IT has been the fate of the greatest of archaic nations — Egypt, Assyria, Greece, and Rome — to rise to a condition of surpassing power and prosperity, and, having attained the zenith of advancement in their respective eras, to enter upon a period of decadence, culminating eventually in the complete subversion of their exalted position, and the extinction of all the national institutions in which their greatness had consisted. The probability of the career of the British nation terminating in such a consummation as this can be determined only by the course of future events, but it is emphatically denied by every indication of the present day. Doubtless, in the remote ante-Christian age, when the victorious legions of Caesar overran almost every known quarter of Europe, and sent countless captives and incalculable treasure home to the imperial “City of the Seven Hills,” no man could have been found with courage enough to suggest that, after the lapse of eighteen centuries, a descendant of the then despised "barbarians” might take pen in hand and chronicle in many volumes “The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.” The spirit of hopefulness and confidence is as strong in the human heart to-day as it was at the noontide of Rome’s power and splendour; but, apart even from that fact, the modern Englishman has the best possible reasons for treating with good-natured indifference all the forebodings of pessimistic minds concerning the future of his country and his race. England’s national status has been established upon a foundation far more secure than any which supported the ephemeral glory of great empires of the past. As in the case of the mighty dominions named above, her position has been gained by the force of her national character, but unlike them, she has an enduring safeguard in the constant steps that are being taken to preserve that character from any taint of degeneracy. Englishmen have become stronger and better in nearly every respect in direct ratio to the increase of their individual and collective prosperity. They have recognised above all things, the power of universal education, and have distributed its advantages liberally and impartially throughout the land.

To-day, more than at any time in the past, we can believe that “the mind of England is the mind of the rising race.” Every-where the people of this country show an increased desire to press onward and upward to the highest limits of a perfect civilisation; and in this great popular ambition there lies the guarantee of the nation’s uninterrupted progress to greater and better things than any she has yet achieved. Certainly, nothing could be less associable with the present spirit of the English people than any tendency of a retrograde nature. The whole country moves forward unceasingly, in arts and industries, in commerce, and husbandry, in the promulgation of wise laws, in physical culture, in intellectual refinement, and in the high moral sensibility that is assuredly promoted by all such gratifying advancement. English ships in almost countless multitude plough the waters of every sea and ocean; English merchants maintain in every market the dignity of the trades they represent; English literature and art advance continuously in the favour of every intelligent nation; the English language bids fair to become a universal tongue; the drum-beat of British garrisons still (in Daniel Webster's inimitable metaphor) “follows the morning round the world”; an English sovereign still rules over an empire upon which the sun never sets. And, should adversity ever threaten us, in any of its varied forms, we may confidently hope to prove again and again, as one of our greatest statesmen once said, that— “There has never been a time when a sense of great responsibility has been thrown upon the people of this country when they have not answered the occasion and shown that matchless energy which has made and will maintain their position as the leading nation of the world.” Remembering the grand traditions and well-tried capabilities of their race, it is with something more than the mere pride of boastfulness that Englishmen of to-day can re-echo the noble lines in which their immortal compatriot, who was “not of an age, but for all time,” apostrophised the country of his birth:—

“This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle,
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,
This other Eden, demi-paradise;
This fortress, built by Nature for herself,
Against infection and the hand of war;
This happy breed of men, this little world,
This precious stone set in the silver sea,
Which serves it in the office of a wall,
Or as a moat defensive to a house,
Against the envy of less happier lands;
This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England.”


The fifty-first year of Her Majesty’s eventful reign was marked by the inauguration of a most notable era in the history of Local Government, for by Mr. Ritchie’s bill (introduced to Parliament in March, 1888, and confirmed by the Royal Assent in the following August), County Councils were established in every administrative county in England and Wales. Under the provisions of this important Act, London was created a county in itself, and on January 17th, 1889, the inhabitants of the metropolis for the first time “exercised the privilege of electing upon a broad democratic basis their own governing body.” The London County Council elected on that date by the ratepayers of the metropolitan parishes superseded the Metropolitan Board of Works, and assumed all the powers, duties, and property formerly vested in that body. The Council comprises one hundred and eighteen members, nineteen aldermen, and a chairman, the Earl of Rosebery being the first to occupy the presiding post. The Council held its first meeting for the election of the aldermen on February 12th, 1889; and it formally entered upon its administrative duties on the 21st of March. Several ladies were elected members of the first Council, but the Court of Queen’s Bench subsequently decided that women were disqualified for election. In view of the fact that the new system of Local Government thus established has involved some radical changes in the metropolitan regime, it is gratifying to note that the City of London (one of the most ancient and distinguished civic corporations in existence) has not been greatly affected by the modified order of things. It is represented in the County Council by four members, but it still remains in a large measure under the sway of its Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council, and retains most of its time-honoured rights and privileges.


In the time of the Romans, England's metropolitan county formed a part of the province of Flavia Caesariensis, and was then held by the Trinobantes. Later on, under the Saxon rule, it was incorporated in the domain of the East Saxons, and was, individually, the home of the tribe known as Middle Saxons, from whom it took the name it still bears — Middlesex. In many respects this is one of the most interesting counties in the kingdom, and, owing to the fact that the greater part of the metropolis has always been situated within its borders, it has been the scene of some of the most stirring events in English history. Middlesex is situated in what is called the south midland district, and is bounded on the south by the river Thames (separating it from Surrey), on the west by Buckinghamshire, on the north by Hertfordshire, and on the east by Essex. Its area is 181,317 acres, and its population in 1881 was 2,920,485. Though it is, with one exception, the smallest county in England, it ranks second in population, a fact which is, of course, due to the presence of such a large part of London in its south-eastern quarter. The county presents an expanse of country which is generally level, but always picturesque in appearance, and the agricultural and farming districts are in a flourishing condition, a large area being under crops. Some of the finest market gardens in England are to be found in the environs of the metropolis. The railway and canal service is very complete.

Middlesex is situate mostly in the diocese of London, and for parliamentary purposes it consists of seven divisions, each of which returns one member. This arrangement has obtained since June, 1885, and the seven county members, together with the forty-one members from the London divisions, make a total of forty-eight representatives now returned to Parliament from Middlesex. The industries of the county proper are not very numerous, market gardening, brewing and malting, brick and tile making, and gun making (at Enfield) being the chief departments engaged in; but in the metropolitan area almost every modern branch of manufacture is carried on with the utmost energy and activity. The Earl of Strafford is Lord Lieutenant of the county. With the one great exception of London, there are no very large towns in Middlesex; but Brentford (the nominal county town), Enfield (with its celebrated armoury), and Harrow (famous for its school founded in Elizabethan times) are noteworthy and interesting places, characterised by considerable activity and progress in their local trades and institutions.


The premier county of England in size, and the third in point of population, is contiguous to Durham, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Westmoreland, Cheshire, and Lancashire on the north, west, and south, and has the North Sea for its eastern and north-eastern boundary. It contains an area of 3,882,851 acres, and a population (1881) of 2,886,564. the coast-line from the river Tees to the bold promontory of Flamborough Head presents an abrupt and rocky aspect, but southward to the mouth of the Humber it lies considerably lower. Into the Humber flows the river Ouse, which, with its several tributaries, drains the whole of the great interior valley of the county. Geologically, Yorkshire is chiefly of limestone formation, and its mineral resources are very great, coal being found in abundance, while ironstone of excellent quality is also yielded. At Pontefract has long been found a very superior sand for the making of moulds for metal-founding. As an agricultural county Yorkshire also takes very high rank, and in an industrial sense it stands among the very first districts in England. Its manufactures of woollen cloth have made it famous throughout the world, and its renown in connection with iron-working, cutlery, engineering, boot and shoo manufacture, brewing, tanning, and many other trades of the highest importance speaks volumes for the energy, enterprise, and progressive spirit of its proverbially intelligent and capable inhabitants. The worsteds of Bradford, the cutlery of Sheffield, and the woollen textiles and mechanical manufactures of Leeds have the whole world for their market, and are absolutely unrivalled in the class of commodities to which they belong. Yorkshire possesses splendid systems of internal communication by rail, river, and canal, and is abundantly supplied with every natural and artificial facility for promoting the progress of its flourishing and exceptionally extensive trades. The county lies within the dioceses of York, Ripon, and Manchester, and is politically divided into three Ridings (north, east, and west), together with the liberty of the archi-episcopal city of York, which is a county in itself. There are, of course, numerous other sub-divisions for parliamentary and parochial purposes. Each Riding is regarded as a separate county, and has its own Lord Lieutenant, quarter sessions, and commission of the peace.

The city of York has a population of considerably over 60,000, and is the see of the Archbishop of York (the Most Reverend William Thomson, D.D.). Its history dates back to ages of remote antiquity, and it bore the name of Eboracum under the Romans, who elevated it to metropolitan dignity. In point of rank it is still held as the second city in the kingdom, and it possesses a great many ancient privileges and institutions of the most interesting character. Its glorious minster is one of the largest and most magnificent cathedrals in England, dating from the thirteenth century; and the city abounds in features of the greatest archaeological and historical interest. It has a large and flourishing local trade, many schools of high repute, some flourishing manufactories, several important newspapers, and five banks; besides being a notable railway centre, it is the headquarters of the northern military district. The West Riding of Yorkshire is the largest and most populous of the county’s throe great divisions, and contains those mighty centres of industrial and commercial activity, the towns of LEEDS, BRADFORD, DEWSBURY, HALIFAX, HUDDERSFIELD, SHEFFIELD, KEIGHLEY, BARNSLEY, and BATLEY. Here also are situated historic WAKEFIELD; RIPON, with its fine cathedral; DONCASTER, renowned in the world of sport; HARROGATE, which has become one of the most fashionable of inland watering-places; and GOOLE, near the junction of the Ouse and the Humber, with its important docks and shipping.

In the East Riding, the chief towns are HULL, which is now regarded as the third port in England, and which possesses immense manufacturing and mercantile interests; and ancient BEVERLEY, with its beautiful minster church, and its excellent educational and charitable institutions. The North Riding has for its capital the charming and pre-eminently fashionable town of SCARBOROUGH, “queen of northern watering-places,” and one of the most delightful resorts upon the English coast. MIDDLESBROUGH-ON-TEES, a river port of rapidly increasing importance, and the great seat of the iron industry in the north, has had an almost unparalleled development. In 1831 its population was less than 400. Ten years later it had risen to 5,709. To-day there must be upwards of 50,000 inhabitants within the limits of this busy and thriving borough, and the town is one of the handsomest and most progressive in Yorkshire, with a very large trade and many notable manufacturing concerns. RICHMOND and NORTHALLERTON are also notable places in this Riding; and WHITBY, with its fine harbour and its exquisite scenic surroundings, is one of the busiest ports on the northeastern seaboard. Inhabited by a race of people unsurpassed in mental and physical vigour, Yorkshire has become perhaps the grandest of all the counties of England, and the indomitable energy and perseverance of Yorkshiremen have exercised a magnificent influence for good upon every phase of the national life of the Kingdom.


This extensive maritime county ranks next to Yorkshire in area, and contains 1,767,879 acres, with a population at the last census of 469,919. Lincolnshire is famous for its fens, and for the remarkable system of “cuts,” “leams,” and “dykes,” which has been created in the Fen districts for the purposes of drainage. This system has proved of immense benefit to the county, which for the most part is flat and low, and some of the drained fens and riverside “warps” manifest a most notable degree of fertility, while the grazing land of the county in general is hardly to be surpassed anywhere. A great amount of attention is to be bestowed upon the cultivation of the soil in this county, and Lincolnshire farmers are equally well-known for their own agricultural skill and for their laudable readiness to adopt the aids of science, and to use every improved method of bettering the condition of the district they inhabit. The progress that has been effected in reclaiming the low-lying fen-lands, which formerly extended over such a vast area of Lincolnshire, constitutes a splendid tribute to the active energy and resolution of the people of the county, and amply justifies their reputation for intelligent thriftiness. From Lincolnshire grazing lands come horses of splendid physique and working capacity, and equally fine are the breeds of oxen and sheep which are reared so largely upon these broad and fertile pastures.

Being essentially an agricultural county, Lincolnshire does not contribute very largely to the manufacturing activity of England. Nevertheless, there are some industries of considerable importance in certain quarters, the manufacture of machinery and the making of bricks, tiles, ropes, cordage, and sacking being prominent. Shipbuilding is also carried on in the seaport towns, and the fishing industry is a most important one. For political and administrative purposes Lincolnshire contains three great divisions, called, respectively, the Parts of Kesteven, the Parts of Lindsey, and the Parts of Holland. These comprise many smaller divisions, and the seven parliamentary divisions of the county return one member each. The diocesan control of the Bishop of Lincoln extends over almost the entire county. At the head of towns of Lincolnshire stands its ancient and interesting capital, the episcopal city of LINCOLN, which is at once a municipal and parliamentary borough (returning one member) and a county in itself. It stands partly at the base and partly on the slope of a hill, which is crowned by the noble Gothic pile of Lincoln Cathedral. From this point a magnificent view is obtainable. The history of the city of Lincoln dates from the times of the Britons, and it was occupied by the Romans, who called it Lindum. The city’s charter was granted by Richard II. Lincoln had a population, in 1881, of 37,313. It possesses several banks and newspapers, many excellent schools and other institutions, and is a busy and prosperous place in itself, doing a large and flourishing general trade. There are some very important manufactures of machinery, engines and farm implements, and flour-milling and iron-working are also engaged in.

BOSTON, with a population of about 18,000, was formerly known as St. Botolph’s Town, and possesses still its stately Gothic church of St. Botolph, with its fine tower, upwards of 280 feet high. Boston is one of the chief seaports on this coast, and has excellent new docks and a new and commodious channel up the river Witham. A large trade is done in grain, and sailcloth and ropes are manufactured. GRANTHAM, with its beautiful church; STAMFORD, a place of note as far back as Roman times; and GREAT GRIMSBY, with its splendid docks and its immense fishing trade, are notable among the remaining towns of Lincolnshire. The county is under the Lord Lieutenancy of Earl Brownlow.


Devonshire is one of the most beautiful counties in England, and has long been the resort par excellence of the artist, the tourist, the holiday-maker, and the seeker after that health and physical recuperation which can be so readily found under the influence of its mild and salubrious climate. Distinguished for inland scenery of the most charming and diversified character, and possessing a coastline, which is in many places surpassingly grand and picturesque, Devonshire has no rival among English counties as a centre of attraction to the artistic mind and eye, and the lover of nature in her most beauteous forms need never seek the gratification of his tastes in foreign lands as long as the breezy moors, the lovely valleys, the luxuriant “combes” and woodlands, and the ever-changing seaside panorama of old Devonia are open to his exploration. The county is one of the most famous in England’s maritime history, and its coasts are crowded with busy seaports that have played a splendid part in the mercantile achievements of the nation. Nor can we ever forget that it was upon the Hoe at Plymouth that the immortal heroes of the overthrow of the Armada played their historic game of “bowls” prior to sallying forth to effect the destruction of a proud and powerful invader. No one can read the works of the late Charles Kingsley, or those of Mr. R. D. Blackmore, without feeling an intense interest in Devonshire and its staunch high-spirited people.

The county has an area of 1,655,208 acres, and its population in 1881 was 603,595. Its mineral wealth is very considerable, tin, copper, lead, iron, granite, marble, slate, and limestone being produced; and no one needs to be informed of the fame of Devonshire in the matter of orchards and dairy farms. Its cider and its butter are unrivalled, and Devonshire cream is a delicacy of national renown and unequalled merit in its particular class. In many parts of the county the agricultural development is most satisfactory, beautifully kept and highly fertile farms meeting the eye of the visitor; and where the cultivation of the soil is not practicable, the deficiency is made good by industrial activity, the manufacture of woollen goods, paper, gloves, boots, and shoes, &c., being vigorously and successfully carried on. The little town of Honiton gives its name to a very beautiful and much-esteemed variety of lace, and lace-making is an industry in which the Devonians have long excelled. The fisheries of the county are valuable and important, enormous “catches” of herrings being made off the coats. Devonshire is principally situate in the Diocese of Exeter, and it has eight parliamentary division, each returning one member to Westminster. Lord Clinton is the Lord Lieutenant of the county.

EXETER (population, about 50,000) is the county town, and is one of the most ancient and interesting communities in this part of England. It is an episcopal city and a county in itself, and dates from the times of the early Britons, who called it Caer Isca. A great railway centre and a well-situated river port, it enjoys the material advantages of a large and flourishing trade, and has a number of important industries, including iron-foundries and manufactures of machinery, paper, and leather. Exeter is a handsome city and contains many notable edifices, chief among which is its large and beautiful cathedral, founded in the early part of the twelfth century. Other highly important towns in Devonshire are PLYMOUTH (population, 76,080), the second naval station in Great Britain, and a most prosperous and progressive seaport; TORQUAY, a very favourite watering-place; BARNSTAPLE, a busy trading town on the Taw; and TAVISTOCK, where Sir Francis Drake was born. Of course, there are many other places of interest and commercial activity besides these, but our limited space precludes a detailed mention of them here.


The maritime county of Norfolk is situated on the east coast of England, and has for its landward boundaries the counties of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire. Its area is 1,356,173 acres, and its population in 1881 was 444,740. The coast of Norfolk lies very low, and has suffered very much from the action of the North Sea, which continuously encroaches upon the shore. A great work, however, is being vigorously carried on in reclaiming the land that has been covered by the waters of the Wash, and very satisfactory results have been achieved in this matter. Norfolk has generally a level surface, and is purely an agricultural county, the soil being fertile in most parts, and the farms flourishing and conducted upon the most approved modern methods. The raising and fattening of geese and poultry for the London and other markets has become an important and profitable occupation of the farming community. The fishing industry along the Norfolk coast is one of very great magnitude, and gives employment to thousands of people. The manufacturing industries of the county are not very numerous or extensive, and relate chiefly to local requirements. Norfolk comprises six parliamentary divisions, each returning one member. It lies chiefly within the diocese of Norwich, and is under the Lord Lieutenancy of the Earl of Leicester, K.G.

The county town is NORWICH, an episcopal city of great antiquity, which traces its history back to the days of the Roman invasion. Norwich is a county in itself, returning two members to Parliament, and having at the present time a population of probably 95,000. The city is replete with objects of interest and ancient edifices of great beauty and antique association, and its superb cathedral is a grand specimen of Norman architecture. Norwich had important woollen manufactures as far back as the fourteenth century, and, though these have fallen off to a considerable extent, there are still many very notable industries carried on successfully here, including the making of boots and shoes, agricultural implements, starch, mustard, &c., together with brewing and general ironfounding. The city has a charming situation, and is as prosperous and progressive as it is historically interesting. GREAT YARMOUTH (population, 46,159) is a large, flourishing, and very important municipal and parliamentary borough, seaport, fishing-town, and watering-place. It has a good harbour, fine quays, an immense fishing industry, and a large general trade. The herring fishery is perhaps the largest in the kingdom, and “Yarmouth bloaters” have a widespread fame. LYNN REGIS, or KING’S LYNN, is another important seaport, with a population of 18,539, and a history dating back to Saxon times. It returns one member to Parliament, and has notable manufactures of ironwares and machinery, in addition to valuable fisheries and flourishing local trades.


A part of the ancient Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria now bears the above name, and forms the most northerly county in England. It ranks next to Norfolk in size, and has an area of 1,290,312 acres, with a population at the last census of 434,086. Northumberland presents a diversified surface, a good deal of it being rugged and picturesque, and the Cheviot Hills rise to a considerable elevation on its western and northern borders. In the fertile valleys to the eastward of these hills farming is industriously carried on, good crops being grown in barley especially. The famous Cheviot breed of sheep is reared here, and Durham “shorthorns” also form a conspicuous feature in the stock-raising pursuits of the people. The mineral wealth of Northumberland is very great, particularly in its immense coalfields, which have an enormous annual yield; and the river and sea fisheries are also very valuable. The industrial aspect of the county is especially striking, and we find immense activity prevailing in shipbuilding, ironfounding, engineering, rope-making, glass-making, and the manufacture of pottery, chemicals, and many other important commodities. Northumberland returns one member from each of its four parliamentary divisions. It is largely in the diocese of Newcastle, and its Lord Lieutenant is his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G. NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE (population, 145,359) is the county town, and is the largest and busiest community in England north of Leeds. It is an episcopal city and a county in itself, returning two members to Parliament, and possessing all the thriving institutions and social and commercial advantages of a metropolitan centre. It is a great seat of industry, shipbuilding especially being carried on here upon a scale of immense magnitude; and a host of other manufactures are busily engaged in. Newcastle has a fine port and docks, and an exceedingly large and important trade by rail and sea; and in every respect the city stands as a monument to the public spirit and practical energy of its inhabitants. TYNEMOUTH and NORTH SHIELDS are also busy and progressive towns, sharing fully in the commercial activity and prosperity of this thriving district; and HEXHAM, MORPETH, ALNWICK, and BERWICK-ON-TWEED are populous communities, of great historical interest. Berwick, with its ancient liberties, is a county in itself, but is regarded as part of Northumberland in parliamentary returns. It is a place of great antiquity, and played a notable part in the stirring times of the Border wars between England and Scotland.


The County Palatine of Lancaster, or Lancashire, with its vast population, its tremendous commercial activity, and its marvellous system of industrial undertakings, presents a subject upon which volumes might be written without fear of exhausting its material or its interest. Such a task, however, is not for us to perform in these pages, and it is within our scope and power only to give the briefest outline of the area, employments, and importance of this, perhaps the most remarkable of the counties of England. Lancashire contains 1,208,154 statute acres, and has a population (1881) of 3,454,441, being the most populous county in the kingdom. The principal rivers are the Mersey, the Ribble, the Lune, and the Wyre; and the agricultural districts produce good crops of oats, wheat, and potatoes. There is a coalfield of great extent in Lancashire, the annual yield of which is very large; and there are also important iron-mines and a great number of works and foundries engaged in the iron trade. It is, however, in connection with the cotton trade that Lancashire is world-famous, and its renown as the great and pre-eminent home of this mighty industry extends back to the dawn of the era of cotton manufacture in England. Nowhere in the whole world has the production of cotton textiles been developed upon such an enormous scale as in the busy districts of this county; and the colossal spinning mills and weaving factories of Manchester, Oldham, Bolton, Bury, Preston, Blackburn, Chorley, Middleton, and many other notable centres of the trade are absolutely unrivalled in size, importance, and perfection of equipment. The manufacture of cotton fabrics gives employment to hundreds of thousands of people in Lancashire, and affords a means of investment for a vast amount of capital. It is estimated that there are nearly 2,000 factories engaged in this industry, giving employment to about 375,000 hands; and as far back as the year 1850 there were 15,000,000 spindles and 185,000 power looms at work in the various establishments then existing. The increase since that date has been very great. Other industries besides cotton manufacture flourish in Lancashire, among them being all the various trades associated with cotton, woollen, and silk weaving and spinning, together with engineering and machine-making upon an immense scale, iron and steel manufactures in the Barrow district, leather manufacture and wire-drawing at Warrington, the making of crown, sheet, and plate-glass at St. Helen’s, watchmaking at Preston, and chemical manufacture at Widnes and other towns.

In all these trades, and in every general branch of commerce associated with the requirements of a teeming population, the greatest possible activity prevails. Lancashire has been well called the “workshop of the world.” It presents the most marvellous instance of industrial development ever known in any nation, and the indomitable energy and enterprise of its people have attracted universal admiration, while their progressive spirit and native talent have enabled them to achieve the acme of greatness in nearly every sphere of operations to which they have turned their attention. The county town of Lancashire is the ancient and beautifully situated port of LANCASTER, on the south bank of the river Lune. This town with a population of nearly 40,000 people, dates its history back to the Roman occupation, and was at one time one of the most thriving seaports on the coasts of England. Its trade is still in a flourishing condition, though the port is not now so accessible as formerly, owing to the sand deposits of the Lune. The remaining towns and cities of Lancashire speak more than volumes for the condition and advancement of the country, and it would be idle and superfluous to utter any comment here upon the remarkable status and splendid institutions of such great communities as Liverpool, Manchester, Oldham, Rochdale, Bury, Burnley, Blackburn, St. Helen’s, Barrow-in-Furness, Chorley, Southport, and many other places which reflect in their individual prosperity the collective thrift and capabilities of the Lancastrian people. The County Palatine contains the sees of two episcopates — Liverpool and Manchester — and since 1885 it has returned twenty-three members to Parliament. The larger towns send several representatives each to St. Stephen's. The Earl of Sefton, K.G., is Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire.


The maritime county of Somerset has its coastline on the Bristol Channel and the Severn estuary, and is bounded from the north-east round to the south-west by the counties of Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, and Devonshire. Its area is 1,049,812 acres, and its population in 1881 was 469,109. Somersetshire is rich in many geological and mineral products which are of great utility in the industrial arts; and it ranks as one of the finest agricultural counties in the west of England. The valleys are exceedingly fertile, and yield splendid crops, some of the finest wheat grown in England being cultivated in the beautiful vale of Taunton. Lead, iron, and slate are the principal minerals. The meadow lands afford remarkably rich pasture, and the flocks and herds of Somerset are famous. Industrial operations are also actively carried on in such branches as the manufacture of woollen goods, linens, laces, silks, paper, and glass; and the salmon and herring fisheries are of considerable commercial importance. the railway and canal system is complete and convenient; and the visitor to this county cannot fail to be impressed by the prevalent air of thrift and prosperity which is the result of the well-directed energies of an intelligent and industrious population. Somersetshire has seven divisions for parliamentary purposes, each division returning one member. The episcopal city of BATH is the capital of the county, and is regarded as one of the handsomest towns in Europe. It has been famous for its medicinal waters and hot springs ever since the days of the Romans, and is still a favourite among inland watering places. A hundred years ago it was the chosen resort of the wealth and fashion of the kingdom. Bath has an ancient and beautiful abbey church, and, together with Wells, it forms one diocese. The population of the parliamentary borough is 53,785, and it returns two members to Parliament. TAUNTON is a place of great antiquity, and stands in the midst of a beautiful tract of country. It has many excellent local institutions, an important trade, and flourishing manufactures. As an agricultural centre and market town it is especially notable. The population is upwards of 16,000. Taunton was a favourite place of residence of the West Saxon Kings, and its history is interesting. It was here that the notorious Judge Jeffreys held his “Bloody Assize” in the autumn of 1685. Other important towns in Somerset are: WELLINGTON, from which the “Iron Duke” took his title; FROME, with celebrated manufactures of woollens; BRIDGWATER, a busy trading port; and WESTON-SUPER-MARE, a favourite watering-place. YEOVIL is also a flourishing town with a considerable trade in glove-making; and the episcopal city of WELLS has a venerable cathedral. Near Wells is GLASTONBURY, famous for the ruins of its once magnificent abbey.


Among the maritime counties of the south of England, Hampshire holds a very conspicuous position. It lies to the south of Berkshire, having Surrey and Sussex on the east, and Wiltshire and Dorsetshire on the west, while the Channel forms its southern boundary. Including the Isle of Wight (from which it is separated by the narrow strait called the Solent), it has an area of 1,037,764 acres, and its population in 1881 was 593,470. This county has an undulating and magnificently wooded surface, the New Forest and the forests of Waltham Chase and Bere covering a large space in the west and south-east, and presenting probably the best examples of extensive and majestic woodland now existent in England. As an agricultural district Hampshire ranks very high, and its farming population display great energy and resource in the cultivation of the soil. Hampshire farms are always admirably kept, and some of the crops are particularly good, the wheat being especially esteemed in the market. Sheep are very largely reared on the broad expanse of the Hampshire downs; and the county is renowned for the fine quality of its hams and bacon, which form a very large item in the trade of the agricultural districts, and which are exported in great quantities. For the manufactures of the country we have to go to the principal towns.

WINCHESTER is the capital of the county, and ranks as one of the oldest and most distinguished ecclesiastical cities in the United Kingdom, its Bishopric coming next to those of London and Durham in order of precedency. This city is beautifully and picturesquely situated, and possesses many extremely interesting features, the local antiquities being rich in associations of a great and powerful past. Up to the time of the Normans, Winchester was the capital of England, and the tombs of many of the Saxon Kings are to be found in its stately cathedral, which enjoys the distinction of being the longest cathedral in England. Winchester School is the oldest and one of the most famous public schools in the kingdom; and there are many other charitable and educational institutions of a notable character. No English city has had a more eventful or more interesting history, and none, with the exception of London, has figured more prominently in the annals of the nation. In olden times it was unsurpassed in the wealth and number of its religious establishments, and the Bishops of Winchester wielded almost a palatine power. At the present day the ancient city leads a much more sedate and sober life than in the past, but it has lost none of its interest to the historian and the antiquarian. It returns one member to Parliament, and has a population of 17,780. Of PORTSMOUTH, the first naval station of England, and one of the busiest and most important of southern seaports, it is impossible to speak with adequacy in this very brief review. Suffice it to say that this historic town has a brisk and ever-increasing trade, with many important manufactures; and that it possesses local institutions of a character fully commensurate with its conspicuous modern progress. The naval dockyard here affords a wondrous illustration of the vastness and comprehensiveness of Britain's naval organisation, and is a mighty centre of activity in connection with the equipment and construction of Her Majesty’s ships of war. Portsmouth is strongly fortified, and has the finest harbour in the British Isles. The new Town Hall is a most noble addition to the architecture of the place. Two members of Parliament have been regularly returned from this ancient borough ever since the reign of Edward I. The population at the last census was 127,989. The thriving and progressive seaport of SOUTHAMPTON stands at the head of Southampton Water, and is a handsome town, with a population of 60,000. It has a very large and important shipping trade, and is one of the most progressive ports in the country. Her Majesty the Queen formally opened the magnificent new deep-water docks here on July 26th, 1890. Southampton has numerous manufacturing industries, which are chiefly connected with shipping and engineering, and its local trades are most enterprisingly conducted. There are many places of interest in the town and its vicinity. We should add that Southampton is the most important mail-packet station in England, and is a port of call for several very prominent lines of ocean steamers. GOSPORT, CHRISTCHURCH, LYMINGTON, ANDOVER, and PETERSFIELD are other noteworthy towns; and BOURNEMOUTH, charmingly situated in the south-western extremity of the county, has, within the last fifty years, become one of the most beautiful and fashionable seaside resorts in the British Isles.


This county has been termed the “Garden of England,” and the appellation is amply justified by the high state of cultivation which everywhere prevails. Kent is a maritime county of considerable importance, and has an area of 995,392 acres, with a population of 977,706. The surface is hilly, and the whole county abounds with picturesque interest, so much so that it is always a favourite resort for tourists and holiday-makers. Kent is famous for hops, which are grown here in very immense quantity and of superior quality; and it has also a national celebrity for all kinds of fruit of the highest class, the Kentish orchards being justly the pride of the people. Industrially, the county is not especially prominent, but there are numerous large paper-mills, and the work carried on at the royal dockyards at Woolwich, Sheerness, and Chatham gives employment to a multitude of people, most of whom are skilled artisans. Kent has had an eventful history, upon which, however, our limited space will not permit us to dwell. It contains eight parliamentary divisions, each of which returns one member. MAIDSTONE, the county town, is a place of great antiquity and historical interest, with manufactures of iron wares, leather, agricultural implements, &c., and an immense trade in hops. There are also notable breweries here, and the river traffic on the Medway is considerable. The town returns one member to Parliament, and has a population of 29,647. CANTERBURY, the ecclesiastical capital of England, and the archi-episcopal see of the Most Reverend the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England, is one of the most ancient and interesting cities in the kingdom, dating its history from the Druidical era. The Cathedral of Canterbury is one of the largest and finest edifices of its kind in Great Britain, and the city contains a great number of churches and institutions of very ancient foundation. It is an important military station, has a brisk local trade, and returns one member to Parliament. ROCHESTER is another episcopal city of high status and antiquity, with a splendid Norman Cathedral. CHATHAM, SHEERNESS, and WOOLWICH are famous for their dockyards, arsenals, and Government works. RAMSGATE, MARGATE, FOLKESTONE, and TUNBRIDGE WELLS need no indication of the high repute they enjoy as watering-places. DEPTFORD, GREENWICH, and GRAVESEND share in the renown of London, of which they are practically a part. DOVER, with its fortified castle, is the chief point of communication between England and the Continent, and is a busy and flourishing town; while the ancient port of DEAL, where Julius Caesar is supposed to have first landed, is noted as a watering- place end pilot station. Its boatmen and mariners have long enjoyed a well-earned reputation for their skill and intrepidity.


With a generally fertile soil, well watered by numerous rivers, Essex is notable as an agricultural county of considerable importance. Its position is in the south-east of England, with the Thames on the south, the North Sea on the east, and the counties of Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Hertfordshire and Middlesex on the north and west. Essex contains an area of 987,032 acres, and its population is 576,434. It has large tracts of marshy lands along the coast, but the interior is for the most part excellent farming country, and is in a high state of cultivation, agriculture being pursued upon the best modern methods on most of the Essex farms. The crops of wheat and barley are generally very good indeed. A good deal of energy has been displayed in draining the marshes along the coast, and many acres of excellent grazing land have thus been reclaimed. Epping Forest, which is perpetually preserved by Act of Parliament, lies in the western extremity of the county, and forms a delightful and favourite sylvan retreat for residents of the metropolis, who resort to it in great numbers on Sundays and holidays. Essex is not rich in any minerals beyond chalk, and clay suitable for brickmaking. This latter industry is engaged in, but the manufactures of the county are chiefly for local requirements. The oyster fishery is of considerable value. Essex has eight parliamentary divisions, returning one member each. Its county town is CHELMSFORD, a busy and well-built town on the Chelmer, with a population of about 10,000. COLCHESTER, which originated as a fortified camp of the Romans, is the largest town in Essex, having a population of nearly 30,000. Most interesting Roman remains and antiquities are to be found here. The town has a brisk trade and several flourishing local industries, and returns one member to Parliament. HARWICH (population, 7,842) is a very important and busy seaport, with a large shipping trade, and possesses one of the best and safest harbours on the east coast. The Great Eastern Railway Company’s steam packets ply between here and the Continent. Harwich has a notable lobster and shrimp fishery, and there are also successful rope and sail works, breweries and other industries. HALSTEAD, MALDON, and SAFFRON WALDEN are among other prominent and thriving Essex towns.


