having recently purchased the property of which his shop and bakehouse form a part, is now in a position to give full scope to his rapidly expanding business. The spacious single-fronted shop presents a particularly neat and scrupulously clean and wholesome appearance, which tends very largely to enhance the character of the superior stock of plain and fancy breads and biscuits, cakes, pastry and confectionery. The hygienic bakehouse at the rear is elaborately equipped with all the best modern appliances, including two large ovens, one of which is the well-known Hastie’s patent, and calls into active requisition the services of a full staff of skilled and experienced hands, whose labours are carefully supervised by Mr. Harvie. Superior breakfast rolls and hand-made breads, invalids’ and children’s rusks, pure wheatmeal bread and biscuits, marriage and birthday cakes, hot pies on Saturdays, and his noted speciality for persons of weak digestion, known as Harvie’s wheaten bread and digestive biscuits, and which are highly recommended by members of the medical profession, are all produced in the highest state of perfection, and delivered with punctuality at the dwellings of his customers throughout Bridgeton. Mr. Harvie, moreover, is always prepared to undertake the complete catering for marriage parties, suppers, soirees, picnics, and the like, with economy, efficiency, and despatch; and the large and liberal local and city patronage accorded to his house, is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts, quite as much in the public interest as in his own, have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

SEMPLE & WILSON, PIANOFORTE, HARMONIUM, AND AMERICAN ORGAN WAREHOUSE,
123, DUKE STREET, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. Semple & Wilson, after a valuable experience in the business extending to every branch, joined in partnership some three years ago, commencing operations in the premises they still occupy. Mr. Wilson retired from the firm some time ago, and Mr. John W. Semple is now the sole proprietor. The premises occupied are capitally well situated and are very desirable for their extent and convenience. They comprise a splendid show-room in the front, with two large plate-glass windows looking on the street, and stores and workshops below. Every department is thoroughly well fitted up, and the show-room is lofty, well lighted, and in every respect admirably adapted to display to the best advantage the superior collections of instruments it always contains. All the instruments offered are bought by himself, and every one before being sent out is thoroughly tested. He is thus able to fully guarantee all instruments, and patrons will find that nowhere can more reliable goods be secured than at Messrs. Semple & Wilson’s warehouse. The selection is of a very wide character, and includes the latest and most improved productions of the leading makers such as Collard & Collard, Broadwood, Erard, Steinway, Hopkins, Bechstein and others in pianos. In American organs are the best achievements of Bell, Estey, and Smith Organ Company, while harmoniums are equally well represented. The general stock is comprehensive, including ample selections of banjos, guitars, harps, flutes, piccolos, concertinas, violins, melodeons, cornets, and all kinds of wind and string instruments, among which will be found some striking novelties only just introduced to the trade. Prices here are of a very favourable kind, and every inducement in the way of payment is held out to purchasers. Everything in connection with the music trade is undertaken. Pianos are let out on hire by the day, week, or month; tuning is done singly or by contract; pianists are supplied, and bands are furnished for concerts, dances, &c. Business relations are maintained throughout the east end, with Dennistown, and for many miles in the suburbs. Mr. Semple is very popular in trading and professional circles, and much respected for his straightforward methods of doing business. He is young, able, and enterprising, and well worthy of the success he is winning.

SAMUEL MACLNNES, DEALER IN HORSES, CONTRACTOR, AND LIVERY STABLE KEEPER,
130, RENFREW STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Samuel McInnes entered upon his present prosperous career in the year 1882 at Kent Road, where his business progressed with such rapidity that three years had scarcely elapsed before he found it imperative to remove to larger premises in Hope Street. Having once more outgrown his accommodation, he transferred his business, in May, 1893, to his present excellent quarters in Renfrew Street, in order to give full scope to his rapidly expanding business. At 130, Renfrew Street, Mr. McInnes holds a splendidly constructed range of modern stables, coach-houses, harness and saddle-rooms, &c., replete with every facility and convenience for the rapid and effective transaction of business. The livery and bait department is large and lofty, the space devoted to each horse being much greater than was the case even but a few years ago, and everything being maintained in a condition of cleanliness and perfect purity. Mr. McInnes operates on an extensive scale as a horse-dealer, and in his capacity as a keen judge of “horse-flesh,” is largely consulted as an intermediary for the sale or purchase of animals. He holds a splendid stud of horses, and vehicles of every kind, such as landaus, broughams, victorias, dog-carts, private omnibuses, breaks, &c., all of which are kept in constant readiness for hire by the day, week, month, or year, and a special feature is made of contract work for companies and large institutions. All equipages are turned out splendidly horsed, and only reliable, well-dressed and experienced grooms and drivers are employed, and the marked success that has attended the concern is undoubtedly due to the personal energy and ability, system and regularity, which have always characterised its administration.

ALEXANDER WARREN, BOOKSELLER, STATIONER, AND NEWSAGENT,
THE CROSSHILL SELECT LIBRARY, 475, VICTORIA ROAD, GLASGOW.

IT is sixteen years since Mr. Alexander Warren established his admirably organised business as a bookseller, stationer, and newsagent, and during the interval which has elapsed he has succeeded, by his enlightened enterprise, in rendering his establishment one of the most popular institutions in the favourite residential suburb of Crosshill, where it is situated. His premises comprise a single-fronted sale-shop, whose attractive appearance is altogether in keeping with the popular commercial methods which Mr. Warren has successfully adopted. The spacious interior is well appointed, and contains large and systematically classified stocks of family stationery, including writing materials of the latest and most approved descriptions. There is a specially fine assortment of Bibles and psalters. Mr. Warren, too, has organised a complete supply of all the leading daily and weekly newspapers, with the several magazines and periodicals of the day. One of the principal features of the establishment is the circulating library, to which Mr. Warren gives special attention, and which has given to his business the distinctive appellation of “The Crosshill Select Library.” It comprehends a large number of books suitable for study and for recreation in all branches of literature, and comprises all the latest published popular works. In all the departments of his business Mr. Warren has gained the thorough confidence of the leading families of the district, and his well-ordered establishment is supported by all classes of society.

JAMES CRAULD, DRAPER, AND GENERAL HOUSE FURNISHER,
504, SPRINGBURN ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. James Gauld organised his already thriving business at 492, Springburn Road, in 1891, from whence he removed some two years later to his present more convenient and commodious quarters in the same busy main thoroughfare. Occupying a commanding position, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display complete and comprehensive stocks in general and fancy drapery goods of every description; all kinds of beds and bedding; carpets, floor-cloths, linoleums, and the like; and all kinds of household furniture, to meet the requirements of all classes of buyers. Order, system, and courtesy are salient characteristics of this carefully yet energetically conducted business, which is largely patronised by the best families resident throughout the district and its surrounding country-side, and it is manifestly Mr. J. Gauld’s resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in days to come.

JOHN STRATHEARN, MANTLE MAKER AND COSTUMIER,
192, TRONGATE, GLASGOW.

THE records of this notable undertaking show that its commercial development has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement, and doubtless the most effectual way in which to indicate its true character would be to give a concise descriptive sketch of the establishment as it now; stands. Occupying a commanding position with an aggregate of seven spacious show-windows facing the Trongate and Glassford Street respectively, the elegantly-appointed shop is always a source of great attraction, and a favourite resort for ladies in search of the latest fashions in mantles and costumes. A magnificent display is always en evidence in the ground floor shop, as well as in the special show-room on the first floor. Adjoining this show-room are the well-equipped workrooms for dress and mantle-making, in which none but skilled and experienced couturieres and needlewomen are engaged, under the capable supervision of Mrs. Strathearn, while the mantle department, which includes furs, sealskin jackets, &c., as well as rich and artistic designs in cloth, plush, silk, velvet, &c., comes under the special expert care of Mr. Strathearn. The business in all its details is directed with exemplary energy and ability, and under its present judicious administration the house promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the prosperity of still better days to come.

BORDER & CO., MERCHANT TAILORS,
120, ST. VINCENT STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS admirably organised business was established, so recently as 1889, by Mr. W. H. Border, who is by no means new to Glasgow, having acted as principal cutter for many years to Mr. R. W. Forsyth, Renfield Street. During the comparatively brief period which has elapsed, Mr. Border, by his thorough knowledge of the technical details of the business, and by the zealous care which he displays, to meet the special requirements of each customer, has created a valuable and increasing connection, which includes many leading families in the West of Scotland. The premises occupy a commanding position in St. Vincent Street, a few doors west of Renfield Street. They comprise a fine double-fronted saloon shop, whose massive plate-glass windows, with their tastefully arranged display of attractive novelties suitable for gentlemen’s attire, constitute most interesting points of view in the thoroughfare. The well-appointed interior contains large and varied assortments of beautiful materials from the principal manufacturers. The relations which Border & Co. maintain with the principal sources of supply for all the different classes of goods are so intimate and extensive that they are able to offer them to their customers upon specially advantageous terms. On the upper floor are spacious and well-ventilated work-rooms, where a large efficient staff is permanently employed. Much of the notable success which Border & Co. have obtained is the result of the fact that the cutting and fitting is superintended by Mr. Border, whose well-known abilities are sufficient to assure gentlemen favouring them with their orders of every satisfaction.

GEORGE G. KIRK, GLASS MERCHANT, &c., GLAZIER, GLASS STAINER AND EMBOSSER,
7 AND 9, STOCKWELL PLACE, GLASGOW.

MR. George G. Kirk formed the nucleus of his now extensive business close upon fourteen years ago, at Nos. 6 and 7, New Smithills Street, Paisley. The rapid expansion of his undertaking citywards led Mr. Kirk, in the spring of 1893, to open what are now his headquarters at 7 and 9, Stockwell Place, Glasgow. The spacious double shop with its ample storage accommodation and well-equipped workshops, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to efficiently execute all orders with dispatch, having continually on hand an enormous and. thoroughly representative stock of glass of every conceivable kind, from the ordinary window-glass to the heaviest and finest plate-glass, derived from the leading manufacturers of the day, together with all manner of glaziers’ materials and requisites, and examples of stained and embossed glass suitable for domestic, office, and ecclesiastical decorations. Mr. Kirk retains the services of a large staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen in constant readiness to proceed to any part of the city or country for the purpose of undertaking glazing work on any scale of magnitude, by contract or otherwise. The firm have completed the glazing work of the Paisley Post Office, the Corporation Tramway stables, Kelvinhaugh, Glasgow, and several large contracts for city and the district. For the rest, his business is conducted upon the soundest commercial principles, and is steadily and continually advancing in prestige and position under the influence of the ability and energy which mark the administration of all its affairs.

JOHN BROWN, PURVEYOR,
106, BROOMIELAW, GLASGOW.

A varied, extensive and important business is that presided over by Mr. John Brown, who established his business in 1878, and has occupied his present premises for over six years. These consist of a series of extensive warehouses, all capitally well arranged and fitted up with every convenience for the accommodation of the stocks held, which comprise every description of silver plate, cutlery, linen, crystal, crockery and other requisites for catering for public dinners, banquets, soirees, balls, supper parties and convivial and festive gatherings of every kind. His supplies are almost inexhaustible in extent, embracing everything that can possibly be required in the largest and most recherche meal, while the articles themselves are of first-class quality, and the most modern design and style. The proprietor publishes a list of charges for each article, so that intended patrons can readily calculate the cost of hiring, the list including not only table requisites, but also furniture and cooking utensils. At No 120-and-a-half Broomielaw, Mr. Brown has another large warehouse and store-room, together with extensive bakeries. A staff of skilled bakers, cooks, and pastrymen is employed, and he is thus able to supply the choicest class of eatables for any banquet or “feed” for which he may be providing the table requisites. Mr. Brown’s experience in catering has been of an extended and exceptionally fine character, among other important posts he has filled being that of purveyor on board those popular Cunard liners, the Campania and Lucania, a position he held for several years. Mr. Brown is managing his business with marked energy, and by his careful attention to the wants of his customers he gains the respect and esteem of all with whom he comes into business contact.

JOHN MUIR, PLUMBER AND GASFITTER,
10, STRATHEARN PLACE, AND 3, WESTMINSTER PLACE, PAISLEY ROAD WEST, GLASGOW.

IT is fifteen years since Mr. John Muir began his industrial operations, and he brought to his enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the trade, and thus soon created a valuable connection. The premises comprise a spacious workshop, equipped with all the appliances for the saving of labour and the perfecting of results in the several industrial processes which are conducted on the premises. For the purposes of these operations, and for the outdoor work which constitutes the greater part of Mr. Muir’s business, he holds large stocks of bar, pipe, and sheet lead, as well as of brass and iron fittings. He regularly employs an efficient staff of highly skilled workmen, and as all their operations are under his supervision, he is able personally to guarantee the excellence of the workmanship. Mr. Muir has a store-room at 3, Westminster Place, where will be found a most thoroughly representative display of plumbers’ and gasfitters’ appliances and sanitary adjuncts. By the uniform excellence of his work Mr. Muir has gained the unreserved confidence of many of the leading builders, property owners, and house factors of the south-western district of Glasgow, including Govan; and he constantly fulfils contracts of varying degrees of magnitude.

MISS A. MILLER, FISHMONGER, POULTERER AND GAME DEALER,
103, WEST GEORGE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS admirably organised business has an honourable record, extending back for about seventy years, and was for a long time conducted by the late Miss Whitelaw. The lady who is now the proprietress of the establishment was for fourteen years in charge of the business of Messrs. A. Gilmore & Son. The premises have been admirably adapted for the several requirements of the business. They comprise a splendid double-fronted shop, and all the internal fittings and appointments are suggestive of cleanliness and propriety. Miss Miller possesses a complete command of the sources of supply, and at her establishment salmon and grills are obtained in season, fresh from the nets, while the finest soles, whiting, codfish, turbot, halibut, and whitebait, as well as crabs, lobsters, and other shellfish, are always on hand. Miss Miller also controls a very extensive business in poultry of all descriptions, and in their several seasons, her consignments of hares, rabbits, grouse, partridges, pheasants, snipe, wildfowl, pigeons, venison, &c., are very extensive. With such unsurpassed facilities for serving the best classes of customers, Miss Miller supplies not only some of the leading hotels in the city, but many of the families occupying the most distinguished social position in the neighbourhood. The principal element of success in this thriving establishment is the constant supervision of the proprietress, who has gained the unreserved confidence of her customers, and gives her prompt personal attention to the execution of all orders.

WALTER PARIS, FAMILY AND DISPENSING CHEMIST,
83, STIRLING ROAD, GLASGOW.

PRACTICAL pharmacy in the highest phases of its modern development finds an able representative and exponent in the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. Walter Paris. The undertaking was organised as far back as the year 1850, under a Dr. Fraser, who after many years was succeeded by a Mr. Lambie, and, in the year 1881, the business was finally acquired by its present enterprising proprietor. The spacious shop is elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to display a complete and thoroughly representative stock of goods, composed of drugs and chemicals of ascertained purity and standard strength; all the popular patent medicines of the day; choice toilet, nursery, and sick-room requisites; all manner of medical and surgical appliances in the way of belts and bandages, trusses, enemas, and the like; and the numerous sundries and proprietary articles incidental to a first-class modern pharmacy. In his perfectly equipped laboratory Mr. Paris, with two assistants, operates in every branch of practical pharmacy, devoting the most careful and competent attention to the dispensing of physicians’ prescriptions and the compounding of family recipes, by reason of which he has won the esteem and confidence of all the leading local practitioners of medicine, and the liberal support of a very large clientele drawn practically from all classes of the community.

THOMAS MCCROSSAN, CLOTHIER,
578A, GALLOWGATE, GLASGOW.

MR. McCrossan organised his present prosperous business in the Gallowgate some five years ago, and has succeeded, during that comparatively brief period in securing the confidence and support of a large yet select local and city patronage. The spacious double-fronted shop, with its well-equipped work-rooms adjoining, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and effectively displays a complete stock of all the best and most fashionable tailoring fabrics and materials for the current season, thereby offering a wide range for choice to gentlemen in search of stylish and well-made garments at moderate prices. Mr. McCrossan, himself a recognised expert tailor and scientific cutter, employs none but skilled and experienced craftsmen, whose labours come under his constant critical supervision, with the result that every garment emanating from his establishment is endowed with an individuality of style, a perfection of fit, and a faultless finish that can only be imparted by a thorough master of the sartorial art; and it is a true criterion of and tribute to his capabilities that not only are patrons invariably well satisfied with the results of his efforts, but that his large and valuable clientele has been mainly called together through the agency of personal recommendations.

JAMES ROSS, FAMILY BOOTMAKER,
445, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

ORGANISED thirty years ago under the able auspices of Mr. James Ross, the business is now vigorously promoted by its popular proprietress, Mrs. Ross, who is ably assisted by a competent manager and a staff of efficient assistants. The spacious single-fronted shop occupies a commanding position in Sauchiehall Street, and is rendered still further conspicuous by reason of the grand display in its artistically dressed show window. Within, all the appointments of the place are in the best modern style, the shop being literally packed to repletion with all sizes, shapes, and styles of ladies’, gentlemen’s and children’s boots, shoes, and slippers, suitable for wear on all occasions, and the characteristic features of which are that they are all strongly and durably made from exclusively the best materials, are correct in style, elegant, and of faultless finish; while the prices are in all instances moderate, and the range of shapes and sizes stocked is so wide, that any normal foot can be perfectly fitted. Within the general shop, ample accommodation is afforded for the trying-on of gentlemen’s boots and shoes, this department being delegated to the manager; while the rear of the shop is partitioned off, and reserved as a trying-on room for ladies and children, where Mrs. Ross, the courteous proprietress, may be usually found to attend the wants of her lady patrons. The business is in a splendid condition of development and progressive prosperity, and is steadily and continuously advancing in prestige and position, under the influence of the ability and energy which mark the administration of all its affairs.

R. HASTIE & SON, GENERAL DRAPERS,
227, GAIRBRAID STREET, MARYHILL, GLASGOW.

THROUGHOUT the rapidly rising district of Mary hill, in suburban Glasgow, and for a distance of ten miles or so around, the department of business operations undertaken by the modern general draper finds able and adequate representation at the hands of the above noted firm. The undertaking was originally organised as far back as the year 1873, at Wyndford Street, Maryhill, by Mr. Robert Hastie, its present capable senior partner, who nowadays vigorously promotes the business by travelling for orders amongst his large country clientele. In 1890 Mr. Hastie was joined in partnership by his son, Mr. Robert H. Hastie junior, and commenced trading under the style and title designated above. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position, in one of the leading business thoroughfares of the town, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the beet modern style, and includes a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading manufacturers of the day, and is particularly rich in articles of standard worth and excellence and fashionable novelties. In addition to articles of every-day drapery, for both household use and personal wear, fancy drapery, gloves, corsets, hosiery, and underwear for ladies, children, and gentlemen; the firm make specialities of dress and mantle making, millinery, and ready-made as well as bespoke garments for gentlemen, youths, and boys; and their business, which entails the regular and full employment of a staff of four courteous and capable assistants, is conducted with the exemplary energy and ability that have been the foundation-stones of its past and present prosperity.

WILLIAM B. FINLAY, GROCER AND PROVISION MERCHANT,
639, POLLOKSHAWS ROAD; 3, ALLISON STREET, BOWMONT TERRACE, STRATHBUNGO, GLASGOW.

MR. William B. Finlay has achieved a notable success during the five years that he has been in business. The premises occupied consist of a handsome corner shop, elegantly fitted, and possessing two fine show windows to each of the two thoroughfares that bound the property, and on the corner there is an extra large and very attractive window, in which special samples of grocery and provision goods are displayed in the most tempting array. The speciality of the establishment is a fine blend of teas, to which Mr. Finlay devotes particular attention. A very large and comprehensive stock of groceries and provisions of the best quality is kept on hand, including the finest Belfast smoked hams, Ayrshire rolled hams, and fresh butter, a supply of which is received from the country every day, while tinned goods of all kinds, and large quantities of canned fruits are also supplied of superior brands. This spacious and lofty establishment has the advantage of being exceptionally well ventilated. Mr. Finlay is still a young man, imbued with great energy and charm of manner, and by his marked ability he has made his concern equal to the best city establishment in every respect, and the leading business of its class in this superior residential district. An extensive family trade is controlled, and a very large and influential connection is maintained in this rising and populous district of Glasgow.

JAMES THOMSON, PLUMBER, GASFITTER, AND ZINC WORKER,
15, CLYDE TERRACE, AND 17-AND-A-HALF, ADELPHI STREET, GLASGOW.

FOR eight years this business has been gradually progressing every year, until it is now deservedly regarded as a notable factor in the local trade. The premises occupied are ample in size and well adapted by convenience of arrangement for the nature of the business carried on. They comprise a large single-fronted shop, well fitted up and stocked with everything appertaining to the trade, together with a range of workshops and stores at the rear, while the premises at Adelphi Street consist of large double shop to front, with workshops and stores adjoining. The equipment of the work-shops has been carried out in a liberal and intelligent spirit, and a number of skilled men is kept employed in the various departments of the business. Every description of plumbing work is undertaken. The material used is of the very best quality, and the workmanship thoroughly sound and reliable. Mr. Thomson has made sanitation the subject of long practical study, and the methods he adopts for carrying out his scheme of perfect drainage and free ventilation have been spoken of in the highest terms by eminent architects and medical authorities. He gives his close personal attention to this part of his business in particular, always guaranteeing thorough satisfaction no less in charges than in the absolute efficiency of the work. Mr. Thomson makes inspection of old or new buildings, and reports upon their sanitary state, and generally follows the vocation of a sanitary engineer. Gasfitting receives every attention, and a well-selected stock of fittings, brackets, chandeliers, gasaliers, &c., in the latest styles and designs, is always kept on hand, as well as ample stores of lead in pipes and sheets, tubes of various kinds, bath fittings, hot and cold water fittings, zinc goods, and various plumbers’ requisites. Every facility is possessed for carrying out contracts, and many large and important ones have been placed in the firm's hands with the most satisfactory results. Mr. Thomson is held in much respect by a wide circle of friends and acquaintances for his marked ability, business rectitude, and personal worth.

WILLIAM THOMSON, FAMILY BUTCHER,
239, NORTH STREET, CHARING CROSS, GLASGOW.

THE purveying of fresh meat of exclusively the best quality, and in the finest condition, to supply the daily demands of a large and essentially superior class of trade, finds an able representative at the important district of Charing Cross, in the person of Mr. William Thomson, who formed the nucleus of his now prosperous business as far back as the year 1874. The records of the undertaking show that its commercial development has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement, and doubtless the most effectual way in which to indicate its true charactar, scope, and aims would be to give a concise descriptive sketch of the establishment as it now stands, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. The spacious double-fronted shop, with its steel and other hooks, and modern fitments, extends back to the very rear of the building, and is provided with a neat central office, altogether presenting a singularly clean, wholesome, and inviting appearance. Mr. Thomson always maintains a very large stock of first-class meat, such as picked home-fed beef and wether mutton, veal and lamb in season, rounds, corned beef and pickled tongues, &c., all in the very primest condition for immediate consumption. Order, system, and courtesy are salient characteristics of this carefully yet energetically conducted business, and the house stands high in the estimation of a very large and high-class family connection, by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always marked its business transactions.

ROBERT STRANG, FAMILY BAKER, RUSK AND BISCUIT MANUFACTURER,
10, CLAREMONT STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Robert Strang formed the nucleus of his now thriving business thirty years ago at the address still occupied. Eligibly located, in a conspicuous position, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its neat private room adjoining, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and always presents a particularly attractive appearance by reason of the abundant and varied stock there displayed. In his perfectly equipped hygienic bakehouse at the rear, Mr. Strang, himself a practical expert, is valuably assisted by a picked staff of skilled and experienced hands, and operates on a large scale, not only in the production of supplies for his shop, and large daily round of family customers throughout the district, but also undertakes the execution of special orders, such as for the making of rich marriage and christening cakes, which he is always prepared to artistically ornament according to any specified or suggested design. The business is, indeed, a conspicuous example of substantial success worthily achieved, and all its characteristics are these of a house whose nature has been influenced and whose methods have been formed by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of trade.

DANIEL MILLER, CARVER, GILDER, AND PRINTSELLER,
88, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

ESTABLISHED about forty years ago by Mr. James Miller, this excellent business was acquired in 1881 by the present proprietor, Mr. Daniel Miller, and under his able and vigorous direction it has made great advances since the latter date. Very suitable premises are occupied, and the handsome shop, with its well-dressed window, is always an attractive feature in this part of Sauchiehall Street. Mr. Miller holds a thoroughly representative stock of artistic wares, ranging from oil-paintings and water-colour drawings to the mouldings and other materials required in making frames for the same. Mr. Miller’s practical operations embrace not only the making of picture and mirror frames, the cleaning and re-gilding of the same, and the cutting of mounts, but also the mounting and varnishing of drawings, maps and plans, and the re-lining and restoring of paintings. All work in these different departments is executed with a degree of skill that speaks for the large experience and practical knowledge of Mr. Miller and his staff; and much valuable patronage is enjoyed. The workshops are situated in the basement of the premises, with finishing shop at the rear, and every facility exists for the prompt and satisfactory execution of orders. Mr. Miller personally superintends the entire business, and is well known as a thorough master of the interesting trade with which he has identified himself.

WILLIAM W. CALLANDER, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PRUITERER, FLORIST AND VEGETABLE MERCHANT,
511, NEW CITY ROAD, AND 2, SEAMORE STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. William W. Callander towards the end of 1892 acquired the thriving business, which had been organised eight years previously. Eligibly located in the commanding position at the corner of the New City Road and Seamore Street, the spacious four-windowed shop, replete with every modern facility and convenience for the rapid and effective transaction of business, always presents a singularly neat, clean, and attractive appearance, which tends very largely to enhance the inviting character of the abundant and varied stock of British and foreign fruit, fresh country vegetables and potatoes, and cut flowers of every kind in season, in addition to which a special variety of artificial wreaths is always kept in stock, while bouquets and wreaths of real flowers are skilfully made to order by clever floral artistes, to any specified or suggested design. Mr. Callander is also agent for Messrs. Cooper & Co.’s teas, “the best value ever offered to the public.” Order, system, and courtesy are characteristics of this carefully yet well conducted business; and the large and liberal local patronage accorded to the house is ample evidence of the fact that Mr. Callander’s efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

JOHN G. PHILLIPS & CO., PLUMBERS, GASFITTERS, AND SANITARY ENGINEERS,
184, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

THE admirably organised business which is conducted by Mr. John G. Phillips as a plumber, gasfitter, and sanitary engineer, calls for special notice in this place, as illustrating, in a very eminent degree, the practical application of mechanical and sanitary science in its most advanced modern developments, to the business of plumbing and domestic engineering. Much of the notable success which Mr. Phillips has recently achieved is the result of the assiduity shown by him in keeping himself absolutely au courant with the movements in the domain of applied science. This flourishing business was founded in 1853 by Messrs. Ingleton & Phillips, the junior partner being Mr. Robert Phillips. Their premises were originally in George Street; but the rapid growth of the volume of business impelled the firm to remove to more commodious quarters in Dundas Street. In 1882 still further extensions and alterations took place, and the business was finally transferred to the present premises, 184, Sauchiehall Street. In the meantime, important changes have taken place in the personnel of the firm. The present proprietor, Mr. J. G. Phillips, nephew of one of the founders, became a member of the firm in 1871, and was joined by Mr. Wallace as partner. They conjointly conducted the business with much success up to 1886, since which date, Mr. Wallace having retired, Mr. Phillips has been the sole proprietor, and the later important developments of the business are, therefore, to be credited to his enlightened enterprise. The premises occupy a central and commanding position, and comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication and all the other requisites for the prompt dispatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work, necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The telephone number is 348.