This county illustrates to perfection the great charm and beauty of English mountain scenery, and the famous “Lake District” of Cumberland attracts thousands of visitors annually from all parts of the world. Ullswater, Derwentwater, Thirlmere, Wastwater, Ennerdale Water, and many other smaller lakes are well-nigh unrivalled in picturesque beauty, and the noble ranges of hills that extend throughout this county present a magnificent scenic panorama, some of the peaks rising to a very notable altitude. Scawfell, Helvellyn, and Skiddaw are among the loftiest summits in Great Britain. Cumberland has an area of 970,161 acres, and a population of 250,647. It is a border and maritime county, with a coastline of great irregularity and generally of a rugged character. The Eden is the principal river, and develops into the Solway Firth, a broad arm of the sea, upon the sandy shores of which there are several busy seaports. The mineral wealth of Cumberland is very considerable, and besides large beds of coal and iron, there is a great yield of blacklead of superior quality. Various useful stones are also abundant, and there are considerable quantities of copper, gypsum, antimony, &c. The iron industry and the coal-mines give employment to large numbers of people, and there are many important ironworks and machine-making establishments in the county. Agriculture is not favoured by the character of the county, but sheep and cattle breeding is largely engaged in by the hardy and thrifty inhabitants of the valleys and uplands, and by their industry and practical skill they make it a profitable pursuit. The dairy-farms of Cumberland are the most notable of any northern district. It is quite certain that every natural resource of this interesting county is most fully utilised by a shrewd, intelligent, and energetic population, and the local industries are all in a state of good development.

CARLISLE, the capital of the county, is a very old and interesting episcopal city, with a history dating back to the Roman sovereignty in Britain. Its cathedral was founded by William Rufus, and has a magnificent east window. Carlisle is one of the most important of northern railway stations, and is the terminus of seven or eight lines. The city has a population of 35,884, and possesses a fine old castle. It has a brisk trade in general merchandise, and manufactures of cottons, woollens, leather, linens, iron wares, and hats. WHITEHAVEN, a thriving seaport town, is noted for its coal-mines, which have been carried out far under the Irish Sea, and are of vast depth. COCKERMOUTH has some notable manufactures; KESWICK is an interesting and attractive town, with textile and lead-pencil manufactories; and PENRITH, WORKINGTON, and MARYPORT are important communities, each with considerable trade. Cumberland returns four members from its county divisions.


This eastern maritime county lies to the south of Norfolk, with Cambridgeshire on the west and Essex on the south. Its eastern boundary is the North Sea, which has made great and serious inroads upon the low-lying and unstable coast. The neighbourhoods of Dunwich and Aldeburgh have suffered especially in this respect. Suffolk has an area of 944,060 acres, and a population of 356,893. It possesses many fertile tracts apart from its expanses of sand and fen, and the Suffolk farms have a reputation for large and excellent crops of barley, wheat, and peas. Sheep-raising is an important industry in the hilly districts of the north-west, and everybody knows by repute the powerful Suffolk cart-horse, in the breeding of which the farmers find a profitable occupation. Dairy produce is exported to a considerable extent, the butter of this county being held in esteem. The herring and mackerel fisheries are very important, but there are few manufacturing industries beyond the making of agricultural implements and artificial manures. The Great Eastern Railway system affords very complete facilities of communication between all the principal towns. The county of Suffolk comprises five Parliamentary divisions, each returning one member, and the Marquis of Bristol is Lord Lieutenant. IPSWICH, a large, flourishing and finely situated town, is the county town of Suffolk, and the chief centre of trade and manufacture. It has extensive docks and considerable shipping, and is famous for its production of agricultural implements. There are also several other industries of local importance. Ipswich, which stands at the junction of the river Gipping with the Orwell estuary, has a population of over 50,000, and the borough returns two members to Parliament. BURY ST. EDMUND’S (population, 16,111) is a neat and thriving town, with manufactures of agricultural machinery and a large general trade. It has the remains of a once magnificent abbey, and derives its name from the fact that King Edmund of East Anglia was murdered here in the ninth century. There is also an old and celebrated grammar school, and many excellent local institutions. LOWESTOFT is the most easterly port in England, and has a good harbour and very large herring and mackerel fisheries. SUDBURY, EYE, BECCLES, and WOODBRIDGE are prominent among the remaining towns of the county of Suffolk, and each has a considerable local trade.


This important and highly interesting county occupies a fine maritime position, with the English Channel on the south and the counties of Kent, Surrey and Hampshire as its landward boundaries. Its area is 933,269 acres, and its population in 1881 was 490,505. The famous uplands, known as the South Downs, traverse a large part of the county, and upon their fine pastures are reared as celebrated a breed of sheep as any in England. The agricultural districts attain their highest fertility along the coast, where splendid crops are produced; and in what is called the Weald of Sussex there is a great area of woodland, the soil here being especially favourable to the growth of forest trees. On the borders of Kent hops are cultivated to a large extent. Sussex possesses some mineral wealth, ironstone being especially plentiful; but the iron industry (once very largely engaged in) has declined since the abandonment of wood as a fuel for smelting. The manufacturing operations now carried on embrace the production of bricks, tiles, paper, and various other commodities, and in some of the larger towns there are important mechanical engineering shops, foundries, &c. Sussex is especially remarkable in modern times for the great development of fashionable watering-places along its coasts, a fact which is due to the beauty of the scenery and the remarkable salubrity of the climate. Such delightful resorts as BRIGHTON, EASTBOURNE, HASTINGS, ST. LEONARDS, WORTHING, BOGNOR, and LITTLEHAMPTON need no introduction to our readers, and the public favour in which they are held is ever on the increase.

The capital of the county is CHICHESTER, a handsome and interesting city of great antiquity, with the remains of a Roman wall, and many other archaeological relics. Chichester has a population of about 9,000, is the see of a bishopric, and has an elegant and beautiful Gothic cathedral, with a lofty spire. Not far from the city is the celebrated Goodwood racecourse. LEWES is situated in the South Downs, and has a population of over 10,000. It is an ancient town with a good general trade and some manufactures, and is historically famous as the scene of the decisive battle in 1264, between the barons under Simon de Montfort, and the King (Henry III.), in which the latter was defeated and made prisoner. RYE, which is one of the ancient and privileged CINQUE PORTS, is a populous and busy town, with a flourishing general trade, and important fishing industries. It has one of the largest parish churches in the kingdom. For parliamentary purposes Sussex has (since 1885) contained six divisions, each of which returns one member. The county is rich in historical associations, and abounds with places of interest to the tourist and the antiquarian.


Few English counties are so famous in connection with dairy farming as Wiltshire, whose broad and fertile meadows lie between the adjacent counties of Gloucestershire on the north and northwest, Somerset on the west, Hampshire and Dorset on the south, and Berkshire on the cast. Wiltshire has an area of 866,677 acres, with a population of 258,965, and its picturesque and varied country is intersected by the delightful Vale of Pewsey, to the north of which lie the Marlborough Downs, while the celebrated Salisbury Plain is in the southern part. The Druidical remains at Stonehenge are regarded as the most perfect and interesting in England. The pastures of Wiltshire, which extend over a very great part of the county, afford splendid grazing facilities, and the dairy produce is of a very superior quality. Butter and cheese are special features in the county’s trade, and Wiltshire bacon is famous both at home and abroad. Among the manufactures engaged in a prominent place is held by the woollen and carpet industries, and there are also cutlery and steel manufactures, and considerable activity in ironfounding. Much enterprise is displayed by the inhabitants of this county in promoting progress both in their agricultural and commercial pursuits, and very satisfactory results are attained. Wiltshire is divided into five parliamentary divisions, each of which returns one member, and the Earl of Radnor is Lord Lieutenant of the county.

SALISBURY (formerly called New Sarum) is the chief town in Wiltshire, and has an immense trade in cattle and agricultural produce, besides very important manufactures of high-class cutlery and steel wares, ropes and twine, boots and shoes, malting, brewing, &c. Salisbury has a population of 14,792 (1881 census), and possesses one of the most stately and graceful Gothic cathedrals in Europe. The spire is the loftiest in England, being 404 feet high. The city dates its history from about the year 1220, and was the birthplace of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. It returns one member to Parliament. DEVIZES is ancient and thriving town, with manufactures of silk and iron-foundings, a most important corn market, and a population of about 7,000. TROWBRIDGE (population, 11,040) has flourishing manufactures of kerseymeres and woollens; WILTON (population, 2,000) is world-famous for its carpets; MALMESBURY (population, about 4,000) was the birthplace of the celebrated William of Malmesbury, who was precentor of the abbey here. This town has manufactures of silks, and brewing is also actively carried on. CHIPPENHAM, CALNE, WARMINSTER, and several other towns are busy places, and were once especially famous for their woollen cloths. These are now chiefly produced at GREAT BRADFORD and WESTBURY. MARLBOROUGH is also a busy town, with a famous school; and SWINDON is noted for the Great Western Railway engine works, which are here situated. It may be noted that facilities of communication are very good between most of the above towns. The Thames is navigable as far as Cricklade, in the extreme north of the county.


This notable maritime county lies in the extreme south-west of England, and forms a peninsula, with Devonshire as its eastern boundary and the sea on all other sides. Its area is 863,665 acres, and its population in 1881 was 330,686. Cornwall has a coastline of over 200 miles, with some very good harbours along its bold and irregular shores. The interior contains a great deal of moorland, but there are not a few fertile valleys, in which the pursuit of agriculture is fairly profitable. As a mining county Cornwall ranks very high, and long before the landing of Julius Caesar in Britain the tin and copper mines of this county were well known to the adventurous and enterprising Phoenicians. At the present day tin, copper, lead, zinc, arsenic, and even silver are produced, many of them in large quantities, and the Cornish mines are renowned for the vast depth and extent of their subterranean and sometimes submarine excavations. The pilchard and mackerel fisheries are also of much importance. The county returns one member from each of its parliamentary divisions, six in number, and the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe is Lord Lieutenant. BODMIN (population, 6,214) is the county town, and has manufactures of worsteds. TRURO is a finely situated seaport at the head of Falmouth Bay, and has a brisk trade, the smelting of tin being a notable industry. There is here a handsome new cathedral in connection with the recently created diocese of Truro. REDRUTH (population, about 10,000) has Druidical remains, and is a town of antiquity. It stands in the centre of one of the richest mining districts in Cornwall. FALMOUTH (population, 12,131) is an important seaport, with one of the finest harbours on the English coast. It has a very large shipping trade, and was formerly famous as a mail-packet station. As a port of call it probably stands first in the south of England. Other very noteworthy Cornish towns are — PENRYN, LAUNCESTON, ST. IVES, PENZANCE, HELSTONE, LISKEARD, and CAMBORNE, all of which have good local institutions and considerable commercial activity, some of them maintaining a most important association with the mining industries of the county.


One of the most interesting quarters of England is the west midland county of Shropshire, which lies on the borders of North Wales, and has an area of 814,565 acres, with a population of 248,014. Its chief river is the Severn, and the greater part of the country on each side of this river furnishes a fertile soil, which is kept in an excellent state of cultivation by the thrifty Salopians. Large crops of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, turnips, beans, and peas are yielded in the agricultural districts, and many fine dairy farms are also to be met with, the produce of these being of superior quality. Shropshire is renowned for a splendid breed of sheep, and cattle-breeding is also largely engaged in. The industrial aspect of the county is satisfactory and promising, and there are flourishing manufactures of iron wares, glass, paper, earthenware, flannels, carpets, and gloves. The iron industry is of considerable importance, and the mineral resources of the county are large, especially in coal, iron, and several useful varieties of stone. The four parliamentary divisions of Shropshire return one member each, and the county lies within the Dioceses of Lichfield, Hereford, and St. Asaph. SHREWSBURY, a very ancient town, with important railway connections, is the county town. It is one of the quaintest and most picturesque places in England, and its many fine timber houses attest its great antiquity. The town abounds in features of the utmost interest to the antiquarian, and has many remains of notable edifices of the olden time. Here was fought the battle between the Earl of Northumberland and King Henry IV., in which conflict the young Lord Percy (“Hotspur”) was slain; and many a stirring scene in the troublous times of the Norman and Plantagenet periods was enacted in or near this historic borough. Modern Shrewsbury has a brisk agricultural and general trade, and possesses some notable foundries and machine works. Its population in 1881 was 26,478. BRIDGENORTH, BROSELEY, OSWESTBY, WELLINGTON, LUDLOW, and MARKET DRAYTON (populations, ranging from 5,000 to about 10,000) are other important Shropshire towns, each with notable historical associations, an excellent municipal organisation, and a considerable trade in the chief commodities of the county, such as iron, coal, malt, and various textiles.


This is one of the most important of the western counties, containing 783,699 acres, with a population at the last census of 572,433. Gloucestershire is a very notable agricultural and stock-raising county, and its varied picturesque surface presents a large expanse of splendid farm land in a high state of cultivation. the pastures are particularly good, and tend to promote progress in dairy farming. This forms a profitable branch of agricultural industry and the dairy products of the county are much esteemed, the famous Gloucester cheese having an unexcelled reputation. Sheep-farming is also engaged in to a considerable extent. Gloucestershire has large mineral resources, and the coal-fields in the north and west are important. In manufacturing industries the principal branches to which attention is given are the weaving of woollen and other textiles. A large general trade is done in all parts of the county, its operations being facilitated by excellent systems of railway and canal transport. The five parliamentary divisions of the county return one member each. GLOUCESTER, a very ancient and celebrated episcopal city, is the capital of the county, and is an important and flourishing trade centre, with a population of about 40,000 and manufactures of ironwares, chemicals, railway plant, soap, &c., &c. As a river port Gloucester has a considerable amount of traffic. The city is the see of a bishopric, which was united to that of Bristol in 1836. The cathedral is a noble and spacious structure, and there are many other noteworthy and interesting buildings and institutions.

BRISTOL, the most populous town in the west of England, is one of the leading seaports of the kingdom, and has long been a centre of great commercial activity. Part of the city lies in Somersetshire, but it is chiefly situated in Gloucestershire, and has an advantageous position. It is a large, busy, and progressive place, displaying the enterprise of its inhabitants in every department of its immense local and export trade; and many of its features are remarkably interesting and creditable. The cathedral and several fine churches, together with a number of handsome public buildings, contribute to the architectural attractiveness of the city, and there are many excellent educational and benevolent institutions. Bristol is a county in itself, and returns four members to Parliament. It has good docks and railway and shipping facilities in general, and possesses a large number of important manufacturing works. The population of the parliamentary borough in 1881 was 253,906. TEWKESBURY (population, 6,100), with its fine old abbey church, is an ancient and historic town at the junction of the Avon with the Severn. It is a place of considerable trade, with manufactures of stockings, lace, &c., and a large amount of market business is done. Tewkesbury was the scene of a famous battle in the Wars of the Roses. STROUD (population, 7,848) is picturesquely situated on the elevation near the rivers Slade and Frome, and has large cloth manufactures. The dyeworks connected with the various factories are a special feature, the water of the Slade being particularly suitable for dyeing purposes. CHELTENHAM, one of the prettiest towns in the west country, is a very fashionable and favourite inland watering-place, renowned for its mineral springs, which have been very successfully developed. The town is handsomely built, and possesses splendid promenades, pump-rooms, &c. It is also famous for its schools and colleges. The population of the parliamentary borough is 50,842. CIRENCESTER stands upon the site of a Roman fortified camp, and has important manufactures of woollens, carpets, cutlery, &c., as well as a large agricultural and live-stock trade. Its population is upwards of 8,000. About a mile from the town is situated the Royal Agricultural College, with its fine gardens and model farms.


This county is situated in the west midlands, contiguous to Warwickshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Worcestershire, and Shropshire, and has an area of 748,433 acres, with a population of 981,013. Agriculture is engaged in to a considerable extent, especially in the south, but Staffordshire derives its chief celebrity from its mineral wealth. It is regarded as the third manufacturing county in the kingdom, and the potteries of North Staffordshire form a centre of industrial activity unsurpassed anywhere. Here is the great headquarters of the British pottery industry, and enormous quantities of earthenware and china are produced, ranging in character from the stoutest of utilitarian articles to the richest and most elegant of artistic wares. Then, turning to the southern part of the county, we find one of the chief spheres of operations in the British iron industry, the superior ore yielded by the mines here being smelted and manufactured at the great ironworks which exist throughout this busy locality. Such towns as STOKE-UPON-TRENT, HANLEY, and BURSLEM are world-famous. They constitute the “ otteries,” together with a number of smaller places, and require no introduction to anyone who has watched the wondrous progress of the fictile industry in England. Near NEWCASTLE-UNDER-LYNE (a busy and populous manufacturing town) is situated the renowned pottery establishment of the Messrs. Wedgwood, founded many years ago by Josiah Wedgwood, who was a native of Burslem, and a pioneer in the improvement of the ceramic art. BURTON-ON-TRENT has some of the largest breweries in existence, and produces the finest ales in the world. WOLVERHAMPTON, BILSTON, WALSALL, WEDNESBURY, are prominent among the greatest seats of the iron and hardware industries in England.

Ancient LICHFIELD stands in the centre of an agricultural district and has an important market, together with a considerable general trade. It is a distinguished episcopal city and a county in itself, with a population of about 10,000, and many historical associations. The cathedral of Lichfield is one of the grandest and most beautiful ecclesiastical edifices in the United Kingdom. Samuel Johnson, the great lexicographer, was born in this city, and received his education at the celebrated Lichfield Grammar School. TAMWORTH is a busy place, with manufactures of paper, tape, leather, and smallwares, and a population of 14,095. STAFFORD, the county town, has many excellent literary and educational institutions, and engages in the manufacture of leather and boots and shoes. It has a population of nearly and is noted as the birthplace of Izaak Walton, the angler. Staffordshire returns one member from each of its parliamentary divisions, and, from the nature of its industries and the spirited energy of its people, it forms one of the most interesting and important counties in the kingdom.


This county has an area of 658,624 acres, with a population of 461,914, and its position is in the heart of the English midlands. It presents a greatly diversified surface, the Peak District in the north-west being renowned for its picturesque mountain scenery. In the south the country is level or slightly undulating, and in other quarters it is very irregular. There is a considerable amount of good pasture land, and the dairy farms of Derbyshire are consequently of importance, their produce, moreover, being of excellent quality. In the arable districts wheat, oats, barley and other crops are grown. The mineral wealth of the county is great, and coal is especially abundant. Iron and lead are worked to a considerable extent, but Derbyshire’s industries are chiefly of a textile character, cotton, silk, and lace goods being largely manufactured. At CROMFORD, over a hundred years ago, Sir Richard Arkwright established the first cotton-spinning mill in England; and the first silk-mill in the kingdom was erected in 1717 at DERBY, the county town, which is now a large, well-built, and prosperous place, having a population of over 80,000, and possessing many notable manufactories, foundries, porcelain works, &c. Derby is also an important railway centre and a place of great business activity, and it has the head offices and chief works of the Midland Railway Company. BELPER (population, 10,000) is a modern town, with large manufactures of cotton and hosiery. MATLOCK and BUXTON (both of which are situated in the midst of the most charming and romantic scenery) are favourite health resorts, noted for their thermal and mineral springs and for their large hydropathic establishments. CHESTERFIELD, a place of very ancient origin, has made great progress in recent years, and has flourishing silk, lace, cotton, merino, earthenware, and hardware industries. It stands in a rich mineral district, and has a population considerably in excess of 12,000. Its fine church of All Saints possesses a most remarkable spire. WIRKSWORTH has textile manufactures and lead-mines which are said to date from the Roman period; and ALFRETON, with its potteries, quarries, ironworks, &c., is believed to have derived its name from Alfred the Great. ASHFORD, LONG EATON, HACKINQTON, and MILFORD are also important industrial centres. Derbyshire returns seven members to Parliament, one from each of its divisions; and the Duke of Devonshire, K.G., is Lord Lieutenant of the county.


In a historical sense the County Palatine of Cheshire is one of the most notable and interesting divisions of England, while as a dairy-farming and grazing district it is second only to Devonshire. Its area is 657,123 acres, and its population in 1881 was 644,037. Cheshire is situated upon the borders of North Wales and was the scene of many a fierce conflict in the old days of the struggle between the chieftains of Wales and the Plantagenet sovereigns of England. At the present day its progress in the more peaceful paths of manufacturing and pastoral industry is very satisfactory, and the rich and fertile valleys of this singularly beautiful county contain some of the finest dairy-farms to be met with in the United Kingdom. Sheep raising is also an important occupation of the farmers, and the breeding of live stock generally is very successfully engaged in. Cheshire cheese is world-famous, and has hardly a rival in its particular class. The arable districts of the county are exceedingly fertile, producing fine crops; and fruit is also largely grown. The salt-mines of this country are of ancient origin, and are among the largest in the British Isles. Among the other industries of Cheshire the manufactures of cotton, silk, and ribbons are of principal importance, and have their location chiefly in the eastern part of the county.

CHESTER, which is a county in itself, as well as a municipal and parliamentary borough, is in many respects the most interesting city in the kingdom. Its antiquity is very great, its history dating back beyond the Roman era; and no English town has been so successful in preserving its relics of the past. The ancient walls, which completely encircle the city, have been kept perfectly intact, and form a splendid promenade; and the many quaint old houses, churches, and other edifices which remain, constitute a source of unending interest to the tourist with a taste for archaeology. The cathedral of Chester is a noble Gothic fane, which has been richly and skilfully restored, and the episcopal see of which it is the seat is a most important one. Chester has a large general trade and several flourishing manufacturing industries, and a great amount of market business is done. Excellent railway and canal communication exists, and the city (which has now a population of over 40,000) is making steady and substantial progress in every essential respect. BIRKENHEAD (population, 84,006) is a large and important seaport town, situated opposite Liverpool, on the Cheshire side of the Mersey. It is of modern growth entirely, and its present prosperity is due to the development of its extensive docks, which have given facilities for an exceedingly extensive and increasing trade. The ferry service to Liverpool is perhaps the best and most convenient in the kingdom.

STOCKPORT (population, 59,553) is famous for its Cathedral. cotton, woollen, silk and hardware industries, and also for its manufacture of hats. It has made conspicuous progress in modern times, and is probably the busiest manufacturing town in the county. MACCLESFIELD (population, 37,514) is the great seat of the Cheshire silk industry, and has an eminent reputation for its products in all branches of this trade. There are also other notable manufactures here, including trimmings for upholstery, cotton goods, and small wares. STALEYBRIDGE (population, 25,977) has cotton factories, foundries, and machine shops, and does a large trade in the products of the same. CONGLETON (population, 11,116) produces silks, together with salt and coal to some extent; and RUNCORN has a large shipping trade, with manufactures of ropes, leather, chemicals, &c. (population, 15,126). There are large stone quarries in this neighbourhood. NANTWICH (population, about 8,000) has a considerable local trade, and was formerly famous in connection with the salt trade, which now has its chief centre at Northwich, an interesting old town of about 12,000 inhabitants, where there are salt-works which are said to have been known to the Romans.


The County Palatine of Durham occupies a notable position among the northern divisions of England, and is especially interesting by reason of the almost princely wealth and power which formerly attached to its ancient episcopal see. The bishopric of Durham is still one of the most important in the kingdom. The county has an area of 647,592 acres and a population of 867,258. In the western part and in the valleys of the river, the soil is very fertile and favourable to agriculture and cattle raising. The mineral wealth of the county is very great, the coalfields being the largest and most important in England. Many industries are carried on upon a scale of great magnitude, including ironworking, machine making, woollen manufacture, paper making, sail making, and the production of chemicals, glass, and earthenware. Splendid facilities of transport exist, greatly promoting these industries, and employment is given to a very large amount of skilled labour. The county returns eight members from its parliamentary divisions, and its chief towns are:— DURHAM, the capital, an ancient episcopal city, with a considerable trade, and a magnificent cathedral dating from the eleventh century. SUNDERLAND, a seaport of high importance, and the great depot of the Durham coal trade (population, 124,841). STOCKTON-ON-TEES (population, 55,460), a very busy and progressive town on the Tees, with many flourishing manufactures and a most extensive and important shipbuilding industry. SOUTH SHIELDS (population, 56,875) and HARTLEPOOL (population, 46,990), thriving seaports with large shipping and general trades. DARLINGTON (population, 35,104), with great ironworking and engineering establishments and other manufactures; and GATESHEAD-ON-TYNE (population, 65,041), a busy place which may be regarded as a part of Newcastle-on-Tyne, there being three communicating bridges across the river at this point.


This important south-midland county has an area of 629,912 acres, with a population of 272,555, and is one of the most picturesque districts in this part of England, some very pleasing scenery being created by the diversified surface of the country. Northampton is very fertile, and farming in all its branches is successfully carried on throughout the county. The fine pastoral lands rear a very superior breed of cattle, which are sent chiefly to the London market. Timber is abundant in this county, especially oak, ash, und elm, some grand specimens of these trees being found; and there is also considerable mineral wealth, the iron-works of Northamptonshire having come very prominently to the front during the last thirty years, though it is said the mines were known to the Romans. Boot and shoe manufacture is carried on upon a very large scale in the busy town of Northampton (population, 57,544), which is the capital of the county, and which may be regarded as probably the chief seat of the boot and shoe industry in England. The remaining towns of note in this county include the following:— PETERBOROUGH (population, 22,394), with a fine old cathedral — lately reopened after extensive restoration — and important markets for corn, cattle, and all agricultural produce. WELLINGBOROUGH, with manufactures of boots and shoes, and noted for its mineral wells and springs. DAVENTRY, an ancient town, celebrated for its productions in shoes and whips. TOWCESTER, another place of considerable antiquity, with important shoe-making and lace-making industries; and KETTERING, dating from the Saxon period, and showing satisfactory progress in tanning and currying, boot and shoe manufacturing, and the making of brushes, stays, and agricultural implements. Northamptonshire returns four members to Parliament, and the Earl Spencer, K.G., is Lord Lieutenant of the county.


This southern maritime county lies between Devonshire, Somerset, Wiltshire, Hampshire, and the English Channel, and has an area of 627,265 acres, with a population of 191,028. It is famous for its fine pastures, upon which very large flocks of sheep are reared; and the dairy farms of Dorset are also celebrated, a high state of perfection being attained in their products. The Isle of Portland, which projects far into the Channel on the south, is noted for its quarries of Portland stone, and is also the seat of a great convict prison. Portland stone and Purbeck clay are the chief mineral products of the county. The mackerel fisheries are valuable, and give employment to a large number of men. For parliamentary purposes Dorset is divided into four divisions, each returning one member. The county is mostly in the diocese of Salisbury, and the Earl of Ilchester is its Lord Lieutenant. DORCHESTER, the county town, is a place of ancient origin, and is remarkable for its Roman remains, chief among which are the ruins of a vast amphitheatre. The population is upwards of 8,000 and there is a considerable agricultural trade. WEYMOUTH (with which is united MELCOMBE REGIS, a favourite watering-place) is an important seaport and Channel packet station, with a large coasting, fishing, and foreign trade, and manufactures of ropes and sails. Shipbuilding is also carried on. The population of the united boroughs is about 11,000. POOLE (population, 12,310) has one of the best harbours on the south coast, and does a large trade in Purbeck clay for the potteries. The fishing industry of this port is also important. BRIDPORT (population, 6,795) is another notable seaport, with a good harbour, and manufactures of cordage, twine, and fishing nets. SHERBORNE (population, 5,053) is a very ancient town, with many interesting associations. It has a beautiful minster and a grammar school of high repute. Gloves, buttons, and lace are manufactured. WAREHAM (population, about 3,000) is also a place of great antiquity, with an active trade in corn, cattle, and potter’s clay of a superior quality.


Among those counties whose claims to attention are based almost equally upon their historical interest and their industrial activity, Warwickshire, with its area of 566,271 acres, and its large population of 737,339, is conspicuous. Here, with a mild and salubrious climate and a generally fertile soil, the pursuits of agriculture are profitably engaged in, and the county is rich in fine woodlands. Minerals are also abundant, coal, ironstone and fire-clay being the most notable products in this class. Warwickshire contains a great number of places whose historical and archaeological interest is unsurpassed, and among these we do not need to dwell at any length upon such widely renowned resorts of the tourist and antiquarian as WARWICK, the handsome and interesting county town, with its grand old castle towering above the quiet waters of the Avon; STRATFORD-ON-AVON, the birthplace of Shakespeare; KENILWORTH, with its ruins of Leicester’s magnificent castle; or RUGBY, with its world-renowned public school. LEAMINGTON, also, is too well known to need introduction here, its fame as a pretty and fashionable residential watering-place having long been established. COVENTRY, a town of great antiquity, still retains a large measure of its historic interest, while it preserves an increasing fame for its great manufactures of ribbons, silks, watches, carpets, art metal-work, and cycles. NUNEATON is another busy place, with a history dating back to the twelfth century, and a large trade in woven worsteds. And last, but greatest of all, there is BIRMINGHAM, the metropolis of the midlands, the “toyshop of Europe,” and a city of almost unprecedented modern growth. Here the hardware industries have their recognised head-quarters, not alone for England, but for the world; and there is not a quarter of the globe which has not become familiar with some article or articles produced in the countless factories of this remarkable community. Birmingham at the present day has a population which must exceed half a million; and its achievements during the last half-century have revolutionised some of the most notable of British art industries, and created others which have won instant and universal recognition. In commercial enterprise it is unexcelled by any other English town, and in the development of its own special branches of metal-working and hardware manufacture it stands alone, unapproached by any rival at home or abroad.


The county of Herefordshire is situate on the south-eastern border of Wales, and contains 532,918 acres, with a population of 121,062. It is remarkable for the picturesque beauty of its undulating surface, and is famous for its pears and apples, and for the fine breed of oxen reared upon its luxuriant meadow lands. Agriculture is the chief pursuit of the people of this county, there being no important minerals and few manufactures. Herefordshire has two parliamentary divisions, each returning one member. The capital of the county is HEREFORD, on the Wye, an ancient and interesting episcopal city of about 20,000 inhabitants, with a beautifully restored cathedral. The city has some noteworthy glove and hat factories, and its cheese and cattle fairs are old- established and important institutions. LEOMINSTER, ROSS, and LEDBURY are other prominent towns in Herefordshire, each having a considerable local trade in agricultural products.


This county, situated in the north midlands, and occupying an area of 527,752 acres, had a population in 1881 of 391,815. It has a soil which is generally fertile, and hops and green crops are largely grown. Market-gardening is a fairly profitable business in some parts, particularly in the vicinity of Nottingham. The mineral wealth of the county is not great, but its industrial activity is considerable, and the manufactures of lace goods, hosiery, woollen and cotton textiles, and certain classes of hardwares are admirably developed. Lace curtain and general lace goods making may be regarded as the chief industry nowadays, and it has its headquarters at NOTTINGHAM, the busy and populous county town, which has some of the greatest lace factories in the United Kingdom. Here there are also breweries, tanneries, ironfoundries, silk and woollen mills, and other industrial establishments of great importance; and Nottingham now has a population not far short of 200,000. It is a county in itself, and returns three members I to Parliament. NEWARK is a handsome, well-built town of about 15,000 inhabitants. It has a large corn market and an enormous trade in malt and flour, and its manufactures embrace iron and brass wares, boilers, agricultural implements, and many other commodities. MANSFIELD (population, 13,653) is a place of great antiquity, with large silk, cotton, ironfounding, engineering, and brewing industries, and a flourishing corn and cattle trade. Sherwood Forest, the scene of Robin Hood’s adventures, is still
traceable in the vicinity.


This is an inland eastern county, lying between Lincolnshire on the north, Essex and Hertfordshire on the south, Norfolk and Suffolk on the east, and Bedfordshire, Huntingdon and Northampton on the west. Its area is 524,935, and its population is 185,594. Cambridgeshire is entirely an agricultural county, and has large tracts of remarkably fertile land, especially in the north, where the fens and marshes have been drained by a splendid system of trenches and cuttings. Here very fine crops are grown, and in the valley of the Cam — an exceedingly pretty country — there are numerous dairy-farms of a most creditable character. The county contains three parliamentary divisions, each returning one member. Its capital is the famous old academical town of CAMBRIDGE (population, 35,363), beautifully situated on the Cam, and renowned as the seat of one of England’s two greatest universities. Cambridge has no manufactures, but there is a considerable local trade of a general character, and the place abounds in features of great interest, its colleges, churches, and institutions being very noteworthy. The borough returns one member, and the university two members to Parliament. ELY (population, 8,171) is an ancient episcopal city, with a grand and beautiful cathedral and several important local institutions. There are oilworks and a pipe factory in the city, but the trade carried on at Ely is chiefly of an agricultural nature. WISBEACH or WISBECH (population, 9,249) is a busy port with a considerable general trade. NEWMARKET (population, 5,093) is celebrated for its fine racecourse, its great race-meetings, and its horse-training stables.


This is one of the most beautiful and picturesque of the midland counties, extending over an area of 511,907 acres, and having a population of 321,258. The soil is fertile and productive, and the pastoral lands are very rich, rearing a celebrated breed of sheep, and promoting the industry of dairy farming, which is very largely engaged in. Stilton cheese is one of the notable products of Leicestershire. The county has some important coal-mines, which are actively worked, and its chief manufacturing industry consists in the production of hosiery from the wool of the local sheep. Leicestershire is a famous hunting county. It contains four parliamentary divisions, each returning one member; and its county town is LEICESTER (population, 122,376), a thriving and rapidly increasing town, possessed of many historical associations, but chiefly noted to-day for its immense trade in worsted hosiery. There are also notable ironfoundries, webbing factories, and manufactures of boots and shoes and agricultural machinery. LOUGHBOROUGH (population, 14,803) is the second town in the county, and has a grammar school founded nearly four hundred years ago. Hosiery is largely manufactured, and there are also foundries, brick-works, dye-works, machine shops, &c. HINCKLEY (population, 7,673) has important hosiery and shoe manufactures; MELTON MOWBRAY (population, 5,766) is famous for pork-pies and Stilton cheese, in which an immense trade is done. The Melton Hunt is one of the most noted in the kingdom. ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH is an ancient town of about 5,000 inhabitants, with manufactures of hats and hosiery. There are important coal-mines in the neighbourhood.