Adjoining is a handsomely fitted show-room, in which the specialities which have made the reputation of the house, as well as all descriptions of gas-fitting and sanitary appliances, are shown to advantage. To the rear is the spacious workshop, thoroughly equipped with all the appliances for facilitating plumbing and gas-fitting work. An efficient staff of highly skilled workmen is permanently employed, including several expert specialists in the several departments. Mr. Phillips himself has successfully made specialities of certain branches of the industry in which he is engaged. Thus, he has executed, to the full satisfaction of all concerned, many important contracts for the fitting-up of the bars of hotels, restaurants, and public houses. In this connection he has successfully placed on the market his very useful “Treble X cork extractor.” He is also the sole agent in Scotland for the “A 1 lemon squeezer.” The connection of the firm is very valuable and widespread, and includes a large export turnover.

The home business include the execution of every variety of plumbing, gas-fitting, zinc-working, dealing in lead, and fixing lavatories, baths, wash-hand stands, &c. Mr. Phillips, too, has recently made an important addition to his business by securing the special agency, in Glasgow, for the “Incandescent Gas Light Company, Limited,” whose specialities are rapidly coming into general use. It is claimed on behalf of the Company’s system that it saves half the gas bill, trebles the light, can be attached to existing gas fittings, supplies a clean, steady, and brilliant light; does away with the impurities of gas, and is pleasant, simple, and economical. Whilst Mr. Phillips is thoroughly devoted to the supervision of his extensive business, he has many qualities which have gained for him a large measure of personal popularity amongst influential social circles. He is a keen and skilful bowler, a generous patron of the fine arts, an enthusiastic Freemason, having been junior warden of the St. John’s Lodge, in which he also held the important position of treasurer; and is now a member of the Corporation of Masons, and a leading member of several of the best social clubs and friendly and charitable societies in Glasgow.

JAMES SMITH & CO., FANCY PAPER-BOX MANUFACTURERS,
183, INGRAM STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS old-established business was organised as far back as the year 1850, under the able auspices of its present talented and enterprising proprietor, Mr. James Smith, trading under the style and title above. Eligibly located on the third floor of the extensive block of buildings at 183, Ingram Street, in the very centre of the busiest mercantile quarter of the city, the premises occupied comprise a well-appointed office, replete with every modern facility and convenience for the rapid and effective transaction of business, and of a large and perfectly equipped workshop at the rear, fitted with a special cutting and scoring machine, and with all the latest appliances for the production of all manner of paper and cardboard boxes, in a great diversity of shapes and sizes, and more particularly destined for the reception of ladies’ and children’s costumes, lingerie, and babylinen. Under Mr. Smith’s vigorous and well-directed administration the business increases both rapidly and substantially, his influential connection extending mainly amongst wholesale drapers and warehousemen throughout the city. Mr. Smith’s resources and facilities are of a distinctly superior character, enabling him to offer many special advantages to his clients, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Personally Mr. Smith is well known and much esteemed in city trade circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man.

JOHN MCKINNON, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TEA MERCHANT, AND GROCER,
470, RUTHERGLEN ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. John McKinnon opened his already thriving business in the Rutherglen Road about three years ago. The premises occupied are precisely adapted to the requirements of a brisk and essentially superior family trade. They consist of a spacious three-windowed shop, at the corner of Pine Street and Rutherglen Road, handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, with a comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading manufacturers of the day, while all manner of everyday groceries and household sundries, together with British and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies, are exhaustively represented. Mr. McKinnon has gained a special reputation for the superiority of his teas, which, as an expert, he blends to suit the exact tastes of his numerous customers. He is also the accredited local agent for the celebrated pure cane sugars and syrups of “The Glebe” Sugar Refining Company of Greenock, of which he holds a goodly supply in constant stock. Order, system, courtesy, and prompt attention to the execution and delivery of all commands are salient features of this carefully yet energetically conducted business, and the large and liberal family and general patronage enjoyed by Mr. McKinnon is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

R. MORRISON JUNIOR, OIL AND COLOUR MERCHANT,
79, GREAT HAMILTON STREET, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 2,662.

TWELVE years ago Mr. R. Morrison junior began business as an oil and colour merchant. His original premises were in Bain Street, Calton, but, four years since, the rapid growth in the volume of his business induced a migration to the commodious premises which he now occupies. They comprise a spacious yard which has a commanding entrance from the thoroughfare. There is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, and at the rear of the yard is aa oil and colour store which occupies a large and substantial three-storied building. The interior space is ample enough to admit of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large stocks of oils and colours which are always held. Mr. Morrison has successfully made a speciality of supplying painters and others with boiled linseed and other oils, turpentines, and colours. With the leading manufacturers of these classes of goods, Mr. Morrison maintains such intimate and extensive relations that he is able to offer exceptionally advantageous terms to his wide and ever-enlarging circle of customers. He has an excellently organised system, of daily delivery to all parts of the city and its suburbs. Mr. Morrison is well known in the highest circles of the drysaltery trade, and is highly esteemed for the integrity and the spirit of liberality which mark all his transactions.

THOMAS WHITE, RESTAURATEUR, CONFECTIONER, BAKER, AND WINE MERCHANT,
7, GORDON STREET, GLASGOW.

THE founder of this noted establishment was a Mr. John Forrester, under whose name it was currently known until some four years ago, when the business was put upon the market, and Mr. White acquiring it altered the title to the one it now hears. The premises occupied are large and attractive. At the immediate front is a large luncheon bar, where all kinds of light refreshments suitable for luncheon, tea, or supper may he obtained. At the rear of this is a spacious dining-saloon, elegantly and luxuriously fitted up, and in every respect well worthy of the ancient and high-class reputation the house enjoys. Proceeding by a broad flight of steps to the left and passing a good-sized statue of Napoleon in his familiar attitude, the ladies' dining-room is reached. This is an exceedingly handsome room, and upholstered and decorated in a very becoming manner. The private dining-rooms are on the same floor, as well as a cosy smoking-room and a compact suite of offices. The kitchens and bakehouse are in the basement, and are equipped with the latest and most improved appliances for carrying on the business successfully. Mr. White is able to seat one hundred and twenty guests at once, and when it is known that every seat is daily occupied, some idea of the amount of business being done can be formed. The viands are of a high-class character, and are served by a numerous and well-trained band of waiters and waitresses. The cooks are thorough masters of their art. A speciality is made of contracting for the catering at banquets, marriage breakfasts, balls, and festive gatherings generally, and the admirable way in which this part of the business is done has secured for the proprietor a very valuable connection and a host of friends. Mr. White is also a baker and wine merchant, his stocks of wines and spirits comprising some of the finest ports, sherries, clarets and champagnes, together with brandies and whiskies from the most famous distilleries. The establishment throughout is admirably conducted with a perfect system of organisation, and although everything offered is of first-class quality, prices are always exceedingly moderate. The proprietor occupies a position of considerable prominence in the trade and is much respected for his many personal qualities. For the convenience of patrons residing at a distance, the house is in communication with the telegraphic and telephonic system of the city.
Telegraphic address, “Forecastle, Glasgow;” telephone No. 1,019.

JAMES FINDLATER, BOOT AND SHOE MAKER, DENNISTOUN BOOT AND SHOE WAREHOUSE,
374, DUKE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE records of this flourishing undertaking show that it was organised in the year 1882 under the style of Messrs. W. & J. Findlater, although Mr. James Findlater, now the sole proprietor of the concern, has in reality been always its active director. Eligibly located, the spacious double-fronted shop is divided by a neat partition into a show-room and a fitting-on department, with a well-equipped workshop at the rear. The show-room is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and holds a particularly select stock of ladies’, gentlemen's, and children’s ready-made boots, shoes, and slippers suitable for wear upon all occasions, and in a great diversity of styles, at prices to suit the pockets of all classes. In his bespoke department Mr. Findlater, himself an expert practical craftsman, is assisted by a staff of skilled and experienced hands, and every pair of boots, shoes, or slippers emanating from his workshops is endowed with a beauty and correctness of style, a perfection of fit, and a faultless finish that can only be imparted by a thorough master of the craft. Upon these recommendations, coupled with moderate prices and the prompt and punctual execution of all orders entrusted to his care, Mr. Findlater has won and retained a very large and valuable local and district patronage, which it is manifestly his resolution shall be steadily enhanced and developed in days to come.

MISS C. GIBBS, MILLINER,
51, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD, GLASGOW.

MISS Gibbs commenced business here in 1889, and during the ensuing time has succeeded in establishing her claim to be regarded as one of the leading local representatives of this difficult business. Handsome and commodious premises are occupied, having a full-sized window in which is made an attractive display of goods. The interior is pleasingly and tastefully fitted up as a show-room, having fine mirrors, stands, show-cases, and some richly upholstered furniture. At the rear are the workshops, well lighted and ventilated to accommodate a large staff. The goods shown are of first-class character and have been selected with great taste and a thorough knowledge of the latest styles in ladies' hats and bonnets, flowers, feathers, lace, ribbons, &c. Miss Gibbs makes periodical visits to London, Paris, and other centres of fashion, and keeps herself thoroughly au fait in all matters relating to the latest modes and styles. She selects the whole of the material herself, and maintains a close supervision of her workpeople, so that whether in regard to material, workmanship, or style, her productions will stand favourable comparison with those of the best-known and most pretentious establishments in the city. Miss Gibbs has succeeded in building up a high-class and substantial connection among the ladies of Glasgow and the district, and the steady increase in the patronage is an eminently satisfactory proof that her superior articles and stylish work are fully appreciated.

ST. GEORGE’S PRIVATE COMMERCIAL HOTEL (TEMPERANCE),
253, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.
Proprietress: Mrs. Haywood.

THIS establishment was formerly known as the St. George’s Club, and was the rendezvous of a select body of local gentlemen and commercial travellers. For twelve years it was under the management of Mrs. Parslow, whose name is still held in much respect by many frequenters of the house. The establishment has now been converted into an hotel, and, under the proprietorship of Mrs. Haywood, a notable and well-deserved success has been secured. The premises are centrally located, being equally convenient for the business man and for those visiting Glasgow “on pleasure bent,” to each of which it offers the best and most desirable accommodation. The rooms are spacious, well lighted, and well ventilated, while the appointments and decorations throughout have been carried out with much taste and a close regard to the comfort and convenience of guests. The private apartments are furnished in a very superior style, and their absolute privacy and quiet are much appreciated. The commercial-room is a marked feature of the house. The cuisine is exceedingly well ordered, while the cooking and serving leave nothing for the most fastidious of visitors to find fault with. The sleeping apartments are clean and comfortable, and the sanitary arrangements have been carried out by well-known experts. Every department is thoroughly well managed, and in very few other hotels will visitors to Glasgow find themselves better pleased with the tariff, the accommodation, and personal comfort than at the St. George’s Commercial Hotel. Mrs. Haywood has very little to learn in the difficult art of hotel management. She is unceasing in her endeavours to meet or anticipate the wants and wishes of her guests, and the manner in which she succeeds is shown by the increased popularity and prosperity of the establishment.

ALLAN F. BLUE, M.R.C.V.S., VETERINARY SURGEON,
81, PITT STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Blue commenced business in 1882, and being a man of ability and energy, he has succeeded in building up a practice that has few equals in the city, either in extent or influence. He has passed through all the necessary examinations with notable success, and is a fully diplomaed member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, whilst his general experience has been such as to eminently qualify him to successfully undertake any and every branch of his profession. The premises, which are capitally situated in a good business thoroughfare, comprise a compact surgery, admirably fitted up, and stocked with every requisite. There is also an extensive shoeing forge, where horses are shod on scientific principles, every precaution being taken to avoid causing any injury to the animals. Mr. Blue possesses every facility for keeping sick or injured horses and dogs on the premises, and the animals intrusted to him receive his constant and most careful attention. Mr. Blue’s practice is of a first-class character, extending among cab and car proprietors, horse breeders and dealers, and the leading gentry throughout Glasgow and for many miles round. He is indefatigable in his endeavours to give every satisfaction, and is recognised as a leading man in his profession. Mr. Blue is very popular among a wide circle of professional and private friends, and held in high regard for his strict business probity and sterling personal worth.

CRAWFORD & KERR, DYERS,
39, THISTLE STREET, S.S., GLASGOW.

THIS establishment is one of the oldest of the kind in Glasgow, and enjoys a reputation of an enviable and irreproachable character. The present firm came into possession of the business — which was originally established over a century ago - in 1887, and during their control they have fully maintained the ancient prestige of the house. The firm is mainly occupied in the dyeing of cotton yarns in all colours for the fancy goods manufacturers in Glasgow and the surrounding districts. The work turned out is regarded with much favour among the leading local establishments as being always of a superior and reliable character. Every inducement is offered to the trade in the shape of prompt execution of all orders of whatever magnitude, while the charges are always as low as any that can be obtained.

WILLIAM LOVE, PAINTER AND DECORATOR,
6, MAULDSLIE PLACE, DUMBARTON ROAD, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

MR. William Love established his business so recently as September, 1893, but he has every prospect of a notably successful career before him. The attractive appearance of his premises is in keeping with the high-class of the business which he controls. The contents of the show-window comprise a fine display of choice pictures and engravings, for Mr. Love is a skilful picture-cleaner and restorer, and deals largely in works of art. The interior takes the form of a handsomely appointed saloon, the mural decorations of which consist, also, of pictures and engravings. The numerous and elegant fittings are replete with wall-papers, and sample-books containing specimens of the latest and most attractive designs in these materials. Here, likewise, are numerous samples of Lincrusta Walton, and other sumptuous materials which Mr. Love uses in his more elaborate schemes of decoration. All the processes of carving and gilding are executed under the best possible conditions on the premises, and the visitor is invited to inspect a great variety of samples of picture-frames. Sample panels, too, form specimens of Mr. Love’s ability as a decorative painter. He is assisted by an efficient staff of highly-skilled workmen, and has every facility for the prompt and thoroughly satisfactory execution of all orders for house painting and decoration, as well as all other classes of work within the scope of his artistic and industrial business.

BIRREL BROTHERS, BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURERS,
88, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

OPERATIONS were originally commenced by this firm as far back as 1815, and during the whole of this time it has remained in the hands of the same family and for at least forty years has been known by its present title, Birrel Brothers. The sole proprietor at the present time is Mr. Peter Birrel, who, by his ability and energy, is fully upholding the standing and reputation which have belonged to the house for so many years. Extensive and commodious premises are occupied, capitally located in one of the leading thoroughfares. They comprise a spacious shop extending to a considerable depth to the rear, and having a large show-window which is always to be found filled with an exceedingly choice and well-arranged selection of goods. The interior is handsomely fitted up, and every accommodation is possessed for the large stocks held, as well as for the comfort and convenience of visitors. All the goods handled are of first-class make and quality, having been selected with care and knowledge from the productions of the most famous manufacturing houses in the United Kingdom. A leading line is made of hand-sewn Balmoral boots, and the large trade done in this special kind of footwear shows unmistakably that the public appreciate these very superior articles. The stocks include every description of boots and shoes for ladies and gentlemen, and youths and misses, all of whose requirements have been amply provided for, whether for indoor, outdoor, or evening wear, or for cricket, football, cycling, hunting, or fishing. The bespoke department is energetically managed, and every satisfaction is being given to a superior class of patrons. The best material procurable alone is used, and experienced workmen are employed, perfect fit, good style, and ease in wear being always guaranteed. Repairs of all kinds are taken in hand and promptly and satisfactorily executed. The connection is of a widespread and valuable character, the house being as well known in the suburbs as it is in the city. Mr. Birrel is a strictly honourable business man. He is very popular with the trade, and is held in much respect as a worthy representative of this important branch of business.

JAMES W. HUNTLY, TAILOR AND CLOTHIER,
93, DUMBARTON ROAD, GLASGOW.

GENTLEMEN’S tailoring in the highest phrases of its modern development finds an able representative and exponent at the west-end of the city of Glasgow, in the person of Mr. James W. Huntly, who organised his now prosperous business in St. Vincent Street some eight years ago. The expansion of his business westwards led Mr. Huntly last year to remove to his present more eligible quarters in the Dumbarton Road. The spacious single-fronted shop, with its neat fitting-room adjoining, is handsomely appointed throughout, and displays a thoroughly representative series of all the best and most fashionable tailoring fabrics and materials for the current season. In his well equipped workshop at the rear, Mr. Huntly, himself an expert practical tailor and cutter, is valuably assisted by a picked staff of skilled and experienced hands in the making to measure of gentlemen’s fashionable garments for all occasions, and every such garment emanating from his establishment is endowed with an individuality of style, a perfection of fit, and a faultless finish, that can only be imparted by a thorough master of the sartorial art. Upon these weighty recommendations, coupled with moderate charges, and the prompt and punctual execution of all orders entrusted to his care, Mr. Huntly has won the complete confidence and liberal support of a very large and influential west-end patronage, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.

JAMES BOWMAN, GENERAL DRAPER AND SILK MERCER, PARISIAN WAREHOUSE,
603, NEW CITY ROAD, AND 3 AND 5, HENDERSON STREET, GLASGOW.

THE records of this, the most popular drapery establishment of its kind in the neighbourhood of the New City Road, show that, organised in the year 1872 by a Mr. Walter D. Duncan, the business was acquired about four years ago by its present talented and enterprising proprietor, under whose vigorous regime the “Parisian Warehouse,” as it has appropriately been called, has developed into one of the most attractive emporiums in this busy part of Glasgow. Eligibly located in the commanding position at the corner of the New City Road and Henderson Street, the handsome magasin, with its magnificent array of twelve artistically dressed large show-windows, and well-equipped millinery workrooms on the floor above, is elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style. Everyday drapery goods of all descriptions for both household use and personal wear; dress materials in charming variety; the latest London and Paris fashions in millinery, mantles, and costumes; fancy drapery goods, hosiery, gloves, and corsets; ladies’ lingerie, baby linen, and children’s and gentlemen’s underwear and outfitting items generally, and the numerous sundries coming under the designations of small wares and haberdashery, are all en evidence at their best, while special attention is paid by expert modistes and couturieres to practical millinery. An aggregate staff of close upon thirty assistants, workers, and others find constant employment under the personal supervision of Mr. Bowman, and the house stands high in the estimation of a very large and desirable patronage, by reason of the sound methods which have always marked its business transactions.

JOHN LAUDER, SLATER, PLASTERER, AND CEMENT WORKER,
74, LANGLANDS ROAD, GOVAN.

MR. John Lauder, the founder and proprietor of this extensive business, established himself in his present premises in 1875. These premises consist of a large yard, at the entrance to which are situated the offices, and a number of sheds are erected upon the property for the storage of lime and plaster material. Mr. Lauder has a branch establishment at 14, Queen Street, and the store is located at 869, Govan Road. The principal feature of this business is the slating and plastering departments, in which the firm has a wide repute, but Mr. Lauder also deals largely in the manufacture of Granolithic steps for public institutions and private dwellings in all tints or colours required. Each step is warranted to sustain a strain of three hundred and fifty pounds to the square inch. A considerable amount of fire-proof buildings, which are also impervious to either cold or damp, is also done by this firm. A large number of hands are always employed under the able and practical management of Mr. Lauder, who personally superintends all departments of his business, and is thus able to guarantee the excellence and durability of all the work turned out by his men. He also makes a speciality of ornamental work which he executes with great skill and neatness, and his productions in this department never fail to give entire satisfaction.

F. FARRELLY, FAMILY GROCER AND PROVISION MERCHANT,
44 AND 46, ANDERSON STREET, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

MR. P. Farrelly organised his already thriving business early in the year 1893. Eligibly located, in the commanding position at the corner of Anderson Street and Wilson Street, the spacious three-windowed shop, with its neat horseshoe-shaped counter and handsome modern fitments, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and holds and effectively displays a comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been selected with the greatest discrimination from the best markets, both at home and abroad. All manner of everyday groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith; special lines in pure and choicely blended teas and coffees; British and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies of the highest order; and prime provisions of every kind, in the way of Belfast smoked hams and Ayrshire bacon, flour and meal, bread and biscuits, butter and cheese, lard, and the freshest of country eggs, are all fully represented at their best, and are all available at the lowest prices. Order, system, and courtesy are salient features of this carefully conducted business, and the large and liberal patronage already enjoyed by Mr. Farrelly is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

THOMAS SIMPSON, JOINER,
176, LANGSIDE ROAD, GOVANHILL, GLASGOW.

MR. Thomas Simpson organised his present thriving business in the year 1890. Eligibly located in the Langside Road, the premises are in every way well adapted to the requirements of the business, comprising a spacious yard, twenty-five feet by fifty feet in area, heavily stocked with all kinds of timber undergoing the process of weather seasoning, a neatly appointed office, and a fine two-storied workshop, fully equipped with all the tools and appliances incidental to the trade. Mr. Simpson, himself a recognised practical expert craftsman, employs a large staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen, in undertaking, by contract or otherwise, all manner of house repairs and general joinery work, and, to a less extent, cabinetmaking, and in each of these branches has won an unsurpassed renown for the reliability and high excellence of ail his work, the moderation of his charges, and the prompt and satisfactory manner in which he attends to all orders; and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in days to come.

JOHN WILSON, FAMILY BREAD AND BISCUIT BAKER AND CONFECTIONER,
148, DUKE STREET, AND 746, GALLOWGATE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE records of this representative bakery show, that after many years of successful trading, Mr. George McAllister was succeeded by Mr. John Wilson, at 148, Duke Street, some fourteen years ago. Under Mr. Wilson’s vigorous regime, the business expanded with such rapidity throughout Dennistown and the east end of the city generally, that about two years ago he found it expedient to acquire the business at 746, Gallowgate Street, which had been carried on for a period of over twenty years by a Mr. Archibald Chubb, for the special convenience of his numerous customers resident towards Parkhead. The headquarters occupy a commanding position at the corner of Duke Street and Barrack Street, and comprise a spacious double-fronted shop, and an elaborately equipped modern hygienic bakery at the rear. The shop is handsomely appointed throughout, and contains a varied stock of plain and fancy breads and biscuits, pastry, cakes and confectionery, the daily products of the bakehouse. Mr. Wilson, moreover, has won a widespread and well-merited renown for the high excellence and artistic beauty of his special wedding, birthday, and christening cakes, and his dexterity in covering dishes and the like. Under Mr. Wilson’s careful yet always energetic and enterprising administration, the house promises to continuously eclipse, its past successes in the prosperity of the future.

JOHN COCHRANE, CITY HAIR-DRESSING SALOONS,
66, GORDON STREET, GLASGOW.

THE nucleus of this prosperous business was formed by Mr. Cochrane a quarter of a century ago in Glassford Street, but the steadily increasing trade done there made it imperative for him to remove to his present eligible quarters, which he did some six years ago. The almost phenomenal success of this step placed him in the unique position of possessing the best-appointed saloons, and the greatest number of assistants of any similar establishment in the United Kingdom out of London. The premises are prominently situated opposite the principal entrance to the Central Railway station, and are in the form of an elegantly-appointed double-fronted emporium, augmented by luxuriously- fitted saloons for ladies’ and gentlemen’s hairdressing, which contain every modern appliance for hair-cutting, dressing, shampooing, &c. The spacious shop is artistically arranged to hold, and effectively display, an imposing and endless variety of choice perfumes and toilet requisites.

The ladies’ saloons are deserving of special mention, where everything calculated to secure the comfort and satisfaction of patrons is done. The assistants in this branch exhibit a high order of skill in the manipulation of hair. Conspicuous amongst the many pretty things to be seen in this department are the splendid specimens of ladies’ ornamental hair-work. These display all the newest styles of London and Parisian hair-dressing. There are switches, head-dresses, wigs, scalpettes — in fact, every imaginable artificial aid to the toilet, and all remarkable for delicacy of workmanship and beauty of finish. Among the toilet requisites, which include the hair-washes, restorers, &c., of all the most noted makers of the day, may be specially mentioned his own inventions, viz., Cochrane’s Eau de Quinine, for producing growth and preventing premature decay of the hair, and Botanic Extract, for softening, cleansing, and increasing the growth of the hair. This preparation is extensively used by all the court hairdressers; also Ameliorate Balsam, which Mr. Cochrane claims to be the most effectual hair-regenerator extant. Included with these are all kinds of specifics for the complexion, the teeth, the nails, &c. Besides all kinds of toilet-table sundries,

Mr. Cochrane makes a speciality of the Kropp real German hollow-ground razors, with others of the most approved Sheffield makers, all kinds of pen and pocket knives, manicure and chiropody knives, scissors, &c. It is Mr. Cochrane’s just boast that he employs the largest staff of first-class assistants in Scotland, who are not less esteemed for their skill than for their uniform courtesy and prompt; attention to patrons. The business is, indeed, a splendid example of progressive development, and under Mr. John Cochrane’s vigorous, yet always prudent, administration, the “City hairdressing saloons” promise to continuously eclipse their past successes.

JOHN WILSON, TEA MERCHANT AND GENERAL GROCER, 1 AND 3, HYDE PARK STREET;
TEA, WINE, AND SPIRIT MERCHANT, 94 AND 98, NORTH WOODSIDE ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. John Wilson’s record as a notably successful tea merchant and general grocer dates back to 1876, and during the period which has elapsed he has created a very valuable and widespread connection which is still rapidly growing. The commodious premises occupy a commanding corner position at the junction of Hyde Park Street and Stobcross Street, having a fine frontage to each of these thoroughfares. The roomy interior is elegantly appointed in keeping with the high class of the. business which Mr. Wilson controls, and contains a stock which enables him to supply the requirements of his customers under the best possible conditions. The handsome fittings are numerous, and are so conveniently disposed that they admit of the effective display of samples and of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large and varied assortments of goods which are always held. These include everything which could be looked for in the establishment of a grocer and Italian warehouseman of the highest rank in the trade. Mr. Wilson maintains a thorough technical knowledge of the business in which he is engaged, and his relations with the leading sources of supply for the several classes of goods in which he deals are so extensive and intimate that he is able to offer exceptionally favourable terms to his customers. He maintains a fully equipped-branch establishment at 94, North Woodside Road, where, in addition to his tea and grocery business, he holds a splendidly representative stock of wines and spirits. Mr. Wilson has a well-earned reputation as an expert judge both of teas and of Scotch whisky. In the former department he has had great experience in blending, and the stocks which he holds of the finest Indian, Ceylon, and Chinese varieties enable him to use his knowledge to the utmost advantage. He has successfully made a speciality of a splendid tea blend at Is. 10d., which gives universal satisfaction. For his special blend of fine old matured Highland whisky he has gained much more than a merely local reputation.