Renowned for the exquisite beauty of its mountain and moorland scenery, Westmoreland ranks high among the most attractive of English counties. It contains an area of 500,906 acres, with a population of 64,191, and the greater part of the land is of a pastoral character. There are arable tracts in the valleys, and these are generally fertile and suitable for root crops. Among the minerals found in Westmoreland we note coal and lead to some slight extent, copper in small quantity, and a plentiful supply of marble, slate, and graphite. The hills still present some fine forest growths, and the western part of the county extends into the “Lake District,” such beautiful sheets of water as the Lakes Windermere, Grasmere, and Ullswater being situate in this neighbourhood. The industries of Westmoreland are not of very great importance, but the woollen manufactures of KENDAL have been famous since the days of Richard II., when Flemish weavers settled here. This charmingly situated town (population, 13,696) is thus undoubtedly one of the oldest manufacturing communities in the kingdom. APPLEBY (population, about 2,500) is the county town of Westmoreland, and is pleasantly located on the river Eden. The county returns two members to Parliament.


A fertile, picturesque, and remarkably well-favoured county is the pleasant district which bears the name of Surrey. Its area is 485,129 acres, its population is 1,436,899, and its close association with the metropolis, as well as its own natural attractiveness, has made it a great favourite as a place of residence. Agriculturally, this county is in a prosperous condition, its soil being for the most part fertile, and its farms well kept and productive. The variety of crops grown is very great, and includes all kinds of fruit and vegetables, besides various herbs of a medicinal and aromatic character. Of manufactures there are not many outside the metropolitan area, though paper-making, oil-refining, &c., are carried on to some extent. The manufactures of the “Surrey side” of London are, of course, of the greatest variety and importance. Beyond the extent of the metropolitan district there are not many very notable Surrey towns. GUILDFORD is the county town and is a busy place, with many excellent institutions of a local character and a large general trade. Its population is upwards of 10,000. RICHMOND, on the Thames, is justly regarded as one of the most beautiful spots in England. It was a favourite residence of the Tudor sovereigns, and is still one of the most delightful resorts open to Londoners, who can so well appreciate the sylvan beauties of its magnificent park. Richmond has many fine places of business, and has lately become an independent borough, with mayor, aldermen and council. Its population is about 20,000. KINGSTON-ON-THAMES, CROYDON, REIGATE, EPSOM, and DORKING are other notable Surrey towns, Croydon being an especially busy place and an important railway centre. The county of Surrey returns one member to Parliament from each of its six divisions.


Chiefly noted as an agricultural district, Oxfordshire, with its 483,621 acres and its 179,559 inhabitants, has the reputation of being one of the most fertile counties in England. Its farms are not surpassed in cultivation or productiveness in any other port of the kingdom, and all branches of husbandry are brought to a very high state of perfection. Possessing some fine woodlands and an undulating and diversified surface, the county is also renowned for the great charm of its rural scenery; and it contains many a noble example of the “stately homes of England.” OXFORD, the ancient and eminently renowned capital of the shire, is paramount in the academical distinction it enjoys, and has for many centuries been the seat of one of the most famous universities in the world. It is, moreover, an episcopal city of the first rank, its bishoprio having been founded by Henry VIII. Oxford is essentially a university town, with all the characteristics of such a community. Its historical associations and architectural features are supremely interesting, and it has long been a favourite place of residence for men of “light and leading” in scholarship and literature. Population (town), 29,186. HENLEY-ON-THAMES; BANBURY, noted for its cheese, ale, and cakes; and WOODSTOCK, famous for its manufactures of gloves, are the only other towns of prominence in this county. Oxfordshire returns three members, and the University two members, to Parliament. The city of Oxford is represented by one member at Westminster.


Another county of high agricultural status is Buckinghamshire, which contains 477,151 acres, and had a population, in 1881, of 176,323. A considerable part of this county is richly wooded, and in the beautiful Vale of Aylesbury the meadow lands and pastures are of surpassing fertility. Here there are many dairy farms of great celebrity, and their products in butter, cheese, milk, cream, &c., are sent to the London market in enormous quantities. The Aylesbury district is also renowned for its pigs, calves, and ducks, which are likewise in great demand in the metropolis. Buckinghamshire has some notable industries which are almost peculiarly its own, among these being straw-plaiting, and the making of thread-lace and various articles of wooden ware. In these trades many hands are employed. The county has good railway and canal facilities. It contains three Parliamentary divisions, returning one member each, and lies chiefly in the diocese of Oxford. BUCKINGHAM (population, 3,585), the county town, is almost encircled by the river Ouse. It is an important market centre, and has several brewing and tanning industries. The horse and cattle fairs held here are largely attended. AYLESBURY (population, 7,795) is situated in the rich vale of the same name, and has a large trade in dairy and farm produce, together with straw-plaiting and lace-making industries. HIGH WYCOMBE or CHIPPING WYCOMBE (population, about 10,000) is noted for its manufactures of chairs, paper, and lace. It is a place of great antiquity, and has an important market trade. GREAT MARLOW is a pretty town on the Thames, with a population of about 5,000, and some manufactures of lace and paper. ETON (population, about 4,000) is delightfully situated on the Thames, opposite Windsor, and is famous as the seat of Eton College, founded by Henry VI. Here some of the most celebrated men of England have received their education.


This important and highly picturesque west-midland county has an area of 472,453 acres and a population of 380,283. Its soil is of especial fertility in the beautiful valleys of the Severn and other rivers. Consequently cattle and sheep are reared to a large extent. Pears and apples thrive well in Worcestershire, and there is a large production of those popular beverages, perry and cider. Among the industries carried on are iron-working, hardware manufacture, glass and porcelain making, carpet weaving, glove making, the evaporation of salt, and the production of needles and fish-hooks. The capital of the county is WORCESTER (population, 40,354), which is a county of itself, and one of the most ancient and notable episcopal cities in England. It has a noble Gothic cathedral and many fine churches, schools and institutions; and it has long been noted for its porcelain manufactures, and also as the chief seat of the glove industry in England. A large river trade is done on the Severn, and the Worcester hop market is a most important one. DUDLEY is situated in a part of Worcestershire which is isolated in Staffordshire, and has a population of 87,527 for the Parliamentary borough. It is a great centre of the iron and nail trades, having also coal-mines, glass-works, tanneries, breweries, brick-works, &o., and forms one of the chief spheres of industrial activity and progress in the “Black Country.” KIDDERMINSTER (population, 25,633) is world-renowned for its carpets; DROITWICH (population, 3,761) is the great seat of the Worcestershire salt industry; STOURBRIDGE (population, 10,000) is famous for its fire-bricks and fire-clay goods; BROMSGROVE (population, 7,960) turns out great quantities of buttons and needles; and REDDITCH (population, 9,961) has long been celebrated for its immense output of needles, hooks and eyes, and fishing tackle.


Is one of the southern inland counties, its position being between Hampshire and the river Thames, with Surrey on the east and Wiltshire on the west. Its area is 462,210 acres, and its population, 218,363. Berkshire possesses magnificent forests of oak and beech, Windsor Forest covering over 50,000 acres. It is an agricultural and dairy-farming county, and nearly all branches of husbandry are successfully carried on. Berkshire is celebrated for a fine breed of swine, and its grain crops are also good. READING, a large and flourishing borough with a population of 46,054, is the county town. As an agricultural and railway centre it is of high importance, and its industries are well developed in the manufacture of agricultural implements, pottery, and biscuits. WINDSOR (population, 12,273), a royal borough, finely situated on the Thames, derives its fame from its magnificent and palatial castle, the principal residence of the sovereigns of England. NEWBURY, on the river Kennet, has a population of 10,144, and does an extensive agricultural trade. Abingdon and WALLINGFORD, on the Thames, are both ancient and historical places, dating from the earliest times.


Situated to the north of Middlesex, and bounded in other directions by Cambridgeshire, Bucks, Bedfordshire, and Essex, this county comprises an area of 465,141 acres, with a population of 203,069. There are few manufactures, straw-plaiting being the principal industry. Silk-weaving and paper-making are also carried on. HERTFORD (population, 7,747) is the county town, and is a place of considerable historical interest. It has a very important corn market. WARE (population, 5,277) has large malting establishments, and several brick-works. The New River starts near this town; and Rye House, the scene of the plot against Charles II., is also in the vicinity. ST. ALBANS, a very ancient city, and the see of a bishopric, has an abbey church of great antiquity and interest, which has lately undergone much restoration. The local trade is considerable, and there are breweries, silk-mills, and straw-plait factories. The city has a population of over 10,000.


Situated in the extreme west of England, the county of Monmouth lies between Herefordshire and Brecknockshire on the north, and Gloucestershire on the east, Glamorganshire on the west, and the Bristol Channel on the south. The area of this county is 370,350 acres, and its population is 211,267. Agriculture is successfully engaged in. Monmouthshire is, however, particularly noted for its mineral wealth. MONMOUTH, the county town, has a population of about 6,000, and a considerable local trade, with some tanneries, saw-mills, foundries, and chemical works. The town has a very beautiful situation in the valley of the Wye. NEWPORT (population, about 35,000) is the largest town in the county, and has good docks and a brisk shipping trade. CHEPSTOW (population, 4,000) is famous for its high tides. It is a sub-port of Gloucester and has an active trade. TREDEGAR (population, 20,000) has risen very rapidly into prominence and prosperity by reason of its valuable coal and iron mines.


This fine agricultural county contains an area of 294,983 acres, with a population of 149,473. It is in a very high state of cultivation, the soil being fertile, and especially suited to the growing of vegetables. The grazing grounds in the south-east are extensive, and fine sheep and cattle are reared here. The making of straw-plait goods is very successfully carried on, and its chief centres are the busy towns of LUTON, LEIGHTON BUZZARD, DUNSTABLE, and BIGGLESWADE, which are all actively engaged in this trade. Lace-making is another industry of some considerable importance. The county town, BEDFORD, has manufactures of lace, straw-plait, and agricultural implements. It is famous for its excellent and numerous educational and charitable institutions, of which it has more than any other town of its size in the kingdom. John Bunyan, author of the “Pilgrim’s Progress,” was imprisoned for twelve years in Bedford Gaol. The town now has a population of about 20,000.


This county is situated in the south midlands, and has an area of 229,515 acres, with a population of 59,491. Agricultural and market gardening are the chief occupations of the people. The north-eastern quarter of Huntingdonshire lies in the Fen District. The making of parchment and paper form the chief industries of the county. HUNTINGDON (population, about 5,000) is a finely situated town on the Ouse, with a brisk general trade. It has also important breweries, carriage-works and brick-works. There are a number of excellent schools and institutions, and the town is famous as the birthplace of Oliver Cromwell, whose ancestors were long resident in this vicinity.


This is the smallest county in England, having an area of 94,889 acres, and a population of 21,434. Fine crops of wheat and barley are grown, and the Rutlandshire breeds of cattle and sheep are celebrated. Its chief town is OAKHAM (population, about 3,500), with manufactures of boots and shoes, hosiey, &c., and a considerable trade in coal, corn, and malt. UPPINGHAM has a notable school, which was founded in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.


FAMOUS alike in the commercial and in the political history of England, the ancient city of Norwich is at once one of the most important and one of the most interesting of British communities. Its records date back into the dim regions of antiquity, and though there are English towns which can boast a greater age, the life of Norwich has been contemporary with that of the nation from almost the earliest period of which we have reliable chronicles. The East Anglian capital grew out of the Roman Venta Icenorum, which name signifies that it was at one time a city of the Iceni, that valorous British tribe of which the hapless Boadicea was queen. The name was changed to Nordwic by the East Angles, who subdued this district in 541, and established a Saxon kingdom here under Offa. The place grew, and was of considerable importance when it was taken by the Danes in their first invasion. The succeeding Saxon kings promoted its development, but in 1004 it was almost totally burnt by Sweyn, King of Denmark. Canute the Great, however, rebuilt the Castle subsequently, and the town took a new lease of life and prospered to such a degree, that by the time of Edward the Confessor it had some twenty-five parish churches, and over 1,300 free burgesses on its roll. Under the Normans the constableship of the Castle was granted to Boger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, whose family acquired great power in East Anglia in later years. In 1088 the Bishopric of the East Angles was transferred from Thetford to Norwich, and Herbert Losinga commenced the erection of the Cathedral, which was completed by Bishop Middleton about 1280. In Edward I.’s reign the city was strongly fortified; and during the time of Edward III. it was much favoured by the Court, many tournaments being held here. In 1348 the terrible plague called the “Black Death” visited Norwich, and is said to have carried off half the inhabitants. Succeeding monarchs frequently visited the city and conferred privileges upon it; Henry VII. creating it a county of itself, separate from that of Norfolk. In 1505 a great fire partially destroyed the place, but it soon recovered from that disaster, and its later progress in commerce was so marked that it became the third city in the Kingdom for the importance of its trade.

It was in the reign of Edward III. that a large number of Flemings settled here, and started those manufactures of woollen and crape goods for which the city has ever since been noted. At a later time, to wit, in the reign of Elizabeth, there was a further influx of artisans from Flanders, who were skilled in the textile industries, and who established the manufacture of bombazines and similar goods. These thrifty people greatly advanced the prosperity of the city, and it was at that time that Norwich waxed so important as to rival London itself in the wealth and enterprise of its merchants. The city thon is said to have possessed no fewer than sixty parish churches. Its history during the seventeenth century was uneventful, for it supported the Parliamentary cause during the Civil War, and the Royalists in the neighbourhood were not strong enough, it appears, to challenge a contest. Charles II. and Queen Anne both visited the city. The Public Library was started in 1784. The new canal and river harbour were constructed in 1831, the former opening up a waterway to Lowestoft via the river Waveney. In 1849 the Royal Agricultural Society met hero. In 1867 the Norwich and Norfolk Industrial Exhibition was held; and a year later there was a meeting of the British Association. In 1881 the national fisheries Exhibition was successfully held here, H.R.H. the Prince of Wales performing the opening ceremony.

Norwich is an episcopal city and a county of itself, a municipal and a parliamentary borough, an assize town, and the county town of Norfolk. It is situated in the heart of the latter county, and occupies a fine position on the river Wensum, just above the confluence of that stream with the Yare. The many gardens and orchards which surround Norwich enhance the attractiveness of its appearance, and have won for it the name of the “City of Orchards.” The river is crossed by many bridges in the city and suburbs, which extend along both banks of the Wensum for nearly two miles. The market place is one of the largest in England, and around it is found the best part of the town. Here are the leading shops, and in the principal thoroughfares in this vicinity will be noted establishments which would do credit to any British city. The commercial activity of Norwich is evidently still on the increase, and the prosperity of the local trades is promoted by excellent facilities of communication and transport. These are afforded by the Great Eastern Railway to London; the branch lines to Yarmouth, Lowestoft, Lynn, and other places; and the river and canal system of traffic, whereby produce and merchandise are so largely conveyed to various points by wherries and other craft. Of the manufactures of Norwich, the boot and shoe industry is now the chief, and many fine factories, employing thousands of hands, are devoted to this trade. Norwich boots and shoes go to all parts of the world, and have a reputation for reliability which denotes that the manufacturers are as conscientious as they are undoubtedly enterprising. The textile industries continue to flourish in this ancient city, and though the worsted trade has gone north to Bradford, Norwich continues famous for its crapes, gauzes, bombazines, shawls of silk and wool, mouseline de laine, camlets, bareges, paramattas, bandannas, sacking, sailcloth, &c. The various works producing these textiles give employment to a great number of hands, and are admirably equipped with modern machinery. Besides all this, the city has its corn-mills, rope works, glove works, great ironfounding and engineering works, coach factories, breweries, chemical and dye works, paper mills, and dealers in wool, leather, and every conceivable article of raw and manufactured produce. There is an immense trade in corn, coal, &c., and the city has its Chamber of Commerce to supervise and safeguard its mercantile interests.

Space forbids any reference here to the many interesting features of modern Norwich — its numerous churches which have survived from the past, its splendid cathedral, its public buildings, its many quaint streets and houses suggestive of days that are gone. These matters pertain more to the guide-book than to the commercial review. Oar object here is to illustrate the industrial aspect of Norwich, and this we have endeavoured to do in the articles which follow. It only remains to note the indications of prosperity which are found in the continuous increase of the population of the city. In 1851 there were 68,713 inhabitants. The number reached 74,891 in 1861; in 1881 it mounted to 87,842; and the census of 1891 gives the population of Norwich as no less than 100,964.



ON the banks of one of Norfolk’s most interesting waterways, the busy river Wensum, and in the midst of scenery thoroughly characteristic of the “Land of the Broads,” stands the wonderful congeries of mills, wharves, workshops, and warehouses controlled by the great firm of Messrs. J. and J. Colman, and organised for the production in vast quantities of the domestic specialities for which that firm is universally renowned. Chief among these commodities is mustard, which is here manufactured upon a scale of unparalleled magnitude; and associated with this indispensable article are some others of almost equal importance and usefulness, such as Messrs. Colman's celebrated starch, blue, and “British Corn Flour.”

The Carrow Works are situated at the foot of the slope called “Car Hoe,” from which they take their name. They extend along the riverside for two-thirds of a mile, and cover a total area of no less than twenty-six acres of ground, comprising in this expanse a remarkable aggregation of factories, granaries, warehouses, wharves, timber yards, coal yards, and auxiliary workshops of various kinds bearing relationship to the great industry that fills the whole place with life and movement. Five towering chimneys mark the spot where the Carrow Works bring into action their wealth of mechanical resource and manual skill, and are visible for long distances across the level East Anglian country. Great wharves line the river bank, and the facilities of transport are completed by a double line of railway, with sidings and turn-tables, laid in direct connection with the main lines of the Great Eastern Railway system. On every hand the visitor notes evidences of the wealth and influence of the masters of Carrow, and much in the same manner as the vassals of some powerful old-time baron dwelt under the protecting aegis of the feudal castle, so do the habitations of Messrs. Colman’s thousands of workers cluster round the great heart of this industrial colony—the busy scene of their daily labours. Comparison between past and present must end here, however. The conditions of life in the one case and in the other are vastly different, for the baron of the Middle Ages ruled his retainers with a rod of iron, and exacted from them a service that stopped but little short of miserable serfdom; while at Carrow the industrial army lives in peace and contentment, and performs with a willing heart and ready hand duties which are recompensed with justice and liberality.

The origin of Carrow Works may be traced back to date about forty years ago, when Messrs. Colman transferred their ever-growing industry to this site. For many years prior to that, however, the family had been engaged in mustard manufacture at Stoke, a few miles distant, and it was in order to secure greater facilities for the expansion of their trade that they eventually came to Carrow, and laid the nucleus of what is now by far the largest establishment of its particular kind in the world. The family of Colman has long been resident in Norfolk, the name being traced as far back as the reign of King John. Jeremiah Colman, the ancestor of the Carrow branch of the family, flourished in the reign of James I., and it was his descendant, Jeremiah Colman (born in 1777), who founded a flour-milling business at Bawburgh, and removed it to Norwich in 1804. Ten years later he established himself at Stoke, and engaged in the manufacture of mustard and starch, taking his nephews into partnership. Thus was founded the house known to-day throughout the world as J. and J. Colman. One of Jeremiah Colman's nephews, James Colman (born in 1801) greatly developed the business, in conjunction with his brothers Jeremiah and Edward, and the expansion of the concern was much assisted by the establishment of an office and warehouse in London. The present principals of the firm are Mr. J. J. Colman, his cousins, Mr. Jeremiah Colman and Mr. Frederick Edward Colman, and his sons, Mr. Russell James Colman and Mr. Alan C.-H. Colman. Of these gentlemen, whose united energies have done so much to place the firm in the pre-eminent position it now occupies, we shall have more to say later on; at the present moment the organisation of Carrow Works and of the gigantic industry there carried on must command our attention for a brief space. At the outset it should be stated that nothing less than a bulky volume would suffice to contain a descriptive account doing adequate justice to this remarkable establishment. Our necessarily concise review of the place and its operations cannot therefore aspire to completeness, though it is hoped that it may lay claim to the merit of accuracy.

Viewed from any vantage point near by, the Carrow Works present an aspect which commands wonder and admiration even in a land where industrial establishments of exceptional magnitude are familiar to the sight. The river Wensum, barge-laden and placid, flows through the property, and on one side of the waterway the long succession of lofty and substantial buildings, forming mills, warehouses, &c., stretch away into the distance, where the perspective ends at a tall chimney, standing like a sentinel on the outskirts of this camp of industry. A bridge spans the river at the other extremity of the works, and close to the mills are timber yards, heavily stocked with the requisites for box-making and other wood-work called for by the trade, all packing-cases, &c., for the shipment of goods being made at the works. The first building to demand special consideration is the mustard mill, where the many processes incidental to the preparation of the famous “Bull’s Head” brand of mustard are carried out under the most perfect conditions. As our readers are doubtless well aware, the growth of the Carrow Works has given an immense impetus to the cultivation of mustard in the Eastern Counties, and the seed is very largely grown nowadays in Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Essex, and Yorkshire. Many of the growers send the bulk of their crop to Carrow, where all the English seed, and most of that imported from Holland, is delivered into the interior of the works from the railway trucks, the warehouses in which it is temporarily stored being capable of holding a hundred thousand sacks. The seed is of two varieties, botanically known as “Sinapis alba” and “Sinapis nigra.” The latter, a brown seed, is much more pungent in flavour than the former, a white seed, and it is in the judicious and skilful blending of the qualities of the two kinds that Messrs. Colman have been so successful, producing thereby a table mustard of unrivalled excellence. The process through which the seeds pass in the mustard mill include very elaborate operations for thoroughly cleansing the seed and freeing it from all dust, dirt, and foreign matter, after which it is broken and crushed by rollers, completely pulverised by the action of huge mechanical pestles, and then passed on through a series of sieves of silk lawn, which gradually separate the bran from the mustard flour, the former being a residual which comes in for other treatment elsewhere, while the almost impalpable golden dust of mustard flour falls in a steady and continuous shower to its appointed place. The process of amalgamating the flours of the white and the brown seed, though apparently simple, is in reality a difficult one, and calls into requisition that special skill, experience, and command of appliances which characterise the Carrow Works.

The result of the amalgamation of the two seeds is a perfect development of the virtues peculiar to both, and the two having been thoroughly commingled, the next process is the incorporation of a certain proportion of wheaten flour in order to prevent agglutination or lumpiness, and also to correct the too great pungency of the higher qualities of mustard, in which the potent flour of the brown seed preponderates. Messrs. Colman manufacture also pure mustard, but the larger proportion of the public find this quality too strong for the palate and prefer the mixed qualities referred to above. The wheaten flour used by Messrs. J. and J. Colman is manufactured in their own flour mill, which forms a noteworthy part of Carrow Works, and is equipped with the very best modern plant, Simon's system of roller milling having been adopted here some years ago. Besides making all the flour they require for mixing with the mustard, Messrs. Colman also largely supply the bakers of the district, and to grocers and purveyors at considerable distances throughout the country. The large trade they control in this department sufficiently indicates the excellence of the flour they produce and the high reputation it enjoys.

When the mustard is made it becomes necessary to pack it for trade purposes, and we may take a brief glance at the workshops in which are produced those tin canisters of various sizes and shapes which, as receptacles for “Colman's Mustard,” are so familiar to the people of the world at large. These workshops are fitted with the necessary machinery for making canisters from the sheet tin, and this machinery, it is interesting to know, is of a special kind made for the purpose by the firm's own engineers — for Carrow Works have an important engineering department among their many interesting features. Millions of tins are turned out yearly in the canister workshops, and these eventually find their way to the packing departments, which occupy several floors. The scene presented is one of great interest and animation, and the dexterity of the workers is remarkable. Boys fill and label the tins; girls make up and label the tinfoil packets and some of the smaller tins. The work proceeds in the most systematic manner, showing that the method pursued has the sanction of long experience, and the number of canisters filled and labelled, and of packets made up by the staff in these packing rooms in the course of a day is truly astonishing.

Each canister is decorated by a label which is a work of art, and many of these fine specimens of chromo-lithography are produced in the printing works which form yet another department of the Carrow Works. Every facility is here available, and the standard of work is very high, as anyone can tell by examining the labels which adorn the firm’s tins. Here also are produced many of the large iron and all the wood tablets used in advertising Messrs. Colman’s mustard, starch, blue, and corn flour throughout the United Kingdom, special plant being in operation for decorating iron, wood, glass, and other hard surfaces. The firm of Messrs. J. and J. Colman are among the most enterprising and progressive of British advertisers, and though it may be truly said of their specialities that they no longer stand in need of extensive advertisement, yet Messrs. Colman recognise the value and importance of keeping their name prominently before the public, and there are few parts of the world in which their “reminders” in the shape of tablets, show-cards, &c., may not be met with. Indeed the literary, printing, and advertising department is one of the most important branches of the business routine. It involves the exercise of artistic taste, sound judgment, and practised skill in the art of securing publicity, and in the case of Messrs. Colman its operations are highly effective under able and experienced supervision.

Not only is Colman’s Mustard sent out in tins and packets, but a good deal is also supplied in bulk to the trade, thus enabling the retailer to sell small quantities by weight. This bulk or loose mustard is packed in casks which are made by modern machinery in the firm’s own admirably equipped steam cooperage. For the shipment of the mustard in tins and packets, and also for the despatch of starch, blue, and corn flour, it is obvious that packing-cases are required. We have already alluded to the large stocks of timber kept by the firm, and it now only remains to add that this timber, after passing through the four saw-benches at the saw-mills, where they are cut into planks, proceed to the wood box factory, where the most ingenious modern machinery is brought to bear upon the material, quickly transforming the plain boards into strong and neatly finished boxes and cases of various capacities. The number of wood boxes turned out here is not far short of a hundred thousand per month, a fact which will indicate at once the great resources of the workshops, and the enormous extent of a trade which can call for such a stupendous number of receptacles for the despatch of its products throughout the world. At this point we may mention that there is another box factory at Carrow, but it is for the making of cardboard boxes in which starch is packed. These cardboard boxes are turned out at the rate of 250,000 to 400,000 per week, and the manufacture of them alone gives employment to about 100 women and girls. The boxes are very neatly made by means of elaborate machinery, and are rendered additionally attractive by the handsome and really artistic picture labels which are subsequently affixed to them in the starch packing rooms, where some 250 women and girls are employed.

Reverting to the mustard mill, we may now observe the fate of the husk or bran of the mustard seed which is separated from the flour by the sets of sieves already spoken of. The utilisation of this husk affords a striking instance of the manner in which those residual products which would once have been regarded as irreclaimable waste or refuse are nowadays turned to profitable account. The bran descends to the basement of the mustard mill, where it is ground to powder. The powder is then subjected to a “sweating system” (the only “sweating system ” that has ever prevailed at Carrow) in steam-jacketed cylinders, and is thereafter submitted to tremendous pressure in bags, the result being an exudation of oil of mustard, which is a valuable commodity. Still the contents of the bags are not wasted, for even after all available oil has been forced from them they yield & hard corrugated cake, which is esteemed for fertilising purposes, particularly in the vineyards of France. The oil is used for various industrial purposes, and is also a valuable specific for the treatment of rheumatic ailments. Formerly Messrs. Colman used to supply many thousands of applicants with this oil for remedial purposes, but the demand in time became so excessive that, had they continued the beneficent practice Carrow Works would probably by this time have developed into a sort of gigantic free hospital or gratuitous dispensary. The firm now make a speciality of their “Concentrated Mustard Oil,” the efficacy of which as a household remedy is vouched for by many unsolicited testimonials. Their new mustard plaster or “Sinapism” is also in demand, and, being very carefully prepared, it is highly effective.

We need hardly dwell longer upon “Colman’s Mustard.” The “Bull's Head” brand is known in countless households, and to further speak of its excellence and renown would be to reiterate a “twice-told tale.” The unique honours gained by this article at the great exhibitions of modern times sufficiently proclaim its superiority. They include the only Prize Medal for mustard at London, 1862; the only Prize Medals at Dublin, 1865 and 1872; the only Silver Medal and Highest Award at Paris, 1867; the Grand Gold Medal at Moscow, 1872; First Class Prize Medal, Vienna, 1873; and the only Gold Medal at Paris, 1878; Gold Medal, Health Exhibition, London 1884; Gold Medal, Edinburgh, 1886; Gold Medal, Melbourne, 1888. Everybody admits that a special distinction attaches to mustard. It is something quite out of the common to be the national condiment of the English-speaking race; something quite beyond the ordinary to find a daily and recognised place upon the tables of the civilised world, and to assist in the gastronomic diversions of millions of men and women. To do all this, and at the same time to be, as it were, the mainspring of the colossal industry carried on at Carrow Works, is surely sufficient honour for the tiny seed, so insignificant in itself, yet capable of such wonderful effects under the skilful treatment to which it is subjected on the banks of the Wensum.

The other branches of industry pursued at Carrow are scarcely less noteworthy than the mustard manufacture, but exigencies of space prevent an extended survey of their interesting features. The starch factory, it may be remarked, contains no less than nine acres of flooring, and here starch is produced in enormous quantities from various skilfully combined qualities of rice grown in India, Burmah, &c. The process of manufacture is characterised by all the perfection of method and apparatus that distinguishes the Carrow Works in general, and very high results are consequently obtained, Messrs. Colman's starch being second to none in the estimation of the public and of all large users. Enormous warehouses are provided for the accommodation of the manufactured starch, which is therein stored in large stacks of papered blocks or cubes, this being the form in which the greater portion is sent out to the trade. A considerable quantity, however, is packed for the “fancy trade” in the handsome cardboard boxes, to which some reference has already been made, and these are familiar objects in the shops of our leading grocers, &c. No less than fourteen gold, silver, and first class prize medals have been gained at the leading exhibitions for the excellence of this starch.

From the most delicate portions of the selected rice Messrs. Colman prepare a very delicious alimentary substance which is widely and favourably known as “Colman’s British Corn Flour.” Every housewife knows the usefulness of this nutritious preparation, and the many purposes to which it may be applied by a little culinary skill. It has been strongly recommended for its sterling qualities by the Lancet, the great organ of the medical profession, which speaks especially of its value as a food for infants and young children, and for the hospital and the sick room. This corn flour obtained distinguished honours at the Moscow and Vienna Exhibitions. For their manufacture of laundry blues in all the most convenient shapes and forms Messrs. Colman are also famous. Their productions in this department are in constant and increasing demand, and bear the cachet of superiority conferred by medals of the highest class awarded at the Exhibitions of Moscow and Paris.

A few additional remarks concerning some of the special features of organisation prevailing at Carrow Works may not be uninteresting. The self- contained character of this vast establishment is one of its most notable distinctions, for every process connected in any way with the industry of the place is carried out on the best practical lines within the area of the works; and one may here see upwards of a dozen different trades in progress, and a corresponding number of skilled artisans and workpeople employed, all their labours co-operating in the great ensemble of the firm’s gigantic enterprise, and bearing directly upon some branch of the trade engaged in, whether it be with regard to the making of mustard, starch, corn flour, or blue, or with reference to the many auxiliary details involved in the preparation of those articles for the markets of the world. Steam is the motive power employed, and a volume might be written upon the wonderful mechanical equipment of the works alone. As we have previously intimated, the firm have their own staff of engineers, founders, machinists, and metal-workers, not only to repair but also to make much of the machinery required. They saw their own timber, make their own boxes and tins, design and print their own labels and advertisements, and even manufacture their own paper, having a large paper mill for this purpose. Enormous stocks of raw material are held, and the utmost economy is observed in using it, so that the various details of productive cost are reduced to the minimum, and the public are benefited by the saving thus effected, superior quality and moderate prices being the result. The works are lighted throughout by electricity; telephone communication exists between all the different departments; and the precautions against fire are most complete and elaborate, the Carrow Fire Brigade being splendidly equipped and trained to the highest point of efficiency. The cleanliness prevailing throughout the works cannot be too highly commended, and the neat appearance and contented demeanour of all the workers (of whom some two thousand are employed) is one of the most pleasing features of this vast establishment. Reading, dining, and refreshment rooms are provided for the hands, and dinners and light refreshments are supplied to them on the premises at perfectly nominal prices, all food being prepared in the fine kitchens at the works. Thrift is encouraged among the workpeople by provident funds and clothing clubs; accident insurance is made compulsory, though the rates of premium charged are only nominal; and every man on the staff must join the sick club at the works, unless he is already a member of some friendly society which insures him in case of sickness. Finally, the firm have organised excellent schools in connection with the works, and thus provide for the educational needs of the children of their workpeople. When it is remembered that Carrow is a regular settlement with a population larger than that of many a well-known village or small town, it will be understood that these schools are both important and extensive. Over six hundred children are accommodated at the day schools, and there are also Sunday schools attended by five hundred and seventy.

The deep interest taken by the firm in all their workpeople is at once apparent to everyone who visits Carrow and notes the many arrangements made to ensure the physical, intellectual, and moral well-being of the whole staff. Need we say that this kindly solicitude is fully appreciated, or that the employees at Carrow Works thoroughly reciprocate the good feeling of their masters? The very manifest respect and esteem, amounting indeed to affection, in which the head of the house, Mr. J. J. Colman, is held by the multitude of workers, to whom he stands in the most friendly relationship possible, makes it perfectly evident that all that he and his co-partners have done for the men, women, boys, and girls in their service, is appraised by the latter at its full value. A splendid esprit de corps prevails, and every member of the staff is proud of the place, and of the men who have made it what it is, not less by their kindly consideration for the busy workers in the hive, than by their fine qualities of energy, enterprise, and commercial sagacity. All the principals of the firm of Messrs. J. & J. Colman take an active part in the administration of the business, and, following the example of the family for many years past, they likewise interest themselves in local affairs to an extent that has been highly beneficial to the district.

The senior partner, Mr. J. J. Colman, has represented the Liberals of Norwich in Parliament for twenty-three years in succession, and has also been Mayor and Sheriff of the city, in which offices he distinguished himself not less than his father and his great-uncle, who in their day filled those important civic posts with dignity and credit. He is a Knight of the Legion of Honour, and in every respect a typical Norfolk man, physically and intellectually strong and vigorous, and universally respected.

Mr. Frederick Edward Colman, the second partner, is a son of the late Mr. Edward Colman, and was born in 1841, becoming a partner eventually, on the death of his father. He it was who, at the age of ten, laid the foundation stone of the firm's present superb warehouse in Cannon Street, London, and where he now takes control, giving his special attention to the London branch. He is ably assisted by an experienced executive staff, at the head of which is Mr. C. L. Price, the firm’s London Manager. The London offices have communication with those at Carrow Works by means of a private wire, the distance being 120 miles.