JOHN SANDERSON, HATTER, MILLINER, AND CHILDREN’S CLOTHIER,
ST. GEORGE’S CROSS, GLASGOW.

MR. Sanderson entered upon his present prosperous career in the year 1877, by commencing operations on a comparatively small scale at 168, New City Road. The business early showed extraordinary developing tendencies, which necessitated a removal, in 1892, to the present extensive premises, which consist of a spacious double-fronted corner shop, having an aggregate of no less than fourteen splendid show-windows, with entrances from St. George’s Cross and New City Road, and ample heavily-stocked basement stores. The shop is appropriately divided into a series of departments, in each of which an exhaustive stock of goods of standard worth and excellence, rich in fashionable novelties, is maintained; while everywhere there are evidences of the care and attention bestowed by the proprietor in arranging for the reception, prompt service, and general comfort and convenience of his numerous patrons. Gentlemen’s silk and felt hats, and all manner of cloth, tweed, and other caps, from the most noted makers of the day, together with fashionable hosiery, and men’s underwear and mercery of every description; gloves, shirts, umbrellas, cricket costumes, rugs, and outfitting items generally. The latest addition to his business is a department for the sale of boys’ and youths’ ready-made clothing. This department is under the supervision of a thoroughly qualified manager, and the goods are bought from the first houses in the trade. Boys’ and girls’ straw hats and children’s clothing of all kinds, and all the latest London and Paris fashion fancies in millinery and millinery materials and fancy articles of a kindred nature, are offered for sale at the very lowest prices. Every branch of the business receives the personal supervision of Mr. Sanderson, and is conducted with a careful competence, that is well calculated to enhance its high reputation, and to sustain it in the public favour it now so deservedly enjoys.

WILLIAM MAIN, FAMILY BAKER, PURVEYOR, PASTRY COOK AND CONFECTIONER,
201, CROWN STREET, GLASGOW.

THE department of business operations undertaken by the modern baker, finds an able representative and exponent at the City of Glasgow in the person of Mr. William Main, who organised his already prosperous business in Crown Street in the year 1891, and has succeeded in forming a very large and select local family connection by reason of the high excellence, purity, and reliability of all his productions. The spacious double-fronted shop is neatly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold, and effectively display, a particularly large and varied, yet select, stock of what is locally known as “bakers’ bread”; in addition to Mr. Main’s noted specialities in superior pastry, light refreshments, toothsome cakes and confectionery, and table delicacies of every kind, all of which are purveyed to order at the shortest notice and at strictly economic prices. The well-equipped bakery, with its two capacious ovens, is located in the basement, but not quite below the sale-shop; and it is reassuring to know that everything is here maintained in a state of scrupulous cleanliness and good order, thereby ensuring the production of articles of the first quality with that speed and economy characteristic of a thoroughly well-conducted business. The house, indeed, presents a perfect type of its class, and all its affairs are administered with due regard to the preservation of the high repute and standing which Mr. Main has so deservedly won.

COLIN TURNER, PLUMBER,
54, WEST REGENT LANE, AND 130, BYARS ROAD, GLASGOW.

OPERATIONS were commenced in the above business as long as half-a-century ago in West Regent Lane, under the designation of Messrs. J. and G. Haddow, who succeeded in establishing the concern on a broad and secure basis. Twenty-five years ago the present sole proprietor, Mr. Colin Turner, succeeded to the business, and the house has ever since borne the title it now bears. The premises at 130, Byars Road have been occupied for the past nine years. They are capitally well situated, and consist of large double-fronted premises, comprising a well-appointed office in front, together with show-room replete with all the latest improved sanitary appliances. At the back are several workshops, in which a complete staff of operatives is employed under experienced supervision. The firm have also offices and workshops of a similar kind at 54, West Regent Lane. Mr. Colin Turner is taking in hand every kind of plumbing work, and in each branch is giving unqualified satisfaction, but his special line of business is sanitary plumbing. The system he adopts is one that recommends itself to sanitary engineers and specialists, while the material used is of the best and soundest character, and the workmanship well finished throughout. Gasfitting, bellhanging, and other similar kinds of work receive careful attention at the hands of Mr. Turner, and in every case thorough satisfaction is guaranteed. The stocks held are very large and have been carefully selected from the best makers in their respective lines. They include improved baths, water-closets, lavatories, basins, hot and cold water fittings, chandeliers, brackets, and every description of gas-fittings, lead in bars, sheet and pipes, brass and copper tubing, and every kind of plumbers’ requisites. The connection established extends to every part of Glasgow, and for many miles in the surrounding districts among house factors, property owners, and builders and contractors. The proprietor is a man of much ability and skill, and is highly regarded in trading circles for his commercial integrity and his many personal qualities.

ROBERT RICHARDSON, PAINTER, PAPER-HANGER, DECORATOR, &C.
26, GARDNER STREET, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

ELIGIBLY located in a conspicuous position in Craignethan Place, at the corner of Gardner Street and. Muirpark Street, the spacious shop, with, its ample storage accommodation, is admirably appointed, throughout in the best modern style to hold, and to effectively display, a thoroughly representative stock of goods, composed of all manner of painters’ and decorators’ requisites and materials; a complete series of all the most fashionable English and foreign paperhangings, from the cheapest and plainest to the most costly and recherche varieties; Lincrusta Walton, Japanese leather papers, Tynecastle tapestries, and other aesthetic decorations; and the numerous other items and sundries incidental to the trade. In his executive department, Mr. Richardson retains the services of a picked staff of expert artisans, in constant readiness to proceed to any part of the town or country for the purpose of executing work, and his house already stands high in the estimation of a large circle of local builders, estate-agents, householders, and property owners, as much by reason of the high excellence and reliability of his work, as for the moderation of his charges, and the sound methods and honourable principles which always characterise his business transactions.

JOHN GARDNER, FAMILY AND SHIPPING BUTCHER,
386, DUMBARTON ROAD, PARTICK, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 2,081.

THE purveying of fresh meat of exclusively the best quality to supply the demands of a large and old-established family and shipping connection in the important suburban district of Partick, finds an able representative and exponent in the person of Mr. John Gardner, who formed the nucleus of this prosperous business as far back as forty-five years ago. In the year 1858, the present double-fronted shop in Hamilton Place, Dumbarton Road, was removed into by Mr. Gardner, and stands to-day as one of the most attractive of its kind in the neighbourhood, by reason of its superior sanitary appointments and modern fitments, which further tend largely to enhance the inviting character of the abundant stock of fresh meat always there maintained. He is in one of the best positions to supply the wants of private families and hotels in the West of Scotland; Partick having stations on the West Highland and Dumbartonshire Railways which run direct to the coast. It will thus be seen that Mr. Gardner’s facilities and resources are indeed of a distinctly superior character, enabling him to offer many special advantages to - regular customers, ships in harbour, and other large buyers, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner.

DALLAS & COMPANY, CASH DRAPERS, MILLINERS, MANTLE AND DRESSMAKERS, &c.,
MILTON HOUSE, 166 TO 170, COWCADDENS STREET, GLASGOW.

BY far the largest and most imposing outfitting and drapery establishment in the northern district of the city is that of Messrs. Dallas & Company, Milton House, which, during the greater part of the twenty-nine years which have elapsed since it was founded, has justly formed one of the most popular business establishments in the neighbourhood. The premises occupied comprise an extensive block of buildings, the whole of which is utilised by the firm, and the elevation of which shows four storeys. The ground floorage extends back to the adjoining street, and may be stated to be one of the largest in the city. This building, the predecessor of which was entirely destroyed by fire about four years ago, is in all respects new. The entrance to the warehouse is by a grand double doorway, on either side of which are exceptionally ample show-windows, which, with their constantly varying and tastefully-arranged assortments of beautiful novelties in all sorts of textile fabrics, constitute points of never-failing popular attraction to ladies. The interior is throughout elegantly appointed, and the space is most conveniently arranged for purposes of light and ventilation in gallery form, with a broad staircase leading from floor to floor. While all descriptions of drapery goods for household and personal use will be found here in the utmost variety, judging from the generally crowded state of the various departments, at prices which commend themselves to the general public, the firm have a specially high reputation as milliners, mantle and dressmakers, and also for the complete equipment of their tailoring department. They have likewise, with much well-deserved success, devoted particular attention to their outfitting department for shopkeepers, including the classes of jackets and aprons which, in their business, are generally used by grocers, butchers, painters, plasterers, and engineers. From the magnitude of Messrs. Dallas & Company’s operations in the best markets, and their business being conducted on cash principles, their customers should have every confidence of being well and favourably provided for.

MARSHALL & MILLER, GLASS MERCHANTS AND GLAZIERS,
591, GALLOWGATE, GLASGOW.
Telephone, No. 4518.

THE above undertaking was organised many years ago under the conjoint auspices of Mr. William Marshall and Mr. Thomas Miller, who still continue to vigorously promote the concern with marked success. Eligibly located in a commanding position in the busy Gallowgate, the spacious single-fronted shop, with large show-room at the back, seventy feet by fifty feet, and glaziers’ work-tables, is substantially fitted and appointed throughout to hold a vast stock of polished plate-glass for shop windows, ordinary plain and coloured window glass, sheet, rough and rolled, cathedral and aesthetic glass of every kind for the making of artistic lead-lights, &c., and all manner of tools, materials, and requisites for the practical glazier. The firm, moreover, undertake, by contract or otherwise, general glazier’s work in all its branches, their facilities and resources being such as to enable them to offer many special advantages to their clients in both the city and country, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. The firm are contractors for the Glasgow School Board, the Scottish Wholesale Co-operative Society, and the Glasgow Corporation. Personally both partners are well known and much esteemed in trade circles, as enterprising and thoroughly capable business men, and well deserving of the substantial success they are achieving.

T. AND R. POLLOCK, GROCERS AND PROVISION MERCHANTS,
90, OLD DUMBARTON ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE records of the above undertaking show that, organised some six years ago by a Mr. Hutton, the business was acquired in 1889 by its present enterprising proprietors. Eligibly located in the commanding position at the corner of the Old Dumbarton Road and Regent Murray Street, the spacious shop, with its array of five large and tastefully dressed windows and ample storage accommodation at the rear, is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and sound judgment from the best markets and leading sources of supply, both at home and abroad. All manner of everyday groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith; special lines in pure and choicely blended teas and coffees; British and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies of the highest order, and prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and bacon, meal and flour, bread, biscuits and cakes, dried and cured fish, butter and cheese, lard, and the freshest of country eggs, are all fully represented at their best, and are all offered for sale at the very lowest prices consistent with equitable trading. Order, system; and courtesy are salient characteristics of this carefully conducted business, and under Messrs. Pollock’s vigorous, yet always prudent policy of administration, the house promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the bright prospect of still better times to come.

WILLIAM ELLIS, BOOT AND SHOE MERCHANT,
87, CANNING STREET, GLASGOW.

THE records of the above house show that it was organised eleven years ago in Argyle Street, under the able auspices of its present enterprising proprietor, but having speedily outgrown its original accommodation, was transferred, after the lapse of a year, to its present more eligible quarters. Occupying a commanding position in Canning Street, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its capital fitting-room and well-equipped workshop at the rear, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a vast stock of ladies’, gentlemen’s, boys’, girls’, and workmen’s ready-made boots and shoes in a great diversity of styles, shapes, and sizes, and at prices to suit the pockets of all classes of customers, special lines being maintained of fine and medium boots and shoes more particularly. In all cases only the best materials are used for boots and shoes made to measure, and these are turned out in a state of perfection in every essential characteristic of style, fit, and finish. Mr. Ellis’s trade is a very large and still rapidly increasing local one, his support being mainly drawn from families resident in the neighbourhood, and his whole business is conducted in a manner which promises a steady continuance of this satisfactory condition of affairs.

A. MCNAUGHTAN, BOWLING-GREEN BOWL AND GENERAL TURNER,
38, THISTLE STREET, S.S., GLASGOW.

THIS business was founded just one hundred years ago, and during the whole of this time the business has remained in the hands of the same family. The present proprietor came into possession in 1885, succeeding his father, Mr. Neil McNaughtan. The premises occupied originally formed part of the old Gorbals of Glasgow, and are now in many respects admirably well suited to the purpose to which they are employed. They consist of a two-story block of buildings, the ground floor being fitted up with five modern turning-lathes and hand and circular saws, together with boring machines, while the upper floor is utilised chiefly for fret-saw work and polishing. A competent staff of skilled workmen is kept employed, and in every part a thorough system of discipline is maintained, every department being kept in a perfectly efficient state. The work turned out here is well known in every part of Scotland, and is regarded as being equal, if not superior, to anything of the kind offered to the trade. The woods used are selected with the greatest care, being in many cases imported direct, so as to secure the finest growths. They are thoroughly well-seasoned and prepared before being used, and the articles, when completed, in durability, handsomeness of appearance and sound workmanship, are unsurpassed. The firm is chiefly employed in the manufacture of bowls of all kinds for playing, constables’ batons, Indian clubs, beer-pump handles, plumbers’ mallets, and similar class of general turnery. Another important item with the house of late years has been electric switch blocks. These are being manufactured for some of the leading firms in the kingdom. The connection enjoyed by this time-honoured house extends to every part of the kingdom, and under the vigorous control of the present worthy proprietor, its annual increase is a matter about which there can be no doubt.

ROBERT W. POE, LETTERPRESS AND LITHOGRAPHIC PRINTER,
14, WEST NILE STREET, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 4,378.

LETTERPRESS printing in the highest phases of its modern development finds no abler representative and exponent in the city of Glasgow than Mr. Robert W. Poe, who inaugurated the prosperous business, over which he still vigorously presides, in the year 1880. The premises occupied are in every point of character and situation precisely adapted to the requirements of the brisk local and city trade, which has been exclusively cultivated. They comprise a suite of well-appointed offices, equipped, with a splendid plant of modern printing machines and appliances, which call into active requisition the services of a goodly staff of skilled printing hands. Mr. Poe undertakes all manner of artistic commercial and general letterpress and lithographic printing, which he invariably turns out with great accuracy and neatness, and he has especially won a widespread and well-merited renown amongst insurance companies, accountants, lawyers, and other professional customers, for his courtesy and attention, and especially for the promptitude with which he meets their demands, as well as for the beauty and originality of his designs for all kinds of general mercantile stationery. As a printing contractor he has done good work for the different parochial boards in the city, and does all the official printing for the executive council of the British Order of Ancient Free Gardeners. Orders are never undertaken by Mr. Poe which he is unable to execute, and his motto is “Never to Disappoint.” This is a point which other tradesmen besides printers would do well to imitate. The business is in a splendid condition of progressive development, and under Mr. Poe’s vigorous yet always prudent administration the house promises to eclipse its past successes in the prosperity of the future.

ROBERT PRENTICE, TEA MERCHANT, INDIAN AND CEYLON TEA MART,
95, MAIN STREET, POLLOKSHAWS, GLASGOW.

THE special department of business operations undertaken by the modern expert and dealer in teas finds an able representative and exponent at the rapidly rising suburban district of Pollokshaws in the person of Mr. Robert Prentice, who organised his present thriving business but three years ago at 91, Main Street. Occupying a prominent position in that busy thoroughfare, the spacious shop, with its ample storage accommodation at the rear and every modern facility, is handsomely appointed throughout, and always presents a singularly striking appearance. Mr. Prentice confines his attention to the sale of pure and choicely blended teas, especially of Indian and Ceylon growths, his specialities, for which he has won a widespread and well-merited renown, being finest pure Darjeeling tea at 2s. 4d. per pound; finest Ceylon tea at 2s. 4d. per pound; special Ceylon and Assam blend at 2s. per pound; pure broken Ceylon tea at 1s. 8d. per pound; Indian and Ceylon blend (special) at 1s. 6d. per pound; and pure broken Assam tea at 1s. 4d. per pound; all of these goods being unequalled at their prices, and accordingly being in constant demand. Mr. Prentice has lately added to his specialities that of confections, plain and fancy, and tinned meats, tongues, fruits, spices, &c. From what has been noted it will be readily gathered that Mr. Prentice’s resources and facilities are indeed of a superior character, enabling him to offer many special advantages to regular customers and large buyers, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Personally Mr. Prentice is well known in local, social, and trade circles, and is much esteemed as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man, liberal and fair in all transactions, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

DANIEL ALEXANDER, ACCOUNTANT AND AUDITOR (FACULTY BUILDINGS),
82, WEST NILE STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS business is now firmly established at the above address, the premises occupied comprising a handsome suite of well appointed offices, public and private, all adequately fitted up and suitably appropriate for the nature of the business transacted therein. Mr. Alexander has been elected to the important office of Treasurer of the Glasgow North Eastern Division of Grocers’ and Provision Merchants’ Association. He was till lately Organising Secretary to the Glasgow South Suburban Temperance Six Hundred, the object of this society being to secure the promotion of the temperance interests in relation to social school board, parochial board, county council, municipal, and parliamentary elections, and at licensing courts. This appointment he had to give up owing to pressure of business. Mr. Alexander has also a most extensive connection among numerous public companies as well as private firms, and he has received a most flattering testimonial from James Bell, Esq., the present Lord Provost of Glasgow, for his sound judgment and exceptional efficiency in auditing and as a property agent. Mr. Alexander has had the advantage of both legal and accountancy training, and during the past few years has built up a splendid business, which is rapidly developing. In all his varied appointments he has gained a very great reputation for his energy and systematic method of carrying out the business incidental to his position, and by his estimable personal qualities and sound business principles, has won golden opinions from all sorts of people in and out of Glasgow. The success he has achieved is thoroughly well deserved, and is the practical outcome of the high favour and unreserved confidence in which he is held by the wide and influential circle of patrons who give him their continued support.

J. & R. ANDERSON, PAINTERS AND DECORATORS,
76, BATH STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS essentially high-class business was established in 1869. The sole proprietor is now Mr. R. Anderson, to whose thorough technical knowledge of the trade the notable success of the firm and its present position are due. The Messrs. Anderson began their operations at 102, West Regent Street, and afterwards removed to 217, Hope Street, where they remained for a series of years. Four years since, however, the rapid growth in the firm’s volume of business induced a removal to their present commodious quarters in Bath Street. These comprise a spacious double-fronted shop and show-room which externally and internally are in keeping with the excellence of the decorative work which the firm are in the habit of executing. Here is a well-appointed office, which is furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of business. The telephone number is 3,845.

The show-room is very commodious, running to the rear for a considerable distance. Messrs. J. & R. Anderson always exhibit a large and varied stock of British and foreign manufactured decorative appliances, including rich foreign borders and dados, with fine art hangings of the most sumptuous description. Fresco painting, graining, marbling, and gilding are specialities for the execution of which the firm have earned a high reputation. To the rear of the show-room are extensive workshops, where a large staff of skilled workmen are permanently employed. The firm maintain a thoroughly equipped branch establishment at 3a, Albert Road, Crosshill, where a similarly high-class business is conducted. Mr. Anderson’s strong faculty of organisation and administration enables him not only to supervise all the details of his own business, but to render much excellent service to the public of Glasgow as an active member of the City Corporation.

J. SCHUH & CO. (LATE IMPERIAL FUR HOUSE), MANUFACTURING FURRIERS,
110, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD, GLASGOW.

ESTABLISHED some five years ago, and originally known as the Imperial Fur House, the business from its initiation has been spiritedly and energetically conducted. The present sole proprietor, Mr. J. Schuh, trading under the above title, has had possession of the business for the last two years, and being a man of thoroughly sound business principles, and intimately acquainted with every detail of his own special calling, he has succeeded during the time he has been at the helm, in adding materially to the extent of the business done. The premises occupied comprise a fine double-fronted shop with large capacious windows which are successfully utilised to display a choice selection of the unique and high-class goods the house is occupied with. The interior contains everything requisite for the proper accommodation of the goods and the comfort of visitors, while the workshops are replete with all the most desirable appliances for carrying on the manufacture. A force of skilled hands is employed, the whole process of manufacturing being conducted on the premises, from the dressing of the raw skins to the completion of most exquisitely finished garments. The stocks on hand include jackets, mantles, capes, boas, collars, muffs, &c., in seal, bear, wolf, fox, and other skins. Mr. Schuh buys at first-hand in very large quantities, and is therefore in a position to quote such prices as cannot be met with elsewhere. The firm are also fur dyers, cleaners and dressers, and special attention is bestowed upon every class of repairs. The connection of the establishment is one of large extent and value, and being founded on the sure basis of first-class quality, style, and reasonable prices, its continuance and further extension can be confidently looked forward to. The proprietor is reaping the just reward of his strictly honourable methods of doing business, his well-directed enterprise, and the unfailing courtesy and consideration which he bestows upon all classes of customers alike.

J. GILMOUR AYTON, BISCUIT AND PASTRY BAKER,
138-and-a-half, DUKE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE records of this undertaking show that it was organised as far back as a quarter of a century ago, and, having passed through many mutations so far as its proprietary is concerned, was eventually acquired by its present able and enterprisng proprietor, Mr. J. Gilmour Ayton. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in Duke Street, the spacious single-fronted shop, with its neat luncheon-room at the rear, always presents a particularly clean and attractive appearance by reason of the abundant stock always there en Evidence, in the way of fancy breads and biscuits in variety, toothsome pastry, cakes, and confectionery, hot pies, creams, jellies, and other tempting table delicacies. In his perfectly equipped hygienic bakehouse adjoining, Mr. Ayton, with a picked staff of experts, operates on a large scale in the production of bread and biscuits, pastry, cakes, &c., for the daily supply of his numerous customers, and has, moreover, won a widespread and well-merited renown as a coverer of dishes, and a maker of plain and artistically ornamented wedding, christening, and birthday cakes to order. Mr. Ayton was awarded a Diploma of Merit for a model in sugar of the steamship ‘City of Rome,’ at the Glasgow East-end Industrial Exhibition, in 1891; and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has gained shall not only be well sustained, but steadily Enhanced in time to come.

ALEXANDER MACINTYRE, PASTRY BAKER AND RESTAURATEUR,
690, NEW CITY ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE dual department of business operation, undertaken by the modern high-class pastry baker, restaurateur, and refreshment caterer, to meet the demands of a very large connection which extends to all parts of the north-western districts of the city of Glasgow, finds an able representative and exponent in the person of Mr. Alexander Macintyre, who organised his present prosperous business in the New City Road, in the beginning of 1891. Eligibly located in a commanding position in that busy thoroughfare, the spacious single-fronted shop, with its fine gas stove, and restaurant-rooms at the rear, is very handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is always rendered exceptionally attractive by reason of the choice selection of plain and fancy breads and biscuits, toothsome pastry, cakes, and confectionery, and table delicacies there invitingly arranged. In his perfectly equipped hygienic bakehouse and kitchen adjoining, Mr. Macintyre, with a picked staff of skilled and experienced hands, operates on a large scale, not only in the production of stock for the supply of his shop and large local round of regular customers, but also undertakes special orders for the making and artistic ornamentation of marriage, birthday, and christening cakes, pastries, and the like, whilst he has also won a widespread and well-merited renown as a purveyor of marriage luncheons, ball suppers, soirees, picnic parties, and other festive functions. Order, system, and courtesy are salient features of this carefully conducted business, and it is manifestly Mr. Macintyre’s resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.

JOPP & MACLEAN, GENTLEMEN’S HAT WAREHOUSE,
51, BUCHANAN STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS admirably organised business was founded in 1877 at 24, Buchanan Street, and the thorough technical knowledge of the business possessed by both the members of the firm soon enabled them to create a most valuable and select connection. Five years ago the premises of the firm, at the above-mentioned address, were completely destroyed in the great fire which reduced the whole block of buildings to ashes. It was characteristic of the prompt action of Messrs. Jopp & Maclean that before the fire was well extinguished they had secured their present commodious premises, which are nearly opposite their former quarters. At the end of 1892 Mr. Maclean retired from the business, of which the sole proprietor has since been Mr. Peter A. Jopp. The firm now occupy the ground floor of the extensive block, which is numbered 51, Buchanan Street. It forms an admirably proportioned warehouse and show-room of about one hundred and twenty feet square, and is exceptionally well lit from the roof and the rear, as well as from the front. There is an additional entrance by 46, Mitchell Street. The interior is elegantly appointed, and the numerous and handsome fittings admit of the effective display of the large and varied stocks of hats which are always held, affording a practically unlimited choice to purchasers. Messrs. Jopp & Maclean have gained a specially high reputation for their felt hats, but their silk hats and caps of all descriptions are equally well finished. There is likewise a most comprehensive assortment of elegant walking-sticks, and of the best classes of umbrellas and travelling-bags. The firm maintain most intimate and extensive relations with the most eminent manufacturers of the goods in which they deal, while their purchases are made on a scale of such magnitude that they are able to offer exceptionally favourable terms to their customers, who are resident, not only in all parts of Glasgow, but all throughout the West of Scotland. Mr. Jopp, by his genial courtesy and the pains which he takes to meet the special requirements of customers, has achieved a large measure of popularity.

JOHN MCARTHUR, GOLDSMITH AND WATCHMAKER,
4, ARGYLE ARCADE, GLASGOW.

AMONG the attractive features of the Argyle Arcade must be included the tasteful establishment of Mr. John M?crthur, who here carries on a high-class goldsmith’s and watchmaker’s business, which he founded in the year 1877. This well-appointed shop in the Arcade displays a most varied and interesting stock of gold and silver watches, chains, rings, and all manner of elegant gold and gem jewellery, of exquisite design and workmanship. Scotch pebble jewellery is a speciality, and there is a very choice assortment of these interesting national goods, suitable for souvenirs as well as for ornament. Mr. McArthur keeps a wide range of useful and elegant articles suitable for presents, and in particular his stock of electro-plate and silver-plate is Very complete and noteworthy, embracing the newest and handsomest designs. As a diamond merchant also, Mr. McArthur does an important trade. Having an intimate connection with the London diamond market he is in a position to submit on the shortest notice (in addition to stock) diamond goods of the highest class, including the most choice unset gems, for selection. Another speciality of this house is the mounting of hair work, which is very tastefully and artistically performed. Electro-plating and gilding are done on the premises, and first-class workmanship is guaranteed in all departments of the trade, at strictly moderate charges. Mr. McArthur is a thoroughly practical goldsmith, jeweller, and watchmaker, and his careful personal administration of this well-organised business meets with the approval of a large and representative clientele.

THOMAS MARSHALL, CLOTHIER AND OUTFITTER,
29, RENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW.

MAINTAINING an eminent reputation in all the higher branches of ladies’ and gentlemen’s tailoring, and illustrating the best modern achievement of the art he so thoroughly exemplifies, Mr. Thomas Marshall commenced his present career of prosperous work in the year 1880 at Glasford Street. Having outgrown his accommodation he removed in 1888 to his present more convenient and commodious quarters in Renfield Street, where he occupies a spacious single-fronted shop with neat fitting-on and cutting rooms attached, while his large and well-equipped workrooms are located in Drury Street. The shop in Renfield Street is handsomely appointed throughout, and is arranged to held and display a complete and comprehensive stock of all the best and most fashionable tailoring fabrics and materials, all of which are open to the closest inspection. Gentlemen’s fashionable attire for all occasions, together with riding and hunting outfits, ladies’ riding habits, breeches, and jackets, naval and military uniforms, clerical garb, and servants’ liveries, are all included in Mr. Marshall’s everyday productions, and every garment emanating from this establishment is endowed with an individuality of style, a perfection of fit, and a faultless finish that can only be imparted by a thorough master of the sartorial art. Moderate charges and punctuality in the execution of all orders are salient features of the business, and it is a true criterion of, and tribute to, Mr. Marshall’s capabilities that not only are patrons invariably satisfied with the results of his efforts, but that his large, yet select, town and country clientele has been mainly called together through the agency of personal recommendations.

THE WEST-END TEMPERANCE HOTEL,
865, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.
PROPRIETRESS: MRS. A. SMITH.

WHEN Mrs. A. Smith, in 1870, opened the admirably-conducted West-End Temperance Hotel, of which she is still the proprietress, she was fortunate in being able to secure for her enterprise premises situated centrally and in a commanding position. Near to Charing Cross, close to the public parks, central to rail and steamer, with frequent tram-cars passing the door, the West-End Temperance Hotel forms an ideal residence for visitors. The interior of the house, which is conducted on the principle of a semi-private and strictly temperance hotel, lends itself most hospitably in all its arrangements to the comfortable entertainment of these different classes of visitors. Its coffee-room, commercial-room, and other general apartments are all handsomely furnished with a degree of comfort which represents the best kind of luxury. There are, too, twenty-five well-ventilated bedrooms, including conveniently situated bed and sitting-rooms en suite. The cuisine is always wholesome and appetising, and the attendance prompt and courteous, while the charges are remarkably moderate. Mrs. Smith is popular amongst a large and ever-increasing circle of visitors, who fully appreciate the efforts which she successfully puts forth to promote their convenience.

JAMES BARKER, DRAPER, &c., THE PEOPLE’S WAREHOUSE,
91, GARSCUBE ROAD, GLASGOW.

OCCUPYING a commanding position at the corner of the Garscube Road and Burnside Street, this spacious emporium is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically divided into a series of departments, in each of which a thoroughly representative stock of goods is displayed to the best advantage. In each instance the goods held have been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading makers of the day, and are offered for sale at the lowest prices. In this way, general drapery and piece cloth goods, millinery, ready-made stylish clothing, bedding, &c., and furniture are exhaustively dealt with, while everywhere there are evidences of the care and attention bestowed by the proprietor in arranging for the reception, prompt and courteous service, and general comfort and convenience of his numerous customers. Mr. Barker has especially endeavoured to cater for the exact needs and requirements of a brisk medium-class trade, and the large and liberal patronage that has already been accorded to his house proves that he has filled a long-felt void in the neighbourhood, and has manifestly come “to stay.”

JAMES MICHIE, UMBRELLA-MAKER, &c.,
166, NORTH STREET, CHARING CROSS, GLASGOW.

MR. James Michie formed the nucleus of his now prosperous business as far back as the year 1862, and the records of the undertaking show that its commercial development has been both rapid and continuous. Admirably located in a commanding position in proximity to the Charing Cross Railway Station, the spacious single-fronted shop is neatly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and holds a particularly select yet varied stock of goods, composed of walking sticks, umbrellas, parasols, &c., of the latest London patterns, specialities being made of Dagmar, Queen’s, unions, natural silks and dyed wool umbrellas, together with hand-bags. All these goods have manifestly been selected with great care and judgment from the best manufacturers of the day, and are offered for sale at the lowest prices. In his well-equipped workshop at the rear Mr. Michie undertakes the repairing and recovering of umbrellas, &c., with economy, efficiency, and dispatch, and the large and liberal city and country patronage which he enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

MISS ELIZA BAXTER, THE GLOVE SALON AND MANICURE COURT,
273, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

TOWARDS the end of the year 1893 a novel and most welcome addition was made to the commercial resources of the west end of Glasgow by the opening of the Glove Salon and Manicure Court, the enterprising proprietress of which is Miss Eliza Baxter. To her important undertaking Miss Baxter has brought an ample fund of practical knowledge and experience, having filled the responsible position of glove buyer with Messrs. Copland & Lye, of Caledonian House. Miss. Baxter, moreover, is a lady who has distinctly original ideas as to commercial methods, and she is carrying out these ideas in such an attractive manner that her success is already assured. The premises occupied are double fronted, and the exterior is unobtrusively and tastefully elegant, in harmonious keeping with the high class of the business which Miss Baxter has established. The spacious interior is elegantly appointed, a profusion of stained glass work and other decorative materials having been utilised with the most artistic results, in accordance with a complete scheme designed by the proprietress. The premises are lit throughout by electricity. The numerous handsome and conveniently disposed fittings admit of the effective display and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large and sumptuous stocks which are held in the several departments. These stocks include general hosiery, linen and silk handkerchiefs, aprons, blouses, frillings, cuffs, collars, perfumes, &c., while a splendidly representative stock of fans forms a most interesting speciality. Naturally, however, the most prominent feature of the business is the fully comprehensive stock of gloves of all descriptions for ladies and gentlemen. In the selection of these goods Miss Baxter is an acknowledged expert, and her customers have all the advantage of her special skill and knowledge of the markets, both at home and abroad. With all the best sources of supply, indeed, for the various descriptions of goods in which she deals, Miss Baxter has established most intimate and extensive relations, having, in some instances, arrangements with manufacturers for the supply of specialities. She is thus able to offer to her customers exceptional advantages, both in reference to the submission of new designs and novel fabrics. In a most tastefully “got-up” little brochure, Miss Baxter sets forth the duty and necessity of caring for the appearance of the hands, and of taking proper measures for the preservation of their beauty. She has secured the services in this department of a thoroughly trained manicure from the West End of London, the fee for whose services is exceedingly moderate. In the Manicure Court, too, may be had all the requisites for manicure, specially prepared for this establishment from the formulae of eminent experts. Face massage, also, which is highly recommended by the medical faculty for relieving neuralgia, and for invigorating the tissues, is under the superintendence of a skilled masseuse.

JOHN COLLINS, TIN BOX MANUFACTURER,
20, STOCKWELL PLACE, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 4,777.

MR. Collins originally commenced business in Brunswick Street in 1885, and being a practical man of good executive ability, he was not long in making for himself, a prominent position. Alterations and enlargements of the premises had to be effected from time to time, and ultimately the present more commodious premises were taken possession of. These consist of two extensive flats which have been admirably arranged and adapted to the nature of the business carried on. Employment is found for a force of from twenty-five to thirty hands, and every department is kept in a thorough state of organisation and order, Mr. Collins himself exercising personal supervision in every process of manufacture. Under such favourable conditions the proprietor is controlling a large and valuable business in the manufacture of tin boxes of various kinds and descriptions, including snuff, tobacco, and cigarette boxes; knife powder, blacking, mustard, starch and arrowroot tins; canisters for confectionery, &c. All these articles command a good sale and are looked upon by buyers as standards of excellence in their respective lines. The material used is always of the best possible kind, and the perfection to which the system of manufacturing has been brought, leaves nothing to be desired in the workmanship. Besides guaranteeing superior and reliable work, the proprietor is able to quote such prices as cannot be improved upon elsewhere. The leading speciality of the house is Mr. Collins’s biscuit tin, which has been expressly designed for export purposes. The peculiarity of this ingenious article is that it is made with the lid fixed tight on and the bottom loose. The lid or cover is made, blocked, and put on by special machinery. It is not soldered, but it is made so exact that it grips the canister and renders it at that end absolutely air-tight, which is caused by s cedar felt band inserted between the rim and body of the tin inside. The lid cannot be removed without the insertion under it of a knife or similar sharp instrument, when it flies off without any trouble. With the top then securely fastened and the bottom removable, the canisters are sent to the biscuit manufacturers to be filled. The bottoms are afterwards soldered on, and so the contents are kept entirely free from air, and in the very best possible condition. Biscuits exported in these patent tins to the most distant countries are found when opened to be as fresh as they were when they left the manufactory. Mr. Collins’s patent canister has been largely adopted by the trade, and he numbers among his patrons some of the most important biscuit-makers in the three kingdoms. A splendid trade is also controlled throughout Scotland in the general articles manufactured by the firm. Mr. Collins spares no pains to insure the perfect finish of every article he sends out. He is a popular and respected business man, and by the straightforward and liberal methods that mark his dealings, he commands the esteem of all who have business relations with him.

MISS M. HOSSACK, LADIES’, GENTLEMEN’S, AND CHILDREN’S BOOT AND SHOE WAREHOUSE,
409, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS well-known emporium stands at the head of all similar houses in Glasgow. Miss Hossack has had a valuable experience in the retail boot and shoe trade, having graduated with the late Mr. John Williamson, of Argyle Arcade, who was in his days a man of conspicuous ability as a fashionable shoemaker. Miss Hossack commenced business on her own account in 1886, and from the beginning has enjoyed the patronage of the elite of Glasgow and the surrounding vicinities. Her choice selection and variety of stock are unsurpassed. They include the latest styles in ladies’, gentlemen’s, and children’s boots, shoes, and slippers from the most reliable English and Continental makers, and are unrivalled for excellence of material, workmanship, appearance, and fitting, being as easy to wear as the proverbial glove. The assortment comprises every description of high-class boots and shoes for dress and walking. In the bespoke department, all orders receive careful and prompt attention, thorough satisfaction being guaranteed in style and price. The entire business is under the personal supervision of Miss Hossack, and visitors may rely on being waited upon with promptness and courtesy. The splendid Success she is achieving is the natural consequence of supplying an exceptionally high-class quality of goods at reasonable prices, and so long as the business is conducted on the same lines its continued and increased prosperity can be Confidently relied on. We may add that Miss Hossack also keeps a large variety of boots and shoes with Louis Quinze heels.

JAMES WHYTE, PHOTOGRAPHER,
87 AND 75, JAMAICA STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Whyte organised his present prosperous business ten years ago, and by keeping well in advance of the times and adopting every worthy improvement made in the domain of his beautiful art immediately upon its introduction, has succeeded in securing a very large share of the patronage in Glasgow and all over the Kingdom. The reception-rooms, studios, laboratories, and ateliers at both establishments are appointed and furnished throughout in the best modern style, with every convenience and comfort for sitters. For fidelity, clearness, delicacy of tone, and general artistic excellence and high finish, Mr. Whyte’s pictures stand practically unsurpassed. Upon these recommendations, coupled with a moderate tariff of charges. Mr. Whyte has secured the confidence and liberal support of the community, as well as the patronage of a very large and, rapidly increasing clientele, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be firmly maintained, but steadily enhanced in time to come. The printing establishment is at Cambuslang, four miles from Glasgow, and situated on the highest part, so as to be quite free from fog. Sitters can be taken in dull weather or at night by electric light. The system employed is the newest, and produces soft lighting equal to day. Mr. Whyte is largely patronised by tourists from all parts of the world, he having Highland costumes and shepherds’ dress for use of sitters.' His studios are the largest in the United Kingdom. Groups of a hundred can be taken in them, with ease.

ALEXANDER MACLEOD, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL GROCER AND TEA MERCHANT,
154, DUMBARTON ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. Macleod formed the nucleus of his now thriving business some twenty years ago, and having outgrown his accommodation, he subsequently acquired other premises used as a store at 197, Dumbarton Road, where he has recently secured a license as a wholesale spirit merchant. Through his already large connection he is now doing an extensive trade in this special branch. His spacious double shop, with its ample accommodation and handsome modern appointments, is most neatly and methodically arranged with a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, which have been chosen with great judgment from the leading sources of supply both at home and abroad. All manner of everyday groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith, special lines in pure and choicely blended teas and coffees, British and foreign tinned goods and table delicacies of the highest order, and prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and bacon, dried and cured fish, meal and flour, butter and cheese, lard, and the freshest and best country eggs, are always in stock, available at the lowest prices consistent with equitable trading. Mr. Macleod is developing a large wholesale trade in the West Highlands, where his goods command a ready sale, and his terms meet with full appreciation by his numerous customers. The business continues to increase both rapidly and substantially under the geniality, ability, and energy exercised by the worthy proprietor, and the house stands high in the estimation of a very large local family connection, by reason of the honourable principles which have always characterised its business transactions.

A. W. PEDEN, WHOLESALE AND EXPORT CLOTHING MANUFACTURER,68, TRONGATE, GLASGOW.

THIS is doubtless one of the most extensive concerns engaged in the clothing trade in Scotland. It was founded in 1880 by Mr. Peden, and has always had its headquarters at the above address in Trongate, where the premises occupied are arranged partly as warehouse and show-rooms, and partly as a large and admirably appointed factory. Each department is systematically organised upon the best practical lines, and in the factory nearly two hundred hands are employed. The show-rooms contain a very large and comprehensive stock, embracing every kind of clothing, from boys’ knickerbocker suits to gentlemen’s apparel of the latest fashionable description. Mr. Peden has developed a very large trade by energetic methods and the production of superior goods, and a remarkable feature of his business is its widespread ramification, there being no less than seventeen branch establishments of this one concern in various parts of Glasgow and the provinces. Eight of these branches are within the city and its immediate environs, while the remaining nine are situated at Partick, Govan, Blairgowrie, Lochee, Dundee (2), Kilmarnock, Forfar, Aberdeen, Wishaw, Port Glasgow, Greenock, Dalkeith. All these establishments are well stocked and ably managed, and there are also travellers representing the house in all quarters where prospects exist for a further development of Mr. Peden’s extensive trade. The whole of this flourishing business, with its far-reaching and steadily increasing connection, is under the personal supervision of the principal, to whose conspicuous ability and enterprise its prosperity and advancement are entirely due.

JAMES HERBERTSON & SONS, WRIGHTS AND BUILDERS,
85, BEDFORD STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS firm was established upwards of a hundred years ago, and may be regarded as one of the institutions of Glasgow. From its inception the house has traded under the same name, and the business is now in the possession of the third generation of the Herbertson family since its foundation. The sons originally referred to in the title were Mr. James and Mr. George, and the present proprietor is Mr. John Herbertson. The premises comprise a range of three-storied buildings which are used as workshops, and a large yard in which is stacked a quantity of timber that is maturing for future use. Joiners’ work and carpentry form the speciality of the firm, and they, employ on the average a staff of about one hundred hands. The business done by Messrs. Herbertson & Sons is principally confined to churches, public institutions, and mansions, and the better class of houses only. A band saw, a planing machine and two moulding machines are employed in the saw-mill department of the works, and the extent of the business keeps these machines in constant use. To give some idea of the style of work undertaken it may be mentioned that the firm are now engaged upon the City of Glasgow Lunacy Board’s “Gartloch” Asylum, which amounts in value to £150,000, of which about £30,000 will go for the joiners’ work, and are also fulfilling a commission for the Govan District Lunacy Board which will amount to £152,003, of which the joiners’ work will absorb £32,000. Mr. John Herbertson personally manages his flourishing business, and under his able control the status of the firm is never likely to be lowered.

WRIGHT & CALLANDER, MANUFACTURERS’ AGENTS,
32, STOCKWELL STREET, GLASGOW.

THE above business was initiated many years ago by Mr. James Wright, who brought to its development sound business principles joined to energy, smartness, and tact. He has been recently joined in partnership by Mr. George Callander, and under their joint efforts a highly gratifying progress is being made. The accommodation at the above address consists of a well-appointed suite of offices and extensive warehouses. Messrs. Wright & Callander hold some very valuable agencies, among which are the following :- Bourne, Johnson & Latimer, wholesale and export druggists’ sundriesmen, Furnival Street, London; H. Marks & Sons, Limited, sponge importers, London; Blyton, Astley & Co., manufacturers of pearl coated pills, medicated confectionery, syrups, &c., Manchester; Sandoid & Co., perfume manufacturers, London; Dr. Schiffmann, proprietor of “Schiffmann’s Asthma Cure,” London; and Johann Maria Farina, No. 54, Alter Markt, Cologne. Every command placed in the hands of this firm is carefully attended to, and by this means the utmost confidence has been created among buyers, and a large widespread and still-increasing connection is maintained. Each of the partners takes an active part in the business, their journeys extending from Carlisle to the Orkney Isles. The proprietors of this flourishing business are widely known in trading circles and enjoy the respect and esteem of all their customers. The business they have built up is a substantial reward for their ability and perseverance.

JOHN B. SANGSTER, GROCER, WINE AND SPIRIT MERCHANT,
2, MAULDSLIE PLACE, PARTICK, GLASGOW.

THE supply of general groceries and kindred commodities, together with all kinds of excisable liquors, to meet the daily demands of a large and superior class of trade which extends throughout Partick and the west end of Glasgow, finds an able representative in the person of Mr. John B. Sangster, who, in August, 1893, took over the business of which Mr. John Wilson was proprietor since 1888; Mr. Sangster, during the greater part of this time, being in charge. The business was originally established in 1866, and is located in a commanding position at the corner of Dumbarton Road and Crawford Street. It is a spacious four-windowed shop, with ample storage accommodation, is well appointed throughout for the special purpose of displaying the complete stock of goods, all of which have been chosen with care and sound judgment. Mr. Sangster has made a speciality of Old Highland Whisky, which he has named the “Crown” blend. On examination we find such to be well matured, free from fusil oil and other impurities. For connoisseurs and others whose health requires a good, honest stimulant of great age and purity, we can unhesitatingly recommend the “Crown” blend. We would also draw attention to a specially prepared “Invalid” stout, bottled by Mr. Sangster, which is highly recommended by the medical faculty as being very nutritive and easily digested.

JAMES MCFARLANE, CURRIER AND LEATHER BOOT-LACE MANUFACTURER,
30, BAIN SQUARE, GLASGOW.

THE modern currier’s craft and the kindred operations of the leather-lace manufacturer find an able representative and exponent at the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. James McFarlane, who organised his already extensive business in Bain Square some six years ago. Mr. McFarlane occupies the whole of three extensive floors in the large block of buildings erected by Messrs. James White, & Son, the world-famous tobacco-pipe manufacturers. The ample accommodation thus afforded is elaborately equipped with all the appliances incidental to the special industries indicated, at which a staff of over twenty skilled and experienced hands is regularly employed. In the currying of leathers the bulk of Mr. McFarlane’s productions is consumed locally and by home manufacturers. For the home trade also vast quantities of belting-laces are produced, but in boot and shoe laces, of which a speciality is made of porpoise-laces, some of which measure fifty inches in length, an enormous home and export trade is done, as many as from three hundred to four hundred gross being turned out weekly for exportation. Mr. McFarlane’s resources and facilities are of a decidedly superior character, enabling him to offer many special advantages to buyers, and to execute all orders, however extensive or urgent they may be, in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Personally, Mr. McFarlane is well known and much esteemed in city trade circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

ARCHIBALD POLLOCK, LITHOGRAPHIC ARTIST, GRECIAN BUILDINGS,
95, BATH STREET, GLASGOW.

POSTERS, illuminated addresses, catalogues, labels, show-cards, goods bands, tickets, calendars, fashion plates, book illustrations and covers, certificates, plans, and all manner of kindred work calling into requisition the services of the modern lithographic artist, are comprehended within the scope of Mr. Archibald Pollock’s business, which after many years of experience was inaugurated by that gentleman in the year 1891, at No. 95, Bath Street, familiarly known as Grecian Buildings, in the city of Glasgow. Possessed of a splendid light his studio and perfectly equipped works adjoining, are always a scene of business activity, lithographic work of the most varied character being constantly in various stages of progress. In addition to the work already incidentally alluded to, Mr. Pollock has specialised and won an unsurpassed renown as a scientific artist; drawings specially prepared for zincography and photo reductions, his pictures, diagrams, and drawings for medical works, and beautiful chalk drawings on stone for book illustrations being of exceptional merit, accurate and artistic. Personally Mr. Pollock is already well known in both social and trade circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man; liberal and fair in all transactions, and well-deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

JOHN STEWART, ORNAMENTAL, STAINED, AND BMBOSSED GLASS WORKS,
138, HOLM STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS flourishing business is the oldest establishment of its kind in Glasgow, it having been founded in 1862 when Mr. Stewart occupied premises, in the Trongate, and from there he removed to Howard Street, where he remained for fifteen years. The exigencies of his growing connection have, since then, necessitated his making two other removals, one to York Street, where he remained for a dozen years until September last, when he took his present premises which are situated a few doors east from West Campbell Street. The present premises are very extensive and commodious, and comprise offices and workshops, which are admirably arranged. A great feature is made of brewers’ ornamental mirror show plates, &c., of which Mr. Stewart was the original inventor, and all branches of the trade are developed, including staining, embossing, silvering, gilding, and lead work, &c., and for artistic excellence and finished workmanship the firm is widely celebrated, while numerous specimens of its high-class productions are to be met with in all parts of the country. A large staff of experienced hands are employed, and all the work is done under the able personal superintendence of Mr. Stewart, who takes the entire charge of every department. The firm has executed commissions for various firms abroad, including Africa, &c., but for the most part Mr. Stewart confines himself to the home trade, in which he enjoys so large and influential a connection.

JAMES MCDONALD, THE CITY CAFE,
14, GORDON STREET; BRANCH: 58, ARGYLE ARCADE, GLASGOW.

MR. McDonald established his business some six years ago, in premises that are capitally situated in Gordon Street, between West Nile and Buchanan Streets. The front is devoted to the retail counter trade, and the window, counters, and stands are always loaded with, piles of pastry and confectionery of a very superior character. At the rear on the ground floor is a handsomely fitted-up private apartment for ladies, and upstairs is a spacious dining-room, elegantly appointed, and containing eleven marble-top tables. This room is very lofty, excellently ventilated and possessing every comfort and convenience. As many as one hundred and fifty guests can be accommodated at once. The bakeries and kitchens are in the basement, and are equipped with the latest appliances and inventions for the manufacture in the purest and best possible manner of the cakes and pastry for which the house is famed. Mr. McDonald has by an ingenious contrivance succeeded in effecting a very important object to the restaurateur, that of keeping his establishment totally free from any smell of cooking. Ladies and gentlemen will find this a most desirable temperance restaurant, with all the convenience of a modern hotel, joined to the comforts of home. The bill of fare is every day of a varied and first-class character, including ample selection of soups, fish, entrees, hot joints, cold meats, vegetables, sweets, and sundries, all of the best quality and exceedingly moderate in price. A numerous staff of well-trained servants attend to the wants and wishes of patrons, prompt attention and civility being leading features of the management. Mr. McDonald bears a specially excellent name as a pastrycook and confectioner. These delicacies are made fresh every day, and only the best ingredients are used. The whole of the pastry sold by him is made on the premises and is in an eminent degree wholesale and appetising. Extensive and high-class supplies are held of biscuits, cakes, fancy bread, and pastry of all kinds, jellies, creams, ices, and bride and christening cakes. Estimates are given for supplying and personally attending dinners, balls, suppers, wedding breakfasts, &c. A celebrated speciality with this noted house is Scotch shortbread, the quality of which is fully vouched, for by the fact that the proprietor had the honour of supplying it to Her Majesty and the Royal household on one occasion. Mr. McDonald gives the business his close personal attention, and has succeeded in building up a connection of a widespread and valuable character, He occupies a position of prominence among the tradesmen of the city, and is widely known and respected for his liberal and straightforward methods of doing business.

J. C. DEMANGEAT, HAIRDRESSER, PERFUMER, AND ORNAMENTAL HAIR MANUFACTURER,
MAISON FRANCAISE, 272 AND 274, GREAT WESTERN ROAD, GLASGOW.

IT is but four years since Mr. Demangeat established his artistic industry in the commodious premises which he occupies in the Great Western Road, but he brought to his enterprise such an exceptional degree of valuable experience and professional skill that, already, he has created a most valuable and rapidly increasing connection amongst many of the most influential families in the favourite residential quarters of the west end. Mr. Demangeat held, for a considerable time, a most responsible position in the eminent house of Phillippe, of the Rue Royale, Paris; and has since been connected with some of the leading houses in London, Dublin, and Glasgow; he gained a first-class diploma of capacity in London, in 1885; and to him was awarded, the first prize in the Active Members’ Competition, held, in 1891, by the Glasgow College of Hairdressers, and on the 21st of February, 1894, he was made a Professor of Hairdressing, &c., and was presented with the gold badge, so much appreciated among members of the art. The exterior appearance of Mr. Demangeat’s premises is most attractive, in harmonious keeping with the high-class of his clientele. There are three ample show windows which, with their tastefully arranged displays of elegant toilet requisites and novelties in postiches, form points of never failing interest. The interior of the show-room, which occupies the front part of the premises, is spacious and lofty, and its appointments are artistically elegant. The numerous and handsome fittings admit of the effective display and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the numerous and varied articles which are kept in stock, and which include ornamental hair; perfumes from the most famous French and English manufacturers; combs, brushes, fancy soaps, &c. To the rear is a hairdressing saloon for gentlemen, and another for ladies — both fitted up with every approved modern appliance, including machinery. The principal is aided by a competent staff of thoroughly trained assistants, and in every respect the establishment is as well equipped as any of its class in the United. Kingdom.

JOHN SHEILDS, HAT AND FANCY BOX MAKER,
71, HUTCHESON STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Sheilds commenced operations in Oswald Street in 1863, where he soon laid the foundation of a sound and improving trade. In 1889, he removed to the present premises, which comprise the second and third floors of a large block of buildings, in the midst of the principal merchants and manufacturers. The warehouse is of ample size and neatly and completely fitted up, while the workshops show by their equipment of guillotines, “scorers,” and other appliances, that every care has been used to provide the best means for conducting the business expeditiously and economically. With an average force of twenty hands, a valuable and still increasing business is carried on in the manufacture of the firm’s specialities. The material used is procured direct from the principal manufacturers of cardboard and fancy papers at home and abroad, and is always of the best and most suitable character. The operations of the house embrace all descriptions of fancy boxes as used by merchants and manufacturers, but the leading line with the firm, and one for which they are specially noted, is the manufacture of spall and pasteboard hat boxes. In this department, Mr. Sheilds' productions rank very high in the estimation of the trade, and the constantly increasing demands conclusively indicate that the manufacturers and dealers recognise the fact that they cannot be better served elsewhere. All orders receive prompt attention, and satisfaction is always guaranteed in quality, style, and price. By such inducements as these, a valuable local connection is maintained among manufacturers, warehousemen, and shipping houses, and a very encouraging trade is kept up with various parts of Scotland and Ireland. Mr. Sheilds is a thoroughly practical man and gives the business, in its entirety, the full benefit of his wide practical experience. He is very popular in the trade, and everywhere respected for his upright methods of doing business.
The house is in telephonic communication, the number being 4,713.

BAIKIE & HOGG, SHIRT TAILORS, HOSIERS AND GLOVERS,
10 AND 12, RENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 4,714.