Mr. Jeremiah Colman, the third partner, is the only son of the late Mr. Jeremiah Colman, who had much to do with the development of the London branch, and became a highly popular member of the metropolitan commercial community. The present Mr. Jeremiah Colman resides in Surrey, of which county he has been High Sheriff; and he is a director of the Commercial Union Assurance Company.

The two junior partners are Mr. Russell J. Colman and Mr. Alan C.-H. Colman, sons of Mr. J. J. Colman. Mr. Russell J. Colman has taken an active part in public life in Norwich, and has been Sheriff of the city (1892-93). Mr. Alan Colman takes the blue department and the paper mill under his special care at Carrow Works, and thus finds scope for the exercise of his practical qualifications. Engineering and chemistry are his favourite pursuits, and in both he has attained a high level of proficiency.

The vigorous administration of the principals at Carrow is well supported by the ability and judgment of their lieutenants in the various departments, among whom may be mentioned Mr. Robert Haselwood, the general manager; Mr. Charles Dix, the manager of the mustard mill; Mr. Joshua Womersley, manager of the starch works, and Mr. Henry Mower, who for many years has successfully managed the flour mills already referred to. These, in turn, are loyally aided by the whole staff in every department, and thus nothing is lacking to ensure the conscientious performance of duty and the smooth working of every part of this colossal industrial machine. Messrs. J. & J. Colman’s business, in its imposing entirety, presents a grand example and result of the power of that sturdy enterprise and unconquerable perseverance which so strongly characterise East Anglia and its people. It has been truly said that “Peace hath her victories no less renowned than war,” and in Carrow Works we see one of the noblest of the many monuments of industrial triumph which stand to-day in every quarter of our land, commemorating achievements which have done more to consolidate our national prosperity than oountleu feats of arms on land or sea.


IN combating and overcoming the many “ills that flesh is heir to,” the modern pharmacist is without doubt the physician’s most powerful ally; and in this connection there is no house in the city of Norwich that bears a higher reputation than that of Messrs. Andrews Bros., which is now conducted under the sole proprietary control of Mr. G. Andrews. The records of this noted undertaking show that, organised in the year 1852, its progress has been both rapid and continuous from the very first; and the most effectual way in which to indicate the true character of the concern would be to give a concise descriptive sketch of the establishment as it now stands, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in Colegate Street, the spacious, venerable-looking premises are neatly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and are most methodically arranged to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, prominent amongst which may be seen samples of the original Norwich baking and egg powders, for which, along with their preparation of sarsaparilla (which is well known to be the great cleanser and purifier of the blood; in fact, it has cured thousands), Andrews Bros.’ name has long been famous. Drugs and chemicals of ascertained purity and standard strength, all the popular patent medicines of the day, choice toilet, nursery, and sick-room requisites, medical and surgical appliances, and the numerous sundries and items incidental to a first-class pharmacy are also all exclusively en evidence at their best, and kept fully up to date. Mr. G. Andrews devotes the most careful and competent attention to the dispensing of physician’s' prescriptions and to the compounding of family recipes; by reason of which he has won the esteem and full confidence of all the leading local practitioners of medicine, and the liberal support of a very large and still rapidly increasing city and country clientele drawn practically from all classes of the community.


ONE of the principal claims which modern Norwich possesses to be regarded as a great industrial and commercial centre is based upon the fact that here are the manufacturing headquarters of the firm of Messrs. Hills & Underwood, who are well known, in various leading mercantile circles, as makers of pure malt vinegar, and distillers and rectifiers of famed “Old Tom” gin. Their well-organised business was founded in Norwich one hundred and twenty years ago; and its record, for the last century, forms an important chapter in the economic history of the city. Their premises in Norwich cover a large area, occupying a convenient situation near the New Thorpe Railway Station. Facing the Prince of Wales Road is a suite of general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the correspondence and other work necessitated by the numerous transactions of the house, at home and abroad. The buildings which comprise the industrial departments are substantially constructed, and their arrangements are excellently adapted to the several requirements of the business. Their internal equipment is so complete as fully to illustrate the latest practical applications of mechanical science to the perfecting of results in the manufacture of malt vinegar, and the distilling and rectifying of gin. The several productions of Messrs. Hills & Underwood are well-known in the markets, where they are recognised as invariably representing standard qualities, and they are, accordingly, in constant demand. Their several bonded warehouses are situated, respectively, at London and Norwich. The trade connection of Messrs. Hills & Underwood, in regard to all the departments of their business, is very widespread; and they control a large export trade, which is conducted largely through their London establishment, at 11, Great Tower Street, E.C.; their London warehouse being at Bishopsgate Goods Station.


Telephone No. 99, “Norwich”; Telegraphic Address, “Gothic, Norwich.”

IT is owing to the well-directed enterprise of Messrs. Laurence, Scott & Co. that Norwich has become an important centre of electrical engineering industry. The firm began their operations ten years ago, and, in 1888, the volume of their business had, attained such dimensions that the proprietors found it convenient to incorporate the concern under the Limited Liability Acts. The Directors are Messrs. Reginald Laurence and W. Harding Scott; Mr. Laurence being the Chairman of the Company, and Mr. Scott the Managing Director. The Secretary and Engineer is Mr. W. B. Sisling, and the Assistant Secretary is Mr. A. M. Atthill. The directorate and executive thus constituted embody, in the aggregate, a wealth of technical knowledge, inventive skill, and commercial aptitude, to which is due the notable success that the company has achieved. Their premises are appropriately named Gothic Works, on account of the fine mediaeval front which they present to King Street. They include, in the front, a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. There is also a handsomely fitted board-room. To the rear are the manufacturing departments, where are produced the electrical specialities which have made the reputation of the house. The working plant, indeed, comprises, as far as the limited space permits, every required mechanical appliance which matured experience could suggest, and which a liberal and judicious expenditure of capital could command.

Messrs. Laurence, Scott & Co., Limited, control a very large business as manufacturers of dynamos and electrical appliances of all descriptions. They are well known, throughout the electrical engineering world, as makers of the “Norwich Dynamos and Electric Motors,” the firm having, successfully, given great attention to the design and manufacture of motors to work from the mains of electric supply stations. They are also makers of the “Norwich Ship-Lighters,” a class of dynamos which, as experience has proved, may be depended upon to work without sparking, and with the minimum of wear and tear possible to the various speeds. Messrs. Scott and Sisling have successfully collaborated in the invention of the now well-known Scott-Sisling System of Electric Lighting Patent. For private electric light installations, on this system, the firm construct special dynamos, which may be compound wound, so as to supply lamps at constant pressure and simultaneously charge accumulators when driven at constant speed. The object of the system is to shorten the working hours and simplify the manipulation of electric lighting plant used in conjunction with storage batteries or accumulators. It is now in use in many private installations, with exceedingly satisfactory results. The leading engineering and electrical journals have highly commended the ingenuity and utility of the Scott-Sisling System, one of them remarking that “special feature of the arrangement described is that all the operations can be performed with simplicity and certainty, from the printed instructions, without any special skill or training on the part of the attendant, as the switches are so arranged and interlocked that the manipulation is rendered quite simple.”

The excellence of the specialities submitted by this firm, at the Newcastle Exhibition of 1887, obtained expert official recognition in the form of medals for continuous current transformers and for their dynamo-electric machines. They also gained the highest gold medal at the Birmingham Electrical Exhibition (1889) for their dynamos and motors. Their valuable and ever-growing trade connection extends all over the world. They have made all the large dynamos and appliances for the Norwich Electricity Company, Limited, which is supplying electricity by means of Scott’s Patent Underground Mains laid in the principal streets of the city of Norwich; and they have recently exported a large plant for the transmission of power to a large jute-mill in Mexico. This plant comprises four large dynamos of about 600 horse-power in the aggregate, and also some sixty electric motors with their accessories. Messrs. Laurene, Scott & Co. also supply their manufactures for export to the British Colonies and other parts of the world.


THE old-established business of Messrs. Back k Co. has been in existence in the Haymarket, Norwich, for upwards of a century, and its records form a most interesting and important chapter in the economic history of the city. The copious, well-indexed, and excellently illustrated catalogue which the firm publish not only convoys a better idea of the vast resources of Messrs. Back's establishment than it would be possible to give within the necessarily narrow limits of this notice; it also forms, especially in its illustrations, a most interesting addition to the archaeological literature of the ancient city. A wood engraving, for example, representing the crypt (still existing on Messrs. Back & Co.'s premises in the Haymarket), is supposed, on good authority, to be the remains of the Old Jewry destroyed in 1290, while above it stands the old house built by John Curat (Sheriff of Norwich, 1528) in 1501. It is rich in oak carvings, and quite unique in its preservation, as an example of a merchant’s house of the 16th century. It still is used as a living house by the Back family, as it has been for five generations past. Another illustration represents the picturesquely clad figure of “A Whiffler to the Norwich Corporation;” which, indeed, appropriately forms a trademark of the firm. The headquarters of Messrs. Back & Co. comprise a spacious block of buildings with a double frontage. There is a well-appointed suite of general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of business. The telephone number is 67, and the registered telegraphic address is “Back, Norwich.”

Adjoining these are conveniently equipped retail stores. To the rear and underground there is ample cellarage, with bottling, blending, and other departments. The firm have branch establishments in Norwich, in White Lion Street and Prince of Wales Road, and also in Great Yarmouth, at 28, Market Place, Middlegate Street, and Queen's Street. All of these establishments are fully stocked, and are the centres of active commercial operations. The firm, as holding a leading position among the English wine importers, possess a great advantage over many of their competitors in having the largest and oldest private Bonding Stores at Great Yarmouth. In addition to this they maintain such direct, intimate, and extensive relations with the best Continental sources of supply that they are able to offer exceptionally advantageous terms to their customers. Messrs. Back & Co. supply all the leading brands of champagne and noted vintages of clarets, ports, and sherries. Their list, too, comprises case brandies, gin, whiskies, English and foreign liqueurs, and their prices are based on the lowest practical computation of profits. It is by the adoption of such commercial methods that Messrs. Back & Co. have not only built up a great wholesale trade, but have gained the unreserved confidence of many of the leading residents of Norwich and Great Yarmouth, as well as that of a large number of the most distinguished county families throughout the whole of East Anglia.

The members of the firm, Mr. Philip Back and his son, Major P. E. Back, possess a highly cultured taste in wines, and a thorough technical acquaintance with every branch of the trade. Their judgment, therefore, is constantly consulted by their most fastidious customers. Both these gentlemen are well known in the leading commercial and social circles of Norwich, where they enjoy a large measure of personal popularity, Mr. Philip Back having served the office of Sheriff in 1S79, and since that time repeatedly refused the office of Mayor owing to ill-health. Major Back’s military title is derived from his position as a field officer in the 1st Norfolk Volunteer Artillery, and has commanded the two Norwich Position Batteries upwards of eleven years.


THE well-ordered establishment of which Mr. C. H. Rust is the proprietor has a long and honourable record, which dates back for about seventy-five years. Since he acquired the business he has succeeded not only in maintaining the prestige of the establishment, but in very considerably enlarging the area of its influence. Mr. Rust's works occupy a convenient corner position at the junction of Rose Lane and Mountergate Street. Here are always held large stocks of granite, marble, and other materials suitable for monumental sculpture and masonry. The show-yard is at 28, Prince of Wales Road, in front of Mr. Rust's private residence. It contains many examples of Mr. Rust’s professional skill, many of the monuments exhibiting not only careful finish in their execution, but great beauty and frequent originality in design. Mr. Rust has, for the inspection of visitors, an interesting collection of photographs, taken by himself, of different monumental works which have been executed by himself, and by his efficient staff under his supervision, throughout the period of his proprietorship. The extent of Mr. Rust's industrial and artistic operations is, in some measure, indicated by the extent of his premises, which cover more than an acre. He is always prepared to submit photographs and to prepare special designs to order; a thoroughly representative stock of crosses, tablets, &c., is always held. Mr. Rust has every facility for the erection of monuments in all parts of the country, and he holds many testimonials, including a large number from persons of high social position, witnessing the satisfaction invariably given by the results of Mr. Rust's work.


ALTHOUGH it is but five years since Messrs. Mitchell & Hunter began their important commercial, industrial, and, it may well be added, artistic operations in Norwich, they have already created a valuable trade connection, which is being rapidly extended. The members of the firm, Messrs. Mitchell & Hunter, both brought to their enterprise a thorough professional and technical knowledge of the several departments of the business. Mr. Hunter for many years had occupied the responsible position of manager to a large wholesale clothing and hosiery firm. The premises occupied by Messrs. Mitchell & Hunter stand on a very commanding site near the Corn Exchange. They comprise the whole space of a building which, by its extent, conveys some idea of the magnitude of the firm's operations. These premises were formerly well known as the Queen's Hotel; and they have been thoroughly reconstructed to meet Messrs. Mitchell & Hunter's requirements, so that the establishment, in its internal arrangements, now forms a model of its class. The attractive appearance of the exterior, with its splendid facade of between seventy and eighty feet of plate glass, is altogether in keeping with the popular methods which, with notable success, the firm have adopted in the conduct of their business. The facade thus forms a continuous show window, which with its splendid display of beautifully finished novelties in attire for both ladies and gentlemen, constitutes a point of never-failing interest. The basement, which is exceptionally well lighted, is utilised as a packing-room, and is fitted up with all the adjuncts for facilitating the expedition of goods. Here also is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm.

The warehouse and showroom on the ground floor form two compartments, with a separate entrance to each. The two compartments are both elegantly fitted up, and are ample enough, with their numerous and conveniently-disposed fittings, to admit of the effective display and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large and representatively comprehensive stocks which are always held. These include, on one side of the establishment, a fine assortment of hosiery and underwear for gentlemen, in every variety of material, including the latest new designs, as soon as they are placed upon the market. The stocks in this department also comprehend collars, cuffs, scarves, neckties, gloves, hats and caps, handkerchiefs, braces, umbrellas, rugs, &c. The other side of the establishment constitutes a high-class tailoring department, where the business is restricted to the production of garments made to special order. Here is a stock offering a practically unlimited choice to purchasers of every description of woollen cloth suitable for making up into garments, with the best sources of supply for these and all other descriptions of goods in which they deal.

Messrs. Mitchell & Hunter, maintain such extensive and intimate relations, that they are able to offer exceptionally advantageous terms to their customers. On the first floor is a thoroughly equipped tailoring department for ladies. Here at all times there is a magnificent exhibition of jackets, mantles, costumes, &c., manufactured by the firm on the premises. The attendants in this department are ladies. On the same floor a considerable portion of the business in connection with gentlemen's tailoring is conducted; and here also is a youths' outfitting and ready-made juvenile department. The upper floors contain ample accommodation not only for the storage of large surplus stocks, but for the cutting and making up garments for ladies and gentlemen. The cutting is executed by past masters in that difficult art; and in the operative departments is employed a large staff of highly experienced and skilful workmen. Of the commodities in which they deal, Messrs. Mitchell & Hunter hold one of the best assorted stocks in the Eastern Counties; and by the invariable excellence of the goods which they supply, whether made up by their own staff or otherwise, they have gained the unreserved confidence of many influential families in Norwich and a wide surrounding district.


IN its special and important line of business, a prominent place is occupied by the well-known establishment of Mr. John C. Miles, Purveyor of high-class Dairy Produce, &c., of 81, Prince of Wales Road, Norwich. This noteworthy and representative business was founded by the present proprietor, in 1891, and during its career of three years in duration it has been developed into one of the leading concerns of its kind in the city. Mr. Miles' experience in this branch has been of a varied and very valuable character, and no effort has been wanting on his part to keep his house high in public opinion, by always providing the best and most reliable class of goods. The premises occupied are capitally situated in an extensive and attractive block of buildings stretching from Prince of Wales Road to Rose Lane, with frontage in the former thoroughfare. At the back of the spacious and neatly appointed shop is a compact office, while to the rear of this stands the model dairy, which is fitted up with every modern appliance and convenience for the systematic and effective control of a business of this kind. This department is very large, and in every way well adapted to the purpose for which it is used; but what, perhaps, strikes the visitor most is the perfect cleanliness and neatness which pervades the whole place. It is manifest that Mr. Miles takes scrupulous care as to the quality of the milk and other alimentary products emanating from his establishment, and that no effort or expense is spared to keep them up to the highest state of purity and general excellence. The drainage, ventilation, and sanitary arrangements have been closely looked after, and analyses of the milk and scientific examinations of the premises are made at frequent intervals.

The dairies supplying the firm have been selected with special regard to the quality of the milk they yield, and it is an admitted truth among the residents of this locality that the lacteal fluid supplied by Mr. Miles is not surpassed by that of any rival establishment. In addition to milk, the house purveys the very finest quality of cream, honey, fresh creamery, country cooking, and Danish butter, cream cheese, camembert, and new milk cheese, Scotch oatmeal, home-cured hams, bacon, and cheese, their own make of sausages, home-dried and American lard, Chivers' jams and jellies, bottled fruits, new-laid eggs, and a large selection of poultry. Soda and milk, and similar kinds of refreshment are supplied on the premises, and absolute excellence of quality can always be relied upon. Two deliveries are made every day to all parts of the city. A splendid connection has been got together; and if superior goods, low prices, and prompt and careful attention to the wants of patrons can insure the success of a business, then this house has before it a very successful and promising future. The worthy proprietor is very popular with the trade, and justly held in respect for his sterling business qualities, his strictly honourable methods of dealing, and his many good personal traits.


NORWICH, to tens of thousands of persons in all parts of the world, means simply the metropolis of canary breeding, and the headquarters of that interesting pursuit are, unquestionably, the Eastern Counties’ Aviaries at Upper Hellesdon, which are owned by the famous firm of Messrs. Mackley Brothers. The city has been celebrated during the last hundred and fifty years for its breed of canaries, and it is half-a-century and more (1840) since the business of the Eastern Counties' Aviaries was established by Mr. Richard Mackley, the father of the present proprietors. Until within a comparatively recent period the firm included three brothers, Messrs. Jacob, George, and William Mackley. Since the decease of the last mentioned gentleman, the business, which is the most extensive of its class in the world, has been conducted, with a record of uninterrupted progress, by Messrs. Jacob and George Mackley. So popular is the pursuit of canary rearing and canary exhibition in Norwich that there are four thousand breeders in and around the city, but the whole of the birds thus produced admittedly pass, sooner or later, through the hands of Messrs. Mackley, at their great canary exchange. Of late years the firm have made a new and notable departure in their business by exporting enormous quantities of canaries to America, where there is a constant demand for them. In 1893 they despatched as many as 14,000 to this destination. The internal arrangements of the firm’s establishments at Hellesdon and at Magdalen Road, New Catton, are simply perfect. The marvellous technical skill and judgment of the Messrs. Mackley have frequently formed the subject of eulogies by expert specialists in the several organs of the “Fancy.” Official recognition has. on innumerable occasions, been bestowed upon the successful efforts of the firm, as is evidenced by the fact that they have gained 6,000 prizes and numerous gold and silver medals.


AMONG the best representatives of the boot and shoe making trade in the Eastern Counties, there is no house perhaps that is possessed of a higher reputation, or one that has so rapidly been achieved, as that of Messrs. Howlings & Co., of Fishgate and Magdalen Street, in the city of Norwich. This extensive and deservedly popular trading concern was organised but three years ago, under the capable and enterprising initiative of Messrs. T. R. and A. H. Howlings, who have an enormous plant of the latest and best machinery, to enable them to manufacture the better classes of “light” boots and shoes, on a wholesale scale. The success of the business has surpassed the proprietors' most sanguine expectations; and some notion of the magnitude of the firm's operations may be gleaned from the fact that their business has become so brisk as to entail the regular employment of no less than three hundred and fifty hands. Eligibly located in the commanding position at the corner of Fishgate Street and Magdalen Street, Messrs. Howlings’ premises consist of a large and substantial block of buildings, having a fine basement, three floors, and a total frontage of two hundred feet. A powerful gas engine in the basement, drives the splendid plant of modern machinery on the upper floors, where, under the constant personal supervision of the principals, their numerous staff is fully employed in the production, from exclusively the best materials, of “light” ladies', gentlemen’s and children's boots and shoes, the latter receiving a greater amount of attention than is usually given by manufacturers in general, and the quantity of children's goods made by the firm go into many thousands of pairs per week. There can be no doubt that the brilliant beginning made by Messrs. Howlings & Co., will not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.


IN compiling a history of the leading and representative business houses in Norwich and the Eastern Counties generally it is manifest that more than passing reference should be made to the establishment of Mr. S. T. Townshend, Carver, Gilder, Looking-glass and Picture Frame Manufacturer, of 13, Charing Cross, as being the largest and one of the oldest establishments of the kind within this area. Mr. Townshend commenced operations in Norwich forty-three years ago, and brought to the establishment a sound practical knowledge of the trade in all its ramifications. The premises utilised are prominently situated as above, and are as attractive in appearance as convenient in arrangement. They consist of a four-storey building, with extensive double-fronted shop, and interior extending to a very considerable distance to the rear, and comprising a very handsomely fitted up stock and show room, as well as a number of well- arranged and capitally equipped workshops. Every department of the trade is undertaken, and in each absolute satisfaction is being given. The looking-glasses and picture frames turned out here are well known in the district, and are everywhere regarded as having very few, if any, equals. The stocks held are exceptionally large and varied, and there are few wants in this direction that Mr. Townshend could not immediately supply in a thoroughly satisfactory manner. A special branch of the business is made of framing show cards, such as are used by brewers and other manufacturers, and the facilities he possesses for manufacturing enable him to place the best class of work in the market at the most desirable prices. The skill and taste shown in the manufacture of superior frames for high class pictures have caused the proprietor to be largely patronized by artists and connoisseurs of painting, and his judgment can always be relied upon to turn out a first class frame thoroughly in harmony with and well adapted to show off the special points of any picture entrusted to him for that purpose. Every description of work is re-gilt, and the most favourable terms are allowed to the trade for frames, cornices, and mouldings. A widespread and valuable connection is maintained, both in the wholesale and the retail trade. Mr. Townshend enjoys the respect of all who come into business contact with him, for his skill and ability in his special line, as well as for his fair and straightforward methods.


A WELCOME and important addition was made, in 1893, to the resources of the cycling community in the Norwich district, by the establishment of the well-ordered business which Mr. F. W. Mann is successfully conducting as a cycle agent. Mr. Mann brought to his enterprise a complete technical knowledge of the trade, combined with an exceptional degree of commercial aptitude, so that within the comparatively brief interval which has elapsed since he began his operations, he has gained, the confidence of a wide circle of customers, to whose numbers additions are constantly being made. His premises occupy a commanding situation in the Prince of Wales Road, in convenient proximity to the Norwich Thorpe Station, which is the principal railway station in the city. The spacious interior forms, for the most part, a large and lofty showroom, in which is displayed, to the utmost advantage, and with specially excellent opportunities for inspection, a splendid selection of cycles. Thus Mr. Mann is agent for the “Quinton Scorcher” cycles, which are manufactured by the Quinton Cycle Company, Limited (late S. & B. Gorton), of Coventry; for Alldays' cycles, made by Alldays & Onions, the Pneumatic Engineering Company, Limited, of the Great Western Works, Birmingham; and for other high-class machines made by eminent firms. He is also the maker of a high-class machine known as the “Norwich Progress,” and is agent for cycling shoes as used by Harris, and other well-known riders; also sole agent for Wood’s combined pump and stand. Mr. Mann has recently been appointed repairer to the Cycle Section of the 1st V. B. the Norfolk Regiment. To the rear of the show-room is a well-appointed office, furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions in which Mr. Mann is interested. Adjoining is a workshop equipped with all the requisites for facilitating the prompt and efficient execution of repairs, a staff of experienced workmen being engaged, under the supervision of the principal. The machinery in this department is driven by an electric motor. Mr. Mann has made a most promising start in business, and should have a most successful commercial career before him.


TIME was, and even within recent yean, when the “season of flowers” was an expression which referred only to a few months of the year. Florists’ work was very much curtailed in the cold winter months, during which their shop windows were, at the best, but sombre attempts to brighten the prevailing dulness of the time. All this has, however, been altered, and the florists' windows and shops are attractive, sweet-smelling bouquets all the year round. An instance of this is afforded at 10, Exchange Street, where Mr. F. W. Aldis conducts his business in flowers. Horticulture has become one of the fine arts, and flower-growers are never tired of introducing new specimens in the many families of Flora, and our gardens and conservatories contain an immense variety. Mr. Aldis has had a long experience with flowers, and he established his business in Norwich in 1892, for the purpose of supplying choice growths of pot and cut flowers for table decoration, and the various other uses to which flowers are put. Flowers enter very largely into our existence, and every festival or holiday is made bright by a free display. Mr. Aldis undertakes orders for wedding bouquets, and it is here that he may be said to excel. Blooms are not cut in a haphazard manner, and bunched together without careful study of their arrangement. Colours are delicately blended, and the bridal bouquets made here are quite masterpieces in their way. The same applies to funeral wreaths and crosses, end orders in either department are carried out with careful attention to the wishes of the customer, and with a promptness that, even in the short space of the existence of the business, has become one of its characteristic features. The shop at 10, Exchange Street, is always attractively arranged, and Mr. Aldis is prepared to supply any kind of flowers in any quantity on the shortest notice. He has already gained a large connection, and the confidence of his many patrons.


FOR the last sixty years the excellently equipped establishment of Messrs. George Taylor & Son has formed a most valuable adjunct to surgical skill in the Eastern Counties. The combination of accurate scientific knowledge and wide technical experience possessed by the principals has enabled them to gain and retain the unreserved confidence of the medical profession, and a very large measure of support from the general public, in their capacity as surgical mechanicians and truss makers. Their highly scientific industry was founded, as has been indicated, sixty years ago by Mr. George Taylor, the father of the present proprietor, Mr. Sambrooke Taylor. The premises include a front workshop, with conveniently-appointed fitting-rooms, for ladies and gentlemen, adjoining. There are, likewise, several attached workshops for special processes. To the rear is a smiths’ shop, provided with every facility for working up the steel which largely enters into the construction of many of the appliances which form the specialities of the firm. All the industrial departments are equipped with the requisite mechanical arrangements for perfecting the results in the several operations. A staff of expert specialists is permanently engaged under the supervision of the principals.

Messrs. Taylor & Son have become famous as manufacturers of artificial legs, arms, crutches, &c. Their long experience in the mechanical treatment of various deformities enables them confidently to undertake the correction, if not the ultimate and absolute cure, of many distressing malformations, not only in children, but in adults. They are especially successful in cases of hernia; and many of the difficulties, which are met with in dealing with the various forms of this malady, are obviated by reason of the firm being manufacturers, on their own premises, of every portion of the appliances which they sell; so that special provision can be made for individual exigencies. The arrangements of the establishment particularly commend themselves to ladies, because Mrs. Sambrooke Taylor — a lady who has had a thorough training in her profession — gives her special care and attention to this class of cases. She has, with notable success, made a speciality of corsets and abdominal belts, and is in a position to guarantee a perfect fit in every instance; whilst for excellence of material and complete thoroughness of workmanship her productions will be found unrivalled. Her newly-constructed support stays, for spinal cases, will be found specially useful. The firm also supply large quantities of elastic stockings, ankle socks, &c. Specially advantageous terms are accorded to ladies and gentlemen, and also to Poor Law Guardians recommending objects of charity; and the principals, fully impressed with the humanitarian obligations which rest upon them in the exercise of their beneficent profession, give as earnest attention to the necessities of the poorest as to those of the richest of patients.


AMONGST the leading specialistic industries of Norwich, attention is claimed by that which Mr. Josiah T. Blyth successfully conducts, as a brush manufacturer. Mr. Blyth began his important industrial operations over thirty years ago, in 1861, in the same commodious premises which he has since occupied. His thorough technical knowledge of the business in which he is occupied, added to his exceptional commercial aptitude, soon enabled him to create a valuable and substantial connection, both for retail and for wholesale business; and his subsequent record has been one of uninterrupted progress. The premises have, in the front, a retail sale-shop, ample enough to admit of the effective display, and the carefully-systematic classification and arrangement, of the large and comprehensive stocks which are always held of such of the specialities of Mr. Blyth's manufacture as are in constant demand. Behind is an extensive stock room, where are kept heavy surplus stocks, in order that no delay may be experienced in the execution of the most extensive orders. Adjoining, is a well-appointed office, which is furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of clerical work. To the rear of the commercial premises are the industrial departments of the establishment, which are equipped with all the requisites for the production, under the best possible conditions, of brushes — of hair, bristle, and fibre — of all descriptions, and for all sorts of purposes. In the process of manufacture, a large staff of highly-skilled and experienced workers is employed. The invariable excellence and durability of all the brushes made by Mr. Blyth has gained for him the confidence, and the constant support, of many of the most influential families resident in the neighbourhood, and, indeed, all over Norfolk. In his wholesale business, his productions are well-known throughout the trade, where they are recognised as representing standard qualities. He supplies many leading shopkeepers.


IT is twenty-seven years since he established his admirably organised business. Mr. McEwen brought to his enterprise a thoroughly scientific and technical knowledge of the trade in all its branches. The whole of his working life — and he is now over seventy years of age — has been spent in a practical study of the specialities of seeds, plants, and bulbs. He has, too, turned his knowledge to such good account, by the aid of his exceptional commercial aptitude, that he has gained the unreserved confidence of a wide circle of influential customers, which extends, not only all over the eastern counties, but, for certain specialities, to all part» of the United Kingdom. Mr. McEwen's premises are conveniently situated in Red Lion Street. The interior, which is excellently appointed and fitted, is ample enough to admit of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large and notably comprehensive stocks which are always held. Some idea of the extent of the great resources of Mr. McEwen's establishment may be obtained from a study of the “Concise Descriptive Catalogue of Kitchen Garden and Flower Seeds,” which he periodically issues. He is a large importer of seeds from such eminent continental importers as Benary, Dippe Brothers, Vilmorin, Andrieux et Cie, &c. These seeds he supplies in the original sealed packets. The specialities of these goods are severally set forth in Mr. McEwen’s catalogue of “Continental Flower Seeds in Collections.” He also holds particularly large stocks of Russian mats, for tying, budding, grafting, protecting, packing, &c., as well as of other horticultural requisites.


THERE is a certain section of the community of Norwich that absolutely demands the existence of high class businesses. All Cathedral towns contain of necessity a large number of the highest dignitaries of the Church, and Norwich is favoured more particularly in this connection than many of her sister cities. The neighbourhood contains also many of the nobility and gentry, and these comprise the section of the community referred to. Not only this, for Norwich contains a large body of the upper middle classes, whose wants are perhaps a more important consideration with tradesmen than those of people who move in the upper walks of life. It is for the supply of clothing and the general outfitting requirements of these that Mr. H. R. Downes conducts his business at 29, London Street. It was founded in 1861 by Mr. Henry Downes, at whose death it passed into the hands of his two sons, Mr. William Downes and Mr. Herbert Downes, and at the death of the senior partner, about six years ago, the whole business was acquired by Mr. Herbert Downes. Previous to this he had had a long and very valuable experience in the trade, and he assumed the proprietorship of the already successful business with the advantage of a thorough acquaintance with everything necessary in complete outfitting. The premises are extensive and form an imposing corner to London Street and Swan Lane. They have a very elegant and attractive frontage, and the opportunities for display afforded by the show windows are taken full advantage of. The interior arrangements of the place have been carried out on an extensive scale, and everything that contributes to the convenient and prompt transaction of business is included in the general equipment. The shop is fitted with show cases and stands for the display of the various articles of trade, and from here has been fixed a very fine staircase leading to the upper floors, which are well set out as show and fitting rooms. While referring to the various departments we may mention that the tailors’ workrooms are equipped also in a superior manner, the ventilation, good light, and general appointments enabling the men to work under the most favourable conditions. This may not at first seem so important a matter as it really is, but in the light of recent revelations as to the insanitary conditions of tailoring establishments, too much attention cannot be paid, which, being free from public inspection are only too often preserved in an unhealthy condition.

The tailoring department is the chief feature of the business, and to it accordingly Mr. Downes gives special attention. He obtains his materials exclusively from the leading manufacturers, and besides being enabled thereby to ensure great durability and wear resisting quality he is in a position to offer to his patrons a selection of the newest and most stylish patterns. Harris, Shetland and Cheviots, tweeds, vicunas, meltons, serges, Yorkshire and West of England cloths in all their newest designs for the spring and summer trade are now being shown, and to the highest classes of patronage afforded by Norwich and district the business appeals by reason of the very high class quality of its productions. The cutters employed have qualified for their position in the leading houses of the country, and correct style and perfect fit may be in every case relied upon. Morning and dress suits, shooting garments, hunting breeches and coats, clerical garments, etc., are made, and with the execution of each order the reputation of the house extends. The ladies' department is a large and steadily increasing branch of Mr. Downes' business, the making of ladies’ jackets, costumes, cloaks, &c., having become as much a part of the tailors' art as gentlemen’s clothing. The livery outfitting department is also one of the great features of this business, Mr. Downes giving special attention to it. Last but not least is the boys’ department, both in ordered as well as ready-made clothing of his own manufacture, is one of the largest of this business and one to which great care and attention has always been given, and which has met with great success.

Shirt making receives much attention, and dress shirts are made in a superior manner of the finest linen. The stock of hosiery, vests, pants, pyjamas, gloves, collars, ties, handkerchiefs, and other outfitting requirements is also of a very varied and high class character, and here also the fashion of the times is closely studied. The productions of representative manufacturers also are on hand, and the entire stock has recently been replenished with the choicest of seasonable novelties. Mr. Downes keeps his patrons supplied with the best hats obtainable in Norwich. The silk hats, hard and soft felt hats, and head gear of every kind for every purpose, from the cricket field to the promenade, are of the latest style, and such as will convince the wearer that even when in Bond Street he is furnished with a fashionable hat. In this brief description we have endeavoured to intimate the principles that predominate in the management of the business, and it remains only for us to add that Mr. Downes’ efforts have been thoroughly appreciated in the city and neighbourhood, and that his patronage extends influentially to the highest classes of local and district residents.


IN certain departments of the great staple boot and shoe manufacturing trade of Norwich, the well-known firm of Messrs. H. Sexton & Sons hold a pre-eminent position. Their admirably organised establishment was founded thirteen years ago by Mr. Henry Sexton, the present head of the firm, and its subsequent record has been one of uninterrupted progress. The firm now includes, in addition to the principal, his sons, Messrs. Henry, Jesse, Arthur, Fred, and Alfred Sexton. All of these gentlemen possess a thorough technical knowledge of the trade, and take an active share in the conduct of the business. Their premises were originally in Fishgate Street, and also in Magdalen Street; but the recent notable extension of their operations has necessitated a removal to more commodious quarters. The business has, therefore, been concentrated in the very large works in Fishgate Street, which are known as St. Edmund's Mills, which have been internally adapted to the boot and shoe manufacturing business. The premises comprise a massive building of six storeys, with a frontage of a hundred yards to the river Wensum. They include a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The equipment of the industrial departments is so complete as to constitute an exhibition of all the most approved modern applications of mechanical science, and the perfecting of results in the processes of boot and shoe manufacture. The working plant includes many special and patented appliances. The economies thus effected enable the firm to compete, on the most favourable terms as to prices, with any other first-class house in the United Kingdom. Messrs. Sexton & Sons produce large quantities of boots and shoes, specially designed and finished for the several purposes of walking, running, riding, fishing, tennis, ball room, etc. All their productions are well known in the trade, and are regarded as invariably representing standard qualities. The firm have a specially high reputation as manufacturers of dress and court shoes, and they have, with, remarkable success, made a speciality of their Louis XV. goods, for which there is a large and constant demand. So large is the output at the St. Edmund's Mills that the firm give constant employment to no less than five hundred hands, including several expert specialists as heads of departments. The members of the firm are personally well known, and are held in high esteem in the leading commercial circles of the city.


IN 1871, an important addition was made to the resources of Norwich, regarded as a centre of engineering activity, by the commencement of Mr. W. T. Sturgess’ operations as proprietor of the Vulcan Iron Works. Mr. Sturgess is an accomplished mechanical engineer; and he has made such excellent use of his technical knowledge that he has rendered his establishment a most useful adjunct to much of the industrial energy of the Eastern Counties. The record of his business career has been one of rapid and uninterrupted progress, its latest notable incident being the accession to the firm of Mr. G. F. Harvey as partner with Mr. Sturgess. This addition to the executive strength of the establishment was made in January, 1894. Mr. Harvey is, himself, a distinguished engineer of great practical experience, and he takes a large and important share in the control of the mechanical operations. The Vulcan Works occupy conveniently situated premises in St. Michael-at-Coslany, having a cart entrance in Oak Street, opposite to St. Miles’ Church. This leads to an office, with a spacious yard, a foundry, and engineers' and millwrights’ shops. The equipment of all the industrial departments is so complete as to represent the latest and most approved practical applications of mechanical engineering science to the saving of labour and the perfecting of results in the processes which are conducted at the Vulcan Works. Messrs. Sturgess and Harvey control a large and growing business as engineers, millwrights, and general machinists, and have every facility for the construction of steam engines and other mechanical appliances. In the foundry they are prepared to make all descriptions of brass and iron castings, to pattern, drawing, or specification. The output is so considerable as to require the permanent employment of an efficient staff of forty or more skilled workmen.


THE “Bell Hotel” is, emphatically, one of the most popular of the old- established institutions of Norwich. Its honourable traditions extend back, probably, for two hundred years, and Mr. J. Downe, the present proprietor, is naturally proud of the prestige of the house, which he fully maintains, while, at the same time, by the frequent introduction of approved modern appliances and methods, he is always increasing its attractions, both for visitors to the city and to the large number of residents of good social position, who look upon the “Bell” as a splendid example of the old-fashioned English inn — a place not only for the reception of travellers, but for pleasant social intercourse and recreation. The premises have a commanding three-storeyed frontage, battlemented on the top. An ample archway in the centre leads to a fine old-fashioned courtyard, in the form of a quadrangle. The equipment of the spacious interior fulfils, in all respects, the promise made by the exterior. All the appointments and furnishings are characterised by scrupulous cleanliness and such luxury as is compatible with absolute comfort; and Miss Downe’s care for the comfort of guests, in her supervision of the internal arrangements of the house, renders a residence at the “Bell” an episode which is always remembered with pleasure. The accommodation includes dining, coffee, and smoking rooms—all large and handsomely furnished apartments, and a series of cosy private sitting-rooms. There are, too, from forty "to fifty bedrooms—all of them well ventilated and provided with every requisite sanitary appliance. The billiard-room is fully equipped, and there is a group of conveniently fitted stock-rooms for the use of the large number of commercial gentlemen who habitually make the Bell their headquarters in East Anglia, and for whose accommodation, as is their due, special provision is made by Mr. Downe. The splendid, cellarage of the house contains liquid treasures which fully maintain the high reputation which they long have borne; and the Bell is specially famous for its blend of Scotch whisky. Mr. Downe’s invariable genial courtesy makes him the ideal host of such a fine old English hostelry; while “Fred,” the head “boots” of the establishment, is as much an institution of the place as the premises. The Bell, in its day, has been the Norwich home of all sorts of celebrities, one of the latest of them being the Chevalier Blondin, or Nigeria celebrity, who, during his last visit to Norwich – a professional one – stayed here, and, during his sojourn, celebrated his seventieth birthday. Not the least recommendation of this representatively comfortable hotel is the notable moderation of its tariff.


A NOTEWORTHY position is occupied by the firm whose name appears at the head of this sketch, from the fact that it is the only one in the Eastern Counties engaged in the manufacture of hats. Messrs. Booth & Co., whose premises are situated at No. 1, Castle Street, established this business some four years ago. The sole proprietor is Mr. Alfred Booth, a gentleman of large and valuable experience in the trade. the premises occupied have recently been rebuilt, and are now in extent and convenience of arrangement admirably adapted to the nature of the business carried on. They comprise a large and attractive shop, with plate-glass windows, filled with a varied and handsome selection of the superior goods handled by the house. At the rear are spacious well-appointed stock-rooms and workshops, well fitted up with everything necessary or desirable for expediting the business. A number of skilled hands is employed, who follow out their occupation under the immediate control of the principal himself, who is a thoroughly practical and expert workman. Silk hats are made on the premises in large quantities, both for the wholesale and retail trades, and in style, durability, and beauty of finish, they are recognised as having few equals in the provinces. This well-managed house is the only one in the Eastern Counties possessing a conformateur, and every facility is provided for manufacturing hats in any desired style and shape.

Mr. Booth has a heavy stock of all kinds of silk and felt hats in all the newest shapes, shades, and patterns. His goods come from none but the best and most noted makers, his system of business being to supply only articles of superior quality at the lowest possible prices. In this he is materially assisted by the extent of his transactions, as well as by his own productive resources, and the comparison of the prices he is offering his goods at with those of any cognate establishment will redound greatly to his credit. Owing to the great success which has rewarded his efforts, there have sprung up many imitators, who have even gone so far as to assume the name, but to quote an old aphorism, “Imitation is the sincerest form of Flattery.” Hard and soft felts, bicycle and tourist caps, college hats, tweed caps in immense variety, and military and livery hats. He enjoys a valuable and influential connection, extending throughout Norwich and the Eastern Counties generally, and so long as he maintains his present style of goods, his courteous and prompt attention to customers, and his favourable prices, so long will the popularity and prosperity of his house continue to increase. Mr. Booth is widely known and highly respected both in business and social circles.


THIS admirably equipped establishment occupies a uniquely prominent position in Norwich, because the proprietor has practically carried into effect all the most approved modern ideas as to the co-relation of the arts of plumbing, glazing, painting and gas-fitting in the equipment, both utilitarian and decorative, of public and private buildings. Mr. Whiting began his industrial and artistic operations in 1856, and the business, therefore, has been in active existence throughout the whole period during which the great revolution has been wrought in the decorative arts. In respect to that revolution, as it has affected the Norwich district, Mr. Whiting has always, in virtue of his cultured taste and thorough technical knowledge, been a leader rather than a follower. He has thus gained the unreserved confidence of many of the leading owners of real property of all descriptions throughout a wide district of which Norwich is the centre. Some idea of the magnitude of Mr. Whiting’s operations, and the amplitude of his resources, is suggested by the extent of his premises, which are known as the St. Saviour's Art Works, and are conveniently situated in St. Saviour’s Lane, Magdalen Street. They comprise a series of buildings of one or of two storeys, including a suite of well-appointed general and private offices. There are also handsomely fitted show-rooms commodious enough to admit of the effective display of the large and varied stocks which are always held of materials and appliances required in the several branches of Mr. Whiting’s business, and also of examples of his artistic work. There are also large store-rooms in which heavy surplus stocks are kept.

Some idea of the great resources of Mr. Whiting's establishment is conveyed by a copious “Descriptive Circular” which he issues, and which deals with the several departments of his business as painter, grainer, gilder, artist in oil and water-colours, gas-fitter, plumber, &c. There is a splendidly equipped artists’-room, where designs are executed in oil and water-colours, whether for ecclesiastical, heraldic, or trade purposes. Mr. Whiting devotes special care to church work, being cautious to secure accuracy where copies are made, and elegance in original designs. He has had much valuable experience in the production of signs and trade emblems of appropriate character, from the simplest to the most intricate pattern, and in the richest colours. In this department of his business Mr. Whiting has, with success, executed important work for many of the most eminent commercial firms in England. In this room also are kept in stock all descriptions of colours of the best quality and in every shade, as well as brushes and all other requisites for painting. Here too a speciality has successfully been made of the production of show fronts and the execution of all kinds of showmen’s work. Mr. Whiting employs a numerous and efficient staff of skilled workmen, including several expert specialists, who have had ample experience in the execution of all sorts of plain and decorative painting in all the newest styles of the art. He has a very high reputation for graining in imitation of wood and marble, and also for gilding, in which the best material is exclusively employed. In another department are conducted, under the beat possible conditions, the several operations of embossing, enamelling, and writing on glass. Plain, coloured, enamelled, ground, and every other description of glass is cut to any shape or size, and estimates are furnished for greenhouses, vineries, conservatories, and general repairs.

The plumbers’ shop, which constitutes an integral and important part of the establishment, is replete with the newest and best apparatus and fittings for plumbing work. Brass, lift, force, and lead pumps are supplied or made to order, together with sheet lead and pipe, lead pumps, cocks, and plumbers’ brass work of every description. Mr. Whiting is a gas-fitter by appointment to the British Gas Light Company, Limited, and his personal supervision, which is extended to this as well as to other departments, forms a guarantee for the efficient execution of all gas-fitting work by his staff. His stock in this section of his business includes gasaliers, chandeliers, brackets, pendants, and fittings of every description, and the most varied and elegant designs, either for public or private buildings. A speciality is here made of the supply, at the lowest prices, of coronae standards, and star and sunlight burners for churches, chapels, &c. All kinds of lamp work, cornice poles, &c., are made, relacquered, rebronzed, and repaired. Mr. Whiting is possessed of an exceptionally strong faculty of organisation and administration, and his distinctive personality manifests itself in the conduct of all the details of his extensive business.


AMONG the well-known and popular business houses in Norwich special reference should be made here to that of Mr. A. W. Cook, of 7, Davey Place, the old-established and extensive Brush and Mat Manufacturer. Mr. Cook initiated his business over thirty years ago, commencing operations on the site still occupied. Here he has developed one of the most valuable trades of the kind in the city, and one that every year is increasing in extent and worth. He possesses an excellent name for the thoroughly reliable character of the work he turns out. while in the matter of prices the house will advantageously stand comparison with any similar establishment in the country. Quality and cheapness are the two essential and marked features of this business, and in these respects Mr. Cook has proved, by many years of continued prosperity, that he has nothing to fear from any rivals. The premises utilised comprise a large double-fronted shop, with windows filled with a large and choice stock of the specialities for which the house is noted. The interior has been supplied with every convenience for the control of the business. The shop is neatly appointed, and the manufacturing premises are replete with the most desirable class of machinery and appliances. An efficient body of workmen is employed, and under the proprietor's close supervision a first-class business is being carried on.

Only the best and most suitable kinds of material are used. The bristles are obtained from the most reliable sources of supply, and are carefully sorted and dressed on the premises, while the hardest and most matured wood is employed in the bodies. The manufactured goods are recognised as of superior quality, excellent in material, well finished in workmanship, and durable in use. Every description of brush is made on the premises, and the stocks held are equally noticeable for their extent and diversity. Wholesale and retail buyers will find here whatever they require in this line, and will be sure to be perfectly well satisfied both with the goods and the price. The well-selected supplies include hair sweeping brooms, bannister and hand brushes, hearth brushes, sweep brushes, stove brushes, shoe brushes, scrubbing brushes, laundry brushes, flue brushes, carpet brushes, and bass brooms. There are, besides, patented carriage and window brushes, as well as a large assortment of hair brushes, tooth brushes, and shaving brushes. Other goods for which the house is favourably known are mats, matting, housemaids’ boxes, dwiling, rush kneelers, baskets, dandy and water brushes, wash leather, and an unequalled stock of unbleached sponges. A special line is made of sweeps’ canes, brasses, machine heads, and drain machines, a branch of the business in which Mr. Cook is avowedly without a successful rival in the district. All orders are promptly filled, and goods not in stock can generally be made or obtained in the course of a few days. The trade is both wholesale and retail, extending throughout Norwich and to most of the principal centres of business in the Eastern Counties. Mr. Cook occupies a position of no inconsiderable importance in this highly useful branch of trade, and is held in the highest respect and esteem by all who know him, whether in the way of business or in social and private life.


THE admirably organised industrial business which is conducted by Mr. J. J. Ramsay was founded eighty years ago by Mr. Joseph Everett, the uncle of the present proprietor, whose name has constituted the style and title of the firm for the last thirteen years. The family record forms an interesting and important chapter in the history of the Norwich fellmongering and wool staplers, which has long been one of the staple industries of the city. Mr. Ramsay is naturally and laudably proud of the time-honoured reputation which his establishment bears, and fully maintains its prestige. His premises are conveniently — for the purposes of the industrial operations — situated on the banks of the Wensum, at the historical Bishop Bridge. The building is of three storeys, with the requisite lime pits in the basement, and its internal arrangements are admirably adapted to the requirements of the business. Mr. Ramsay controls an extensive and steadily-increasing business as a fellmonger, hide merchant, leather dresser, and wool merchant. In the course of his operations be receives sheep skins in large quantities, and cures, shears and dresses them into leather. Mr. Ramsay's productions are well known, and are highly appreciated among the numerous firms of Norwich and elsewhere. His local connection, therefore, is large and valuable. Mr. Ramsay employs an efficient staff of experienced workmen.


Altogether unique in the supreme interest of its historical and archaeological associations, the Maid's Head Hotel, at Norwich is, at the same time, in the present day, one of the most delightful temporary residences in all England. The house has been a noted hostelry for some six hundred years, while many parts of the building, especially the early Gothic pillars, on which stood the Bishop's Palace, are much older. The hotel has a fine frontage of three floors to Wensum Street, but in order to gain some idea of the place, it is necessary to enter the courtyard, which is built in quadrangular form. Many of the rooms possess most interesting antiquarian characteristics. Mr. W. Ray, in his work on “Norwich Antiquities,” says, “The Maid's Head, once the Molde Fish — the latter change, however, was in very remote times, for it bore its present name in 1472, when Margaret Paston directed that an expected guest should set his horse at the ‘Mayde's Hedde.’ This is, perhaps, from its associations, the most interesting inn at Norwich, being built on the site of the old Bishop’s Palace, and standing on early Gothic arches. The King's commanders, in Kett's rebellion, breakfasted here on the morning of the fight in the city. In 1643, it was a Royalist resort, Dame Paston's horses being seized here. The first Freemasons’ Lodge in Norwich was held here in 1724, and we can imagine the horror of the present occupier when he reads that a revolutionary dinner was held here in 1791. . . . It is said it was here that Mrs. Beatson hid herself behind the wainscot of a lodge-room, and heard all about it, as the old Norwichers will tell you. She died in 1812.”

In the coffee-room is an old English brick fire-place, of the date 1460, which has never been altered in the slightest degree. A portion of the house, which is utilised as bedrooms, has the old oak beam ceiling and flooring. In one of these rooms Queen Elizabeth slept, and it has since remained almost untouched by the spoliating hand of the renovator. Two very large dining or banqueting halls are included in the number of public rooms. There are about forty bedrooms, with many sitting-rooms, &c. Mr. Saunders, the present proprietor, has entirely redecorated and refurnished the hotel, carefully avoiding any interference with the archaeological treasures which it contains. It is now, in all its arrangements and appointments, a hotel of the highest class, and its patrons are families of the highest rank and social distinction. The cellars of the Maid's Head have long been justly famous; and, in connection therewith, a high-class family business in choice wines and matured spirits is conducted by the Proprietor.


ONE of the most interesting of the specialistic industries of Norwich is unquestionably that which is, with notable success, conducted by Messrs. R. Tidman & Sons. This eminently enterprising firm began their operations over forty years ago, and, by giving special attention to certain branches of mechanical engineering work, they have gained a world-wide reputation. Their premises, which are very extensive, occupy a convenient position at Bishop Bridge, and their equipment throughout represents all the most approved modern appliances of mechanical engineering science to the processes which are conducted in the works. Everything necessary in the way of working plant, therefore, has been provided which a wide experience could suggest and a judicious expenditure of capital could command. There is a commodious engine-shop with lathes and other mechanical tools of the best type, smiths’ hearths, with other workshops for joiners’ work, wood carving, &c. The firm produce large quantities of general smiths’ work, and possess every facility for the manufacture of high-class engines and boilers. This firm are the oldest firm of boiler-makers in Norwich. Their special fame, however — and it is sufficiently widespread to give industrial Norwich an added claim to distinction — arises from their success in a very picturesque development of engineering activity. The works of Messrs. Tidman & Sons supply, upon a scale of great magnitude, the requirements of an important class of caterers for popular recreation. The firm build all descriptions of steam merry-go-rounds, and all the modern variations of apparatus for eccentric locomotion, with all the necessary special vans for convenience of transport. For the production of these adjuncts to holiday enjoyment there is every provision in the way of appliances for wood-carving as well as for decorative ironwork. The facilities for the successful conduct of this unique branch of the business are much enhanced by the accommodation afforded, in large yards, for storing vans and other impedimenta which are sent for repair. The principals, who are distinguished mechanical engineers, are noted for their inventive abilities, which lend themselves to the development of the specialistic business which, in a very remarkable degree, they have made their own. They employ a large stall of highly-skilled workmen.


ESTABLISHED in the year 1862, at the above address, under the able auspices of its present enterprising proprietor, this thriving business has long since taken its place among the leading concerns of its kind in Norwich. the premises in St. Giles' Street consist of a neatly and attractively appointed single-fronted shop, in which a splendid display is always en evidence, representative of all the finest crops and brands of Havana, Mexican, Manila, and Indian cigars, plain and fancy scented snuffs, meerschaum, briar, cherry, and innumerable kinds of pipes, tobacco pouches, cigar and cigarette cases, ornamental and silver match boxes, fashionable novelties, fancy goods, smokers’ sundries, and the like in almost endless variety; besides a good stock of loose and packet tobaccos of the most noted manufacturers of the day, both at home and abroad. The house maintains a reputation that is unsurpassed at the present day by any similar concern, for the very excellent quality of every article supplied. The value of such a reputation as this is obvious to every smoker, for there can be no exaggeration in saying that there does not exist to-day a lover of the “weed,” who has not on many occasions learned by unpleasant experience, that in the tobacco trade, at least, it is possible to place implicit reliance only in goods supplied from establishments that enjoy the confidence which only such a reputation can engender. This is not a pleasing fact to record, but it is none the less true, and its mention in these pages is introduced simply to bring due stress to bear upon the foregoing statement.

Mr. Townshend is a thorough master of every detail of the trade, and is, moreover, a man of energy, enterprise, and promptness. He is perfectly well acquainted with the best sources for his supplies, and he never fails to secure the very best quality of the particular article he may be in search of. He knows exactly what the trade and public want, and he leaves nothing untried to secure the most suitable class of goods to meet their requirements. Mr. Townshend buys heavily, and, of course, judiciously, and thus secures every advantage in price. These benefits he liberally shares with his patrons, and his prices, consequently, are always as low, and very often lower than those of any reputable house in the trade. Extensive and varied stocks are held, from which orders of whatever size or variety can generally be filled without loss of time. Mr. Townshend is a frank, courteous gentleman, is widely known in the trade, and much respected by all with whom he comes in contact.


WHEN the industrial history of the present century comes to be written, a special chapter will have to be devoted to the sewing machine, since nothing of the kind has been productive of so much public benefit since the introduction of the “Spinning Jenny.” It is a boon indispensable to every manufacturer into whose work sewing of any description enters, while it can be truly said that no home is complete that lacks one of these ingenious and useful apparatus. The leading establishment in Norwich engaged in the manufacture and supply of sewing machines is that which appears at the head of this paper. Mr. Wilkinson has been occupied with the trade in this city for over seventeen years, so that it goes without saying that his experience must have been of a varied, exceptional, and eminently valuable kind. The premises occupied at 60, Bridge Street, are well adapted by size and arrangement to the nature of the business carried on. They comprise a double-fronted shop and showroom in the front, together with workshops at the rear. These are admirably equipped with the latest and best class of appliances for the manufacture and repair of sewing machines, and an efficient staff of workpeople is employed. The machines manufactured on the premises are well known in Norwich and for a radius of many miles round, and in durability and efficiency it would be hard to find their superiors. They embody all the latest improvements, and are thoroughly guaranteed. So great, indeed, is the proprietor’s faith in his manufacture, founded on past experience, that every machine he sends out he undertakes to keep in good working condition for a year free of all expense.

Perhaps no specialities of this representative house are better known than those made for the boot and shoe trade. In this connection Mr. Wilkinson has secured the cream of the patronage, and among his customers are such extensive and well-known firms as the following:— Messrs. Homlett & White, Messrs. Hailes Bros., Messrs. Sexton & Sons, Messrs. Southall & Sons, Messrs. Lilley & Skinner, Messrs. Cooper & Sons, Messrs. P. Haldenstein & Sons, and others. Of course, in an all-round establishment of this kind, machines for all kinds of use, both domestic and manufacturing, are made in an equally superior style, and one of the latest factories fitted up was that of Messrs. J. Chamberlain, Son & Co., the extensive clothing manufacturers. Large stocks are held of the firm’s own manufacture, as well as of other leading makers, Mr. Wilkinson being the agent for Jones, Robinson, and other no less famous houses. Either private families or wholesale users or dealers have offered to them here a choice which cannot be duplicated elsewhere in extent, variety, or efficiency. The house also holds well-selected assortments of silks, needles, oils, shuttles, and of all kinds of fittings and accessories. Every care is taken that all the machines leaving here shall be of the best possible kind and in perfect working order, and based upon this creditable principle a widespread and still increasing connection has been established among the leading families and largest manufacturers in Norwich and the vicinity. No effort is spared to make the establishment worthy of the gratifying support it is receiving, and Mr. Wilkinson, who is a well-known figure in the trading circles of the city, enjoys the respect and esteem of all who are brought into business relaticns with him.


THIS notably successful business was established twenty years ago by Mrs. A. Base, whose thorough technical knowledge of the business, exceptional business aptitude, and enlightened enterprise, soon enabled her to create a valuable connection, including many of the highest social classes in the district. Her subsequent record was one of uninterrupted progress, with the result that her establishment attained its present supreme rank in the boot and shoe trade of Norwich. Since the decease of the much respected proprietress, the business has been conducted with undiminished energy and success by her daughters. The premises in which such a business is carried on fittingly occupy a commanding position in the best possible spot which the city affords. They face the bend of London Street, which may be described as the Bond Street of Norwich, near its junction with Castle Street, and have a splendid double frontage, whose attractive appearance is altogether in keeping with the high class of the business. The ample plate-glass windows, with their tastefully arranged exhibits of the latest and most artistically elegant designs in boots and shoes for ladies, girls, and children, form points of never-failing interest in the busy thoroughfare. The spacious interior is sumptuously appointed and, with its numerous and conveniently disposed fittings, admits of the effective display and arrangement of the splendidly comprehensive stocks which are always held. These include not only the finest of English goods, but such specialities as the productions of the famous Parisian houses. With all the best sources of supply for the several descriptions of goods in which they deal, the firm maintain such intimate and important relations that they are able to offer their customers the latest and most attractive novelties in boots and shoes as soon as they are placed on the market, either in London or in Paris. This and the reputation which it maintains for invariably supplying goods of the best possible quality, has gained for the famous house of Mrs. Base the unreserved confidence of many of the leading residents in Norwich as well as of a large number of the most distinguished county families in Norfolk.


KATE HALL founded the flourishing business, which she energetically conducts, so recently as 1893. She brought to her enterprise, however, such a fund of technical knowledge and practical experience of the various departments of the business in which she is engaged that she has already created a valuable trade connection, which is rapidly being extended. She was fortunate in being able to acquire premises which occupy a commanding position, and which had just been rebuilt to widen the street which, at this point, forms a junction with London Street. The exterior has an attractive appearance, which is altogether in keeping with the high class of the business which she now controls. In the interior, which is handsomely appointed with numerous and conveniently disposed fittings, there is ample space for the effective display and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the extensive, valuable, and varied stocks which are always held. These include all descriptions of ladies' underclothing, baby-linen, corsets, umbrellas', flowers, feathers, velvets, silks, laces, ribbons, &c. Kate Hall has, with notable success, made a speciality of the prompt and efficient execution of all orders for wedding outfits and mourning. With all the best sources of the supply for the various descriptions of textile fabrics and other goods in which she deals, she maintains such intimate and extensive relations, and she has such a full acquaintance with the markets that she is able to offer exceptional advantages to her customers both in regard to prices and to the constancy with which she introduces a succession of attractive novelties. She has thus succeeded in gaining the unreserved confidence of many ladies representing the most influential families in the city and the surrounding districts. To the rear of her admirably equipped show-room is a spacious and well-ventilated work-room, where goods are made up in the millinery and underclothing departments by an experienced staff, under the supervision of the principal.


AN important addition was made, in 18S8, to the local resources of horticulturists in the Eastern Counties by the establishment, in Norwich, of the Great |Eastern Seed Store where, in conjunction with his extensive and admirably laid-out seed grounds at Newmarket Road, Eaton, he conducts, with notable success, his business as a seed grower, seedsman, and horticultural sundriesman. Mr. Barnes brought to his enterprise a fund of matured experience of the trade, and a thorough scientific knowledge of its details, which have enabled him within a comparatively brief period to achieve a position of honourable prominence amongst the leading seedsmen of the United Kingdom. His headquarters occupy a commanding situation in Exchange Street, and comprise an extensive four-storey building, whose attractive exterior is in keeping with th popular methods which Mr. Barnes has successfully adopted in the conduct of his business. The ground floor is utilized as a sale shop and warehouse, ample enough, with its numerous and conveniently-disposed fittings, to admit of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large and wonderfully comprehensive stocks which Mr. Barnes always holds of seeds, bulbs, and roots. On the second floor are well-appointed offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The registered telegraphic address is “Reliable, Norwich,” in allusion to the high reputation which the firm have gained for invariably supplying seeds which fulfil their expected purpose. In the introduction to the latest issue of his copious “Descriptive Catalogue,” he pertinently remarks that in order to be able to offer, as he does, goods to his customers at a saving of 15 to 20 per cent, on their outlay, he will “continue to abstain from extravagant advertising, attending shows at great cost in all parts of the country, and publishing expensive illustrated catalogues.” Nevertheless, it must be said that the copious catalogue which he issues, devoid as it is of unnecessarily costly illustrations, conveys a much more complete idea of the Great Eastern Seed Stores than would be possible within the necessarily narrow limits of this notice. The Stores, indeed, constitute a most valuable factor in the present economic conditions of the city.


IN all large communities nowadays, the modern dealer in tobacco and kindred goods fulfils an important and much appreciated function, which finds typical illustration in the city of Norwich, at the hands of Mr. H. W. Postle, who twelve years ago acquired the thriving business which had been organised nearly a century back by Messrs. Newbegin & Son, in the eligible premises still occupied in Bridewell Alley. Situated in a commanding corner position, the spacious shop is neatly and substantially appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of exclusively superior goods, all of which have clearly been chosen with great care and sound judgment from the leading manufacturers of the day, both at home and abroad. Choice cigars of all the best British and foreign brands, cigarettes, and cut, roll, and fancy tobaccos; pipes in great variety, tobacconists’ fancy goods and smokers' sundries of every description, and the like, are all fully en evidence at their best, and kept strictly up to date, while all the goods are courteously offered for sale at the lowest prices consistent with equitable trading. For the rest the business is in a splendid condition of progressive development, arid under Mr. Postle’s vigorous, yet always prudent policy of administration, the house, with its large and old-established city and country connection, promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the prosperity of still better times to come.


NO branch of business has advanced of late years with such gigantic leaps and bounds as the manufacture of cycles. The cyclist, like the poor, is always with us, and he is particularly evident in the Eastern Counties, where his wants and requirements are admirably catered for by the popular and extensive firm of Mr. W. W. Morris, the reliable Cycle Manufacturer and Factor, of the Prince of Wales Road. The principal is a son of Mr. George Morris, whose name has so long and so prominently been identified with the coach-building trade and other industries, and whoso splendid show-rooms are adjacent to the “Norfolk Cycle Works.” Admirably situated at the Rose Lane Junction, Lower Prince of Wales Road, the manufactory possesses every advantage of size, location, and equipment. Every description of plant and appliances of the latest and most improved type has been provided. A valuable trade is being controlled here by Mr. Morris, both as a manufacturer and vendor. A numerous staff of skilled workmen is employed, and every kind of cycle is turned out — “Bantams,” safety bicycles of recent type, and embodying all the most desirable improvements, tricycles of every design and pattern, tandems, sociable safety bicycles, “Velociman” and other invalid cycles and carriages of special manufacture, on cushion or pneumatic tyres, carriers of all patterns for the vendor and the lordly four-in-hand; in fact, every style of machine that has yet been introduced. The articles Mr. Morris is manufacturing are well-known in the Eastern Counties, and recognised as having few or no superiors for elegance of appearance, lightness, strength, and durability; while the conditions under which the manufacturing is carried on enable him to place his productions in the market at exceptionally low prices, considering the superior quality. His goods have been supplied to nearly all the nobility of the county.

Besides being an extensive manufacturer, Mr. Morris is also the accredited agent in the city of Norwich for all the most famous makers, whose leading and season’s novelties are always fully represented in the stock. The spacious and handsomely appointed show-room contains first-class selections from the “Premier” Cycle Company, Limited; and “Singer” (Singer & Co.), the pioneers of the trade in Coventry, “Raglan,” “Psycho," and the world-renowned “ Swift” (The Coventry Machinists' Company, Limited). Intending purchasers cannot be far wrong if they place themselves in the hinds of Mr. Morris, whose stock and premises are the largest and most valuable, and in whose judgment in all matters relating to cycles the fullest reliance can be placed. Provisional patents are entrusted to his hands for development. Mr. Morris has unlimited space for the storing of machines. Tourists and others who make their quarters at the “Imperial” Restaurant (situate on the left side when leaving Thorpe Railway Station, directly opposite the Alexandra Mansions, and within a few yards of the cycle works), can have their machines stored at Mr. Morris's free of charge. This gentleman also holds a fine assortment of bassinettes, perambulators, mail-carts, and similar goods, of sound material and good style, which are being offered at the most reasonable figures. Every facility is offered to purchasers; lessons are given by careful teachers on the premises, which are most extensive and cover a vast area of ground. The hire system is in vogue, and buyers can have their machines at once while paying for them by regular instalments over a period of several months. For the better control of a widespread business of this kind, branch houses have been found necessary, and three have been established — two at Yarmouth (Royal Aquarium, and Lancaster Road), and the other at Lowestoft (London Road).

The house is in telegraphic connection, the address being, “W. Morris, Norwich”; the telephone number is 118. The proprietor is everywhere regarded as an able, energetic, and upright business man, and is well known in trading and social circles.


ONE of the leading and successful firms of veterinary surgeons in Norwich is that of Messrs. Mills & Howes, of Castle Meadow, and 2, Heigham Street. This business, patronised by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, has been in existence over a century, and was founded by a Mr. Carter, and succeeded by Messrs. Wells, Santy, & Kitchin, men that have made their mark in the world. Mr. Wells is still alive, and is a magistrate of the city. Mr. Santy retired, and is living at Lynn, and Mr. Kitchin now has a prosperous business in London. The business was acquired by the present proprietors some two years since. These gentlemen are fully qualified and diplomaed members, the senior partner coming here from London with the highest testimonials from the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, and under their close personal supervision the ancient reputation of the firm is being maintained to the full, and new business continually added. The firm enjoy a splendid name for the care they bestow upon every case placed in their hands, and a strong bond of confidence has been established between the principals and their patrons that is highly serviceable to the interests of both parties.

The fine premises occupied on Castle Meadow are of large dimensions, and if not the finest, they are second to those of no other veterinary surgeon, and are admirably arranged and well adapted to the nature of the business carried on. They embrace operating box, loose boxes, stalls, and dog-kennels, built on approved sanitary principles, as well as surgery, offices, waiting-rooms, lavatories, and large and well-appointed shoeing forges, with five fires, and a large staff of smiths. The firm possess a great convenience in the shape of an extensive trotting tan-yard covered with a bay glass roof. The establishment at 2, Heigham Street contains excellent accommodation, but is smaller. The important and critical business of horse-shoeing is being carried out with great success, only experienced workmen being employed, and the most valuable animals can be placed in the firm’s charge with the assurance that every care will be taken of them, and that the operation will be performed in the most skilful and satisfactory manner. Messrs. Mills & Howes are recognised at the head of local veterinary surgeons, and the ability they show in the successful treatment of the diseases and ailments to which horse-flesh is heir is securing for them an influential and rapidly-extending patronage among the leading nobility and gentry and horse proprietors in Norwich and the surrounding districts. The principals are well known in trading and commercial circles, and command the respect and esteem of all who know them for their marked skill, thorough reliability, and strict personal uprightness.
The telegraphic address of the house is “Veterinary, Norwich,” Telephone Mo. 62.