RANKING second to none in its special line of shirt-making at the city of Glasgow, this noted business was organised in the year 1883 under the conjoint auspices of Messrs. Baikie & Hogg. A year later, however, found Mr. R. M. Hogg as its sole proprietor, although the original style and title has been retained. The spacious single-fronted shop, with its large saloon at the rear, commodious show-room on the first floor, and workrooms and laundry on the upper storeys, altogether constitute the finest establishment of its kind in the city, the entire premises being brilliantly illuminated by electricity. The shop and its adjoining saloon is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and the stock is replete with all that is newest and best in the way of men’s mercery, hosiery and gloves from the leading manufacturers of the day, both at home and abroad, shirtings of the choicest makes, and the numerous items incidental to a thoroughly first-class gentlemen’s outfitting emporium. The show-room on the first floor, which, by the way, adjoins the neatly appointed office and counting-house, is carefully arranged to display silk, zephyr, cashmere, and other delicate shirtings, and the finest makes in silk, real Irish Balbriggan, woollen, and other select hosiery and underwear. The spacious work-rooms and well-equipped laundry are always a scene of great activity, the shirt-making being carried on by a staff of fifty workers, under the direction of Mr. Hogg, who is personally a practical shirt tailor. The highest award was made to the exhibit of this firm at the International Electrical Exhibition, Edinburgh, 1890, for scientific shirt-cutting and superior finish. The high reputation of this establishment has always been its best advertisement, and this, coupled with the sound judgment that continue to mark the methods of its administration, has secured and retained for the house a patronage characterised by every attribute of desirability and distinction.

ARCHIBALD PEEBLES, FAINTER AND DECORATOR,
318, MAXWELL ROAD, POLLOCKSHIELDS.

MR. Archibald Peebles is well-known as a capable and experienced painter and decorator, having been prominent in the business for the last ten years. He served a long apprenticeship to the trade, and was a thorough master of his craft before he commenced business for himself. Operations were originally commenced in St. Andrew’s Road, whence he removed to the present more commodious quarters at 318, Maxwell Road. The accommodation now consists of a large single-fronted shop, capitally fitted up with every requisite and appliance for the effective and convenient disposal of the selection of commodities always held on hand. At the rear is a well-equipped workshop where a competent staff of workmen is kept employed, if not engaged upon outdoor work. The shop and show-room above referred to is somewhat unique in its way, the walls being covered with specimens of Mr. Peebles’ own skill in high-class painting and decorating. Everything taken in hand is carried out in a workmanlike, artistic, and conscientious manner, and the many contracts Mr. Peebles has had intrusted to him for the painting and interior decorating of country mansions, public buildings and churches have invariably been completed in a perfectly satisfactory manner. The wall-paper department is kept in a high state of efficiency, and the stocks include the latest season’s novelties and all the best known patterns and designs in pulps, satins, monochromes, embossed work, marbles, staircase pieces, dados, tiles, &c., comprising some of the finest examples of London and Paris art paper- hangings. The thorough reliance which the public have learnt to place upon this house has resulted in the establishment of a substantial and valuable connection, lying mainly in the immediate district. Mr. Peebles is a man of marked skill in his business, and of straightforward and honourable methods in all his transactions, and he enjoys the respect of a large circle of friends and acquaintances.

THOMAS BLACK, SLATER, PLASTERER, AND CEMENT WORKER,
11, PEEL STREET, PARTICK.

THIS time-honoured business was established by Mr. Thomas Black, the father of the present proprietor, about half a century ago. After many years of progressive labour he was succeeded by his son, also Mr. Thomas Black, under whose well-directed control the business standing of the house has been well maintained, and many new names added to the books. The premises occupied are ample in size. They have been from time to time enlarged and altered until they are now thoroughly well-arranged and adapted in every respect to the successful control of the business. There is a neatly-appointed office at the front, and the stores and back-yard are reached by a commodious gateway. A glance round at the extensive supplies of material always on hand, is sufficient to convince the observer that a business of more than ordinary importance is being carried on here, and that the proprietor is ready at any time to take up any class of work in his line. Only the very best kind of material is used, and to this fact, as much as to any other, the house owes its position and prosperity. A numerous body of workmen is engaged, who carry on their trade under the immediate supervision of the principal himself, a thoroughly practical and expert workman. All orders receive prompt attention, and patrons can be sure of getting the very best class of work, and at the most reasonable prices. A first-rate connection is maintained in the Partick district among builders, property owners and public bodies, and it is gratifying to note that under energetic and persistent application the business is still steadily increasing. The stocks held by the house include Scotch and Welsh slates from the most famous quarries, lime, cement, plaster of Paris, and all kinds of material and appliances for plasterers and slaters. The proprietor is widely known in the trading circles of the district, and is deservedly held in high regard.

WALTER MARSHALL, FAMILY BUTCHER,
165, MAIN STREET, BRIDGETON, GLASGOW.

MR. Walter Marshall organised his present prosperous business in Main Street some three years ago. The square, single-fronted shop, with its machine-room at the rear, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, with bright steel and wood fitments, counters, blocks, and other modern equipments, and every convenience and facility for the rapid and effective service of customers, and presents at all times a singularly clean and inviting appearance, by reason of the excellent stock held of neatly-dressed carcasses, sides, joints, and cuts of meat in season. Home-fed ox beef, wether mutton, house lamb and veal, together with sausages, choice corned beef and pickled tongues, are always abundantly represented in season, at their very best, and are, furthermore, offered for sale at the lowest current market rates. Mr. Marshall has deservedly won and retained the liberal support of a very large local family clientele, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has gained shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in days to come.

E. & H. GUEST, PAINTERS AND DECORATORS,
257, DUMBARTON ROAD, AND 3, KENSINGTON TERRACE, PAISLEY ROAD, WEST, GLASGOW.

MESSRS. Edward and Henry Guest conjointly organised their present thriving business in the Dumbarton Road some five years since, and developed their resources with such vigour and well-directed enterprise, that scarcely three years had elapsed before they found it expedient to open a branch establishment at 3, Kensington Terrace, Paisley Road, West, for the convenience of their growing trade at the south side of the city, and Ibrox and Govan way. Their west-end headquarters in the Dumbarton Road consist of a neat office and handsomely-appointed show-room, in which a select series of specimens of painted panels and walls, with pictures in situ are very effectively displayed, together with all manner of painters’ and decorators’ materials and requisites; wall-papers, from the cheapest and plainest to the most costly and recherche varieties, and Lincrusta Walton, anaglypta and other aesthetic, mural, and ceiling decorating items. They also supply, at a very moderate price, a special wood mantelpiece of their own design, fitted with Lincrusta panels. In their commodious stores and well-equipped workshops at the rear, Messrs. E. & H. Guest, both of whom are practical experts, retain the services of a large picked staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen in constant readiness to proceed to any part of the city or country for the purpose of executing work in connection with new and old houses and tenements, villas and mansions, halls, churches, hospitals (of which they have painted many), and public buildings generally, by contract or otherwise. Messrs. Guest’s services are very largely called into requisition, mainly by local builders and contractors, estate agents, house factors, and property owners; and their house stands high in the estimation of a very large, soundly established and influential clientele, by reason of the reliability and high excellence of all their work, and the moderation of their charges.

GEORGE MCVEY, FAMILY GROCER AND PROVISION MERCHANT,
333, BYARS ROAD (THREE DOORS FROM THE POST OFFICE), HILLHEAD, GLASGOW.

THE supply of select general groceries and prime provisions to meet the daily demands of a large and essentially superior class of trade in the fashionable west end district of Hillhead, at the city of Glasgow, finds an able representative in the person of Mr. George McVey, who organised his present prosperous business in 1892. Favourably located in a conspicuous position in that busy main thoroughfare, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its ample storage accommodation, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and contains a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the leading sources of supply at home and abroad. All manner of everyday groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith; special lines in pure and choicely blended teas and coffees, conspicuous amongst which is the celebrated Cingalese Mazawattee tea; British and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies of the highest order; and prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and bacon, butter and cheese, meal and flour, lard, and the freshest of country eggs, are all fully represented at their very best, and are all available at the very lowest prices. Order, system, and courtesy are salient features of this carefully conducted business; and the large and liberal patronage enjoyed by Mr. McVey is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

MISS J. DOIG, BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURER,
244, DUMBARTON ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE records of this undertaking show that it was organised at its present eligible site by the late Mr. D. Doig, some fifteen years ago, and that it has been conducted during the past few years by Miss Doig, the founder’s sister. Eligibly located at the corner of Dumbarton Road and Derby Street, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed in the best modern style, and contains a particularly large and well-selected stock of English and Scotch machine-made and hand-sewn boots, shoes, and slippers for ladies’, gentlemen’s, and children’s, as well as for working men’s, wear, in a great diversity of styles, shapes, and sizes, and at prices to suit the pockets of all classes of customers. In all departments superiority of quality and soundness of construction have manifestly been made the chief consideration, while the wide range of styles and sizes held in stock, enable intending patrons to satisfy their individual tastes, and to realise a perfect fit without delay, and at a distinct pecuniary advantage. Miss Doig controls a very large local medium class trade, and her methods and principles of management are identical in nature with those which have in time past influenced and brought about a continuous increase and development in the resources and undertakings of this most noteworthy business.

MISS CAMERON, MILLINER,
569, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, CHARING CROSS, GLASGOW.

MISS Cameron began her industrial and artistic operations as a high-class milliner, in the premises which she occupies, so recently as 1892. Her premises comprise a spacious showroom with a handsome facade, occupying a commanding position in the most favoured part of Sauchiehall Street. An ample plate-glass show-window is, with deft tact, always the means of displaying to the best advantage the. latest dainty novelty which has been evolved in the mysterious Paris and London tribunals of fashion, or which is the result of Miss Cameron’s original, but always disciplined fancy. One of the factors in the notable success which, with singular rapidity, Miss Cameron has achieved, is her judicious self-repression in restricting her energies absolutely to the production of artistic triumphs in millinery. The workrooms, which are to the rear of the show-room, are spacious and well ventilated, affording accommodation for a staff of skilled and experienced assistants, whose work is executed under the assiduous supervision of the principal.

ALEXANDER MACLEOD, HAIRDRESSER AND PERFUMER,
531, EGLINTON STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Alexander Macleod inaugurated his present thriving business some ten years since at another address in the same busy thoroughfare. Having outgrown his original accommodation Mr. Macleod, about five years ago, removed to his present eligible quarters, which occupy a commanding position at the local tramway terminus, and near to the junction of Maxwell Road, Pollokshaws Road, and Eglinton Street, in the very vortex of the best and most frequented part of the district. The premises consist of a spacious double-fronted shop, elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style with a particularly select stock of choice toilet requisites of every kind, including the best and most fashionable perfumery, the finest of fancy soaps, hair-brushes and combs, dressing-cases, hair washes, &e. Leading out of the beautiful emporium there is a splendidly equipped haircutting, shampooing and shaving saloon for gentlemen, and a private separate hairdressing room for ladies, replete with every convenience and comfort for patrons, and administered to by a staff of courteous and capable artistes under the constant and careful supervision of Mr. Macleod, himself a recognised expert in his profession. The proprietor has a speciality of proved efficacy in the form of a hair-wash for preventing the hair falling off. The business is a conspicuous example of substantial success worthily achieved, and all its characteristics are those of a house whose methods have been formed by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of trade.

BOYD, BARROW & CO., FRUIT AND FLOWER BROKERS,
59 AND 61, INGRAM STREET, AND 64 AND 66, SOUTH. ALBION STREET, GLASGOW.

THE business of this well-known house, founded in 1880, has had a remarkable development, and is now one of the largest concerns in the country, occupying very extensive premises at the above address, to which the firm extended in 1891, from their original location at 64 and 66, South Albion Street. The new promises are splendidly situated and have contributed a great deal to the growth of the business by the advantages they afford in space and general convenience. Messrs. Boyd, Barrow & Co.’s operations consist principally in broker’s transactions in English and foreign fruits of every description, including American and Australian apples, oranges, dates, figs, prunes, nuts, and American and Continental produce generally, all of which they sell on commission. They have also entered very largely into the cut flower trade, and have made it a very important feature of their business. Messrs. Boyd, Barrow & Co.’s business affords a channel for the introduction of this charming class of merchandise into the Glasgow market, and the firm have also vast dealings in chrysanthemums, white roses, daffodils, and many other favourite flowers from the best nurseries and hot-houses of Scotland and England. They make a special point of having roses in stock all the year round. In the matter of English fruits, Messrs. Boyd, Barrow & Co. specialise the strawberry, that delicious member of the genus Fragaria concerning which Dr. Butler is reported to have said: “Doubtless God could have made a better berry, but doubtless God never did.” Messrs. Boyd, Barrow & Co. have supplied great quantities of choice strawberries to the principal English jam manufacturers. At the establishment of this noted Glasgow firm of fruit and flower brokers the auction sales of newly arrived goods are held daily, and are very largely attended by fruiterers, florists, and preserve makers from all parts of the West of Scotland. The sales are personally conducted by the co-partners, Messrs. Thomas Boyd and W. H. Barrow, who look after every detail of their large business with untiring energy, and display great skill and enterprise in the management of its affairs. Both gentlemen have had long practical experience in the trade and understand it thoroughly. Both are also accomplished linguists, and speak French, German and Spanish fluently, which is of material assistance to them in their extensive continental transactions. They employ a large and highly efficient staff in the routine of their business, and enjoy the confidence of a very valuable connection.
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed “Albion, Glasgow.”

B. W. MITCHELL, TAILOR AND CLOTHIER,
95, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW.

AFTER having won his laurels in the trade, through an experience of thirteen years as cutter for Mr. Forsyth, the proprietor of one of the leading tailoring houses in the city, Mr. C. W. Mitchell in the year 1891 entered into business on his own account by opening his already popular establishment. Favourably located, the spacious single-fronted shop is brilliantly illuminated by three of Siemen’s patent lamps. The front part of the shop is handsomely appointed as a show-room, in which is always a select display of the best and most fashionable tailoring fabrics and materials for the current season, while the rear of the shop is neatly fitted as a Shunting house, and provided with convenient cutting and fitting rooms, the well-equipped workrooms being located at the topmost flat of the building. A large measure of Mr. Mitchell’s marked success is unquestionably due to the fact that not only is he himself a practical man, but that every man employed by him is an experienced, skilful, and capable exponent of the tailor’s craft. Gentlemen’s fashionable attire for all occasions, together with riding and hunting outfits, sportsmen’s and tourists’ suits, clerical garb, and servants’ liveries are all included in Mr. Mitchell’s everyday productions, and every garment emanating from his establishment is endowed with an individuality in style, a perfection of fit, and a faultless finish that can only be imparted by a thorough master of the sartorial art. Moderate in his prices, and prompt and punctual in the execution of all orders entrusted to his care, Mr. Mitchell has deservedly secured a fair proportion of the best patronage to be had in the city, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in time to come.

JOHN WATT, FAMILY BUTCHER, WINDSOR PLACE,
308, BYARS ROAD, HILLHEAD, GLASGOW.

MR. John Watt, in conjunction with a Mr. Munro, formed, in 1878, the nucleus of this prosperous business at 11, Prince of Wales’ Terrace, over which he has presided as sole proprietor for the last three years, and now removed to a more central position at the above address, where he still continues to carry on the business as heretofore, eligibly located in a conspicuous position (adjoining the Post-Office), with its large plate-glass window, and bright steel fittings, tiled walls, substantial cutting blocks, corner office desks, machine room at the rear, and modern sanitary appointments throughout always presents a singularly neat, clean, and wholesome appearance, which tends very largely to enhance the inviting character of the abundant stock. In addition to the other equipments of the trade, Mr. Watt has, at considerable expense, erected one of Roberts’s patent refrigerators on the premises, thereby enabling him to supply thoroughly seasoned joints, well hung, and in as good condition in the middle of summer as in winter weather, home-fed ox beef, and wether mutton; house lamb, veal, and pork in their respective seasons; mixed collops and sausages freshly made day by day, together with prime pickled tongues and choicely corned beef are always well en evidence, at their best, for immediate consumption, and are all offered for sale at the lowest possible city market prices. Mr. Watt has now added another branch to his business, viz., the supplying of boiled rounds of beef; this is a felt want supplied, as with many cooks this branch of the culinary department has given great dissatisfaction. In many cases patrons favouring him with their orders in this line will find they are cheaper and better supplied than by cooking done at home. Order, system, and courtesy are prominent features of this carefully conducted business, and there can be no doubt that the large and liberal patronage enjoyed by Mr. Watt is the outcome of conscientiously catering to and studying the exact needs and requirements of his individual customers.

ADAM PATERSON, FANCY DRAPER, BLOSIER, GLOVER, HABERDASHER, AND MEN’S MERCER,
186, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD, AND 134, SHAMROCK STREET, GLASGOW.

ALTHOUGH Mr. Adam Paterson established his business so recently as June, 1893, he has brought to his enterprise such high qualifications that his signal success is already assured, and the volume of his business, week by week, shows a marked increase. Mr. Paterson’s thorough technical knowledge of the business in which he has embarked was acquired during the many years throughout which he held the responsible position of buyer in the famous old-established house of Messrs. Arnott & Co., of Jamaica Street. He has thus acquired an intimate and extensive personal acquaintance with the great markets, not only of Glasgow, but of London and Manchester. Mr. Paterson has been specially fortunate in having been able to secure for his premises a commanding corner site at the junction of St. George’s Road and Shamrock Street. There is a spacious entrance from each of these thoroughfares, and no fewer than six massive plate-glass windows, whose artistically arranged displays of beautiful novelties in textile fabrics, including examples of all the latest ordinances of London and Parisian fashion authorities, constitute the most interesting street attractions in the immediate neighbourhood. The interior is admirably appointed, and its numerous and handsome fittings admit of the carefully systematic arrangement of the heavy and varied stocks which Mr. Paterson holds. The stocks include all varieties of fancy drapery goods, comprising ribbons, laces, ladies’ underclothing, flannels and flannelettes, cretonnes, towellings, prints, calicoes, and white and fancy shirtings. The men’s mercery department is, likewise, most completely equipped with collars and cuffs, white and coloured shirts, scarves, socks, braces, gloves of all descriptions, &c. The roomy basement of the building is utilised for the storage of the heavy surplus stocks which are held in readiness for all demands. Mr. Paterson has an excellent corps of assistants, whose thorough knowledge of their business and ready courtesy add considerably to the other powerful attractions which are offered to customers in Mr. Paterson’s drapery warehouse.

JOHN SLOANE, PRACTICAL WATCHMAKER, CLOCKMAKER, JEWELLER AND SILVERSMITH,
110, MAIN STREET, ANDERSTON, GLASGOW.

THIS noteworthy house was founded upwards of ten years ago by the present proprietor at the above address. The premises comprise spacious and handsomely appointed shop, containing a large and carefully selected stock of the finest horizontal watches, suitable for ladies and gentlemen, also ladies’ and gents’ gold and silver keyless levers — a speciality in this line being English lever watches, capped and jewelled, warranted three years, for 70s. A very varied stock of clocks is always on view, French timepieces in marble cases, clocks striking hours and half-hours on bell or rich-toned cathedral gong, all of which are in the newest designs and specially suitable for presentation; Vienna clocks, eight- day kitchen clocks, alarm and American clocks and timepieces suitable for public works and shops. There is also a very large assortment of electroplated goods of the best manufacture and finest quality, such as breakfast and dinner cruets, butter coolers and knives; fish and meat carvers, spoons, teapots, toast-racks, salvers, nutcrackers, &c., &c. Besides all these and fashionable gem jewellery and bijouterie generally, there is a goodly display of spectacles and eyeglasses of every description and to suit all sights, together with numerous items incidental to a thoroughly first-class establishment of the kind. In the shop window the display of superior watches at moderate prices is particularly noteworthy, and the jewellery stock in plain gold and silver, as well as in diamonds and other precious stones, is one of much volume, value, beauty, and diversity. The firm’s goods are all purchased at the lowest possible rates for cash, and in this way can be retailed to the public at practically wholesale prices. In his perfectly equipped workshop Mr. Sloane, with a staff of expert craftsmen, undertakes the repairing and making of jewellery and plate, and the cleaning, repairing, and regulating of watches and clocks and intricate mechanisms with efficiency, economy, and despatch; and the large and liberal local and country patronage he always enjoys, especially in his repairing department, is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts, quite as much in the public interest as in his own, have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

M. P. THOMPSON, HOMOEOPATHIC CHEMIST,
17, GORDON STREET, GLASGOW.

AS a homoeopathic and dispensing chemist Mr. M. F. Thompson has been established in Glasgow about sixteen years, and his headquarters at 17, Gordon. Street are well and favourably known to the people of the city. So successful has the business been, that Mr. Thompson now has two branches in Glasgow, and one at 97, Princes Street, Edinburgh, which was opened about five years ago. Also a large branch, just opened, in Manchester (7, St. Ann Street). It is a very handsome pharmacy, in the heart of the city, fitted up in a very rich and high-class style, and known as the Scottish Pharmacy; it is very handy for his numerous English customers, whose number increase daily. Visitors to Manchester should give it a visit. In Gordon Street Mr. Thompson occupies a commodious and very handsomely appointed shop, the fittings being all in the best modern style, while the large plate-glass window lacks none of the attractive features so characteristic of establishments in this line of business. A very extensive and varied stock is held, embracing all descriptions of pure drugs and chemicals, patent medicines of the best reputation, surgical appliances, chest-protectors, respirators, and other invalids’ necessaries, besides an infinitude of high-class toilet requisites, from sponges, “loofahs,” and flesh-brushes, to the choicest perfumes and the most efficacious preparations for the hair, the teeth, and the skin. In all these lines Mr. Thompson’s establishment stands second to none, and his stock Will be found replete with the newest and best goods in each department, as well as with those standard articles that have stood the test of time and are still in constant demand. Mr. Thompson makes a special feature of dispensing, and keeps only the freshest and purest drugs and chemicals for this purpose. His extensive scientific and practical knowledge enable him to dispense physicians’ prescriptions with the utmost accuracy, and this department of his business is consequently a large and increasingly important one.

There are one or two specialities for which Mr. Thompson has won great repute. His celebrated “Nervetonine,” for instance, is an invaluable specific for all business men and brain workers who are constantly in need of something to strengthen brain, nerve, and muscle, and give tone and power to the system, counteracting the wear and tear of life in this high-pressure age. “Nervetonine” has had a magical effect in many cases, and scores of testimonials in its favour have been received by Mr. Thompson, including one from. Dr. Andrew "Wilson, editor of Health, and one from Mr. Levi W. Brown, of the United States Consulate at Glasgow. Commendation has also been bestowed upon it by the editor of that sprightly journal, ‘Pen and Pencil,’ whose eulogy of its merits is the result of personal experience. Indeed, from all quarters good accounts of “Nervetonine” keep coming in, and Mr. Thompson is to be congratulated upon the production of such a manifestly beneficial medicine, which is at once an antidote for overwork and a stimulus to renewed exertion and increased energy. Mr. Thompson’s “Comfort for the Feet” is another eminently successful speciality, and is quite the “king of corn plasters,” if we may judge from the satisfaction of those who have used it. This plaster is very comfortable to the foot, and very efficacious in curing corns and bunions. Many ladies of the nobility have patronised it, and have expressed their satisfaction with its results. Mr. Thompson conducts his large and growing business with great enterprise and judgment, as well as with high professional skill, and he enjoys the confidence and support of a most extensive and valuable connection. We recommend a visit to his establishment or branches, and also a perusal of the neat little brochure he issues at the nominal price of twopence, entitled, “The Concise Guide to Health and the Treatment of Common Complaints,” which will be sent gratis, on application, to any of his patrons.

WILLIAM CARMICHAEL, WHOLESALE AND RETAIL DAIRYMAN,
88, EGLINTON STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. William Carmichael formed the nucleus of his present prosperous business at 88, Eglinton Street, fourteen years ago. The headquarters of the business are still located at 88, Eglinton Street, subsequent expansions having necessitated the opening of branch depots at 18, Cumberland Street, and 63, Hyndland Street, Partick, both of which, like the headquarters, are carried on as first-class dairies, and are conducted under the latest sanitary improvements. No. 88, Eglinton Street comprises a spacious shop, always maintained in a condition of perfect purity and scrupulous cleanliness, where a large supply of all kinds of dairy produce of the very finest quality and at the lowest possible prices is kept. Arrangements are in vogue for the punctual delivery of milk in all parts of Glasgow and Partick, at any hour of the day, together with special milk for babies and invalids, fresh and powdered butter, and new-laid country eggs, and fine breakfast scones and oat-cakes, which are made daily by experts. Mr. W. Carmichael’s facilities and resources are indeed of a distinctly superior character. At the rear of his headquarters there are special appliances for the sanitary cleansing of the dairy utensils in common use; and some notion of the character and magnitude of the operations carried on may be gathered from the fact that a daily average of five hundred gallons of milk is received and duly distributed, no less than thirty selected farms being laid under contribution. These firms are mainly in the Upland Strath of the South of Scotland in Wigtonshire, Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, and Renfrewshire. Mr. William Carmichael employs a numerous staff of experienced assistants, and his carts make daily frequent deliveries in all parts of the city and its suburbs. For the rest, the business present® a perfect type of its class, and all its affairs are administered with due regard to the preservation of the high repute and standing it has so long enjoyed.

THE CROWN TEMPERANCE AND COMMERCIAL HOTEL (LATE “AITKEN’S”),
114, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW;
WILLIAM GOLDER, PROPRIETOR.

ORGANISED about half-a-century ago, and formerly known as “Aitken’s,” this well-known and popular temperance house, having been re-christened the Crown, was acquired in the year 1892 by Mr. William Golder, who caused extensive alterations to be made so as to bring the house up to the level of modern requirements as a first-class hotel, conducted upon sound temperance principles. Centrally located in Argyle Street, between Buchanan Street and Queen Street, the hotel occupies the first, second, and third flats of the large and handsome building at No. 114. The various apartments of the hotel are admirably arranged and most comfortably furnished. On the first floor, there is a cosy coffee-room, a private parlour and smoking room, adjoining a fine commercial room replete with every facility and convenience. Annexed are three excellent stock-rooms, a fourth one being located on the flat above. The upper floors are mainly devoted to bedroom accommodation, thirty well-aired bed chambers. The domestic arrangements are particularly praiseworthy, for in the well-equipped kitchen department an accomplished cordon bleu presides, and the Crown is accordingly noted for its good fare and generous board. The attendance is unexceptionable, and moderate charges characterise the tariff of the house in all respects. The Crown has become immensely popular, and deservedly takes high rank among the temperance hotels of the city of Glasgow.

GEORGE MCGHIE, CARVER, GILDER, AND PICTURE-FRAME MANUFACTURER,
665, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, CHARING CROSS, GLASGOW.

SEVEN years ago Mr. George McGhie acquired the thriving business which had been previously held for a like period by the late Thomas Kilpatrick, and which was founded in the year 1878. Eligibly located in a commanding position in Sauchiehall Street at Charing Cross, the spacious shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and contains a particularly select stock of oil paintings, watercolour drawings, engravings, etchings, &c., of rare merit, together with many splendid examples of the high-class carvers’ and gilders’ art, and all manner of mirror and picture frames in gold, white and gold, oak, walnut, bronze, and all the newest English and Continental mouldings, of which a very large and varied stock is maintained. In his extensive workshops at the rear of the premises, Mr. McGhie, himself a recognised practical expert, employs a full staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen, and is thus prepared to estimate for and execute all kinds of high-class carving and gilding work, general picture and mirror frame making, the repairing, cleaning, and regilding of picture frames at economical charges, and the cleaning, re-lining and restoration of valuable paintings and pictures of every description. In every department of the business high-class quality has always been kept in view, and it is doubtless largely due to this fact, coupled with his moderate charges and prompt execution of all orders, that Mr. McGhie’s house has become so widely popular throughout Glasgow and the West of Scotland.