IN catering adequately to the “creature comforts” of the public, the modern restaurateur fulfils a most important function in the economy of all large communities, and in this connection, at the city of Norwich, there is no house perhaps that is possessed of a higher reputation than the one which has been chosen as the theme of the present brief historical review. Seven years have now elapsed since the popular Central Cafe and Temperance Hotel was opened by its present talented and enterprising proprietor, Mr. W. Grix. Centrally located in proximity to the buy Market Place, the spacious premises present two bold double frontages to White Lion Street, the two commodious ground floor front shops, with their supplementary rooms at the rear being provided with neat small tables, invitingly laid for the reception of guests, who can here partake of light refreshments, luncheons, and the like, served by capable and courteous attendants at strictly moderate prices. On the floor above there is a large and well-appointed dining-hall, adjoining a perfectly-equipped billiard saloon; while the basement is utilised for the culinary and baking departments and domestic offices, and at the rear of all is a kitchen fitted in a thorough modern style. All the appointments of the place have, at considerable expense, been furnished and fitted with a view to the maintenance of absolute cleanliness, and the convenience and comfort of guests, on advanced hygienic principles, a liberal bill of fare is daily provided on strictly temperance lines, and the restaurant, which is liberally patronised by regular customers every day, is taxed to its utmost limits on market days, and undoubtedly stands to-day as one of the best and most deservedly popular of temperance refectories in the city of Norwich.



ONE of the most essential features in the internal arrangements of any popular seaside resort is that its food supply is in capable hands. In this respect Cromer is particularly well placed, and among those who cater not only for visitors but also for permanent residents, Messrs. Churchyard & Sons have gained a pre-eminent position. Their business was established in 1878, and is a very comprehensive one, and includes an extensive dealing in tea, groceries, provisions, wines and spirits, general drapery, gentlemen's outfitting requirements, boots and shoes, &c. In order to adequately represent these many branches of trade it will be seen that extensive premises are necessary; nor is it only essential that the premises are large — they must be systematically arranged, and their general appointments must be carried out with the view of facilitating the convenient holding and display of stock, and for the prompt transaction of business. All these considerations Messrs. Churchyard & Sons have fully borne in mind. The premises are known as the West End Supply Stores. They are very extensive, and comprise a three-storey corner building with a very handsome exterior. The several show-windows are all admirably adapted for the special purposes of display, and may be considered an accurate reflection of the productions of the various departments. The interior arrangements of the place leave nothing to be desired, the most modern improvements for the accommodation alike of the assistants and customers being in vogue.

The chief branch of the business, perhaps, is that set aside for the general grocery trade. The stock is very extensive, and includes first-class teas at extremely moderate prices, blended by the firm in varying combinations, which produce most refreshing and stimulating beverages; cocoas and chocolates well selected, and including the products of the best manufacturing firms are on hand, as well as samples of the finest imported coffees, and in the general assortment are sugars, spices, Crosse & Blackwell's and Lazenby's pickles, specialities in biscuits by Carr & Co., Huntley & Palmer, and Gray, Dunn & Co., and indeed everything appertaining to this branch of trade. Special mention may be made of the provision department. Italian goods are on hand in their many varieties, and have been obtained direct from the most celebrated houses in the trade, and of general provision) Messrs. Churchyard & Sons have a very carefully selected stock of goods, embracing English, Continental, American, and Colonial produce of the very best brands in hams, bacon, butter, lard, eggs, cheese, &o. Cheese is a loading line here, and the firm always have on hand a high-class selection of the best Cheddar, double Gloucester, Gorgonzola, Dutch and American goods. Tinned meat and fish, besides fruits of all kinds, are on hand. For all the goods mentioned the firm depend entirely upon the most reputable houses, and in many instances the actual producers; the stock being both choice and comprehensive, the extensive turnover necessitating a constant replenishment, being of itself an assurance of freshness and purity.

The wine and spirit department contains a very extensive stock of the highest quality goods, and Messrs. Churchyard & Sons are the sole local agents for the well-known goods of Messrs. Kennaway & Co. of Exeter. Bottled beers and stout by the most eminent brewers are also supplied, and the high-class nature of the stock of this department clearly demonstrates the close acquaintance the firm have with the smallest details of the trade. A branch of the trade of particular interest and importance is that set aside for general drapery goods, and in this particular the West End Supply Stores enjoy a well-earned reputation. Space will not permit a very lengthy reference to any special branch of the business, but if we were tempted to linger long in any one department it would be here. In order to successfully cater for an influential patronage the firm have closely followed the dictates of a capricious fashion, and their stock is always being strengthened by the addition of new goods and novelties in each department. Of seasonable dress goods they have a very choice assortment in all kinds of delicate fabrics, while their millinery is of a decidedly modern and up-to-date character. In underclothing they offer especially good value, and their assortment of household linen, flannels, blankets, furnishing fabrics, calicoes, curtains, fancy blinds, hosiery, gloves, ribbons, laces, Brussels, Axminster, Turkey, Kidderminster, and tapestry carpets, mats, oilcloths, linoleums, &c., is in the highest degree representative.

The family mourning department is placed in experienced and skilful hands, and all orders are executed with a promptness that cannot fail to give entire satisfaction. As youths’ and gentlemen’s outfitters Messrs. Churchyard & Sons also operate extensively, their stock of ready-made clothing being a combination of good style, sound material, and well-finished workmanship. Without entering into the details of the department it may be at once said that everything included in gentlemen's outfitting is on hand, and the firm have spared no pains to render their stock as complete as possible. Another department, and one that claims more than mere passing mention, is that devoted to the supply of boots and shoes. Here will be found first-class goods of all kinds for ladies', gentlemen's, and children's wear; and here, as in every other branch of the business, the firm have succeeded in obtaining a very superior selection. It is a very attractive and valuable selection of goods that attaches importance to the glass and china department, and everything from a kitchen earthenware pan to the most artistically designed and delicately cut glass, or highly finished dinner-service, may be obtained here at prices that will bear the most favourable comparison with those charged at any other establishment.

To Messrs. Churchyard & Sons belong the credit of having introduced a system of trading that has been highly appreciated by the people of Cromer. With sound commercial principles and an extensive knowledge of the special requirements of their trade, they have combined an energetic and enterprising spirit, and resolve to obtain their entire stock first-hand from the manufacturers and actual producers, and to offer their goods at prices that cannot be beaten by any of the London stores. Housekeepers in the town were not slow to recognise the West End Supply Stores as offering them special advantages, and the connection — always of an influential character — has from the commencement of the business been steadily increasing. Although the premises are both extensive and conveniently arranged for the purpose of rapid business, they are not a whit beyond what is actually required to meet the present demand on their resources. It is not necessary to go further into detail, as the establishment contains a complete stock of the goods usually sold in the departments to which reference has been made. The business has been introduced as the chief of its kind in this increasingly popular seaside town, and as exhibiting an honourable record of service to Cromer and its inhabitants, and having its reward in the ample connection held by the proprietors, the continued success that has attached to it from its commencement giving every indication of being long continued and of being remuneratively enjoyed. It should be mentioned that the firm have branch establishments at High Street, Sherringham, and Wensum Street, Costessey, and that their telegraphic address is “Churchyard, Cromer.”


MR. F. W. Rogers began his industrial operations in Cromer about thirty-five years ago. The premises comprise yards, sheds, warehouses, and offices, the arrangements of which have been adapted to the requirements of the business. In the several store-rooms are held stocks of every variety of brass and other appliances and requisites for the execution of plumbing work, under the best possible conditions. These stocks include all descriptions of baths, basins, and other lavatory adjuncts. Large quantities are always kept of piping, gas-fittings, &c. In other departments are displayed all varieties of wall papers, together with dado mouldings and other adjuncts of mural decoration. Here, too, is to be found every kind of oils, colours, and varnishes, with lead and glass for constructive and decorative purposes. Mr. Rogers possesses all facilities which matured experience could suggest. Attention is given to the fixing and repairing of electric bells. He is agent in the district for the Incandescent Light Company, and also for the Glacier window decoration. By personally supervising the business, the most careful workmanship in the fulfilment of all contracts is insured.



IN reviewing the business establishments of King's Lynn, special mention should be made of that presided over by Mr. Thomas C. Green, of 84, High Street. This notable business was founded some two and twenty years ago by Mr. Thomas Green, operations being commenced at No. 44, High Street. The title of the firm subsequently became Thomas Green & Son. A short time ago, Mr. Green, junior, took over the business, since which date it has been carried on under its present designation. The premises occupied are admirably situated in a leading business thoroughfare, and in appearance and arrangement are well adapted to the successful control of an extensive and varied trade of this description. They comprise a large double-fronted shop, with capacious and tastefully arranged show-windows and interior fitted up with double, counters, stands, shelves, show-cases, and every requisite for exhibiting and accommodating the goods. Extending to the rear is a compact office, together with various warehouses. The ready-made goods include all the latest fashions in these garments for men, youths, and juveniles, while the material and workmanship are such as leave nothing to be desired. “Small profits and quick returns” is the business motto of the house under notice, and the rapid turnover and the extent of the business done, place the proprietor in a position to offer inducements of various kinds that cannot possibly be duplicated elsewhere. An important feature is made of the bespoke department, the stock including English and Scotch tweeds, West of England cloths, diagonals, homespuns, vicunas, and all the season’s goods for trouserings and suitings. The cutter is a man of acknowledged skill, and his work is of a decidedly superior kind. The garments turned out here are well known and appreciated in the district for their superior fabric, stylish cut, and perfect fit. The general stocks held embrace English and foreign hosiery from the best makers; shirts, collars, and cuffs, made on the premises; silk and felt hats, every description of underwear, socks, ties, scarfs, umbrellas, indiarubber and waterproof garments, travelling-rugs, and everything requisite for a complete outfit. The connection is of a good medium class and wide in its ramifications, and if superior goods, low prices, and polite attention can secure and retain success, the future of this house is well assured. Mr. Green is very popular with all classes of customers, and his open and straightforward way of doing business has obtained for him the respect and esteem, as well as the patronage, of the principal inhabitants of King’s Lynn and the surrounding districts.


ADVANTAGEOUSLY situated at a point on the Lincolnshire shore of the Humber estuary, directly opposite Spurn Head, Great Grimsby has a position which should place it among the leading seaports of the East Coast, and it is gratifying to note that in recent years this favourable circumstance has been bringing the town more and more to the front in a commercial sense. In point of population, and also of trade, Grimsby is now the most important community in Lincolnshire, and its growth during the past fifty years — due entirely to the increased commercial facilities that have been provided here within that period — has been remarkable.

It is not easy to indicate the origin of Grimsby, or to assign a date for the commencement of its history. Probably a hamlet stood on this site in very early times, peopled by the sturdy and industrious fishermen whose descendants still ply their arduous calling along these stormy coasts. The fact that Grimsby is a borough by prescription points to its antiquity, and marks it as one of the oldest of English municipalities. In the time of Edward III. it had become a seaport of more than ordinary importance, and its burgesses furnished that vigorous monarch with eleven ships and a goodly number of seamen to take part in his operations against Calais. Later times, however, brought ill fortune. Accumulations of mud and sand spoiled the harbour, and the trade of the port dwindled almost to vanishing point. An improved state of things began early in the present century, but the real revival of Grimsby as a seat of commerce dates from the commencement of the fine system of docks and quays which now enable the port to cope with the demands of a constantly increasing trade. When these extensive works were begun under the auspices of the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway, the one dock existing at Grimsby was wholly above the level of high water, and was supplied with water by land streams. When low water prevailed, there was an unsightly mass of muddy shore between the dock and the sea, and this wasted space was reclaimed by the construction of the new docks, enclosing many acres, and providing not only for the wet docks themselves, but also for wharves and warehouses in connection therewith. All this has been accomplished at a large cost, but the money has been well laid out, and the port is now reaping the profits of the investment. The docks at Grimsby in their present state afford splendid facilities for the large amount of shipping which enters the port; and the excellent railway communication, which has been such a source of benefit to the town, furnishes the necessary means of transport for merchandise inwards and outwards.

Besides the general docks, there are specially arranged docks for fishing vessels, Grimsby being now one of the busiest and most important fishing ports of the Kingdom. In this connection, also, mention must be made of the ice trade, which is carried on upon a large scale, many vessels being employed in bringing cargoes of ice from Norway. This commodity is, of course, indispensable for the preservation of fish, and is chiefly used for that purpose. The general trade conducted through medium of the docks, and facilitated by the railway conveniences already referred to, is very large, and its character is sufficiently varied to entitle Grimsby to special consideration as a centre of commercial activity. The townspeople are evidently fully alive to the advantages they possess in situation and in mercantile resources generally, and they have put forth the most praiseworthy effort to make this port a recognised entrepot for the trade of the large populative district to which it gives access. The result of these efforts, and the success that has crowned them, is manifest to everyone who visits Grimsby to-day, and notes the extent and importance of its commercial establishments, or views the bustle and activity prevailing on its busy quays and in the great warehouses adjacent thereto.

Among the industries carried on at Grimsby may be mentioned ship and boat building, iron and brass founding, brewing, tanning, and a variety of trades usually incidental to a flourishing seaport. The town has a stately old parish church, a free grammar school, and other notable institutions, besides a commodious town hall. Custom-house, corn exchange, &c. The local government is marked by commendable public spirit, and the corporation merits congratulation upon the outcome of its labours in all matters bearing upon the welfare of the town and its inhabitants. Our readers will make the acquaintance of some of the leading business concerns of Grimsby in the articles which here follow, and it is only necessary for us now to call attention to the scope and comprehensiveness of the operations in which those concerns are engaged. All the general trades of the town are in a flourishing condition, and they represent every branch of commerce whose resources are called upon to supply the daily needs of the people. The local merchants retain the support and confidence of their customers by their energetic business methods; and one has only to glance at the leading shops and warehouses to see how thoroughly “up to date” they are, and how closely their proprietors keep in touch with the great markets of the outer world, offering to their patrons a full range of choice in every class of new goods, from the chief sources of supply at home and abroad.

It is noteworthy that the art of photography is in an advanced state here, its interests being actively promoted by the Grimsby Photographic Society, whose club room, “dark room,” &c., are at 28, Victoria Street. R. C. Long, Esq., Oaklands, Laceby, is President of this Society. The Vice-Presidents are N. Barker, Esq., and W. B. Simpson, Esq.; and Mr. Flint, of Ainslie Road, is the Secretary. Great Grimsby is a Parliamentary borough, and returns one member to the House of Commons. We have alluded to its rapid growth in modern times, under the stimulus of the enlarged commerce created by its dock and railway conveniences. What that growth has amounted to is shown by the decennial Census returns, from which we learn that the population of the borough increased from 11,067 in 1861, to 20,244 in 1871; while the next decade brought the number of inhabitants up to no less than 40,010, and the Census of 1891 shows that the population at that date was 51,876. Such growth is exceptional, and may be accepted as a sign of commercial stability and progress, which augurs well for the future of this thriving port.



AN able and enterprising firm in this particular branch is that of Messrs. Fletcher Brothers & Co., whose business has been established in Grimsby since the year 1889. The partners are men of large experience, and the reputation they enjoy has been well earned by the superior character and efficacy of their specialities. Large and commodious premises are occupied, consisting of well-appointed offices in the entrance, with extensive works and stores at the rear. The manufacturing department is equipped with the latest and most unproved machinery and apparatus known to the trade. Neither expense nor trouble has been spared in providing the best and most efficient appliances of every description, and the firm are determined to maintain their position in the foremost ranks of manufacturers. A staff of skilled workmen is employed, and throughout the place an admirable system of order and organisation is in force. The leading specialities of the house are Pino-Phenol disinfectant, carbolic acid and powder, fluid sheep dip, arsenical powder dip, and “Lavo-type” for printers, and poisonous weed killer. These goods are well known in the trade, and are looked upon by the principal buyers and users as having no real superiors in uniformity, purity, and strength. The Pino-Phenol disinfectant enjoys a very large sale and is made in liquid and in powder. From the manufacturing facility possessed by the firm, the house is able to place its productions on the market at prices which cannot be surpassed elsewhere. A branch establishment conducted on the same lines as the headquarters is kept up at St. Albans, Hertfordshire, and from there the London and South of England trade generally is done. The home trade extends to all parts of the United Kingdom, several travellers being kept constantly on the road, while the foreign connection is controlled by agents in the chief commercial centres.

Messrs. Fletcher are the inventors and sole manufacturers of an improved sheep-dipping apparatus, which obtained the first and only prize at the Royal Agricultural Society's Show at Cambridge, June, 1894, in competition with the leading makers in the country. A few remarks on the working of this machine will not be out of place here. It is claimed that it is the nearest approach to the ideal that has ever been invented; it is light and portable, and easily moved over all kinds of roads; it is a perfect swim bath, and infinitely superior to the almost obsolete patterns to be seen — occasionally — with lever, cage, pulley, &c., which waste so much valuable time. It only requires a few men to work it, and from one thousand to one thousand five hundred sheep can be dipped in a day with much less waste of fluid than by any other. It has a perfect drainer, with new dirt screen, which prevents the dirt made by the sheep in the drainer from running into the bath and polluting the wash. The wheels, axles, and springs are loose, and can easily be taken off when the apparatus requires fixing for use, and quickly replaced on elevating one end of the bath by means of the shafts — the bath being the heaviest forms part of the cart; the drainer and other accessories fit inside, and the whole forms a complete and handy apparatus. The machine is constructed of the very best materials in the highest class workmanship, and we have every confidence in recommending it as one of the most perfect in every way ever introduced into the market. The firm occupy the distinguished position of being contractors to Her Majesty’s British and Foreign Governments, and they have also contracts to supply a great number of corporations and local boards in various parts of the country. The principals are young, energetic, and thoroughly capable gentlemen, well known in trade circles, and everywhere held in the highest estimation for their skill, strict commercial integrity, and personal worth.
Telegrams for the firm should be addressed: “Fletcher Brothers, Grimsby.”


THE most significant chapter in the economic history of Grimsby, regarded as a great coal-shipping port, is constituted by the records of the eminent firm of Messrs. Worms, Josse & Co. These records data back to 1855, when the late Mr. Henri Josse began his commercial operations in Grimsby, acting as agent for the great house of Hyppolite Worms the name of Worms having been, then and since, a tower of strength in Cardiff, Newcastle, Hull, Grimsby, and Goole. In 1870 Mr. Josse assumed his position as a member of the firm, whose style and title was then changed to its present designation. Messrs. Worms, Josse & Co. control a very extensive business as coal exporters and steamship owners. The coal which they ship is obtained direct from the South Yorkshire. West Yorkshire, Derbyshire, and Nottinghamshire coal-fields, and invariably represents the very best selected qualities. In this way the house has gained its high reputation all over the world. South Yorkshire best hard steam coal and double-screened nuts are supplied from the Wombwell, Mitchell, Main and Elescar pits. The firm are also the solo agents for the celebrated Mitchell Main best hard steam coal (the late Air. H. Josse being a proprietor of this pit) which is placed on the English and French navy lists, also for Derbyshire steam hards, a good cheap- fuel. The household coal in which the firm deal is supplied to merchants and private consumers in Grimsby and the surrounding districts. They also supply large quantities of bunker coal to the owners of steamers and steam trawlers, and they export very largely to coaling stations in the East, and particularly to Port Said, via the Suez Canal. The coal is brought from the various coal-fields in the firm’s own waggons and trucks. The firm are also extensive steamship owners, their vessels being chiefly employed as merchandise and also passenger boats, having their headquarters in Havre.

The career of Mr. Henri Josse was closely identified with the rise of Grimsby into its present position of industrial and commercial importance, and the high esteem in which he was held by all classes of the community manifested itself in 1892, when he was elected Member of Parliament for the borough. He resigned that position early in 1893, in consequence of the decease of one of his partners, and the severe illness of Monsieur Henri Goodchaux, and he himself died in July, 1893, at his residence in France. His invariable geniality and genuine philanthropy had unquestionably made him the most popular man in the district. Since his lamented decease we learn his young, energetic and able partner, Monsieur H. Goodchaux, came to the head of the firm of Worms, Josse & Co., Paris, and the great business which he created at Grimsby has been, in all its details, under the able control of Mr. J. Robinson, who has had a lengthened experience of the coal trade, and possesses a thorough technical knowledge of its requirements, combined with strong organising and administrative abilities. The headquarters of the firm in Grimsby comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. The registered telegraphic address is: “Worms, Grimsby.”

A large staff of clerks and other assistants is employed, including several specialists engaged as foreign correspondents and otherwise. The following steamers are engaged running from Grimsby to Dieppe, and vice versa, every Wednesday and Saturday, viz., ‘Blanche,’ ‘Ernestine,’ ‘Georgette,’ ‘Hirondelle,’ six hundred tons burden, carrying general merchandise to and from all parts of England, France, Algiers, Alsace, Lorraine, Switzerland and Italy. The owners are Messrs. Leblanc Charlemaine et Cie., of Rouen. This firm was established in 1858, by the late Mr. Achille Grandchamp, who died four yean ago. Mr. James Robinson also represents this firm at Grimsby.


AS a result of the energetic and well-directed enterprise of the United Hardware Company, Limited, the resources of Grimsby are fully equal to the supply, under the best possible conditions, of every description of builders' and furnishing ironmongery. The admirably organised business which the Company conduct was founded in 187C, at 141, Cleethorpe Road, by Mr. Thomas Botterill, and was subsequently carried on by Messrs. Oakden & Sharpe, who formed the nucleus of the valuable connection which has since been materially extended by their successors. In 1892 the present Company was incorporated, under the Limited Liability Acts, for the purpose of further developing the rapidly growing business of Messrs. Oakden & Sharpe at 116 & 118, Cleethorpe Road, which had been specially designed and built to meet the particular requirements of the business. The ground floor is occupied as a sale shop and the first floor serves as a show-room. Both these fine apartments are handsomely appointed, and their elegant fittings, which are numerous and conveniently disposed, admit of the effective display of the varied stocks which are always held.

It is impossible, within the necessarily narrow limits of this notice, to convey an adequate idea of the enormous extent of the Company’s resources. It may, however, be mentioned that the stocks include general furnishing ironmongery, cutlery and electro plate, supplied by special arrangement with the leading firms in Sheffield; bedsteads, brass and black, and brass kerbs, fenders, fire-brasses, rests, coal vases in brass, wood and japanned ware, galvanized iron goods, kitchen utensils, lamps, chandeliers, and hall-lamps, mangles, wringers, &c., &c.; builders’ and cabinet ironmongery, joiners’ tools, kitchen ranges, tiled register stoves, mantel registers in all the latest designs, corrugated iron, zinc roofing, felt, nails of all descriptions, horticultural ironmongery, lawn-mowers by all the leading makers, garden-rollers and green-house boilers, and all necessary fittings, garden seats, &c., &c. In the splendid show-room, on the upper floor, is a most representative display of marble and enamelled slate chimney-pieces, tiled register stoves in all modern designs, tile and drawing-room hearths in many new and most attractive designs. There is a separate room for kitchen ranges, and the firm hold a specially large stock of these goods from the best makers — principally the Eagle, Yorkshire and Swinton. Since the United Hardware Company, Limited, took over the business, its record has been one of rapid and uninterrupted progress. A very active business is transacted, both in the wholesale and the retail departments, under the able control, as manager, of Mr. Samuel Adams, who possesses a thorough technical knowledge of the trade in all its branches. The premises include a well-appointed office, which is furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of business.
The telephone number is 41, and the registered telegraphic address is “United, Grimsby.”


A BUSINESS that has for forty years occupied a leading position among its competitors is one deserving of more than passing notice in these records of the principal industrial and commercial enterprises of Grimsby. Such a one is that of Mr. G. Hickson, of Wellowgate, the well-known and extensive field-gate, hurdle, and ladder manufacturer. The founder of this notable concern was a Mr. Chapman, who commenced operations in or about 1854, successfully conducting the business till 1886, at which date it was taken possession of by the present sole proprietor, Mr. Hickson, who brought to the control of his newly-acquired business a large amount of experience in this branch of skilled industry. The premises occupied are large and well adapted to the nature of the business carried on. They include offices and warehouses, extensive saw-mills fitted up with the latest circular and band saws, carpentering departments equipped with chopping machinery, turning lathes, and every desirable appliance; the whole of the machinery being driven by steam power, together with spacious yard and numerous sheds for drying timber.

Under very favourable conditions Mr. Hickson is carrying on a valuable business in every class of work that can be comprised within the domain of the agricultural carpenter. His leading and best-known specialities are field gates, trays, ladders, tumbrils, sheep troughs, net stakes, thatch pegs, stable yard doors, hunting gates, railed batting fences, sheep hurdles, and horse and cattle bins. The material used is of the best possible kind — redwood, red deal, oak, and pitch pine chiefly — and is always thoroughly seasoned before being made up. Some ten skilled operatives are employed, who follow out their business under the immediate control of the principal, and the best finished class of work can always be guaranteed. Added to these advantages, the fact that the business is being carried on in a town famous for importing timber, and the careful reader will perceive that every inducement can be offered here, not only in excellence of material and soundness and finish of work, but, also, in the matter of prices. A well-known speciality of the firm is Hickson’s Shepherd's House, and quite a comfortable and commodious lodgment for the sheep tender can be procured for eighteen pounds, mounted on wheels, with roof of corrugated iron, and fitted with rucks, cupboard, and stove. It is no wonder that it has been largely adopted in the great sheep-rearing districts. Estimates are given for every class of work in this line, and special quotations are made for delivery at any station. A valuable connection is maintained throughout Lincolnshire and the adjacent counties among landowners, estate agents, farmers, and others. Mr. Hickson is conducting his business with much energy and spirit, and is continually introducing improvements into the various articles he makes. He is well known and highly respected both in business circles and in private life.


SINCE 1864, when Messrs. Joseph Chapman & Co. began their commercial operations, they have, in no small degree, assisted in establishing the reputation of Grimsby as one of the leading centres for the importation and wholesale distribution of timber, by the magnitude of their transactions. This well-known and respected firm originally had their headquarters in the Royal Dock Chambers, but in consequence of their increasing trade, purchased a freehold block of houses in Victoria Street, which they occupied as offices, and which property, together with, the large adjacent yard and drying sheds, for the storage of best quality deals, boards, &o., they still own. After a lapse of time, they were again compelled to remove to more commodious premises, which they did by leasing from the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway Company, the splendid suite of offices in Victoria Street, which they at present occupy. In this extensive business, Messrs. Chapman & Co. require and occupy no less than five yards of large dimensions, for the storage of their numerous stocks, which are situated in Victoria Street, Lock Hill, Royal Dock, Junction Dock, and Northside Alexandra Dock, in addition to four large ponds for the storage of floating log timber. In each of these depots are held carefully and well-selected stocks, which are systematically classified and arranged, all best quality goods being kept under cover. These are of the very best shipments of their various descriptions, and are imported by the firm chiefly from the White Sea, Sweden and Russia, comprising deals, battens, boards, flooring, round and square mining timber, pitch pine, memel and dantzic fir, stettin oak, lathwood, sleepers, &c.

The trade connection of Messrs. Chapman & Co. extends to all parts of Yorkshire, Lancashire, Lincolnshire, the Potteries, Black Country, and the Midlands, amongst timber merchants, railway companies, waggon builders, contractors, builders, carpenters, cabinet makers, colliery proprietors, &c. The firm are also extensive importers of French gravel and Belgian granite, in which material they contract with municipal corporations, and the local road surveyors, and with contractors for concrete work. The wide commercial and social influence which Messrs. Chapman possess enables them also to render considerable services to the London and Lancashire Fire Insurance Company, as their Grimsby agents, together with a large amount of marine insurance business in connection with Lloyd's. The spacious private and general offices are handsomely furnished and appointed in every detail, for the prompt despatch of all business entrusted to their care, which is carried out by a numerous and efficient staff. Employment is also found for a large body of experienced workmen for the yarding, stocking, or loading on to rails or into sloops, of the goods as they are discharged from the steamers, for which special facilities are provided by the existing railway sidings and quays alongside the various yards, putting the firm in direct communication with all the leading inland centres of industry. Mr. Joseph Chapman, the principal of this large establishment, has, by his exceptional abilities and personal supervision, been enabled to bring his extensive and many-sided business to its present elevated standing amongst the loading timber importers of the country.


AN important addition was made in 1893 to the list of specialists industries which are conducted in Grimsby by the beginning of the notably successful operations of the Great Grimsby Poultry Grit and Meal Company. They then acquired the commodious premises which they now occupy in Albion Street, and which were formerly utilised as a sawmill. The buildings here afford ample space both for their industrial operations and their commercial business. To the rear are the works, which are equipped with all the requisites for facilitating the production of the specialities, and commodious store-rooms, in which are held large stocks of their several productions. The Company are very extensive manufacturers of high-class poultry food and of other specialities for the poultry-yard, which have evoked the unqualified approbation of many of the most eminent experts resident in different parts of the country. The “Perfect Meal,” which is produced by this firm is, it is claimed, the best and cheapest yet put on the market; they also produce a biscuit meal in three sizes, suitable for game, fowls and chickens. Their flint grit is given to fowls that the sharp granules may grind the corn, &c., in the gizzard, to enable thorough digestion and assimilation. The Company’s granulated clarified oyster shells are given to fowls, pigeons, &c., which are confined in runs, to supply the necessary materials for forming the egg shells, and strengthening the bone and feather, besides being a healthful tonic.

Their “Excelsior Fish Meal” — Grimsby being the most appropriate place in England from which such a speciality could emanate — is an excellent new invention, prepared solely from fish. It is most effective in keeping fowls strong and healthy in inclement weather. It is absolutely free from chemicals, drugs, or any other poisonous or heating ingredients conducive to disease. The firm also manufacture a first-class fish manure, which is extensively used by most of the leading gardeners and horticulturists in the country. George Harris, Esq., head gardener to his Grace the Duke of Northumberland, Alnwick Castle gardens, writes: “I have applied this manure to vines and many kinds of plants with excellent effect;” and the firm hold similar testimonials from many well-known horticulturists. We are not surprised to learn that this manure has such a large and increasing sale when we are informed that it is sent carriage paid for £3 10s. per ton. The Company receive a large number of orders by post, and they are represented by numerous agents throughout the country. The notable success which, within a comparatively brief period, has been achieved by the Company is, doubtless, the result of the general recognition of the merits of their specialities, but it has unquestionably been largely aided by the energetic enterprise of Mr. W. Davison, the general manager.


EVER since 1874, when Messrs. Nightingale & Danby began their extensive operations in Grimsby, they have taken a very large share in the most important building work which, in the interval, has been executed in North Lincolnshire and the adjoining districts. Both the members of the firm brought to their well-ordered enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of all branches of the building trades, so that they now control a very extensive trade connection, and have gained the unreserved confidence of a large circle of customers. At the entrance to Messrs. Nightingale & Danby's timber yard and works there is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices. The extensive works to the rear comprise a large saw-mill, equipped with circular and hand saws, planing and moulding machines, &c., representing the latest and best-approved practical applications of mechanical engineering science to the processes of wood working. The machinery is driven by a powerful steam-engine. In the joiner’s shop, too, the mechanical appliances are of the best modern type. The other buildings include masons' and timber sheds, &c. The firm, in their capacity as builders, have carried out many important contracts to the complete satisfaction of architects and all others interested. Amongst these may be particularised the building of the Ebenezer Chapel, Grimsby, the Grammar School at Old Clee, the Grammar School at Humberston, the Sessions House at Alford, &c.

Messrs. Nightingale & Danby also control a very extensive business as builders’ merchants, and always hold heavy and thoroughly comprehensive stocks of drain tubes, junctions, bends, and elbows; together with syphons, cesspools and covers, stench-traps; firebricks, clay, and logs; Roman, Portland, and Keen's cement; coarse and fine plaster; best cane hair; plaster, slate, and tile laths; lime, red quarry’s; all kinds of ridges; stable and blue bricks, &c. In the steam joinery works customers’ own designs are carefully executed in woodwork on the shortest possible notice. Sawn boards of every description are always kept in stock. Estimates are given for erections or alterations in all kinds of brickwork, stonework, slaters’ work, plastering, &o. Pattern books of all kinds of encaustic tile pavement and dadoes are submitted and estimates given free. Hearth and white glazed tiles are always kept in stock. All kinds of ground mortar are manufactured for the trade, and customers’ own materials are ground. Messrs. Nightingale & Danby are, likewise, extensive stone and marble masons, and estimates are given for all kinds of head stones and grave curbing — as well as for plumbing, glazing, gas-fitting, and painting. Both the partners are recognised experts in reference to sanitary and ventilating engineering. Messrs. Nightingale & Danby are both possessed of exceptional administrative abilities, and are thus enabled to supervise all the details of their extensive business. They regularly employ a staff of from forty to fifty skilled workmen, including several expert specialists as the heads of departments.





THE firm whose name appears at the head of this sketch was founded in 1873 by the present senior partner. This gentleman had had a long experience in the trade, and was early successful in laying the foundation of his undertaking on a broad and secure basis. In 1892 he was joined in partnership by his son, Mr. A. Smith, the firm then assuming its present title. During the sixteen years the business has been in existence, a well-merited reputation has been obtained, and the house is every year adding to the extent and value of its transactions. Large and conveniently situated premises are occupied, consisting of spacious shop, warehouse, and well-appointed suite of work-rooms. A numerous staff of workmen is employed, the whole of the uppers and boots and shoes turned out here being made by hand. Here is controlled one of the largest trades in the town as leather merchants and manufacturers and retailers of closed boot uppers, grindery and every kind of shoe mercery. An extensive stock is held also of boots and shoes for ladies, gentlemen, and children. These, when not made on the premises, have been obtained from the best sources of supply, and deserve every recommendation for their high excellence of material and their finished style of workmanship. A valuable amount of business is being done in the manufacture of closed boot uppers, and the work turned out by the firm is recognised as having no superior in the market. Extensive supplies are held of leather, which is obtained direct from some of the most reliable manufacturers in the kingdom, and is offered at prices which are sure to find favour with intending purchasers. Grindery and shoe mercery are kept on hand in every variety, and shoemakers can get a wide selection of everything they require at this enterprising and well-managed house. Messrs. G. Smith & Son are agents for Fleming, Birkby & Goodhall, Limited (Leather and other Beltings), and for Jones & Co. (Domestic and Boot-closing Machines). The business in its entirety is being admirably managed by the partners in person, who spare neither pains nor expense to keep their establishment at the head of similar local houses. The principals are well known in the trade, and are everywhere held in respect and esteem for their straightforward methods of doing business, their strict integrity, and their many high personal traits.