ROBERT BRYSON, GUN MAKER, GENERAL IRONMONGER, &c.,
12 AND 14, LONDON STREET, GLASGOW.

THE commodious premises which Mr. Robert Bryson occupies as a gunmaker and general ironmonger have been familiar for half a century to many West of Scotland sportsmen as, a gunsmith’s shop, belonging to Mr, Arthur Allan, of 144, Trongate. When, in 1892, Mr. Bryson took over the London Street branch of the business, he brought to his enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the trade, gained during the thirty years throughout which he was manager for Mr. Arthur Allan. Mr. Bryson’s premises comprise a spacious double-fronted shop, with an attractive exterior. The interior is handsomely appointed, and the numerous and elegant fittings display to advantage the large and valuable stocks of guns, revolvers, rifles, fishing-rods, tackle, and appliances for the use of anglers. Mr. Bryson’s stocks also include a splendid assortment of general ironmongery, especially in the department of cutlery and edge tools for different classes of workmen. There is always a specially diversified display of pocket and pen knives. Adjoining the well-stocked show-room is a spacious industrial department, equipped with all the facilities for the prompt and efficient repair of guns and other sporting appliances. Mr. Bryson, through his unsurpassed experience as a dealer in weapons of precision, maintains the unreserved confidence of a wide circle of regular supporters, by whom his judgment as a skilled expert is often consulted; and he has justly earned the reputation of restricting his stocks to articles of the highest quality.

JOHN G. SMITH, HAT AND CAP MANUFACTURER,
116, NEW CITY ROAD, GLASGOW.

ALTHOUGH this business has only been in existence for the past eighteen months Mr. Smith has made the most of his opportunities, and already he has established a large connection among people who desire a good article at moderate prices. The premises consist of a full-fronted shop fitted with a handsome plate-glass window, in which a varied and select assortment of hats and caps is well displayed. These goods are manufactured by the best firms, whose names are a guarantee of quality, material, excellence of workmanship, and fashionable style. Hats are the leading features of the business. Mr. Smith has made a speciality of selling a single article at wholesale price, and the felt hats which he supplies at 3s. 6d. are not to be surpassed at the price. His chief aim has been to make his stock perfect for variety and quality, and in this he has been eminently successful, for his shop is one of the best and most popular in the district. In addition to the hat and cap department a branch business is carried on in hosiery. This class of goods includes a variety of socks, collars, ties, scarves, braces, and the hundred and one items of gentlemen’s apparel, all of which are of superfine quality and are manufactured by the leading houses. Mr. Smith has thoroughly organised his splendid business, and under his able and energetic supervision all the demands of his extensive connection are executed by his adequate staff with the utmost dispatch.

R. W. CALDERWOOD, RESTAURATEUR AND CONFECTIONER,
262, ARGYLE STREET; 233, INGRAM STREET; AND 3, WEST NILE STREET, GLASGOW.

ORGANISED at its present eligible headquarters in the year 1864, under the able auspices of Mr. R. W. Calderwood, who still continues to vigorously direct the business, the commercial development of the above concern became so rapid that Mr. Calderwood found it necessary to open two branch establishments, at 233, Ingram Street, and 3, West Nile Street respectively, in order to give full scope to his fast expanding business. As all three establishments are practically similar, it will not be needful in this place to do more than give a brief outline sketch of the Argyle Street headquarters, as fairly indicative of the true character, scope, and aims of the concern. The spacious double-fronted shop is augmented by a neatly laid out salle a manger, where breakfasts, dinners, teas, and suppers are served in excellent style, with good attendance, and at strictly moderate charges, the cooking being simply unexceptionable, and distinctly up to date in every particular. Mr. Calderwood moreover caters for private families, in the making to order of marriage, birthday, and christening cakes, biscuits, and fancy bread of all kinds, and has won a widespread and well-merited renown as a purveyor of marriage and other festive functions at very reasonable rates; and the manner in which he has guided the course of his business has met with an approval that is amply attested by the large and liberal support accorded to his house by many of the best families resident in all parts of the city and its surroundings.

WILLIAM FORREST, WATCH AND CLOCK MAKER, JEWELLER, &c.,
61 AND 63, CANNING STREET, CORNER OF CLYDE STREET, NEAR BRIDGETON CROSS STATION, GLASGOW.

MR. William Forrest, the well-known watchmaker, is the only son of the late James Forrest, Watchmaker, Great Hamilton Street, whose business has been in existence nearly half a century. Mr. Forrest twenty years ago decided to start business for himself, and he has steadily built up one of the best businesses in Glasgow. Hi a present eligible quarters in Canning Street are so well known that no East-ender need be asked if they know Forrest’s. Forrest’s name is a household word. The compact double shop, with its three attractively dressed show-windows, is elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most attractively arranged to display a stock that is remarkable for its volume, variety, and value alike, being composed of gold and silver watches and chains of the best English and foreign manufacture, a particularly large series of clocks of every description, together with artistic bronzes and articles de vertu, fashionable gold, silver, and gem jewellery and fancy bijouterie, and the numerous other items incidental to a thoroughly first-class emporium of the kind. In his well-equipped workshop adjoining, Mr. Forrest, who is a practical expert, undertakes all manner of repairs and cleaning work in connection with watches, clocks, and jewellery with economy, efficiency, and dispatch, and the large and liberal local and world-wide patronage he enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

JOHN R.COUPER, GLASS-STAINER,
167, BOTHWELL STREET, GLASGOW

MR. John Couper, who formed the nucleus of his now prosperous business twenty years ago, at 120, West Campbell Street, and having outgrown his accommodation, in 1883, removed to his present eligible quarters in Bothwell Street. The premises under occupation are very extensive, and comprise a handsomely appointed show-room, in which a particularly fine series of special specimens and designs for stained-glass work, both ecclesiastical and domestic, is shown, examples of painted glass of every description, large and heavily stocked store-rooms, and an elaborately equipped workshop. Mr. John Couper, himself a practical expert, is assisted by a full staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen, and commanding every facility, is enabled to offer special advantages to his clients in the designing and execution of stained glass windows for churches, public institutions, and private dwelling-houses, leaded lights for business offices and chambers, and the embossing, gilding, and painting of glass to any desired design for decorative purposes. His name has become so closely and creditably identified with the industry that his services are in constant demand, not only in the city, but throughout the country, and his entire business continues to be directed with the exemplary energy and ability that have been the foundation stones of its past and present prosperity.

THOS. F. HUNTER, SCULPTOR,
483, GREAT EASTERN ROAD, GLASGOW.

THIS business has been prominently before the public for the last twenty years, and has all the time been under the control of the present proprietor. From his first commencing business on his own account he has uninterruptedly been associated with the east-end of Glasgow, and his present quarters have been occupied for a considerable time. These consist of compact offices, well fitted up, and the walls of which are ornamented with many original designs and sketches of the principal monumental works executed by the proprietor. There are several working sheds in the yard, the latter being filled with a large selection of raw material in the shape of huge blocks of free-stone and granite from Aberdeen, Peterhead, and even from the distant quarries of Norway and Labrador. There are also some valuable blocks of Sicilian and other marbles, as well as many finished specimens of monumental and ornamental sculpture, which display the principal’s skill and art in an admirable degree. Mr. Hunter devotes himself to the making of all kinds of monuments, tombs, tablets, and head-stones, and to the execution, of various descriptions of sculptural work in marble, granite, or free-stone. In these branches he enjoys an enviable and well-merited reputation for the general high excellence of all his work in material and execution, and also for the artistic merit and effectiveness of his original designs. He has supplied monuments to all the leading cemeteries at home and to many places of burial abroad, the trade controlled being both home and export in character. Mr. Hunter has a large interest in the beautiful white granite of Creetown, in Wigtownshire, a material nearly as pure in colour as marble, combined with the durability of granite. He took a prominent part in one of the Glasgow Exhibitions, and received an official diploma for the excellence of his exhibit. Skilled assistants are kept and orders receive careful and prompt attention. Mr. Hunter is conducting his business with notable energy, and no effort is spared to keep up the enviable reputation the house has so long enjoyed. He is widely known for his high order of skill, strict integrity, and unfailing courtesy, and he has gained the esteem and confidence of a large and valuable connection.

THOMAS J. FLANAGAN, WHOLESALE EGG AND BUTTER AGENT AND PRODUCE MERCHANT,
21, SOUTH PORTLAND STREET, GLASGOW.

THE claims of Glasgow to be regarded as a leading centre for the importation and wholesale distribution of high-class provisions have, since 1878, been materially enhanced by the magnitude of Mr. Thomas J. Flanagan’s commercial operations. These he began in the year mentioned in Main Street, Gorbals, but the premises being too small, he has been for several years in Warwick Street. This place, although large, has in turn become too small for his steady and continually increasing business. The premises at 21, South Portland Street had to be taken in addition to his Warwick Street place. They comprise, in the front, a roomy warehouse, to the rear of which is a suite of well-appointed private and general offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication and other requisites for the prompt despatch of business. The telephone number is 911, and the registered telegraphic address is “Flanagan, Glasgow.”

The warehouse is chiefly remarkable for the large stock of the peculiarly shaped boxes in which eggs are conveyed from the Continent to this country. These supplies of eggs, representing the results of the working of. a carefully organised system, are received from Ireland, Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, the Highlands of Scotland, and America. His weekly imports are on the average about two hundred boxes, each containing twelve hundred eggs, thus giving the enormous annual aggregate of twelve millions and a half of eggs. Mr. Flanagan is the responsible and sole appointed agent for several of the largest and most extensive first-class and well-known exporters of eggs and butter into Scotland. The business also includes the importation of very considerable quantities of margarine and butter. The margarine is obtained from Holland and Norway, while the butter, much of which is of the highest class, is Irish or Danish. The area for the distribution of such large quantities of provisions is naturally a wide one. In Mr. Flanagan’s case it includes all parts of the city, together with such important centres of surrounding population as Wishaw, Uddingsten, Motherwell, Hamilton, and local towns, also a large number of places in the west of Scotland. He keeps in constant touch with his customers and their requirements by the aid of a staff of five capable and experienced commercial representatives, whose endeavours to extend the influence of the house are much facilitated by the high reputation which Mr. Flanagan and his business methods have gained throughout the trade. His reputation and business is now one of the first and most respectable among the wholesale egg and butter merchants of Scotland.

C. ROSS & CO., ORNAMENTAL BOX MAKERS,
63, NORTH FREDERICK STREET, GLASGOW.

OPERATIONS were commenced as above at 170, Buchanan Street in 1871, the business being subsequently removed to Frederick Lane in 1875, and finally in 1882 to the site now occupied. Mr. Donald Boss is the sole proprietor, and to his ability and well-directed efforts the notable success of the business is to be mainly attributed. Extensive and commodious premises are occupied, consisting of the second, third, and fourth floors of a large block of building, conveniently located in the midst of a populous manufacturing and mercantile centre. The second floor is occupied with a well-appointed suite of private and general offices, with workrooms adjoining, and also on the two upper floors. The place throughout has been capitally well arranged and fitted up in a complete manner with the finest patent machinery. An average force of one hundred and fifty hands is employed in the manufacture of every variety of round and square boxes to order for the textile trade, furnishing and fancy goods trade, grocery houses, chemists and druggists, and a wide range of manufacturers. Specialities are made of ornamental boxes in plush, satin, and velvet, for handkerchiefs, gloves, and similar classes of goods. Artistic and attractive boxes are made for sending out wedding cake, and a very special line is made of jewellery cases. In the spacious show-room is exhibited a splendid assortment of the various high-class goods made by the house. Mr. Ross enjoys the best facilities, and has one of the finest plants in operation; the highest standard of excellence is always maintained, whilst the lowest possible prices are quoted. The connection extends all over the kingdom, and travellers are kept on the road. Mr. Ross occupies a prominent position in the trade, and is everywhere regarded as a skilful and honourable business man, and a worthy representative in his line.

W. ANDERSON EADIE, LETTERPRESS PRINTER, LITHOGRAPHER, AND STATIONER,
21, DRURY STREET, GLASGOW.

ORIGINALLY projected some five-and-thirty years ago, at Prince’s Square, under the auspices of Mr. W. Anderson Eadie, this representative business has for the past fifteen years been under the sole proprietary control of Mr. Thomas Taylor. The premises in Drury Street have now been occupied by Mr. Taylor (who still trades under the old style) for three years, and are, in every point of character and situation, precisely adapted to the requirements of the extensive business. They comprise a fine suite of well-appointed offices and works elaborately equipped with a splendid plant of the most modern printing and lithographic machines, and other appliances, which call into active requisition the services of an efficient staff of skilled and experienced hands. Mr. Taylor, himself a practical expert, actively superintends and directs the work in all its details, undertaking all manner of letterpress, commercial, and lithographic printing, and turning out results which cannot be surpassed for correct typography or general artistic excellence. Personally Mr. Taylor is well known in both city and country mercantile circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man, well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.

GEORGE THOMSON, CALENDERER PACKER, HOT PRESSER, AND FANCY GOODS FINISHER,
CROWN COURT CALENDERING WORKS, 33, VIRGINIA STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Thomson initiated his business in 1865, and developed it with the practical skill which comes of long and valuable training. For many years he held the responsible position of foreman to Messrs. McMurtrie & Patterson, and subsequently he filled a similar post with Mr. John Wilson. Mr. Thomson early secured a good patronage by reason of the thoroughly reliable class of work he turned out, and during the whole course of his business career there has been no slackening in his endeavours to give perfect satisfaction. The premises occupied are known as the Crown Court Calendering Works, and are capitally well located. They consist of the basement of an extensive block of building, and the large space at the firm’s disposal has been thoroughly well arranged and adapted to the requirements of the trade. The work-rooms are equipped with hot presses and other machines all worked by hydraulic power. Some of these machines are exceedingly powerful and can press and finish from two to three tons of goods at a time. The principal goods manufactured (or finished} are gentlemen’s mufflers, scarves, and fancy goods. These are received from the manufacturer in a rough state and are put through the various processes until they are in a perfectly finished condition. The house enjoys a high repute for the accuracy and promptness with which all orders are carried out, and manufacturers know by experience that the firm under notice is thoroughly reliable. Mr. Thomson personally superintends the whole of the business, and to his energy, skill, and enterprise is due the marked success that has been achieved. Valuable connections have been established among the leading local manufacturers, and no effort is spared to maintain every department in the highest stale of efficiency. The proprietor occupies a position of importance in trace circles, and is well known and respected for his many personal qualities.

HUGH WILKIE, M.B.H.I., WATCH, AND CLOCK MAKER, AND JEWELLER,
181, DUKE STREET, DENNISTOUN, AND BRANCH ESTABLISHMENT AT 250, MAIN STREET, ANDERSTON, GLASGOW.

THIS important business was founded as far back as thirty years ago, and is the oldest established and most popular watchmaker’s business in this district. Since its inception it has passed through several hands, until Mr. Wilkie became the proprietor eleven years ago, and the success and prosperity that it has achieved during this period speaks highly of the ability and energy of the present principal. The premises consist of a single-fronted shop, which is surmounted by a large clock, placed above the entrance, which can be seen for a great distance in all directions. The interior is fitted with a single counter, while glass cases are distributed about on all sides, and the workrooms are situated on the upper floor as well as in the rear of the premises, where a staff of some dozen hands are constantly employed. A large and valuable stock is held, which includes a large variety of reliable watches, accurate clocks, dainty jewellery and nick-nacks of every description, wedding and other presents, ornaments, wedding and fancy rings, and a fine selection of diamonds and precious stones. Mr. Wilkie, who is a thoroughly practical and enterprising business man, is the only watchmaker in this district who received the highest honours at the Edinburgh and Glasgow East End Exhibitions for his own practical workmanship, and the watches and chronometers for which he obtained the awards are to be seen at his premises in Duke Street. Mr. Wilkie is a past master in the practical branch of the watchmaker’s art, and being a member of the British Horological Institute of London, he has every facility for becoming acquainted with all the latest scientific improvements in watch and chronometer making. Mr. Wilkie makes a speciality of repairing every description of watches and clocks, and house, church, school, and turret clocks are repaired, cleaned, and wound by the year or contract. That the public appreciate practical and thorough workmanship is evidenced by the ever-increasing volume of Mr. Wilkie’s business, which is already very extensive, while his connections extend throughout the East End and Dennistoun, and the City generally.

JAMES ROBERTON, FUNERAL UNDERTAKER, CAB AND CARRIAGE HIRER, JOB AND POST MASTER,
120 AND 122, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 146.

FUNERAL undertaking (according to present social customs), together with the hiring of cabs, carriages, and other vehicles, forms a department of business which finds an able representative and exponent at the city of Glasgow in the person of Mr. James Roberton, who five years ago acquired the business which had been organised as far back as the year 1848, and of which he had been manager for twenty-one years, by the late Mr. Andrew Menzies. Under Mr. Roberton’s vigorous administration the business increased with such rapidity that, whilst maintaining his headquarters at 120 and 122, St. George’s Road, he found it expedient to open branch establishments at 273, Eglinton Street, S.S. — telephone No. 1,217 ; and 267, New City Road; and 27, Balmore Street, both of which are connected with the telephonic system of the city. The headquarters at St. George’s Road comprise offices and well-equipped workshops, and large stables and coach-houses, in which a splendid service of hearses, funeral carriages, cabs, carriages^ and other equipages, and a number of well-kept horses is retained, in constant readiness to be sent at the shortest notice to any part of the city or country. Mr. Roberton undertakes the complete furnishing and conduct of funerals of all classes in a thoroughly masterly manner, while as a job and posting master he maintains an unrivalled reputation in the city; and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large and widespread connection by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always characterised its business transactions.

JOHN T. ROBERTSON, PAINTER AND DECORATOR,
211, ST. VINCENT STREET, GLASGOW;
HOUSE: 172, PITT STREET.

MR. Robertson commenced business on his. own account eleven years ago, operations being initiated at Park Road, Kelvin Bridge. As the business rapidly increased more commodious premises became necessary, and about six years ago the quarters now occupied were taken possession of. They comprise a compact suite of offices and spacious show-room, together with various workshops fitted up with all the most improved tools and appliances known to the trade. In the offices and show-room are many first-class specimens of the principal’s skill in painting, graining, and artistic decorations. Mr. Robertson is carrying on a very valuable trade in all kinds of painting, and in every branch in which he is engaged he is giving unqualified satisfaction. He employs a numerous staff of skilled men, and is prepared to undertake orders of any extent in his special line. Some very important contracts in the district have been placed in his hands, and have invariably been carried to completion in a manner satisfactory alike to all parties concerned. He has recently finished the whole of the painting and decorating for the Rose Street Free Church, South Side. Punctuality is made a leading feature in this notable business, and patrons can rely upon having their work finished in good time, and in a style that will leave nothing to be desired. The connection lies mainly among house factors, builders, and architects, and under vigorous control it is still steadily increasing. Mr. Robertson is well regarded in trade circles for his skill, integrity, and energy, and his house affords a good example of a success resulting from well-directed application and strict business principles.
Telephone No. 3,686.

THOMAS SOMMERVILLE, PACKING-BOX, TIN AND ZINC CASE MAKER,
47, PITT STREET, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 3,366.

OPERATIONS were initiated by the present proprietor of this extensive concern in 1884, after having been connected with the trade in various capacities for many years. With every passing year an increase in the business was kept up, and additional facilities from time to time have had to be provided to meet the demands made upon the firm. At length, in 1892, a remove was made to the present commodious quarters, where every convenience is possessed for carrying on the trade in a thoroughly satisfactory manner. The premises comprise a large and well-arranged workshop with compact office on the ground floor, together with a good- sized yard, in which is kept a well selected stock of timber. There are large cellars in which stores are held, as well as stables for the horses employed in the business. Occupation is found for a force of twenty to thirty hands in the various departments, and altogether the business is in a sound and prosperous condition. The articles turned out here are well known among the factors and merchants, and are deservedly held in high appreciation for their reliable character. Every description of packing-case is made, and special cases to measure receive prompt attention, every box turned out being fully guaranteed according to instructions. Strength, durability and accuracy are the three leading features of Mr. Sommerville’s cases. Every care, too, is taken that the goods shall be delivered punctually. With the facilities at the firm’s command and the system of management in force, this can be fully relied upon. Tin and zinc-lined cases form a special department of the business, the best class of work being done at the most moderate prices. Mr. Sommerville makes a speciality of wine and whiskey cases, and the superiority of the workmanship has commanded a large trade. The connection lies among the principal merchants and shippers in the district, and under vigorous control is steadily increasing. Mr. Sommerville is well known in the trade for his sound business methods and strict reliability, and is much respected both in trade and private circles for his well-deserved success and his personal worth.

ALEXANDER MACKENZIE, BOOKSELLER, STATIONER, NEWS-AGENT, AND ADVERTISING AGENT,
WEST END LIBRARY, 200, HOPE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE records of this notable undertaking show that it was organised between twelve and thirteen years ago under the able auspices of its present enterprising proprietor. Having outgrown his original accommodation, Mr. Mackenzie, in the year 1888, removed to his present more convenient and commodious quarters. Occupying a commanding position at the corner of Hope Street and Sauchiehall Street, the spacious shop, with its ample storage accommodation, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and effectively display a complete and thoroughly representative stock of books in all branches of literature, conspicuous among which are many richly-bound volumes suitable for gifts and prizes, works of a devotional character, such as bibles, prayer and hymn books, &c., and the latest and most popular publications of the day in history, science, biography, travel, and fiction. Of stationery the store is fairly exhaustive, embracing all manner of plain, school, commercial, and fancy note and other papers, stationers’ sundries, and office requisites of every kind, together with a vast and varied assortment of fancy goods incidental to the trade. In the newspaper department adequate arrangements are in vogue for the supply, and early delivery on their days of publication of all the local, provincial, and London daily and weekly newspapers, magazines, and periodical publications, while advertisements are received for insertion in any journal. In his executive department Mr. Mackenzie undertakes the printing and publication of books and pamphlets, bookbinding in all its branches, and dye-sinking, engraving, and illuminating with economy, efficiency, and despatch, and at the rear of the shop holds a splendid circulating library; while his business policy is of a nature so vigorous and judiciously enterprising as to practically ensure a long continuance of the satisfactory conditions under which his house now operates.

JAMES PIRIE, MANTLE MAKER,
111, UNION STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. James Pirie began his industrial operations on his own account as a mantle maker in 1888. Since November, 1891, Mr. Pirie has occupied most conveniently situated premises at 111, Union Street, which have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade. They comprise a handsomely appointed show-room, with spacious and well-ventilated workrooms, which are fitted with all the requisite labour-saving mechanical appliances which enable Mr. Pirie to compete, on the most favourable conditions, with any other house in the trade. The extent of the numerous and experienced staff of expert specialists here employed conveys at once an adequate idea of the magnitude of his operations. The show-room is ample enough to permit of the display of the very large and valuable stocks of mantles which Mr. Pirie always holds, comprising every variety of material and style, and affording a practically unlimited choice. The workmanship is, in fact, the best that can be obtained. Every garment which he produces is, when finished, perfect in fit, stylish in design, and of the most careful finish. The unique advantages offered by such an establishment as this have naturally recommended themselves to large numbers of ladies belonging to the most distinguished social classes in Glasgow and the surrounding districts, and the valuable connection which Mr. Pirie’3 enlightened enterprise has created is constantly being extended.

ARCHIBALD ALLAN PERCY, WHOLESALE DEALER IN TOBACCONISTS’ FANCY GOODS,
38, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Percy has been actively connected with the tobacco trade for over twenty-five years, having in the first instance gained a valuable experience as travelling representative of one of the best houses in Glasgow. He began business on his own account in 1875. Since then his notable energy and judicious management have created a most valuable connection amongst many of the leading representatives of the trade. He began his operations in the Trongate, where he remained until 1891, when the rapid growth necessitated a removal to the present more central and commodious premises. They are conveniently spacious, and comprise large snow-rooms and stock-rooms, with a well-appointed suite of offices. Conspicuous here is Mr. Percy’s well-known and everywhere popular registered trade-mark, which whimsically suggests the name “Pierce-eye” by the representation of two rapiers transfixing an eye. The show-room is elegantly fitted up, and the numerous and handsome fittings display to advantage the numerous specialities which have made Mr. Percy’s reputation. These include all descriptions of tobacconists’ sundries, all of them being of high quality. They include meerschaum, cherry, and briar pipes, of artistically beautiful designs, imported direct by Mr. Percy from the principal manufacturers, with whom he maintains such intimate and extensive relations that he is able to offer their goods to his customers at specially favourable rates.

His stocks comprise, also, cigars of the choicest brands, known throughout the trade for their exquisite bouquet, choice cigarettes, and all sorts of nick-nacks for the use of smokers. Large surplus stocks of all these classes of goods are held in the warehouse, including everything required by a tobacconist — scales, tobacco jars, show-cases, walking-stick stands, &c., &c., so that the most extensive orders may be executed without delay. He is the patentee of many specially designed pipes, and also of certain pipe covers which are made to fit any pipe. They are handsome, cheap, and The most useful little article in a smoker’s possession, and may well be termed the “smoker’s treasure.” The accompanying illustration will readily explain the expanding system of this new pipe cover. Percy’s “labour-saving clips and catches” are well and favourably known in the market, being suitable for effectively displaying all classes of goods in shop windows and throughout warehouses, speed and effect being the great characteristic of these celebrated clips and catches, and much popularity has been secured by “Percy’s Patent Perpetual Window Exhibitor,” which has been highly praised by the leading Glasgow journals. It consists of an arrangement by which the shelves are carried steadily and slowly up and down the windows, thereby bringing all the exhibits successively and prominently into view. Mr. Percy has, likewise, a widespread reputation as a dealer in walking-sticks of the “natural” description, of which he holds the largest stock in Scotland. He enjoys special facilities for obtaining the finest qualities of goods and the latest and most attractive novelties at the earliest possible moment, and his valuable and ever-growing wholesale connection extends all over Scotland. He has also customers in England and all over Ireland for his rarer specialities, and he also supplies large quantities of goods to the different shipping houses for export. He employs an efficient and experienced staff, and his establishment is throughout so admirably organised that all his business transactions are carried through with the utmost promptitude. We understand that Mr. Percy has more original patents and specialities than any other house in the tobacconists’ fancy goods trade, which will be readily seen him his catalogue, a copy of which may be had by the trade for the asking.

PETER GLASS, GLASS AND WOOD MERCHANT, AND BUILDER,
200, HUNTER STREET, GLASGOW.

THE extensive and admirably-organised business which is conducted by Mr. Peter Glass, occupies a position of unique and honourable prominence in the building trade of Glasgow. It was established over twenty years ago at 21 and 23, Armour Street, by the present proprietor, to whose exceptional commercial aptitude and enlightened enterprise are due the rapid success and the steady progress of his enterprise. In 1892, the increase in the volume of Mr. Glass’s business induced his removal to the commodious premises in Hunter Street, which now constitute his headquarters. They comprise a spacious yard, with ample stores and an excellently-equipped warehouse in which are held the heavy stocks of glass which form a speciality in the business of the firm. At the entrance to the yard is a well-appointed office, which is furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the magnitude of Mr. Glass’s commercial and industrial operations. The telephone number is 3,942.

It maybe noted that these premises were previously in the occupation of the late well-known firm of Kerr & Laughlin, who were engaged in the same class of business as Mr. Glass. Almost since the inception of his enterprise, he has controlled an extensive trade in all descriptions of timber and other building materials. He has gained a specially high reputation as a holder of such heavy stocks of glass that he is able to execute the most extensive orders without delay. Large contracts for glazing too, are successfully executed, and a large amount of work is done in glass bending. The bending kilns are of the newest and most approved type of construction and the firm are thus enabled to compete in this department on the most favourable conditions with any other house in the trade.

About ten years ago, Mr. Glass made an important new departure in his business by beginning on his own account a series of important building operations. He has thus erected, in all parts of the city, a large number of dwelling-houses, which in respect to their substantial workmanship, perfect sanitation, and artistic finish, are model structures. The chairman of the Glasgow School Board on a recent occasion made flattering comments on the improvements made by Mr. Glass in the many districts throughout Glasgow in which he has been operating, and the magistrates of the city have expressed their approval of his various enterprises. A block of buildings which he has recently completed in the East End, and which are intended for the use of the working classes, would, in respect to the points indicated, do credit to the most favoured residential suburb of the city, and Mr. Glass has unquestionably earned the gratitude of his fellow-citizens by his successful efforts to raise the standard of the dwellings inhabited by the working classes. His powers of organisation and administration are exceptionally strong, and he is thus enabled to supervise all the details of his numerous undertakings. The open carriage which he uses to facilitate the enormous amount of locomotion which he finds it necessary to accomplish daily, is a familiar object in the East End, where, as in other districts of the city, Mr. Glass is well known, and is deservedly popular. Mr. Glass has also a branch glass warehouse at 837, Govan Road, Govan.

M. GALLOWAY, BOOT AND SHOE MANUFACTURER,
11, CAM BRIDGE LANE, COWCADDENS, AND 188, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Galloway began business in 1863, in Cambridge Lane, off Cowcaddens. The premises comprise a double-fronted shop, in the commodious interior of which there is an ample stock of boots and shoes suitable for both sexes, of all ages. Brown boots and shoes are present in great quantity and in much variety. Mr. Galloway is the agent for several noted brands of boots and shoes, and his relations with all the manufacturers of the specialities which he offers for sale are so intimate and extensive that he is enabled to place his customers on the best possible terms as to prices. The rear portion of the building is devoted to the cutting and fitting room for the bespoke department of his trade, which is very extensive. Mr. Galloway’s high reputation is, for the most part, based upon the uniform excellence, finish, and durability of the boots and shoes which he makes to order. He has also gained a celebrity, which is more than merely local, for the skill and care which are exercised in his workshops in the manufacture of boots to meet the requirements of deformed limbs. The large measure of success gained by Mr. Galloway, and the spread of his connection to all quarters of the city, remote from his headquarters, induced him in 1886 to open out a magnificent branch establishment at 188, Sauchiehall Street. They comprise a commodious double-fronted shop, with a massive and commanding plate-glass frontage. The spacious interior has been converted into an elegant show-room, with morocco upholstered settees and chairs, stained-glass windows, and every conceivable adjunct to the convenience and comfort of visitors. Here, too, the stocks include every variety of patent leather and brown leather boots and shoes, brown strap and tennis shoes; also agency for the celebrated “Bective”, boots and shoes, and goods to order of every description. There are well-equipped workshops to the rear, where all sorts of repairs are executed with the utmost promptitude and efficiency. This admirably-organised establishment is under the experienced and capable control of Mr. Robert Galloway, son of the proprietor.

PETER MCKENZIE & CO., SEEDSMEN AND FLORISTS,
65A, ST. VINCENT STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS noteworthy business was established in Gordon Street in 1863 by Mr. Peter McKenzie. He was a man of large acquaintance with the business, both practically and theoretically, and he soon brought his house into prominence. To better accommodate the fast-increasing trade a removal was made to the present site in 1885. The sole head of the firm now is Mr. J. W. McKenzie, a nephew of the founder, who trades under the above title. During its long career the house has gained an excellent name for the high-class character of everything it handles, and for the taste and enterprise with which the business is managed. The shop and show-room are handsomely and elaborately fitted up, and the stocks held are not surpassed in extent and choiceness by those of any similar establishment in the city. They comprise plants in bloom, choice cut flowers, plants for table decoration, hyacinths, Homan hyacinths, tulips, lily of the valley, cyclamen, primulas, spiraea, azaleas, camellias, solanums, palms, ferns, heaths, ficus, draccenas, cytius, and bouvardias. Roses form an important speciality. Every species is represented, including the finest summer and autumnal roses, roses in pots for forcing and greenhouse culture, and Marechal Niel, Gloire de Dijon, and other strong climbing roses. The catalogue which Mr. McKenzie publishes every season contains a full descriptive list of seeds and plants sold by his house. The seeds are procured from the best known English and Continental sources, and are in every case carefully tested before being offered to the public. Bedding-out plants are held in great abundance, and every department of the seedsman and florist’s business is controlled with marked energy and push. Choice cut flowers and maidenhair ferns are supplied and sent carefully packed to any address in town or country, and in any quantity, for dress, table, house, or church decoration; bridal, ball, shower, and posy bouquets are made to order in exquisite style; epergne bouquets and baskets of flowers are effectively arranged for table decoration, and offered at exceedingly reasonable prices; while in memoriam floral wreaths, crosses, harps, anchors, and other tasteful designs are also quoted at extremely low prices; china wreaths and crosses also form quite a marked feature of the business. Large and varied stocks, too, are held of garden sundries, manures, insecticides, bouquet papers, bouquet wire, and budding and pruning knives. The trade controlled is of a high-class character, only the choicest articles being supplied in every branch. Mr. McKenzie is thoroughly conversant with his business, and energetic in his endeavours to give every satisfaction to his wide-spreading and substantial connection. He is, moreover, a very courteous and genial gentleman, with whom business relations cannot be otherwise than agreeable.
The telephone number of the house is 4,102.

R. BRODIE, A.P.S., CHEMIST,
MEDICAL HALL, 253, CROWN STREET, GLASGOW.

THE admirably equipped “Medical Hall” of which Mr. R. Brodie is the proprietor, forms one of the recognised institutions of the district, having been established so far back as 1832, by the late Dr. Alexander Morton. He was succeeded, in 1877, by Mr. Brodie, who had been in his employment for the long period of twenty-three years, and he has not only fully maintained the best traditions of the establishment, but has very materially extended the sphere of his influence. The premises comprise a spacious double-fronted shop, which is handsomely appointed, and so conveniently fitted up as to admit of the careful arrangement and classification of the large and thoroughly representative stocks which are always held. They include all the drugs required in practical pharmacy, in their purest and freshest state, together with all the most popular patent medicines and proprietary articles in the market. Here, too, are to be found all descriptions of requisites for the sick-room, the nursery, and the toilet, with pomades, hair washes, hair brushes, &c. Mr. Brodie, however, who is an Associate of the Pharmaceutical Society, devotes his personal attention, for the most part, to professional work in the laboratory, and the experienced care with which prescriptions are compounded and family recipes are made up has gained the unreserved confidence of the medical profession and the steady support of many of the leading residents in the district. His unfailing courtesy, and the readiness with which he places his technical knowledge and experience at the disposal of his neighbours, have gained for him a large measure of popularity.

THE GEORGE HOTEL,
BUCHANAN STREET, GLASGOW;
MR. ANGUS MACKAY, PROPRIETOR.

THIS well-known hotel is one of the oldest establishments of the kind in the city of Glasgow, and was, until the year 1890, known as the Langham. In that year the present proprietor, Mr. Angus Mackay, purchased it, and at once proceeded to enlarge, improve, and add to the building, thereby increasing the bedroom accommodation to the extent of twenty bedrooms. The hotel is most conveniently situated in what is certainly the finest and best street in Glasgow, and it is close to the railway stations, General Post Office, municipal buildings, Exchange, &c. The building itself is handsome, and consists of four storeys; the main entrance is in Buchanan Street, and is approached by a spacious doorway leading to the elegant central hall which is laid with “encaustic” tiles. The ground floor consists of a splendidly furnished suite of offices, wherein the wholesale wine and spirit department is conducted. There are also to be found numerous showrooms to the number of fourteen, and for the convenience of visitors an elegant buffet has been opened to the left of the main hall. On the first floor are the spacious coffee and commercial rooms, fitted in the style one expects to see at an hotel of this first-class kind, besides the well-ventilated and well-lit billiard-room with its two tables by Orme & Sons, of Manchester. On this floor, too, are the private sitting-rooms to the number of four. The second, third and fourth floors are occupied as bedrooms, bath-rooms, &c., and extend over the adjoining premises in Bath Street.

The hotel throughout is elegantly and comfortably furnished, and the eighty bedrooms are well-lighted, lofty, and thoroughly ventilated. In fact, an air of comfort is everywhere visible. There is an ordinary at 1.30 p.m., and a table d’hote at 5.30 p.m., both being patronised by the elite of the city. The viands are of the very best, and the wines and the cuisine of the most recherche description, and the hotel is frequented by many of the leading families in Scotland, and also commercial gentlemen representing the first houses in Great Britain. An extensive wine and spirit trade is also cultivated, Mr. Mackay having wide connections among the principal hotels in Scotland, and his celebrated blends of Scotch whiskies are known far and wide, even to the south of France. Since the hotel has come into the hands of the present proprietor the business has been greatly extended, for Mr. Mackay looks to the comfort of his guests personally, and while assisted by well-trained and obliging servants, he contrives to make all who stay with him feel at home. Mr. Mackay is also proprietor of the George Hotel in Edinburgh, a spacious and splendidly appointed first-class hotel, making up nearly one hundred beds. There is telephonic connection between the two hotels, the Glasgow number being 1,101, and the Edinburgh 389.

JOHN NEIL, BISCUIT MANUFACTURER,
22, NORTH ALBION STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS extensive business was founded in the year 1864 by Mr. John Neil, and was very successfully carried on by him all those years, and in 1891 it was reconstructed. Mr. James Neil, who is now in the business, is well qualified by practical experience to conduct this representative concern upon the successful lines it has hitherto pursued. The premises in North Albion Street comprise a very commodious and admirably appointed retail sale-shop, with an immense stock of biscuits of every description, embracing all the well-known specialities of the firm’s own manufacture. Fancy and household bread and general confectionery also come within the scope of the trade, and are always on hand in large variety. The factory is at the rear, and extends into College Street, to which it has a frontage of about one hundred feet. Every process is carried out with the aid of the most improved modern machinery, and various kinds of confectionery are also made here, in addition to the many varieties of high-class biscuits turned out. The establishment presents an example of cleanliness and effective organisation which is highly creditable to the proprietor, and speaks well for his management and supervision. As bread bakers, this firm have a reputation for their genuine Scotch scones, which have a very large sale; and in the biscuit department they are especially noted for their Abernethy biscuits, in the making of which they have a special staff of twenty-four men constantly engaged. Mr. Neil has a wide and valuable connection, and does a large and steadily growing wholesale business among grocers, confectioners, and dairies in all parts of Glasgow and district, the dairies being principally supplied with the firm’s celebrated Scotch scones. Mr. Neil has no less than eighteen vans constantly engaged in the delivery of goods to his numerous wholesale customers, and he gives employment to upwards of two hundred hands. The entire business is under the personal control of the principal, and is in a condition of progressive development which attests the vigour and efficiency of his control. Mr. Neil is well and favourably known in the trade, and bids fair to sustain the high reputation gained by this house under the direction of his respected father.

ROBERT NELSON & SON, STATIONERS AND BOOKBINDERS,
80, GORDON STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. A. Nelson, the sole proprietor of the above-named firm, has conducted his business under the same title for the past fifteen years, but it dates back in its foundation to over half a century gone by. Eligibly located in Gordon Street, the firm’s extensive premises comprise a fine suite of offices, large and heavily stocked warehouses, and elaborately equipped works, where the latest and most improved machinery and appliances incidental to the industry may be seen in full activity, and where a numerous staff of skilled and experienced hands is employed in the different departments under the constant and critical superintendence of Mr. A. Nelson. The manufacture of stationery forms a feature of this business, and portfolios, scrap-books, and cases of a kindred character are turned out to order and sample in vast numbers with wonderful celerity. In the bookbinding department, which is the leading feature, the firm undertake book repairing and leather gilding in addition to general binding, which ranges from plain boards to the most sumptuous of modern designs in covers, and in this connection the firm stand practically unsurpassed both for quality and workmanship. The business is, indeed, in a splendid condition of progressive development, its valuable connections extending to all parts of Scotland, and under Mr. A. Nelson’s vigorous, yet always prudent, administration the house promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the prosperity of still better days to come.

JOHN HUTCHEON, RESTAURATEUR AND PURVEYOR,
43, UNION STREET, GLASGOW.

ORGANISED in the year 1890 by a Mr. Brown, this well-known business was acquired three years later by its present experienced proprietor, Mr. John Hutcheon, who has already made his mark in the catering world as a successful purveyor of refreshments by contract, for banquets, ball suppers, wedding breakfasts and luncheons, soirees, picnic parties, and the like. Mr. Hutcheon, moreover, has won a widespread and well-merited renown as a maker of wedding and christening cakes in a variety of original artistic designs. At the rear of the shop are two comfortably appointed dining rooms, supplied direct from the well-equipped kitchen in the basement, with breakfasts, dinners, teas, and suppers to order, the daily menu being composed with great care, and the cuisine and service being as unexceptionable as the prices are moderate. The business in all its details receives Mr. Hutcheon’s personal supervision, and the large and liberal patronage he enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have met with deserved appreciation and support.

BROOKS & CO., WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TEA MERCHANTS,
645, NEW CITY ROAD, GLASGOW.

THIS enterprising firm, four years since, acquired the valuable connection of the Indian Tea Bazaar Company, which had, during the four previous years, conducted business in the same premises, Messrs. Brooks & Co. having up to that date occupied premises at 27, Howard Street. The sale-shop in the New City Road is exceptionally attractive in its appearance, and its appointments are of an elegance which is in keeping with the high class of the business carried on. Large stocks of the finest growths of India and Ceylon teas are held. Messrs. Brooks & Co. have a just reputation in the trade as expert judges and blenders, and those of their blends which are intended for use in Glasgow are prepared with special reference to the characteristics of the local water supply, so that all the valuably essential qualities of the tea are realised by the consumer. The firm are also extensive dealers in coffee, cocoa, sugar, &c., together with essence of coffee in bottles. With the leading sources of supply for the various classes of goods in which they deal, Messrs. Brooks & Co. maintain such intimate and extensive relations that they are able to offer exceptionally advantageous terms to their customers. They control a considerable business in tea throughout Scotland, while in their own immediate neighbourhood, by the excellent quality of their goods, and the moderation of their prices, they have gained the unreserved confidence and the constant support of very many families.

JAMES B. MACLEAN, ENGRAVER, LITHOGRAPHER, AND PRINTER,
57, WEST NILE STREET, GLASGOW.

THE house over which Mr. Maclean now presides, was founded in the ’30’s by Mr. W. A. Smith, who remained at the head of affairs until two years ago, when the present proprietor succeeded to the business. Mr. Maclean’s experience (as Mr. Smith’s manager for many years) has been of a widespread and valuable character, and he is fully maintaining the ancient prestige of the house. Well-situated and commodious premises are occupied as above, comprising a well-appointed suite of offices, together with a number of workrooms. The latter are capitally arranged, and have been equipped with the latest and most improved plant and appliances. He employs a staff of skilled workmen, whose operations he ably and sedulously superintends. His ability is well recognised by the trade, by whom he is largely employed, and he has also a widespread general trade. The leading specialities with the house are illuminated showcards, calendars, and goods tickets, his productions in these lines being characterised by much novelty of design, effective manipulation, and good taste. Other important items for which he is particularly noted are invoices, memorandums, receipts, cheques, bills of exchange, note headings, business and visiting cards, share certificates, class tickets, and assembly, ball, and concert tickets. Mr. Maclean can be relied upon to turn out the best and most satisfactory class of work, and to execute all orders promptly, moderate charges being always guaranteed. Estimates are given for all kinds of work and sketches furnished, the business throughout being managed with much spirit. The valuable connection, extending to every part of Glasgow, and many of the principal towns in Scotland and England, is securely built on the foundation of uniformly high-class work and reasonable prices. Mr. Maclean is well known and popular in trading and professional circles, and is everywhere held in high esteem.

A. L. ROBERTSON, FURNISHING IRONMONGER,
47 AND 49, MAIN STREET, GORBALS, GLASGOW, AND BRANCHES.

THIS admirably organised and notably successful business was established by the proprietor twenty years ago in the same commodious premises which now constitute the headquarters of the firm. In Main Street, Gorbals, Mr. Robertson is the proprietor of two places of business — one being his headquarters at 47 and 49, and the other being numbered 67 and 69. Both these warehouses are very commodious, having double show windows, in which the tastefully arranged displays of useful and ornamental novelties constitute never-failing points of attraction. They both have, too, well-appointed saloons running far to the rear, and as the basements are included in the warehouse space, there is ample room for the carefully and systematically classified arrangement of the heavy and varied stocks which are always held. The premises at Nos. 47 and 49 are devoted to the exhibition of grates, fire-irons, and general ironmongery; grates and stoves forming the speciality. Nos. 67 and 69 display all descriptions of fancy goods, American and Continental. At headquarters there is a suite of well-appointed offices, with telephonic communication and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of clerical work which is necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The telephone number is 4,023, and the registered telegraphic address is “Plethora, Glasgow.”

Mr. Robertson has made his reputation by his success as a manufacturer of ranges and register stoves, fenders and ashpans, and gasaliers and hall lamps. The firm are also factors for American goods, Sheffield cutlery, electro-plate goods, brass-foundery, builders’ ironmongery, and edge tools. They issue a copious price-list, the goods being marked with the wholesale prices. The speciality of the establishment, indeed, is that the public are supplied with retail quantities at wholesale prices. This naturally attracts crowds of customers from all parts of the city and the surrounding districts, and to meet the convenience of many of these the proprietor has opened fully-equipped branch establishments at 153, Paisley Road West, and at 9, 11 and 14, Lambhill Street. Mr. Robertson, notwithstanding his noteworthy achievements, is still in the full vigour of his youth, and much more may be expected of him.

JAMES MCGREACHY, WHOLESALE BEDDING MANUFACTURER, AND FEATHER, HAIR AND WOOL MERCHANT,
14 AND 20, STOCK WELL STREET, GLASGOW; AND PAISLEY AND GREENOCK.

FOR the last quarter of a century, Mr. James McGeachy has successfully conducted an important industry as above. His headquarters comprise show-rooms, warehouses and factories. The show-rooms are very extensive and display to advantage the heavy stocks which are always held of bed and mattress ticks, pure and well-dressed feathers, goose down, curled horse-hair, wool, mill-puff, flocks, hair-seating, &c. There is also a large assortment of woven wire spring mattresses, brass and iron bedsteads, children’s cots, folding bedstead chairs, &c. Mr. McGeachy buys all ticking direct from the mills, and the floor-cloth, linoleum, &c., of which he holds stocks sufficient to admit of a practically unlimited choice, from the leading manufacturers, and they are offered to his customers under exceptionally advantageous conditions. All the goods produced by Mr. McGeachy are recognised throughout the trade as representing standard qualities, and they are manufactured on the premises under his supervision. In the premises at No. 18, wool and hair mattresses are made, while the straw mattresses are produced in a factory at the rear of No. 24. In these operations the firm give permanent employment to an efficient staff of experienced workers. At his headquarters in Stockwell Street, Mr. McGeachy’s trade is largely wholesale, but at his several branch establishments, which are equipped with fully representative stocks, the public have the advantage of obtaining goods retail, direct from the manufacturer. These branches are situated, respectively in Glasgow at 93, Canning Street, and 166, New City Road. Mr. McGeachy has also successfully opened retail establishments, each the centre of an important and substantial connection, at 49 Moss Street, Paisley, and at Municipal Buildings, Greenock.

WILLIAM DOUGLAS, PAINTER AND DECORATOR,
122, WEST CAMPBELL STREET, GLASGOW.

ORGANISED in the year 1881 at 148, West Campbell Street, under the able auspices of its present enterprising proprietor, the commercial development of the concern became so rapid that scarcely three years had elapsed before Mr. Douglas found it imperative to remove to his present more commodious quarters in the same busy thoroughfare, where he occupies a show-room, with commodious heavily-stocked warehouses attached, and a well-equipped preparatory workshop adjoining. In the show-room may be inspected one of the largest and most select stocks of English and French paper-hangings together with Lincrusta Walton and other aesthetic forms of ceiling and mural decorations, and all manner of house painters and decorators’ tools, materials, and requisites. A large staff of skilled and experienced hands is retained by Mr. Douglas in constant readiness to proceed to any part of the city or country upon any scale of magnitude by contract or otherwise. Mr. Douglas has operated very largely as an ecclesiastical decorator. He was the first decorator in Glasgow to take up the new form of fixing lace on walls and artistically decorating it in situ. Mr. Douglas is himself accounted to stand sans pareil in this particular branch of his art. Under Mr. Douglas’s able administration the business increases both rapidly and substantially, and the marked success that has attended his house is distinctly due to the personal ability and energy, system and regularity which have characterised its direction from the very first.

JOHN SIMPSON, CASH DRAPER, HOSIER, &c.,
792 AND 794, GOVAN CROSS, GOVAN, GLASGOW.

THIS admirably-organised business was carried on in the same commodious premises during a long series of years, by Mr. F. Campbell, whose name is still honourably remembered in the district. The business was acquired twelve years since by Mr. John Simpson, whose thorough technical knowledge of the modern requirements of the trade has enabled him not merely to maintain the excellent reputation of the establishment, but very materially to extend the connection of the house. The premises comprise a commodious warehouse, occupying a commanding corner site facing Govan Cross. The handsome facade has fine ample plate-glass show-windows, whose constantly varied displays of beautiful novelties in all descriptions of textile fabrics constitute never-failing points of attractive interest in the thoroughfare. The spacious interior is well-appointed, and the numerous and conveniently arranged fittings admit of the carefully systematic classification, and the effective display, of the large and varied stocks of furnishing drapery, with linens, woollens, calicoes, sheeting, &c., of the best qualities. There is also a fine assortment of silks, ribbons, flowers, and other millinery requisites, always representing the last designs as soon as they are placed upon the London or Paris market. The house has likewise a specially good reputation for its varied stocks of hosiery and underclothing for ladies and children. With the principal sources of supply for all these different classes of commodities, Mr. Simpson maintains such intimate and extensive relations that he is able to offer them to his customers on specially advantageous terms, which attract to his establishment large numbers of purchasers, not only from the immediate neighbourhood, but from comparatively remote districts.

WARNOCK & CO., FAMILY BOOT MAKERS,
549 AND 551, NEW CITY ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. Warnock organised his already extensive business some fifteen years ago in the New City Road. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in that busy main thoroughfare, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its neat measuring and fitting rooms, is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and display a particularly large stock of ready-made boots, shoes, and slippers for ladies, gentlemen, and children, in a great diversity of styles, shapes, and sizes, from which selections can be readily made to meet the tastes, and to perfectly fit the feet of any normally formed wearer. In his perfectly equipped workrooms adjoining Mr. Warnock, himself a practical expert, is valuably assisted by a picked staff of skilled craftsmen in making his celebrated hand-sewn boots and shoes, and in the execution of bespoke orders and repairs in all its branches; and in every instance only the best materials are used, and the workmanship, style, and fit are alike faultless. Mr. Warnock has gained the confidence and liberal support of a very large and desirable family connection; and his house promises to continuously eclipse all its past successes in days to come.

JAMES ECCLES, THE LEADING HATTER,
201, CUMBERLAND STREET, SOUTH SIDE, GLASGOW.

IN catering to the personal needs and requirements of gentlemen engaged in the varied walks of life in a great city the modern hatter and general outfitter necessarily plays a most important part. The records of the above undertaking show that it was organised at its present eligible quarters in the year 1885 under the able auspices of Mr. James Eccles, who still continues to develop the business with vigour and success. Occupying a conspicuous position in Cumberland Street the spacious single-fronted shop displays a complete and thoroughly representative stock of goods, which have been chosen with great care and judgment from the latest productions of the leading manufacturers of the day both at home and abroad. The stock of silk and felt hats includes all the latest novelties in shapes and colours for the current season, and is the largest and best of its kind in the neighbourhood. Although this forms the leading line, Mr. Eccles is equally noted for the excellence of his Iona, “Varsity,” and other caps; scarves and fashionable ties, for which he makes a speciality; hosiery and underwear, braces, studs, &c.; gloves for all occasions, waterproof coats and umbrellas, and outfitting items of every description up to date. For the rest, the business is conducted upon the soundest commercial principles, and is steadily and continuously advancing in prestige and position under the influence of the ability and energy brought to bear upon its development by its enterprising proprietor.

ALEXANDER U. FINLAY, FAMILY GROCER AND PROVISION MERCHANT,
41, ROSSENDALE ROAD; 18, COLLEDGE STREET; AND 2, COUSTONHILL-STREET, POLLOKSHAWS, GLASGOW.

MR. Alexander U. Finlay organised his present thriving business at 41, Rossendale Road, and 18, Colledge Street, in the year 1887, and to-day holds additional stores at 2, Coustonhill-street. The premises in Rossendale Road are favourably located, as the only grocery business in a very large industrial district, and consist of a spacious double-fronted shop, handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have been chosen with great care and sound judgment from the best markets and leading sources of supply, both at home and abroad. All manner of every-day groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith; special lines in pure and choicely blended teas and coffees, British and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles, and table delicacies of the highest order; and prime provisions of every kind, in the way of Belfast smoked hams and Ayrshire rolled bacon, Dunlop and Cheddar cheese, fresh butter, lard, and country eggs, are all fully en Evidence at their best, and are all available at the lowest prices. Order, system, and courtesy are salient characteristics of this carefully conducted business, and the large and liberal patronage enjoyed by Mr. Finlay is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.

T. SCOULER, HOME AND FOREIGN FRUIT MERCHANT,
SANDRINGHAM TERRACE, 727, GREAT WESTERN ROAD, HILLHEAD, GLASGOW.
Telephone No. 2,064.