ONE of the most important of the staple trades of Grimsby is well represented by the old-established and popular house of Mr. Charles Jeffs, junior. The business was founded many years back by Mr. J. Cook, and developed by him with much energy and success. It was subsequently acquired by the father of the present proprietor, who continued at the head of, affairs till 1893, when he was succeeded by his son as above. During these years of commercial activity a first-class name has been secured, and a position of prominence and influence obtained among the leading establishments in Grimsby occupied in the same sphere of commercial activity. Large and conveniently situated premises are occupied in the Fish Dock, consisting of the three bottom floors of an extensive block of four-storey buildings. The place throughout has been well arranged and gives every indication that it has been laid out under the care of some one who has a thorough practical acquaintance with the requirements of the trade. The ground floor is fitted up as the curing department, the first floor is occupied by a well-appointed suite of offices, private and general, and the upper floor affords storage accommodation for an immense quantity of boxes for packing purposes, and which the exigencies of the trade compel to be kept in stock. There are also curing-houses and smoking-houses attached to the premise;, all thoroughly well fitted up with every requisite appliance for the successful control of this part of the business. As many as from fifty to sixty hands are kept constantly employed under the immediate supervision of the principal, and here is being conducted one of the largest and most valuable businesses of its kind in Grimsby.

Mr. Jeffs is in direct communication with the leading sources of supply for his fish, and never fails to have an abundant store of a first-rate article. His facilities are of an exceptionally valuable kind, and he is able to place his fish upon the market at the lowest quoted prices. Buyers trusting their orders to this responsible house can rely upon receiving the finest class of goods and every inducement in the way of close attention and favourable quotations. In the curing department the firm is chiefly occupied in the preparation of bloaters, kipper herrings, and the finest haddocks. These goods are well known in the trade, and held in high appreciation for their uniform quality and general excellence. The superior character of everything handled has obtained for the house a large and influential connection every part of the United Kingdom among wholesale fish merchants, and being based upon the only secure foundation its continued increase can be confidently predicted. Mr. Jeffs is an expert salesman and a thorough judge of everything piscatorial. In his dealings he is strictly fair and honourable, securing the confidence and respect of all with whom he comes into business connection. He is a popular man in the trade, and an active director of the East Coast Fishing Company of Grimsby.
Telegraphic address: “Curer, Grimsby.” Telephone No. 74.


THIS business, conducted by the well-known firm of Messrs. Joseph Sleight & Son, was founded in 1860 by Mr. Joseph Sleight, whose enlightened and well-directed enterprise created a valuable connection, which has since uninterruptedly progressed. The founder of the establishment was subsequently joined by his Son, Mr. Henry Sleight, who, in 1887, became the sole proprietor, retaining the familiar style and title of the firm. For thirty-four years, therefore, the family record has formed an important chapter in the history of modern Grimsby. Mr. Henry Sleight is naturally proud of the long-established reputation of the house, and successfully maintains all his best traditions, while, at the same time, by his prompt adoption of approved modern commercial methods he is constantly extending the sphere of the firm's operations, and Mr. Sleight, along with his brother, is the largest private owner of steam fishing vessels in the port of Grimsby. The headquarters of Messrs. Sleight & Son are on the Fish Dock, and comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices. The registered telegraphic address is “Sleightson, Grimsby.”

The firm have also, in their capacity as auctioneers, a smaller office, on the Fish Pontoon. The business which Messrs. Sleight & Son now control is one of the most important in the Grimsby fish trade. They send to all parts of the United Kingdom enormous supplies of every variety of fish, including shell-fish. They have, with notable success, made a speciality of Scotch salmon, and, in this department, they conduct one of the most extensive businesses in Grimsby. The firm judiciously adhere to the inflexible rule of supplying fishmongers only, and declining all private family trade. They employ a large staff of experienced hands in the despatch of goods. Messrs. Sleight & Son also supply fishmongers all over the country with pure Norwegian ice. The energetic enterprise of the firm is further illustrated by the fact that they manufacture on their own premises all the boxes which they use in packing the fish. Mr. Sleight is, personally, one of the beet-known and most popular men in the trade, and the firm enjoys the highest reputation for the undeviating integrity and the spirit of liberality which characterise all its transactions.


SINCE 1878 the reputation of Grimsby, as a leading centre of the woodworking industry, has been, to a considerable extent, based upon the operations conducted in connection with the well-ordered business of which Mr. John Gray is now the proprietor. It was founded in 1876, under the style and title of Gray Brothers; the premises at that time being on the other side of the street. In 1889 this partnership was dissolved, and Mr. John Gray removed to the commodious quarters which he now occupies, and at the same time started business on his own account. The existing premises comprise a large two-storeyed building with a spacious frontage; the ground floor is occupied as the saw-mill. On the upper floor is a well-appointed office, and a very commodious joiner's shop. The industrial departments are fully equipped with all the requisite mechanical appliances of the most approved modern typo. The machinery is driven by a powerful “Otto” gas-engine. Mr. Gray has surrounded himself with all the facilities for the execution, under the most favourable conditions, of building contracts of all descriptions. He has, in the case of many important buildings, performed to the satisfaction of architects and all concerned, not only the necessary wood-work, but also the brickwork. He has, in this department of his business, engaged chiefly in connection with the erection of villas and the better class of dwellings, shops, and warehouses. He likewise controls a large business in all kinds of sawing and moulding for the trade; and he manufactures large quantises of doors, windows, skirtings, floorings, match boards, &c., the manufacture of dovetailed plaice-boxes being a speciality. Under Mr. Gray's control the business has very considerably developed, and its record continues to be one of rapid and uninterrupted progress — the result of his thorough technical knowledge and exceptional administrative abilities. We may here mention that he is the inventor and patentee of a machine for tongueing and grooving heads for flooring boards of which Messrs. W. B. Haigh & Co., Limited, Oldham, are the manufacturers. He employs a staff of skilled workmen varying in number from sixty to seventy, and including several expert foremen as heads of departments.


WHILE reviewing the many centres of the fish trade in Grimsby, one is brought face to face with the details of what may well be termed a gigantic industry, and one may be excused the speculation as to the limits of the dealing and general traffic in fish in this port. The Fish Docks are thronged with people busy in furthering the interests of the fish industry in one or more of their many forms, and the extensive buildings are set out as offices occupied by wholesale merchants, fishing smack owners, who, to a certain extent, may be said to control the entire fish trade of the country. Amongst others in this connection are Messrs. J. R. Mackrill & Sons. Their extensive business was established by the present senior partner in 1867, and for nearly twenty years he successfully maintained the sole proprietorship. In 1886, however, he was joined by his two sons, Messrs. F. W. and J. H. Mackrill, and at that date the firm assumed its present title. The extensive premises are very favourably situated opposite the Pontoon, and they comprise offices and store-rooms on the first floor of a spacious block of buildings, where they carry on a very extensive business as fish, oyster, and ice merchants, and commission agents. They are also the owners of a new, finely equipped steam fishing trawler for in-shore fishing, and under their careful, able, and judicious management, a splendid business is in operation.

Messrs. Mackrill & Sons are constantly receiving large consignments of fish of various kinds from Holland, which they sell by auction on the Pontoon. The fish caught by their own steam trawler is also disposed of by auction in the usual way. The medium of supply are in fact almost unlimited, and all kinds of fish are supplied on the shortest notice and sent away in bulk to any part of the United Kingdom or the Continent. They also have large oyster beds at Cleethorpe, near Grimsby, where the luscious and unsuspecting bivalves are preparing for the market. The business is a very comprehensive one, and one which, besides commanding the constant and undivided attention of its proprietors, demands the employment of a large staff. Each department is thoroughly representative of its special branch of trade, and in their enterprising proprietorship Messrs. Mackrill & Sons spare no pains to uphold the gratifying reputation and the widespread connection which has always been theirs. The firm also act as agents for the Tyne Steam-fishing Company, Limited, whose boats land their fish principally at Grimsby. The senior partner, Mr. J. R. Mackrill, is Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Great Grimsby and North Sea Steam Trawling Company, Limited, in which capacity he has successfully officiated for some years.


MR. Sharpe's admirably organised business dates back to 1882, when it was established, under the style and title of Oakden & Sharpe, at 116 and 118, Cleethorpe Road, as ironmongers, plumbers, and gas and hot-water engineers. In 1892 the firm disposed of the establishment to the Grimsby United Hardware Company. The industrial business which, with notable success, he has since conducted, was thon founded by Sir. W. C. Sharpe, who is an Associate of the Sanitary Institute, as well as an accomplished engineer in regard to more than one class of specialistic work. On the ground floor is a large workshop, whose equipment represents all the latest practical applications of mechanical engineering science to the saving of labour and the perfecting of results in the operations of art metal working. Thus the excellent working plant includes five forges, turning lathes, and drilling and punching machines, of the most approved modern typo, driven by a powerful steam engine. On the first floor is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with telephonic communication and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of business. The telephone number is 78, and the telegraphic address is: “Sharpe, Grimsby.” Here, also, are extensive plumbers' and gas-fitters’ stores, every requisite in connection with these crafts being held in stock, including baths, lavatories, telephones, closets, and general sanitary appliances, &c.

Mr. Sharpe controls a very extensive business as a gas, hot-water, and sanitary engineer, smith, art metal worker, plumber, glazier, gas-fitter, tin-worker, bell-hanger, &c. He has, with very notable success, devoted special attention to the art metal working department of his business, which includes the manufacture of iron gates, with the highest possible degree of mechanical skill, and in accordance with the most artistically beautiful designs - many of them being distinctly original. A fine example of Mr. Sharpe's productions in this direction is constituted by the pair of inner ornamental gates which he has recently erected for the Grimsby Cemetery and also Workhouse. Mr. Sharpe has also achieved a very wide and deservedly high reputation as a hot-water and sanitary engineer. His thorough professional training places him en rapport with, all the latest developments of hygienic science. Mr. Sharpe was entrusted with the installation of the sanitary and also the cooking apparatus at the Yarborough Hotel, and likewise the Royal Hotel, Grimsby — two of the leading hotels in Lincolnshire. He also executed all the ironwork in connection with the new workhouse at Grimsby at a cost of £2,000. He has, moreover, fitted up, with sanitary appliances and gas and heating apparatus, several of the largest mansions in the district, including Riby Hall, the residence of Captain Prettyman, and Scawby Grove, near Brigg, that of Mr. J. Cliff. He has, likewise, executed much important and admirable work in Grimsby in connection with the following buildings: the Baptist Chapel, the Corn Exchange, the Board Schools, the Cemetery Schools, the ‘Grimsby News’ Offices (three extensions), the Great Grimsby Ice Company's Manufactories, the Fisherlads' Home, the Coal, Salt, and Tanning Company's Stores and Manufactories, the Netting Factory for the Great Grimsby Ice Company, the Mission Church for the Rev. H. Hutchinson, the District Hospital, the Prince of Wales’ Theatre, the Clee Park Hotel, All Saints’ Church for the Rev. J. P. Benson, Field House for J. Sutcliffe, Esq., and many other important places, the work, in every instance, being executed to the complete satisfaction of architects and all others concerned.

Copper and tinsmiths' work of all descriptions are, under the best possible conditions, executed on the premises; while Mr. Sharpe is always prepared to execute contracts for gas-fitting, electric bell and telephone and light installations, &c., in public and private places. He has, too, had a wide and valuable experience in the making and fixing of lightning conductors and ventilating apparatus. Mr. Sharpe’s trade connections are remarkably widespread. While, for example, these lines are passing through the press, he is about despatching a quantity of sanitary goods to Iceland to fit up the houses of a leading resident. Mr. Sharpe is gifted not only with much commercial aptitude but with an exceptional faculty of organisation and administration, so that he is able personally to supervise all the details in the conduct of his very extensive and rapidly increasing business. The number of his staff varies in accordance with the extent of the contracts which he undertakes, but it permanently includes highly skilled craftsmen, the heads of departments being expert specialists.


IN a noted cattle-breeding county we naturally look for some of the finest beef in the country in Grimsby, nor are we disappointed, for large butchers' shops noted for the nutritious nature of their supplies are to be seen in nearly every thoroughfare. Cleethorpes Road is a very popular shopping centre, and businesses that cater for the commissariat department of the household are many in number as they are high class in character. In its own particular line, the business of Mr. H. Holmes has for many years maintained a prominent position, and as a medium for the supply of fresh meat of all kinds its reputation is large and steadily increasing. It was established in 1870 at 197, Cleethorpes Road, where a flourishing and influential trade has been worked up. As an instance of the progressive character of the business we may mention that Mr. Holmes found it necessary some time ago to establish a branch business, and he secured the premises at 18, in the same thoroughfare, which has proved a great convenience for his patrons residing in that immediate district. For this branch business an experienced manager has been appointed, while Mr. Holmes devotes the bulk of his attention to the original premises. The shop has a good street frontage, and it is always bright and clean-looking, lending a very appetising appearance to the various joints. Mr. Holmes supplies none but English and Scotch beef and mutton, and knowing the grounds on which the sheep and cattle have been grazed, he is able to guarantee the high class quality of all meat sold. He has a fresh supply daily of beef and mutton, and veal and lamb in season, and his large connection has been built up entirely by supplying the primest joints. The family trade done is large, and in addition to this Mr. Holmes caters extensively for the shipping. He personally undertakes the general management of the business, and in so doing and striving to give satisfaction to all his patrons he has gained a reputation which even after a quarter of a century's trading may be regarded as exceptional.


THE record of the business which is conducted by Messr. Fred. Hagerup & Co. forms a material factor in the business of Grimsby, especially with reference to the development of its position as the natural outlet for the steam and other fuel obtained from the South Yorkshire and Derbyshire coal-fields.


THE extensive and admirably organised business which is conducted by Mr. T. Campbell constitutes, from more than one point of view, a factor of very great interest and importance in the economic records of Grimsby past and present. Mr. Campbell was the pioneer, in the port, of the classes of business in which he has achieved a notable success, a success which is all the more remarkable on account of the modest conditions under which he began his operations. His original premises were on the site of the present Dock Station, but as a consequence of the rapid development of the several branches of his business, he removed to his present premises, far more extensive headquarters, in 1859. These comprise a series of extensive buildings, some of them devoted to the processes of ship and boat building, others to the operations of block and mast making, together with a smith's shop, fitted with all the appliances for the execution of ship smith's work of every description. Over the mast and block-making shop is a commodious sail loft, in which large quantities of sail cloth are made up. There are also ample store-rooms, in which are hold large stocks of ropes, chains, anchors, and all kinds of ship's ironmongery, together with a well-equipped saw-pit, and paint and oil stores. There is, moreover, special accommodation for large stocks of the bait used in the catching of whelks, &c. The premises also include a well-appointed office. This great industrial establishment has a frontage of two hundred and fifty feet, and it extends to a considerable depth. The vast business which Mr. Campbell controls has, from small beginnings, reached dimensions of such magnitude that he is now the largest fishing-smack owner in Grimsby. To the holding of this proud position, Mr. Campbell owes the distinction of supplying to the market larger quantities of whelks and also of oysters them are provided by any one else in the world.

Mr. Campbell maintains this distinguished and, indeed, absolutely unique position, by owning no less than forty-two fishing-smacks. This immense fleet is divided into three sections which are devoted to the pursuit, respectively, of cod, of oysters, and of whelks. The names of the smacks and their several tonnage are as follows:— 1. Cod smacks — Ben Stark, 103; Mary Stark, 97; Maritana, 80; Tommy Campbell, 84; Polly Campbell, 77; Little Nelly, 74; Alfred and Henry, 61; Arcadian, 63; Alexandra, 103; Abstainer, 75; City of Norwich, 89. These smacks are engaged in deep sea fishing, and are fitted with tanks for bringing line cod into Grimsby. 2. Oyster smacks — George Heneage, 77; Walter and Oscar, 73; Florence Heneage, 71; Rowland, 75; James Campbell, 62; Little Oyster Girl, 60; Two Sisters, 55; Messenger, 57; Neddy Campbell, 59; Jimmy Campbell, 53; Freddy Campbell, 53; Crusader, 51; Surpass, 51; Challenger, 40; Lizzie Carter, 39; Edinburgh, 75; and Frank, 73. 3. Whelk smacks — Mary Leek, 41: Smelt, 41; Moss Rose, 43; Blossom, 42; Marion Frances, 39; Abbey Villa, 39; Hermit, 38; Fred Carter, 36; George and Ellen, 34; My Pretty Love, 34; Red Nell, 34; Thomas Campbell, 28; Spitfire, 36; Myrtle, 24; and Temperance, 41.

The produce of the fishing of all these smacks is sold in the manner which prevails in Grimsby, by auction on the Pontoon, the business being conducted by fish salesmen, and the goods disposed of to wholesale fish merchants and exporters. It should be added in regard to Mr. Campbell’s ship and boat-building operations that he confines them to the construction of vessels for use in his own service. The smacks in Mr. Campbell’s fleet are all well manned and well found, and each is under the control of an experienced skipper. About two hundred and fifty hands are regularly employed on the smacks, and about fifty in the different departments of the works. the conduct of this vast business, in all its details, is under the personal supervision of the principal, whose remarkable vigour is unabated, notwithstanding his venerable age. Mr. Campbell is one of the best known and most popular residents in Grimsby, of whose prosperity he is justly regarded as one of the principal authors. He is possessed of exceptionally well-developed organising and administrative ability, and he is thus able, notwithstanding the large amount of his attention which is monopolised by his extensive business, to devote much of his valuable time and energies to matters of public interest. For twenty years he was an active member of the Grimsby Town Council, and he resigned only on account of the rapid increase in the volume of his own business.


THE wholesale and retail distribution of excisable liquors finds an able representative at the important borough of Grimsby in the person of Mr. Herbert Colton, an historic epitome of whose prosperous business furnishes the theme of the present brief review. This undertaking was organised as far back as the year 1812 at Caister by the late Mr. Dixon Bell, with whom the late Mr. Charles Colton served an apprenticeship to the trade and remained a number of years, after which he became sole manager through the old age and infirmity of his employer. In 1860 he succeeded to the business of which he held control until his death, which occurred in November, 1891. Previous to this, however, Mr. C. Colton had opened an establishment in the Old Market Place in conjunction with Mr. C. A. Guy, of which he was the senior partner, but on his death there being no agreement, Mr. Guy claimed all rights appertaining to the business of Colton & Guy. On this Mr. Herbert Colton and his brother, both of whom having acquired a perfect knowledge of all the details of the trade, the blending department having received their special attention, succeeded to the property and valuable stock of old vintage wines which their father had gradually got together, including the vintages of 1847, 1854, 1868, 1S70, 1875, 1880, 1884, and 1887. Supplementing these with carefully made selections of wines and spirits of all the most noted growths, and from the first distillers and brewers of the day, and having gained this thorough knowledge of all the branches of the trade, and feeling himself quite competent of governing so large a firm, and also having been two years with a large manufacturing firm where he got a good insight in general routine, was taught punctuality and the law of obedience and thorough commercial training, which is so highly necessary before one can take command, Mr. Herbert Colton launched out in his new undertaking, which is now a vastly growing business, not only in the family trade but also in the wholesale trade as well. He is contractor for Her Majesty’s forces at the present time, and has had the pleasure of being several times the successful tenderer for these contracts. Besides this he has the pleasure to-day of catering for dukes and lords, together with his high class family trade right down to the humble ’Arriet, who loves her glass of port ’ot “because it does her good.”

His wines are the most carefully selected, and the causes of their popularity are not far to seek. They contain, or as the doctors would say, they “exhibit," a fair amount of alcohol in an extremely palatable and digestible form; they stimulate safely and quickly, while at the same time they sustain and comfort the vital powers, which for the nonce they raise to a state of exaltation; they are powerfully impregnated with phosphates, they are subtly charged in nature's own laboratory with tannic and tartaric acids, they cleanse while they enrich the blood, keep the mucous lining of the vast digestive apparatus in its highest state of efficiency, and provide the material necessary to withstand the ravages of time. Mr. Colton is the sole agent in Grimsby for the famous B.O.S. whiskey, and does an extensive trade in the “Encore,” Uam Var, and Glenlivet whiskeys. Bat his great speciality in whiskey is Old Mountain Dew, a blend of his own. It is a genuine old Highland whiskey, thoroughly matured in sherry casks under his own supervision and that of H.M. Customs, and possesses fineness of flavour, softness to the palate, and delicate aroma. This whiskey will be found superior to many French brandies, especially for medicinal purposes, being thoroughly freed from fusil oil and other poisonous compounds. He is also the sole-appointed agent for the county for Messrs. A. Le Forrestier & Fils, Epernay, whose champagne he makes a speciality of importing a considerable quantity weekly. There is also a large and increasing trade done in ales, beers, and stouts — large stocks from the breweries of Bass & Co., Allsopp & Co., the Burton brewers; together with those of Messrs. Warwick & Richardson, Newark; and John Smith & Co., Tadcaster. The cigar trade, too, is not overlooked, he being a large importer and bonder of all the leading brands, including Hae Cabanas, Y. Carbajal, Partagas, Larranagas, Bock, and Villar Y. Villar, and many others. His bond is situated on the Royal Dock, Grimsby, where most of the blending is carried on, his stock consisting only of the finest Highland whiskey distilled from the finest malt, good water, and good peats. Altogether Mr. Colton is to be congratulated upon the excellence of the goods he provides for an ever increasing clientele.


THIS is one of the oldest, if not actually the oldest, pharmaceutical establishments in Grimsby, the date of its origin going back as far as the year 1801. The founder was a Mr. Bennett, who successfully conducted the business for a number of years, and was followed by Mr. George Skelton, whose term of proprietorship continued until 1854. At this latter date the father of the present proprietor came into possession, and remained at the head of affairs until 1877, when he was succeeded by his son, the present possessor. Mr. Robert Cook has graduated in every department of the profession, and has had an experience of a varied and high-class character. He has fully maintained the prestige and standing of the house, and by his acknowledged skill and unfailing courtesy has largely added to the extent and worth of the clientele. The premises occupied are admirably situated close to the railway station and the markets. They comprise a handsome and commodious double-fronted shop, with large plate-glass windows. The interior is large in its spaciousness, and complete in its appointments, everything in the shape of showcases for counters and wall, spiral stands in various parts of the shop, and other conveniences for the accommodation and display of the goods having been liberally supplied, while, on the other hand, nothing has been omitted that would conduce to the comfort and convenience of visitors. The stocks are large and comprehensive, being worthy, both in quality and extent, of the long standing and high reputation of the house.

Mr. Cook exercises much judgment, joined to the greatest care, in selecting his goods. All his articles are obtained from the most reliable sources of supply. Only the purest and most genuine drugs and chemicals are handled, and every precaution is taken to keep them in the best possible condition so as to retain the whole of their virtues. The dispensing department is made a leading feature. Physicians' prescriptions and family recipes are compounded with absolute accuracy by the principal or duly qualified assistants. The greatest satisfaction is being given in this department, and many of the leading families in Grimsby and the district are numbered among Mr. Cook’s patrons. The supplies held include all the therapeutic preparations known to modern pharmacy, nursery and toilet requisites of the best make, fancy soaps in great variety, perfumes, the best-known patent and proprietary medicines, English and foreign mineral waters, surgical appliances, and every description of druggists’ sundries. The connection enjoyed by this old-established house extends over a wide area, and is of a valuable and influential character. Mr. Cook is widely known and highly respected for the conspicuous ability he has shown in his business, his thorough reliability and strict personal integrity. He is a prominent personage in the public life of the town, and is a director of the Grimsby Gas Company.
Telephone No. 31.


THERE are very many branches of trade which are undoubtedly conducted on more lasting principles than those which obtained during more remote periods; but this cannot be claimed for the building industry, for the very oldest remembrances we have of the earlier periods of the world’s history are provided by buildings and samples of masonry which even we, in our most advanced state of industrial and commercial development, cannot hope to excel. The materials with which buildings are erected are, however, of the greatest importance, and their supply constitutes a branch of commercial activity of much importance in every town. In Grimsby the trade is in very capable hands, and among its many exponents Messrs. Frost & Co. have quickly gained a prominent position. The business was established in 1892, with Mr. G. W. Frost as manager. This gentleman was previously with H. C. Scaping, Esq., architect, and his extended connections with architects and the better class of builders have enabled him to work up a capital business as a merchant in building materials generally. The premises are extensive, and comprise good office at the entrance, 115 and-a-half, Victoria Street, and large stores at the rear. The business is of a very comprehensive character, and includes an extensive dealing in Portland cement, plaster, drainpipes, chimney-pots, fire-bricks, fire-clay, sinks, cesspools, waugers, Staffordshire pavors, Ac., and for the supply of all these goods Messrs. Frost & Co. depend entirely upon manufacturers and wholesale houses of repute, and the whole stock is selected with a keen knowledge of the requirements of the building trade. If a speciality may be said to exist where much close attention is paid to every branch of the trade it is certainly with regard to sanitary ware. In this particular the stock is one of the largest in Grimsby, and the various articles, comprising closet-pans and traps, drainage requisites, ventilating apparatus, &c., are all according to the latest decrees of applied science in these matters and a practical conception of advanced and improved sanitary matters. Aa manager of the firm, Mr. Frost spares no effort to uphold a high standard of excellence in all goods, and by this means he has gained a very extensive and influential connection. He personally; attends to the requirements of all patrons of the firm, and all orders are executed promptly and in the best possible manner. The members of the firm are well known locally and in general trade circles and are esteemed as the enterprising proprietors of one of the chief businesses of its kind in Grimsby.


THIS noteworthy business was founded in 1874 by Mr. Allcock, who was in 1892 succeeded by the present proprietor. On the accession of Mr. Chambers new life was infused into the concern, and what up to then had been an ordinary grocery business was rapidly developed into the leading and most influential establishment of its kind in the town. The establishment consists of a two-storey block of buildings, with large four-storey new warehouse attached to back, occupying a prominent and corner position, and with its extensive and tastefully arranged window display constitutes one of the principal attractions in this quarter. The interior is large in its spaciousness, nothing being wanting that would tend to the expeditious attraction of the business or add to the comfort and convenience of visitors. There is ample storage accommodation attached to the premises. The stocks held are exceptionally large, and in their selection evidence a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the trade.

Tea is made a leading feature here, and much enterprise is manifest in procuring some of the finest consignments. The blending is done on the premises by special machinery and under the supervision of the principal himself, and the result is that a mixture is obtained second to none in the country. The teas used are specially selected to suit the water in the district, and the success achieved is shown in the immense demand for this article — particularly for the family blend, known as “Chambers' Indian,” at 1s. 10d. per pound, the equal of which in strength, pungency, and aroma cannot be obtained elsewhere for anything like the amount. Samples of this famous tea are supplied on application. Particular attention is bestowed upon the preparation of coffee. All the coffees emanating from this establishment are roasted in one pound patent cylinders, by which process they retain their natural flavour and delicate aroma in a marked degree. Among the many other articles, of which the house keeps a large and first-class supply, the following may be specified:— cocoa, dried fruits of all descriptions, spices and preserves, jams and jellies, sauces and curries, Italian goods, &c., while the provision department is replete with a superior assortment of hams, rolled and plain, finest Wiltshire and other bacons, English and foreign butter, cheese in large variety, and English, Irish, American, and Colonial produce generally. Proprietary articles of every description in connection with the grocery trade are to be had here at “store prices,” and there is also an extensive selection of patent medicines and toilet requisites.

Mr. Chambers’ predecessor was the first appointed agent in this district for the well-known firm of Messrs. W. & A. Gilbey, the extensive wine and spirit merchants, and a large and comprehensive stock of their high-class goods is always kept on hand. Mr. Chambers is also agent for several famous brewing firms, notably for Messrs. Whitbread & Co., Limited, whose popular ales and stouts are supplied in bottles, and for the Tadcaster Brewery, whose beverages are sent out in casks. Prices in every case are of the lowest possible kind, the motto of the house being “superior goods at moderate prices.” A valuable family trade is in operation, extending throughout Grimsby and for a circle of many miles round; travellers call at frequent intervals on the surrounding towns and villages, and all orders are delivered by own vans two days afterwards. A large shipping trade is also controlled, this department being carried on separately from the general trade and at special terms. A force of ten assistants is employed, and all orders receive prompt and most satisfactory attention. Mr. Chambers occupies a position of no inconsiderable prominence in the trading circles of the district, and is widely known and everywhere respected for his business ability, his unfailing courtesy, shown alike to all patrons, and his perfect reliability.


THE manufacture of mineral waters on advanced scientific principles finds able representation at the hands of Mr. Cook, who, five years ago, opened his fine factory at the Old Market Place in the busy borough of Grimsby. Occupying a large area of ground in a conspicuous part of the Market Place, the works comprise a series of ground-floor buildings, elaborately equipped with a magnificent plant of Messrs. Dan Ryland’s (of Barnsley) best and most improved machinery and appliances, driven both by steam power and an “Otto” gas engine, and calling into active requisition the services of a staff of twelve experienced hands under an expert foreman, the entire business coming under the direct personal supervision of the principal, who is a fully qualified pharmacist, the result being that for purity and strength their mineral, aerated, and medical waters stand practically unsurpassed. The firm operate on an extensive scale in the production of soda, potass, lithia, seltzer, and lime waters; lemonade made from the fresh fruit, hop ale, herb, ginger beer, orange lemon, and ginger champagnes, and make specialities of stone ginger beer, and of aerated waters in silver-plated syphons; supplying both private families and shops and hotels on specially advantageous terms; his carts delivering several times daily throughout the town and countryside. From what has been noted, it will be readily gathered that Mr. Cook’s resources and facilities are of an exceptionally superior character, enabling him to execute all orders, however large or urgent they may be, in a prompt and satisfactory manner, and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large, valuable and widespread connection by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which characterise his business transactions.


CONNOISSEURS in wines and spirits residing in the Grimsby district are fortunate in having in their midst an establishment where technical knowledge, cultured taste, and a liberal and judicious investment of capital are all devoted to the gratification of their wants with a success which is not excelled even in the West End of London. That establishment is controlled by Messrs. C. A. Guy & Co. Their admirably organised business was established in 1879 under the style and title of Messrs. Colton & Guy. On the demise of Mr. Colton, which occurred in 1890, his entire interest in the business was acquired by the surviving member of the firm, Mr. C. A. Guy, to whose energetic enterprise as sole proprietor the later and notably successful developments of the affairs of the house are due. The firm's commercial headquarters are centrally situated near the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway station, the market, and the banks. They comprise a commodious, double-fronted suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the house. Adjoining is a conveniently fitted sample-room, while to the rear, and in the ample cellarage, is ample storage room for stocks. Large stocks, however, of rare wines and spirits, which are always held by the firm, are kept in their oommodioua bonded stores, which are situated at No. 1, Royal Docks.

It is impossible, within the necessarily brief limits of this notice, to convey an adequate idea of the resources of Messrs. C. A. Guy & Co.’s stocks. Some notion of their extent and value may be obtained from a study of the handsome little volume entitled, “Some Remarks on Wine, &c.,” which is issued by the firm. In the introduction to the descriptive pricelist which is therein contained, it is appropriately remarked that “the purchaser should assure himself that his source of supply is above suspicion; he should be able to trust his wine merchant as implicitly as he would his lawyer or his doctor. The wine business must always be one of confidenoe, and it is a great satisfaction to everyone who uses either wines or spirits to know that he has not been deceived, to be absolutely certain that he has been supplied with that which he desired, and which he has paid for; and also that if he selects for himself and afterwards finds that he has not chosen the wine he likes, there will be no difficulty whatever in the way of exchanging and repairing the mistake.” It is by absolutely realising the conditions thus indicated that Messrs. C. A. Guy & Co. have gained the unreserved confidence of a large circle of customers, many of whom are most fastidious as to their choice of beverages. Their stocks, whose character, as is remarked by that eminent analyst, Mr. Granville H. Sharpe, F.C.S., shows that the utmost care has been exercised in their selection, keeping, and bottling, include rare old port of the choicest vintages, including examples of 1847, 1858, 1863, 1868, 1875, 1876, and 1887. Of these splendid wines the firm have successfully made a speciality. Their selection of Spanish, French, and German wines are equally remarkable for excellence.

In the department of spirits they have earned a special and widespread reputation for their own blend of Scotch whiskey—fine old “Mountain Dew,” under their own registered label, guaranteed seven years old, having been bonded in their own stores at Royal Docks, under their personal supervision. This whiskey, which is not procurable elsewhere, is regarded by many experts as the finest in the market. In the basement of their Old Market Place premises the firm have extensive bottling stores, which are largely used in connection with their large trade in malt liquors. They are, too, specially appointed agents for the supply, in casks, of Guinness, Sons &c Co.'s extra double stout, and of Bass &c Co.’s and Allsopp & Son’s burton, as well as Warwick’s &c Richardson’s Newark ales. In bottled form, the firm supply large quantities of these beverages, while they are agents in Grimsby and the surrounding district for the celebrated St. Pauli Pilsener beers. They hold, moreover, a large stock of cigars of the leading brands, which are always kept in excellent condition for immediate smoking; also cigarettes of the finest Turkish and Egyptian tobaccos. Messrs. C. A. Guy & Co. control a very; high-class trade connection, which is both wholesale and retail, and which includes many of the leading hotels, as well as a large number of the most distinguished and influential private families in the district. Much of the notable success which Mr. Guy has achieved is due to the close personal touch which he keeps with his customers, constantly making, as he does, commercial tours, assisted by a competent travelling staff, for that purpose. He is gifted with exceptionally well-developed organising and administrative abilities which enable him to supervise all the details in the conduct of his business. At headquarters he employs a highly experienced manager, and a most efficient staff of assistants.