IN the aristocratic west-end district of the City of Glasgow, hard by the Botanic Gardens, and conspicuous as the farthest shop west in the Great Western Road, stands the splendid fruit and flower mart of Mr. T. Scouler, whose business is liberally patronised by the best families throughout Hillhead and its surroundings. Mr. Scouler opened his establishment some fourteen years ago. The spacious double-fronted shop, elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style, stretches backwards for a considerable distance to lead into a beautiful conservatory, where a large variety of plants, ferns, mosses, &c., suitable for decorations for halls and private residences, is maintained. The shop is always rendered exceptionally attractive by the artistic grouping of luscious British and foreign fruit, plants in pots, and cut flowers, which may be obtained made up into buttonholes, bouquets, wreaths, or crosses to any specified or suggested design, while the abundant and varied stock thus constituted is supplemented by canned and bottled fruit of the highest order, choice preserves, honey, and so forth. The business is, indeed, a conspicuous example of substantial success worthily achieved, and all its characteristics are those of a house whose nature has been influenced, and whose methods have been formed by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of trade.

ROBERT GRAY, SCULPTOR,
335A, ST. VINCENT STREET, GLASGOW.

FOR forty-five years Mr. Gray has pursued his profession with marked success, and specimens of his work are to be found in all parts of the country. For the last eighteen months Mr. Gray has made his headquarters at 335A, St. Vincent Street, at the west end of Bothwell Street. These premises are used exclusively for office purposes, and connected with them in a very commodious yard, which is equipped with all the most modern and approved appliances of the trade. Mr. Gray’s skill in the manipulation of granite, marble, or stone is widely recognised, and there are few churchyards or cemeteries for miles around that do not possess examples of his work. For elegance of design and perfection of execution the work that leaves Mr. Gray’s yard is not to be excelled, and every specimen of headstones, crosses, tablets, tombs, and similar monuments that he turns out are all constructed in the strictest accordance with the rules of the highest art. Mr. Gray also does an extensive business in ecclesiastical work, and the fonts, pulpits, reredoses, &c., that he executes are all distinguished by the exquisite taste in the designs. He employs only experienced workmen, and devotes his personal attention to the management of the business. His connections are both extensive and influential, one of his latest commissions being from China. Mr. Gray has erected the heaviest monument in Scotland. It is in memory of the late Bailie Moir, who bequeathed his library of three thousand two hundred and fifty volumes to the public. This monument was erected about ten years ago in the Sighthill Cemetery. It represents a column, thirty feet in height, and thirty tons in weight, the needle or shaft of the structure weighing twelve tons alone. In addition to his head offices in St. Vincent Street, the telephonic number of which is 4,225, Mr. Gray has branch establishments at 37, Bothwell Street, and at Western Necropolis, Lochburn, Maryhill.

JAMES DICK, SURGICAL INSTRUMENT, ARTIFICIAL LIMB, TRUSS, AND BANDAGE MAKER,
45, HENFIELD STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS large and representative business is one of the most important of its kind in North Britain, and was founded by Mr. James Dick in 1862, and still remains under the proprietorship of that gentleman. Very commodious and admirably appointed premises are occupied at the above address in Renfield Street, and here Mr. Dick shows a fine stock of his various manufactures and specialities which embrace all descriptions of surgical instruments and appliances of the best quality, together with trusses, bandages, splints, elastic stockings, surgeon’s lint, wood wool, and a great variety of miscellaneous articles of a nature akin to the above. Mr. Dick makes a speciality of trusses, every improvement suggested in this line being carefully studied and skilfully carried out. He keeps American and Continental trusses of every description in stocks, besides hundreds of his own manufacture. He has, during the past twenty years, visited Paris ten different times. Mrs. Dick, who attends on ladies, has given her special attention to ladies’ belts and bandages for upwards of twenty-five years, and therefore possesses the valuable qualification of long and exhaustive experience. As a specialist in the manufacture and supply of artificial limbs, arms, and hands, Mr. Pick has been eminently successful; and his work in this and all other branches of his business is of a very superior character, besides embodying all the useful improvements which years of experience and frequent visits to the Continent can suggest. At the late Glasgow International Exhibition, Mr. Dick had a splendid exhibit of the manifold specialities peculiar to his profession, and, commenting thereon, the medical press at the time averred that “such a display of fine goods had never been seen in this country before, while the artificial limbs manifested careful and delicate workman ship.” Mr. Dick is agent for Pulvermacher’s well-known galvanic specialities. He enjoys a large amount of valuable patronage, notably that of the medical and surgical profession, and conducts his business upon the highest lines, with conspicuous and well- merited success.

J. L. MENZIES, TEA AND WINE STORES,
98, EGLINTON STREET, GLASGOW.

DURING the last twenty years Mr. J. L. Menzies has with notable success devoted his undivided attention to the supply, under the best possible conditions, of popular beverages, including the finest tea, as well as the choicest wines, spirits, and malt liquors. Mr. Menzies’ establishment has deservedly gained a reputation which may well compare with that of any other in Glasgow for the unvarying excellence of his teas, as well as of his more stimulating beverages. The headquarters of Mr. Menzies’ business occupy a commanding position next door to the post office in Eglinton Street, and comprise a spacious double-fronted sale shop, which has been admirably adapted to the requirements of the business. The proprietor, in the tea department, has manifested his enlightened enterprise by bestowing special attention to the finest Indian descriptions, which have of late found much popular favour, and his blended teas represent the best value which can be obtained in the market.

His judgment in the selection of wines is excellent, and those who trust to it will find that they are able to purchase sound and generous ports and sherries at remarkably moderate prices. In Irish and Scotch whiskies his stocks are specially rich and representative. He always holds in the finest condition such favourable beverages as Brown’s Four Crown Scotch Whisky; Henry Thomson & Co.’s Irish Whisky, and the “Shamrock,” “Challenge,” “Roderick Dhu,” “Breadalbane,” and “Auld Scottie” whiskies. He also holds a large stock of D. Colville & Co., Ardlussio, Benmore, Glennary, Ardbeg, Tobermory, Glenglassaugh, Cambus, and other noted distilleries maturing in bond for years before being offered for sale. Mr. Menzies’ own “Invalid” blend has gained a widespread celebrity. It is a selection of several varieties of fine whisky, blended in such proportions as to secure a uniform and agreeable flavour. It is, too, of a most satisfactory alcoholic strength, and is well suited in all respects to those whose health requires a pure stimulant. Brandy and other spirits of the best quality are also supplied, both bottled and from the wood. Mr. Menzies likewise controls a very extensive trade in bottling, and in supplying, in such fine condition as to be ready for immediate use, the choicest brewings of some of the most eminent houses in the United Kingdom. The malt liquors which he thus handles to advantage include the ales of Bass and Allsopp; the stouts of Barclay Perkins and of Guinness; the table beer of William Younger & Co., and the excellent draughting ale of the Balckford Brewery, and nourishing stout of G. and J. Maclachlan, which he quotes at remarkably low prices. The great demand, which has not been confined to his own district, for the excellent beverages supplied by Mr. Menzies has induced him to open out several fully equipped branches, which are situated respectively at 381, Garscube Road, 117, Lambhill Street, Plantation, and at 318, Crown Street, South Side. At all these establishments, as well as at his headquarters in Eglinton Street, Mr. Menzies, who possesses an exceptional degree of administrative ability, conducts a very considerable and rapidly increasing family business.

CAULFIELD & CO., CHINA AND GLASS IMPORTERS AND MERCHANTS,
21, JAMAICA STREET, GLASGOW.

THIS business was established about 1855, in St. Enoch Square, and as the increasing trade rendered these premises too limited for their requirements a move was made to 68, Jamaica Street, then to their present address at 21, Jamaica Street, which is celebrated throughout the district as the Crystal Palace. These premises, which they have occupied since 1885, comprise a handsome double-fronted shop of ample proportions, and the windows are rendered strikingly attractive by a magnificent display of high-class goods. The interior is splendidly decorated and fitted in harmony with the beauty of the wares, and the extensive and commodious departments are admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade. The light is supplied by nine patent Siemens lamps, and two arches of coloured gas globes, and the place is furnished with a number of stands, cases, and similar fixtures. The stock held by this firm is exceedingly large, and includes every class of household glass and china, and ranges in price from the lowest to the highest. The tea, breakfast, and afternoon tea sets are stocked in about thirty varieties, and range from 7s. 6d, to £15 15s. the set; dinner service from 14s. 6d. to £35 10s.; dessert services from 12s. 6d. to £27; bedroom sets from 5s. 9d. to £10 10s., and special trinket sets from 4s. 6d to £5. Their Crown Derby, Minton, Doulton, Coalport, Royal Worcester, and Wedgwood ware in breakfast, dinner, tea, and dessert sets is obtained direct from all the leading manufactories, and their selection of ornaments and fancy articles represents the latest productions of all the largest English and Continental houses. The firm have also a limited amount of Davenport china, which is so rare as to be almost extinct. Among the ornamental goods are large numbers of vases, pedestals, and pots, flower-pots, umbrella stands, pampas-grass stands, and a great variety of wares suitable for wedding, birthday, and Christmas presents — a branch of the business to which Messrs. Caulfield & Co. devote special attention.

Their selection of glass is very comprehensive, and comprises the newest and most beautiful designs in the market. The table glass makes a particularly brilliant display, and includes every description of decanters, claret decanters, whisky bottles, champagne, claret, port, sherry, liqueur, and hock glasses, ice plates, finger basins, carafes and tops, water sets, champagne, water and soda tumblers, cut lamps, candelabras, toilet bottles, sugar and creams, glass dishes, salts, water-bottles, cruets, celery glasses, biscuit boxes, globes, mirrors, &c., while among the miscellaneous articles in the china department are to be seen all kinds of cheese stands, lunch trays, tobacco jars, match stands, breakfast and egg cruets, toast-racks, teapots and stands, hot-water jugs, milk jugs, hot-water plates, divided vegetable dishes, bread trays, salad and punch bowls, menu stands, jelly moulds, jugs and pie dishes in all shapes and sizes, and every known article of household china. The firm also keep a large stock of filters from various makers always on hand, and in addition to those of Messrs Slade & Brownlow and the Silicated Carbon Filter Company, they have a ready demand for Caulfield’s Patent Self-acting Filter, which is capable of filtering from twenty-five to forty-five gallons per hour. Its advantages are that it is self-acting and cleaning; it requires no personal attention, and it always contains a large supply of filtered water. The large and commodious store-rooms are located in the rear of the premises, and are capable of holding a very heavy stock. This department is kept perfectly dry by the use of hot-water pipes, and here all goods are packed by a large staff of expert hands. The trade done is both wholesale and retail, the former being chiefly confined to furnishing hotels, clubs, restaurants, and ships, while they do the largest retail trade in Glasgow. Their export business is confined to sending goods to India, Trinidad, and the Colonies. Mr. Francis Caulfield retired from the firm, and although the title remains unchanged, the sole proprietor now is Mr. T. A. Jebb. The connection of the firm is very extensive and of a high-class character, the nobility and landed gentry of Scotland figuring prominently amongst their list of customers.

J. & W. WALLACE, SEED, GRAIN, AND HAY MERCHANTS,
279 AND 281, GALLOWGATE, GLASGOW.

THIS flourishing business can boast a long and honourable record, extending back for over sixty years, throughout which lengthened period it has constituted a strong link, connecting the commercial interests of the city with those of the surrounding agricultural districts. It was established about the date indicated above, by the late Mr. James Buchanan, and twenty-two years ago it was acquired with the valuable connection, which has since been greatly extended by the present proprietors. The commercial headquarters of the firm occupy premises with a fine frontage to Gallowgate, and comprising a suite of well-appointed offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication. The telephone number is 951. Near the offices but on the other side of Gallowgate, are the extensive grain and seed stores belonging to the firm, which are ample enough to admit of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the varied and heavy stocks which are always held. These include all descriptions of feeding stuffs for horses and cattle. The firm also do an extensive business in hay and straw, getting large supplies daily from the country. Their seed and chemical manure trade with farmers is one of the most extensive in Glasgow. This firm have gained a high reputation for invariably supplying genuine farm seeds and high-class fertilisers on the most advantageous terms, and also for their promptitude and accuracy in executing orders.

WILLIAM MCLACHLAN, MARBLE CUTTER, TILE LAYER, AND MONUMENTAL WORKER,
214, CROWN STREET, GLASGOW.

FOUNDED in 1883, in Pitt Street, by the present proprietor, and developed by him with unremitting energy and perseverance, the above concern has become every year more capable, until at the present time it is fully prepared to undertake every class of work in connection with this responsible business. The premises now occupied, and which were taken possession of on removing from Pitt Street a year or so ago, comprise compact offices, large and well-arranged show-room, and an extensive yard containing shopping and sheds in which the marble cutting and general work are carried on. A competent staff of workmen is engaged, who follow their craft under the close supervision of the principal. A very valuable business is in operation in the manufacture of marble chimney pieces, table tops, baths, washing basins, ship sideboards, hearths, &c. These articles are deservedly held in high appreciation by the best class of buyers. The workmanship is of a very superior character, and the best class of work turned out here can hardly be surpassed in beauty of design and artistic finish. The stocks include Sicilian, vein, black, and other kinds of marble, Swedish and Aberdeen granites, and freestone in rough blocks; together with numerous examples of manufactured goods in the shape of marble slabs for lavatories, mantel pieces in the most elegant styles, hearth curbs, headstones, tomb railings, crosses, monuments, glazed tiles, pavement and encaustic tiles, entablatures, corbels, &c. Mr. McLachlan is widely known as a monumental sculptor whose work is always of an appropriate and superior kind. His premises are near to the South Side Cemetery, and this portion of his trade is being very carefully and successfully cultivated. Shops are fitted up with all kinds of marble and tile work, and tomb stones are re-cut or repaired at the shortest notice. Estimates are given for every class of work, and thorough efficiency in every department can be fully relied upon. Mr. McLachlan is a man of special ability in his craft, and is indefatigable in his endeavours to oblige patrons and to keep up the reputation of his house, and he is deservedly held in high esteem by all who come into business relations with him.

JAMES HENDERSON, LIVERY STABLE PROPRIETOR AND JOBMASTER,
6, GOVAN ROAD, GLASGOW.

MR. James Henderson began his operations as a livery stable proprietor and jobmaster in 1869, but in 1874 he removed his headquarters from his original premises in Crookston Street to the central position which he now occupies in Govan Road. Eight years ago, as the result of a demand for further facilities in the conduct of his business, the premises were entirely rebuilt, and they now constitute a model establishment of the class to which they belong. They comprise a handsome building, prominently situated immediately opposite the site of the “Old Toll House.” This building constitutes a suite of well-appointed offices, general and private, which are furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the establishment. To the rear is a spacious yard with admirably-equipped harness and saddle rooms and lock-up coach-houses. The stabling, for forty horses, is a model of complete sanitation. The stables are situated on the upper floors of the buildings and are reached by a gangway slope. There is always to be had for hire, at moderate charges, a great variety of high-class horses for saddle and driving, including a fine assortment of cobs and ponies. Close and open vehicles, of all descriptions — all in the smartest condition — are, too, always available. Mr. Henderson has successfully opened a number of branch establishments in the city and its suburbs, and the excellent organisation and administration (of which he is a master) prevailing at these branches, as well as at headquarters, have, in a very material degree, helped to create the notable success which Mr. Henderson has worthily achieved. He has lately purchased the carriage hiring business of the late Mr. James Gray, of 100, West Nile Street (telephone 1,200), which is carried on in addition to the Govan Road business. These new premises are most centrally situated, and were specially built for the business a few years ago on the site of the old circus. The addresses of the several branches,,with their respective telephone numbers, are as follows: Shields Road, Pollokshields, No. 1,539; Queen Street Station, No. 1,370; 97, Byars Road, Hillhead, No. 2,091; and 116 and 118, St. George’s Road, No. 288. It should be noted that the telephones available for nightwork are No. 288 and No. 1,539.

GEORGE MAITLAND, LEATHER MERCHANT AND BOOT FACTOR,
20, UNION STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. Maitland, after a lengthy experience in the various branches of the trade, started on his own account some four years ago, and by diligence, enterprise, and judgment, has succeeded in laying the firm foundation of what promises to become one of the leading businesses of its kind in this part of the city. The registered trade mark of the house, No. 153,994, the Scotch lion, demi rampant, inside a monogram “G,” is accepted everywhere as a guarantee of high excellence. Ample and commodious premises are occupied, well adapted to the character of the business on hand. The warehouses on the ground floor are spacious, and are capitally well fitted-up, while the well-appointed show-rooms above are fitted with an extensive and well-selected assortment of boots and shoes of every description selected from the most famous makers in the kingdom. Material, workmanship and style are alike excellent, and no better choice can be offered to the dealer than that which Mr. Maitland gives him here. The goods being bought at first hand, and in large quantities, are placed upon the market at exceptionally low prices, the proprietor being in a position to offer inducements in this respect that cannot possibly be improved upon. The leather department is very full and complete, including sole leather, upper leather, boot and shoe uppers, and shoe furnishings in great variety. The business done is entirely wholesale, the connection of the house extending to every part of Scotland, and under the practical and careful supervision of the principal, the business is every year increasing in value and influence. Mr. Maitland is very popular in the trade, and is everywhere held in much respect for his honourable and liberal methods of dealing.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Porpoise, Glasgow.”

W. M, WARNEUKE, PHOTOGRAPHER,
158, SAUCHIEHALL STREET, GLASGOW.

SINCE Mr. Warneuke, in 1888, established himself at Sauchiehall Street, he has materially extended the sphere of his operations. The outward and visible sign of this is the splendid equipment of his business headquarters, which occupy a commanding position. These include an elegant suite of reception-rooms, which are appointed and upholstered in a style which is fully in keeping with the proprietor’s artistic methods. These rooms are on the first floor of the building, and they are approached by a handsome staircase. The short passage, leading thither from the street, is also appropriately decorated with show windows on both sides. The woodwork is admirably carved, and the whole is illuminated by the electric light. This method of illumination, indeed, is adopted throughout the whole of the establishment, both for ordinary and for artistic purposes. The equipment of the studio represents all the most recent and most. approved applications of inventive science to the requirements of practical photography. Experts will, for example, appreciate the importance of the facts that the electric light apparatus is equal to one hundred amperes, and that Mr. Warneuke has all the facilities for operating direct on a forty-two-inch plate, and in this matter, as in others, the appliances at the disposal of the artist are equal to any which exist in the United Kingdom. Surrounded by such favourable conditions, Mr. Warneuke has naturally gained the constant support of many of the leading residents in Glasgow and its suburbs, as well as that of many noble and distinguished county families throughout the West of Scotland. Four years ago he turned his attention to international and other exhibition work, with the result that the excellence of his productions has been publicly emphasised by the bestowal of what already constitutes a large and valuable collection of medals and diplomas. Mr. Warneuke’s latest triumph of this description was at Chicago and Paris, where he gained medals for artistic portraiture. His speciality consists in the production of life-size photographs. All his work bears the impress of thorough knowledge, skill, and care, and although in details he is assisted by a competent staff of assistants, he adheres to the system of personally taking every photograph, and of supervising the ultimate results before they leave his premises.

JAMES ALLAN & SON, BOOT MAKERS,
98, BUCHANAN STREET, GLASGOW.

THE original founder of the business which is now so ably presided over by Messrs. James Allan & Son, was a Mr. Blyth, who established himself over half a century ago, and the establishment, ten years ago, passed into the hands of the present proprietors. The property consists of a large and lofty shop, which extends a long distance to the rear, where are located the fitting-rooms for ladies and gentlemen. The firm employ a number of skilled workmen in the manufacturing department, where the special hand-sewn boots and shoes for which Messrs. James Allan & Sons have achieved a wide reputation, are made. A heavy stock of Scotch and English hand-sewn boots and shoes of the best qualities are also kept on hand, together with the goods supplied by a number of French makers, including Pinets, Paris, and other leading firms. During the ten years Messrs. Allan have had control of the establishment, they have supplied only the best class of goods. The result of this excellence has been to secure for the firm a very large and high-class connection which is always increasing. Mr. Allan has branch shops in Edinburgh at both Princes Street and Leith Street, and the extensive operations that his business demands permit of his buying in large quantities, and he is thus enabled to sell the finest articles at a moderate price.

HENRY DUNCAN, SADDLER AND HARNESS-MAKER, AND HARNESS CONTRACTOR,
123, ST. GEORGE’S ROAD, GLASGOW.

THE nucleus of Mr. Henry Duncan’s now thriving business was formed in the year 1870 as a branch establishment at 116, St. George’s Road by Mr. Charles J. Henton, of London, under the management of Mr. Duncan. On the retiral of Mr. C. J. Henton in the year 1880, Mr. Duncan continued the business in his own behalf. Having outgrown his accommodation, he, in 1892, removed to his present more convenient quarters, in order to give full scope to his rapidly expanding town and country trade. Eligibly located in a commanding position, the spacious single-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and thoroughly representative stock of goods composed of ladies’ and gentlemen’s ordinary and hunting saddles, pair and single-horse harness, equestrian equipments of every kind in the way of whips and crops, bridles, girths, spurs, horse-clothing, &c., and sponges, chamois skins, brushes, and stable requisites of every kind. In his well-equipped work-shop at the rear Mr. Duncan, with a staff of skilled and experienced workers, operates in every branch of his industry, undertaking the making of hunting saddles, with all the latest improvements, specialities in leather pommels (see above sketches), saddles and harness, and horse-clothing of the best quality, to measure. He, moreover, undertakes repairs in all its branches with economy, efficiency and despatch, and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large and widespread connection, by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always characterised its business transactions.

T. DUNCAN, TAILOR AND CLOTHIER,
296, ARGYLE STREET, GLASGOW.

MR. T. Duncan formed the nucleus of his now thriving business in the year 1880, at the eligible quarters he still occupies. Located in a commanding position between Hope Street and Wellington Street, the spacious single-fronted shop, with its neat cutting and fitting-rooms and well-equipped workroom attached, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged with a particularly large and comprehensive series of all the best and most fashionable tailoring fabrics and materials for the season, all of which are open to the closest inspection. Mr. Duncan, himself a recognised expert in the trade, is careful to employ none but skilled and experienced craftsmen, with the result that under his constant personal supervision every garment sent out from his establishment is endowed with an individuality of style, a perfection of fit, and a faultless finish that can only be imparted by a thorough master of the sartorial art. Mr. Duncan gained his first experience as a cutter with Messrs. McLeod & Son, one of the leading houses in Glasgow, and has had a large experience in the best west-end houses in London, and also with Messrs. Simpson & White, of Aberdeen, tailors by appointment to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales and the aristocracy of Scotland. Mr. Duncan’s every-day productions include gentlemen’s fashionable attire, morning, office, and evening dress, riding and hunting outfits, tourists’ and sportsmen’s suits, tennis, cricket, Highland and other costumes, for both ladies and gentlemen; ladies’ riding habits, breeches, and jackets; military and naval uniforms, and servants’ liveries; and it is a true criterion of and tribute to his capabilities and moderate charges, that not only are patrons invariably satisfied with the results of his efforts, but that his large town and country clientele has been mainly called together through the potent agency of personal recommendations.

THE BRIDGE STREET STATION HOTEL,
6, BRIDGE STREET, GLASGOW;
Proprietor: Mr. J. F. H. Bicks.

THAT well-ordered establishment, the Bridge Street Station Hotel, has an honourable record which goes back for half-a-century, having been opened upon the completion of the Glasgow and Paisley and Joint Line to Greenock. Mr. Bicks succeeded Mr. John Maitland in the lesseeship of the hotel, previously to whose proprietorship it had, for many years, been favourably associated with the name of Mr. Salmond. The house is of very considerable dimensions, having thirty comfortable bedrooms. In the public apartments, which include dining, coffee, smoking, and billiard-rooms, there are all the requisites for the convenience of families, while special arrangements are made for the accommodation of commercial travellers. There is, too, a well-appointed bar where wines, spirits, and malt liquors, together with cigars — all of the best quality — are dispensed. The proximity of the hotel to the Bridge Street Station of the Caledonian Railway, and the fact that it is within convenient distance of the Glasgow and South-Western and Midland Railways Termini and Saint Enoch Station, while it is on the nearest route to the steamboat wharf — all these considerations combine to render the situation of the Bridge Street Station one of the most convenient in the city for travellers either by rail or river. Facing Clyde Place as well as Bridge Street, the views are extensive and picturesque. The dense and motley crowds of foot passengers, and of vehicular traffic, here crossing the Broomielaw Bridge, from early morn till late in the evening, form a scene of never-failing interest. The hotel is also very largely used for dining by residents of Glasgow or the suburbs, having their places of business in the vicinity. Here, too, excellent accommodation and the best of fare are constantly provided for wedding and evening parties, and other social gatherings. The cuisine is beyond reproach, and the contents of the cellars are famous; while the charges are on a scale of remarkable moderation. There are few hotels in Scotland where travellers will find such a combination of comfort and economy as in the Bridge Street Station Hotel, under the experienced and energetic management of Mr. Bicks, who has also the Forth View Private Hotel, at Aberdeen, Fifeshire, where pleasure-boats run from Leith during the summer season. The hotel is situated near to the sea, and parties are boarded there from 7s. 6d. per day, including hot and cold sea-water baths.

CHARLES MACKAY, WATCHMAKER, JEWELLER, AND OPTICIAN,
4, BRIDGETON CROSS, GLASGOW.

THIS well ordered business was established seven years ago in the excellent premises which the firm continue to occupy. Mr. Mackay, who acquired the business two years ago, brought to his enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the trade and a practical acquaintance with the mechanism of all varieties of watches, which stands him in good stead. The position of his premises is the best that could possibly be secured in the midst of the vast industrial population of Bridgeton. An ample plate-glass show-window, with its tastefully-arranged exhibits of beautiful novelties in jewellery, forms a point of never-failing attraction. The interior is handsomely appointed, in keeping with the sumptuous character of its contents; and the numerous and elegant fittings display, to advantage, the large and varied stock, which comprises a skilfully-selected assortment of goods suitable for the requirements of all classes. Here will be found jewellery of all descriptions, together with spectacles, eye-glasses, and a great variety of inexpensive but very attractive ornaments. Mr. Mackay has successfully made a speciality of the supply of wedding rings, of which he has a large variety; and many of the articles in stock are suitable for birthday, wedding, or other presents. He controls a large and increasing business in the repair of watches and jewellery, and has gained a high reputation for the conscientious manner in which work of this class is performed at this establishment, and the promptitude with which it is executed. His connection, which is steadily growing, extends all over Bridgeton, and, indeed, the whole of the east-end of the city.

JOHN CHARTERIS, TEA AND COFFEE DEALER,
61, JAMAICA STREET, GLASGOW.

THE notable success which has been achieved by Mr. John Charteris during the six years since he established his business as a tea and coffee dealer is the result of the special attention which he has devoted to these commodities, and to his thorough knowledge of the tea and coffee markets. Mr. Charteris’s premises, which occupy a commanding position in Jamaica Street, comprise a commodious double-fronted shop with a remarkably handsome facade. The ample show-windows, in addition to their samples of teas and coffees, exhibit a fine collection of Oriental works of art, and curios from India, China, and Japan, which constitute a never failing attraction to by-passers. The spacious interior is handsomely appointed in keeping with the high class of the business which Mr. Charteris controls. To the rear is a warehouse which is utilized for the holding of surplus stocks of tea, and for the processes of blending. Similarly the roomy basement is used for the storage of coffee and for the operations of coffee-roasting. The stocks which are always he