A WELL-KNOWN business in Grimsby is that of Messrs. W. Waller & Co., of 242, Freeman Street. Mr. Waller commenced business in 1890, and having an intimate knowledge of everything that concerned his vocation, has succeeded in getting together a first-class connection which, under his continued and well-directed efforts, is steadily increasing. He occupies spacious double-fronted premises capitally situated in a prominent corner position at the junction of Clyde Street and Freeman Street. The interior is handsomely fitted up with every requisite and convenience for the accommodation and display of the large stock of instruments the house always keeps on hand. For the better control of the fast increasing trade, a branch establishment was opened in 1893 at 221, Freeman Street, which is mainly devoted to the exhibition and sale of pianos and organs. It is evident on the most casual inspection of the stock that great care and a well-matured judgment have been exercised in their selection. In compass, tone, touch, soundness of material, and elegance of appearance it would be a fruitless task to endeavour to find their superiors in the Eastern Counties. There are on view in the two establishments over which Mr. Waller presides one of the largest and most complete assortments of pianofortes. Included are the latest and most improved instruments manufactured by such world-renowned firms as Broadwood; Hopkinson, Squire & Longson, makers of the celebrated “Cremona” pianoforte, and others. Every instrument is fully tested before being sent out, and can be guaranteed in every respect. Harmoniums and American organs are represented by the productions of Bell, Smith, and other no less celebrated makers. the general musical instruments include guitars, banjos, flutes, piccolos, violins, violas, English concertinas, and mandolines. There is also an extensive collection of loose and bound music of various kinds, comprising oratorios, operas, instruction books, and all the latest and most popular songs and dance music. Marked enterprise is visible in the management of every department, and it is manifest that Mr. Waller is untiring in his efforts to keep his establishment in the forefront of similar houses, and his establishment is fully recognised as the leading one of its kind — an emporium where the most desirable instruments can be obtained at the most favourable prices and conditions. The proprietor is regarded as a thoroughly honourable business man, whose success has been won by ability and enterprise coupled with unfailing courtesy and absolute reliability.


A MOST important addition was made, in 1880, to the grocery and provision supplying resources of Grimsby by the commencement of the operations of Mr. C. White, who, under the style of C. White & Co., has since very largely supplied, directly or indirectly, the commissariat requirements of the district. His very commodious premises are situated in Crescent Street — in the centre of a rapidly growing district. The exterior of Mr. White’s establishment has an attractive appearance. The ample show windows and the spacious interior is handsomely appointed, the ceilings and walls being of pitch pine. It stretches a long way to the rear, and is thus commodious enough, with the aid of numerous and conveniently disposed fittings, to admit of the effective display and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of fie varied stocks which are always held. Adjoining the sale-shop and at the rear is ample warehouse accommodation for the great surplus stocks which are always held in reserve. Mr. White has made a speciality of the supply of teas, being himself an expert taster and blender, and having direct relations with some of the most eminent firms in Mincing Lane. The fine blends of Indian, China, and Ceylon teas, which Mr. White supplies for use in Grimsby, are prepared in accordance with the special chemical properties of the local water supply; and the infusion thus obtained is, therefore, particularly economical. The coffees are the finest imported, and are always supplied freshly roasted. The stocks also include cocou, dried fruits, and all descriptions of table delicacies, such as might be looked for in an Italian warehouse of the highest class, together with grocery goods of every kind. The grocery department is on the left-hand side of the entrance, while on the right-hand side is the provision department. It is replete with hams, bacon, cheese, butter from the most celebrated dairies, with English, Irish, American, and continental produce of all descriptions, many of these goods being stored on the upper floor.

Upwards of ten years ago, Mr. White made an important new departure in the conduct of his business by commencing the manufacture of the commodity which has already gained a high reputation as “White & Co.'s Baking Powder," and is considered by many experts the best of its class on the market. The manufactory is on the premises, and is equipped with all the requisites for facilitating the production of the powder. Here, too, are packing-rooms, in which the baking powder is put up in 1s., 6d., and 3d. tins, and in 2d. and 1d. packets, with very attractive labels. The baking powder is made exclusively from the purest ingredients, and is warranted free from alum, and has long been highly appreciated by leading cooks and confectioners in the production of high-class bread and light pastry. It has hitherto been disposed of, for the most part, locally, amongst grocers and other shopkeepers; but, whilst these lines are passing through the press, Mr. White is making arrangements for the introduction of this successful speciality into all parts of the United Kingdom, by the employment of an efficient staff of travelling representatives. At the Lincolnshire Agricultural Show held in July at Grimsby, Messrs. White had a very interesting exhibit for their baking powder, and a large quantity of wholesale orders were received. He controls a very extensive wholesale trade; and also, in the retail department of his business, supplies many influential families resident in the district. He is possessed of strong administrative abilities, and personally supervises all the detail* of his prosperous business.


A VERY popular business in Grimsby is that of Mr. J. W. Johnson. It was established in 1891, and although barely three years old it has laid the foundation of what promises to be a very large concern. Indeed, in this limited time it has developed to a representative business, and has the command of a widespread trade. Mr. Johnson is personally known to a large number of producers of the different goods in which he deals, and is thereby enabled to make his purchases judiciously in the best markets. Again, he is endowed with a large amount of general administrative ability, and has introduced a fund of commendable energy and enterprise in the management of his affairs. The premises are situated at River Head, close to River Head Wharf, the receiving of consignments of goods by water being, therefore, easily and expeditiously effected. The building is substantially built in three storeys. The first floor is devoted to the fruit and potato department, and here are always held large and admirably selected stocks of goods. Mr. Johnson is a direct importer of fruit, and there are at all times many cases of oranges, lemons, grapes, nuts, and other kinds of fruit of foreign growth, besides apples, plums, pears, and all kinds of home productions in season. Many hundreds of tons of potatoes are sent away to customers during the year, and no matter how the season may be as regards yield, Mr. Johnson has practically unlimited sources of supply, and is thereby enabled to execute all orders promptly. Mr. Johnson has a very large connection amongst farmers for many miles round, and consequently his facilities for purchase are practically inexhaustible, and he is thus in a position to sell large quantities of produce to dealers and others in all parts of the country, and this is a trade to which he is now devoting a considerable portion of his time and energies. The upper floor is used for storage purposes, relating to hay, straw, com, beans, &c. In this department is also a grinding mill and chopping machine for mixing, grinding, and chopping the various materials which are converted into feeding stuffs. These machines are driven by a powerful Tangye gas-engine. The various feeding stuffs produced here are admirable in their different capacities for horses, cattle, pigs, and poultry, and they are made in large quantities. The depression which has distinguished our home production of hay and straw during the past few years is notorious, and prices have ranged very high. This has necessitated the very extensive use of that grown on the Continent and different foreign countries, of which we have imported very large quantities. In a totally different sphere Mr. Johnson has also gained a wide connection.

He is a waggonette proprietor, and has at hand excellent facilities for catering for pleasure parties. He has three large and very comfortable waggonettes and one-horse vehicles, which are always at the disposal of pleasure seekers, school and picnic parties, &c. A good number of well-fed and well-groomed horses is kept, and a staff of very steady drivers is employed. During the summer and autumn months this department is very largely patronised. The charges are reasonable, and Mr. Johnson does all in his power to ensure the enjoyable termination of all excursions. The connection gained in each branch of the business is very large, the reputation of the house extending in an influential manner throughout the country.


THE fishing industry provides occupation for some thousands of hands in its different branches, and so wide is the reputation of the town as a fishing centre that it may be said to supply the markets in all parts of the country. A well-known figure in the Pontoon, where many tons of fish are every day transferred “under the hammer” to merchants representing the wholesale trade, is that of Mr. J. E. Rushworth. Founded in 1869, a quarter of a century ago, by Mr. F. Rushworth, the father of the present proprietor, who long held a foremost position as a fish salesman, and stood high in reputation among others of his class in the town. In 1892 he practically retired from the business as salesman, leaving it in the hands of his son, J. E. Rushworth. The premises are centrally and conveniently situated on the Fish Dock, comprising well-appointed ground-floor office and stores. The latter department is used for all kinds of ships’ stores which are kept for the purpose of supplying Mr. Rushworth’s own fishing smack. This large, well-formed, and thoroughly-equipped boat is used for deep-sea fishing, and the fish caught by its means are brought to the Pontoon and disposed of by auction. Mr. Rushworth does not, however, confine his attention to selling his own fish. He executes commissions for smack owners of all grades, and the expeditious manner in which he disposes of the larger catches combined with the good prices which he is noted for obtaining has gained for him a large and influential connection. He always has the interests of his clients at heart and exerts himself to the utmost to dispose of all fish entrusted to him to the best advantage. An efficient staff of clerks, salesmen, and porters is employed, who, working under the constant personal supervision of the proprietor, perform their respective tasks in a prompt and expeditious manner. Mr. Rushworth is one of the originators of a new company (the Oleum Fishing Company of Grimsby), started to introduce fishing boats built on a special type and fitted with engines which are worked by petroleum oil, a great saving both of fuel and room being thus secured. Mr. Rushworth is also a steam fishing vessel agent, and in this connection also he operates extensively, giving all matters his careful attention. We may here mention that Mr. F. Rushworth was the one who introduced line cod and halibut fishing amongst the Grimsby smack owners.


PRE-EMINENTLY entitled to mention in these reviews is the firm of Charles Dewing, whose high-class establishment in Old Market Place is so widely and deservedly popular. The business was originated in 1856 by Mr. Lundie; on his demise it wan continued for some time by his widow under capable management. The firm has undergone several changes in proprietorship, having been purchased from Mr. Lundie’s widow by Mr. Eminson, and subsequently by Mr. Enoch, until the year 1891 when it passed into the hands of the present enterprising proprietor, who still continues to develop it with marked success and energy. The premises comprise a well-appointed pharmacy with all the attendant manufacturing and storing arrangements and conveniences in thorough keeping with the high-class character of the establishment. The stock contains a very large and varied assortment of the choicest perfumery and toilet requisites, and an immense variety of both English and foreign proprietary articles and medicinal preparations. A special feature of the business is the dispensing department, none but the purest quality of drugs being used in preparing prescriptions, and perfect accuracy is guaranteed by the aid of skilled and experienced assistants. Mr. Dewing has developed a very considerable business in the supply of photographic apparatus and chemicals, supplying both wet and dry processes to amateurs and professionals. Mr. Dewing has had a very high-class practical experience, having been fora considerable time engaged by Mr. White, chemist to the Royal Family, Buckingham Palace Road, London. He has been most successful in his business undertaking, and being a most civil, obliging, and conscientious gentleman, he is highly respected and deserves all the popularity he has now achieved. He is intimately connected with the Grimsby Photographic Society and other kindred movements for developing art.


THIS old-established concern was founded many years ago by Messrs. Clark & Simons, and carried on with marked success by these gentlemen under that title until the year 1892, when Mr. Clark retired from active work, and the business has since been in the capable hands of Mr. Simons. The premises occupied comprise a large building three storeys high, with adjacent yards, &c. The ground floor is utilised as general offices and also as stores for cement, plaster, and all kinds of drainage and building materials. The remaining parts of the premises are stored with an immense stock of lias lime, freshwater sand, dog-kennel lime, fire-clay, best house coal, drainage pipes, junctions, cesspools, firebricks, firelogs, chimney-pots, glazed sinks, Staffordshire pavings of every description, encaustic, tesselated and mosaic tiles, &c. This list, although formidable enough, does not adequately represent more than a tithe of the materials dealt in, but will convey a fairly accurate notion of the immense business carried on. Ever since its foundation, this concern has been a powerful factor in the particular trade dealt in, and it has acquired a reputation of a first-class and valuable character. Mr. Simons is a thorough master of every detail of the trade, and is, moreover, a man of energy, enterprise, and promptness. He is perfectly well acquainted with all the best sources for his supplies, and by his long experience he knows exactly what the trade wants, and he leaves nothing untried to secure the most suitable class of goods to meet its requirements. It will be readily inferred from what has been stated that whatever he handles can be fully relied upon to be of the finest quality. The connection enjoyed by the house lies chiefly among the principal builders, plumbers, and masons in Grimsby. Mr. Simon possesses the advantage of long and thorough practical experience, and by his spirited enterprise and sound judgment has secured the confidence and support of a very extensive connection.


THE reputation of Grimsby as a coal shipping port is, for the most part, based upon the magnitude of the operations of the firms of which Messrs. Edward Bannister & Co. are among the principal shippers. Theirs is the oldest established business of its class in the ports of the Humber. This firm date back to 1835, when it was founded by Mr. Anthony Bannister, Hull and subsequently extended by Mr. Edward Bannister to Grimsby. In 1892 Mr. Bannister’s nephew became a partner in the business. The firm have large depots at the station of the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway for the land sale of coal. The supplies are derived, for the most part, from the great South Yorkshire and Derbyshire coal fields. Their operations in salt are also very considerable. Messrs. Bannister &c Co. regularly supply coal to the Royal Navy and mail steamers calling at Grimsby. Mr. Bannister has, during his long connection with Grimsby, fulfilled many public offices. He is also Justice of the Peace for the borough, and was for over twenty years the chairman of the Royal Hotel Company, Limited, while his partner, Mr. Anthony Bannister, is Danish Vice-Consul, and is also the Lieut.-Colonel of the Grimsby Artillery Volunteers.


ONE of the oldest established and most extensive firms engaged in the wholesale and retail shoe trade in Grimsby is that being now carried on under the above title of C. S. Good, at 26, Old Market Place. This well-known and eminently reputable house was founded nearly half a century ago by the uncle of the present proprietor, and was successfully conducted by him until the year 1884, when the concern was taken over by his nephew, who still carries it on with due tact and energy. The premises are attractive in appearance, and prominently situated in one of the most important thoroughfares in the city. The windows are attractive, handsomely dressed with an exceeding choice selection of high-class goods. The shop itself is spacious and admirably fitted up, and is furnished with every regard to the comfort and convenience of visitors. The stocks held are exceedingly large and varied, and great praise is due for the effective, yet handy, manner in which they have been arranged. Every description of boot and shoe is well represented, whether for ladies or gentlemen, youths or children; and intending purchasers will look in vain throughout the length and breadth of Grimsby for a wider or more suitable selection of goods. The finished productions of the Parisian school of boot-making, and other specialities, are to be found here in choice variety, but the bulk of the goods are the firm’s own manufacture. The workshop is conveniently arranged and equipped with all the latest improvements. The proprietor gives to every department the advantage of his able personal supervision, and the articles he turns out are recognised as having few or no superiors in the trade. The utmost care is taken in selecting the material, while every detail is supervised by experienced workmen. The finished boots and shoes are handsome in appearance, sound and durable, and perfectly comfortable in wear. With the system adopted by the firm, no customer can fail to be satisfactorily suited, while quality and prices will be found such as cannot readily be bettered. By diligent attention to the wants and wishes of patrons, a widespread and valuable connection has been developed, and its still steady increase shows, unmistakably, that the efforts of the proprietor are duly appreciated by a large and critical clientele.


MORE than eight hundred years ago, when William of Normandy made his great inventory of the lands and estates of the English realm, Great Yarmouth was a royal demesne. An entry in Domesday Book proves as much, but it leaves us little indication of the character of the place, or of the point of advancement at which it had then arrived. The assumption is that it was not in a very forward state. Some acres of pasture land, a few rudely cultivated fields, a cottage or two, and probably a tiny fishing village by the waterside — these doubtless made up the principal features of what has become ono of the greatest and most prosperous of East Anglian maritime towns. But whatever Yarmouth may have been like at the time of the compilation of Domesday, there does not appear to be any doubt as to the rapidity of its subsequent progress. By the reign of King John it had become a place of such consequence that that monarch felt justified in giving it a charter of incorporation; and Henry III. renewed and extended its privileges by a second charter some years later. On the whole, however, the history of Yarmouth has been uneventful in a political sense, and the records of the borough are mainly those of peaceful progress in a community whose inhabitants have ever been favourably known for thrift and industry.

Great Yarmouth (to give it the full dignity of its title) is a county borough of Norfolk, standing on a peninsula, which has the sea on the east and the river Yare on the west. Obviously the name was originally Yare-mouth, and the river may be mentioned as a valuable waterway, affording means of communication by boat and wherry with Norwich and the interior of the county. Across the river there are several bridges, giving access to the suburb of Little Yarmouth or the South Town. In some respects Great Yarmouth is unique. It is, for instance, the chief centre of the English herring fishery, and the man who has not heard of Yarmouth “bloaters” is benighted indeed. Then again, in the matter of topography, it may be said to stand alone. Mr. Ernest R. Suffling in his very interesting and valuable book, “The Land of the Broads,” says of Yarmouth: “The old town is built in a very peculiar manner; indeed its like cannot be found in England. The main streets run from north to south, and are connected by a great number of very narrow lanes, or alleys, locally termed ‘rows’ — a very appropriate name for a town so much connected with herrings. Instead of these rows being given distinct appellations, they are simply distinguished by numbers, running from one to one hundred and sixty. These streetlets are so narrow as not to admit the passage of an ordinary cart, so recourse is had to a curious-looking skeleton affair, called a ‘lorrie,’ which is a vehicle twelve feet long, and not more than three feet to three feet six inches over all in width; and even then, when one of these narrow vehicles is passing through a narrow row, pedestrians have to seek refuge in the nearest doorway or court.” We all remember that Dickens (who has helped to immortalise Great Yarmouth) said that the street plan of this town reminded him of a huge gridiron; and the intimate connection between a gridiron and the chief local product is too apparent to need indication.

Nowadays Great Yarmouth has become a prime favourite as a popular watering place, and during the season the steamers and trains from London bear hither a countless host of merry-makers, who come to enjoy a brief holiday amid scenes and surroundings totally different from those environing their metropolitan life. Yarmouth, indeed, is running Margate and Ramsgate very close for the favour of the Londoner, and certainly its varied attractions and facilities for enjoyment amply justify this growing popularity. Yarmouth has several piers or jetties, which are of course indispensable in a watering-place, and its splendid quays are alike the admiration of visitors and the pride of residents. The magnificent South Quay, with its double rows of trees, is unsurpassed at any seaside town, and here is seen the fine Town Hall, opened by the Prince of Wales, on May 31st, 1882. These municipal buildings are a credit to the place, and afford every accommodation, having some remarkably spacious and handsome rooms for various purposes. The tower which surmounts the pile rises to a height of 123 feet, and almost rivals in altitude the imposing Nelson Column, erected by Yarmouth in 1817, to commemorate our greatest naval hero.

The fish wharf at Yarmouth presents a wonderful sight, and stupendous quantities of herrings are landed here daily when the boats come in, the cargoes being at once sold by auction, and promptly distributed. One wonders where the enormous supply all goes to, but Yarmouth supplies the nation with the ever popular “bloater,” And the many curing establishments of the vicinity tell the tale of a vast and unvarying demand for this toothsome product. The general market at Yarmouth is reputed to be the largest in England, and here is found a scene of great interest and animation on market days, huge supplies of fish, flesh, fowls, and fruit being offered for sale. Other notable objects in Yarmouth are the fine church of St. Nicholas, and the churches of St. Peter and St. George. The Grammar School, an excellent educational institution, was opened by the Prince of Wales in 1873. The harbour of Yarmouth is a very safe one, and there is a considerable amount of shipping connected with the port. In addition to the great fishing industry, with its attendant feature of herring curing, carried on upon an immense scale, the local trades include corn-milling, brewing, ship-building, rope-making, malting, and a considerable trace in timber and foreign produce.

Yarmouth is well governed, and its inhabitants have shown exemplary public spirit in everything pertaining to the social and municipal advancement of the borough. Equally conspicuous and commendable has been the enterprise they have displayed in the conduct of their commercial and industrial undertakings, of the nature and scope of which it is hoped that the following articles will convey and accurate impression. The reader will notice that in the matter of business establishments devoted to the supply of all domestic necessaries the town is well furnished, and the varies requirements of a population of at least 30,000 are satisfied by the local tradesmen in a manner which leaves nothing to be desired.



AN establishment of the greatest popularity in Yarmouth and district, and one which has become indispensable to the convenience of many residents in and around the borough, is that known as “Clowes' Stores,” with headquarters opposite the bridge, and an important branch at Gorleston. The business carried on at these “stores” embraces the various departments of household supply, and has been in existence as a flourishing concern ever since the year 1758. It can, therefore, claim the distinction of being the oldest business of its kind in Yarmouth. During its long career of steady growth and development this house has maintained an unblemished reputation for the genuine quality and reliability of all the goods in which it has dealings. Mr. Clowes’ chief premises, on The Quay, are directly opposite the South Town Bridge, and close to the General Post Office. No one arriving at the South Town Railway Station can fail to see the establishment, which is of handsome appearance and commodious dimensions, and looks well adapted in every respect to the requirements of the trade. The large plate-glass windows are rendered attractive by a varied display of high-class goods, and the very extensive stocks held within are most conveniently and effectively arranged. Every facility exists for receiving and serving customers, and for the despatch of goods to any destination with unfailing promptitude.

As showing the wide range and magnitude of this fine old business, we may mention the leading departments, which comprise teas, coffees, grocery, provisions, mineral waters, patent medicines, and proprietary articles, drugs and chemicals, perfumery, household and toilet brushes, mats, stable requisites, stationery, baskets, wicker and rush goods, indiarubber goods, and wood-ware. Each of these sections is completely stocked with the newest and beet goods of home and foreign production, every source of supply being laid under contribution; and the exhaustive and very convenient price-list issued by Mr. Clowes not only indicates the many requirements he is prepared to satisfy, but also proves that in the matter of low prices for cash he has nothing to fear from competition. Mr. Clowes places before his customers not only the highest grades of teas, coffees, and family groceries, but also a large selection of superior provisions, and a particularly choice assortment of those preserved comestibles and table delicacies which are now prepared in such variety for the convenience of the household. In, these, as in all other departments, the firm purchase only in the best markets at home and abroad, and are thus enabled to sell with confidence -of giving satisfaction to their patrons. An immense business is done, and it should be remarked that the firm have a third establishment at Rollesby, which is a great convenience to residents in that part. The entire concern is under the personal supervision of Mr. John Edward Clowes, the sole proprietor, a gentleman of sound practical experience in the trade, and whose energetic methods and active enterprise have kept this noted house abreast of the times in every matter essential to its continued prosperity. Mr. Clowes, who is well known and much esteemed in Yarmouth, is a temperance man, and possesses the courage of his convictions, for he has, on conscientious principles, abandoned the lucrative wine and spirit department which formed a feature of the business prior to his assuming the proprietorship. The sacrifice has doubtless been compensated by an increased trade in other departments, due to the vigour and progressive spirit that mark Mr. Clowes’ administration.
The telegraphio address of “Clowes' Stores” is “Cash, Yarmouth.”


THE question as to the best means of disposing of refuse of all kinds and turning it to good account, has been solved in many instances, and in none more satisfactorily than manufacture of special manures. Prejudice dies hard, and, without disrespect, it may be said that there is a no more prejudiced class generally than farmers. Their fathers did not go in for “new-fangled notions,” so why should they? This was practically the reception accorded to chemical and specially prepared manures when first placed upon the market. Severe agricultural depression came over the country, however, and one by one farmers were induced to try the manures that they had previously disregarded, and that the manufacture of them has since become a very important and thriving national industry is now a matter of history. In the Eastern Counties there are several large manufactories given up to this branch of trade, and among them a prominent position has been gained by that occupied by Mr. R. Pattinson. The business carried on here was established between sixteen and seventeen years ago, and from its commencement it has enjoyed an eminently progressive career. the premises are known as the West Marsh Works, and are situated at Runham-Vauxhall. They are very extensive, comprising works, sheds, and warehouses. They are in every way well suited to the special requirements of the trade, the works containing an admirable machine equipment of the most effective and modern kind, there being at hand all the requisite appliances for carrying on a large trade in the manufacture of manure for various purposes. Mr. Pattinson has had a long and valuable experience in every branch of the trade, and is therefore enabled to extend a practical supervision over every department. This, in the course of his general enterprising proprietorship, he does, with the result that he can confidently recommend and guarantee the superior character of the many productions of his establishment. They comprise dried blood, bone, fish, and chemical manures of many kinds, and are invaluable as dressings for grain, roots, grass, and all agricultural growths. The special feature of the business is the manufacture of a PURE FISH GUANO, which is unsurpassed on account of the large proportion of natural ammonia contained in it (from 9 and-a-half to 12 and-a-half per cent.). There is a very extensive demand for this product. It was introduced to compete with the genuine Peruvian guano, and competent judges who have given it an unprejudiced trial consider that it performs the work of the Peruvian guano while it is far less expensive; this being a very great consideration among agriculturists, who are anxious to discover the most economical, and at the same time, the most effectual methods of conducting their great and important industry. In addition to the actual production of the goods specified, Mr. Pattinson is a dealer in dissolved bones, half-inch bone, bone meal, fish scales, agricultural salts, fish for manure, oil, coal, &c., and of goods in each department he always has on hand a well-selected stock. He confines his attention to a superior class of goods only, and by this means has built up an extensive and influential trade. His productions keep the works at full pressure, the demand often indeed exceeding the supply. The chief connection is around London and Eastern Counties, Norwich, where Mr. Pattinson has a stand (Number 124) at the Norwich Corn Hall, and round and about Yarmouth. The special features of his proprietorship are the ability which he has in every branch of the trade, and the close personal and prompt attention which he gives to the execution of all orders; and in the maintenance of these features there is every indication of a long continuanoe of the success which has already been remuneratively enjoyed.


A MOST interesting exposition of Yarmouth’s great herring curing and packing industry is afforded upon a large and complete scale at the well-known Yare Fishery Works controlled by the firm of Messrs. C. Stacy-Watson & Co., of which Mr. C. Stacy-Watson is the sole principal. The preparation of that supremely popular and toothsome edible known to fame as the “Yarmouth bloater” is the chief feature in the operations of this noted firm, and the extensive works for this important industry are admirably situated on the South Denes. Since Mr. Stacy-Watson acquired the establishment he has greatly enlarged it, and the premises now cover a great area of ground, and form one of the most complete fish-curing works in the district. Having bought the property outright, Mr. Stacy-Watson has naturally taken a special interest in its improvement, and all the resources of the industry which knowledge and experience can suggest may here be found available. A very large staff of hands is engaged, both in and out of the herring season — in the season, for the curing of the fish as they come in, and out of the season in getting ready the barrels, &c., for packing. Mr. Stacy-Watson usually starts the season (which begins about August), with about ten thousand packages.

The Yare Fishery Works present an example of compactness in arrangement and general excellence of organisation contributing to the smooth working of this large curing and packing industry, and allowing the various operations to be carried on with economy of time and labour, while everything is kept under complete and easy supervision. The processes through which the silvery herring passes here are most interesting to the observer, though it may be reasonably supposed that this piscine martyr to the appetite of nations, once he is landed on the quay at Yarmouth, attains a state in which “the subsequent proceedings interest him no more.” For all that, an immense amount of care, skill, and attention is bestowed upon his lifeless body, and he passes from one stage of the process of curing to another, until at length he finds himself “spitted” in the smoke-house, whence he eventually comes forth ready to fulfil the lofty object of his mission in life. If he is to go forth to the world as “mild-cured,” he tarries but a few hours in the atmosphere of oak smoke, and emerges with scarcely any evidence of fumigation upon his silvery coat. If, on the other hand, he is destined for the more popular “ham-cure,” he is besmoked again and again until his garb of silver is transmuted into one of golden brown. A few feet below the ground level at the Yare Fishery Works may be found what are called tanks. These are large cement-lined rooms, resembling cellars, and are used for storing herrings in pickle for future handling. These are capable of holding one hundred “lasts” of herring, and as 13,200 fish go to a “last,” it is obvious that the tanks may hold, if necessary, as many as 1,320,000 herring. Of course special care is bestowed upon the washing of the fish, and Mr. Stacy-Watson has the process of washing performed twice, though once is usually deemed sufficient. An enormous quantity of salt is used in the curing, the stock at the commencement of each season being no less than one hundred and thirty tons. There are extensive cooperages at these works, all barrels being made on the premises.

The specialities of the firm are “ham cure,” “bloater cure,” white salted in pickle, and “reds.” These are packed in barrels, boxes, and air-tight tins, and are sent to all parts of the world, the principal export trade being to Ireland, the Baltic, Italy, and the Levant. Messrs. C. Stacy-Watson and Co. received the only awards at the National Fisheries Exhibition, Norwich, and the Fisheries Exhibition, Great Yarmouth, for ham-cured herring and “anti-pilferage” package, and also the only prize medal awarded at the International Food Exhibition, London, for their class of goods. They gained the highest award for cured herrings at the International Food Exhibition, 1881, and the first prize for ham- cured, export, and pickled herrings, special prize for anti-pilferage package, and another special prize for herrings preserved in tins, at the Fisheries Exhibition at Great Yarmouth, in 1881, besides two diplomas of honour. These notable awards attest the eminent standing of the firm in the important trade with which they have identified their name.

For the insurance, steamship, and tourist department of their business, Messrs. Stacy-Watson & Co. have excellent accommodation in well-appointed offices at 40, South Quay, Yarmouth. Aa insurance agents they represent leading offices for fire, life, accident, plate-glass, and marine insurance, and for fidelity guarantee and employers’ liability. As steamship and tourist agents they book passengers and emigrants by the principal lines to all parts of the world. Mr. C. Stacy-Watson, the respected head of this great firm, is a native of Peterborough, where he was born in 1839. For many yean he has actively interested himself in the Yarmouth fishing industry, and has done a great deal to promote its welfare. He was one of the originators of the National Sea Fisheries Protection Association, which has done excellent work, and on the Executive Council of which he has served with great diligence and ability. Mr. Stacy-Watson is a recognised authority on fish and fisheries, and was at one time a regular contributor to the “Fish Trades Gazette and National Fisheries Record,” writing in that journal over the nom-de-plume of “Ichthus.” He is the author of a most interesting book entitled “The Silvery Hosts of the North Sea,” to which is subjoined an historical sketch of “Quaint Old Yarmouth.” In this work he conveys a vast amount of information concerning the herring, its natural history, habits, &c., and treats also of the herring fishery and the whole modus operandi of curing. Mr. Stacy-Watson is also a member of the Yarmouth section of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalist Society, before which he has read several valuable papers on the herring. He has placed in the South Kensington Natural History Museum over a hundred specimens o£ fish brought from Naples. These were collected by his friend Dr. Dorne, who has written an account of the origin and development of each specimen, thus giving a special value to the collection from a natural history point of view.


FOREMOST among the trading establishments of Yarmouth stands the well-managed and popular house of Mr. Tom Green, the extensive clothier, tailor, hosier, and, par excellence, “the hatter,” whose headquarters are situate at 19 and 167a, King Street. This well-known concern was initiated many years ago by the present proprietor, and has all along been conducted with notable enterprise and ability. Every year in its course has added to the extent and value of its transactions, and at the present time unequalled facilities are possessed for obtaining the best class of goods, and carrying on a business of this kind with the most gratifying and satisfactory results. The premises occupied are in every respect well adapted to the nature of the business. No. 167A, King Street, is utilised as the hat and hosiery department, and possesses an exceedingly attractive and pleasing appearance. The shop, which is of large extent, is elaborately and elegantly fitted up. The supplies held in this branch of the business are extensive and high-class, while the convenient and admirable manner in which they are arranged reflects great credit on the taste and skill of the proprietor and assistants. They comprise hats from the most celebrated London and other makers, caps of every description and for all sorts and conditions of people, hosiery in ample variety, shirts, underwear, scarfs, ties, collars, cuffs, and gloves of the finest English and Continental make—in fact, everything in this line in the best material and the latest styles. The clothing business is carried on at No. 19, the supplies being distinguished by the same good taste in their selection and their comprehensive nature.

Mr. Green is unceasing in his endeavours to maintain the enviable reputation his house enjoys in respect to the extent, variety, and style of the goods offered in every branch. The sales room contains an ample and superior assortment of ready-made clothing, while the spacious show-room is filled with a well-arranged collection of the latest and most fashionable fabrics for those patronising the bespoke department. The latter include woollens, English and Scotch tweeds, West of England cloth, serges, vicunas, and all the most desirable suitings, trouserings, and coatings. A staff of competent workpeople is employed, and the cutters belonging to the establishment are men of large experience and recognised skill. Good style and perfect fit, joined to every inducement in the way of prices, can be secured by patronising this responsible establishment. The wants and requirements of visitors to either shop are promptly attended to by a number of polite assistants. Mr. Green has a branch establishment at Lowestoft, where an important business is being carried on in the same smart and effective manner. This gentleman occupies a position of prominence in the trade circles of the town, and is widely known and held in the highest respect for his sterling business qualities, his straightforward methods and thorough reliability. He has long been noted for his active and disinterested participation in all matters appertaining to the improvement and
welfare of his fellow-townsmen. He has filled many important public offices, and is a magistrate for the borough.


THE career of Mr. S. Randell, popularly and appropriately known in Norfolk as the “Tailor King,” presents a notable instance of the power of that enterprise and industry which are proverbially said to be capable of moving the world. Nothing less than such enterprise and industry as this, coupled with strict integrity and a considerable gift of commercial shrewdness, could have placed Mr. Randell in the prominent position he now holds among the business men of East Anglia. He began at the foot of the ladder and has made his way to the top unaided, a feat which in this competitive age compels admiration. But while he has thus fought the battle of life to a successful issue in his own behalf, he has not been unmindful of the interests of the great public to which he caters, and though such a genial and kindly personality as that of Mr. Randell carries its own credentials to popularity, there can be no doubt that the general favour in which he is held to-day has been greatly accentuated by the consistent manner in which, as a business man, he has always kept faith with his patrons. It was in 1860 that Mr. Randell came to Yarmouth, an unknown youth, but with “a trade at his fingers' ends.” His capital was practically nil, and the necessities of the moment bad to be met by obtaining employment as a journeyman tailor. He was a master of his craft, and in the course of two or three years he did so well that he was enabled to start in a small way on his own account.

Doing thoroughly good work, and dealing honestly and conscientiously with his customers, he was rewarded by a rapid increase of patronage, and soon his connection became so extensive, and his name so widely known, that nothing less than the spacious premises he now occupies in Market Place, Yarmouth, could suffice to accommodate his trade. Starting here with No. 42, he subsequently added No. 41, and the combined shops (known as “Waterloo House” and “Norfolk House” respectively) now afford excellent facilities for this fine business, and rank among the most notable and interesting mercantile establishments in Yarmouth. They have a frontage of about forty-five feet, with a rearward extension of nearly one hundred and thirty feet, and besides being admirably arranged within, the premises present a unique and most interesting external appearance. Over the front of “Waterloo House” is seen a correct model of the famous battleship, Duke of Wellington, while “Norfolk House” is surmounted by an equally accurate presentment of the Great Eastern. These mimic vessels are gaily decked with flags on all special occasions, and are at once an emblem of Mr. Randell's sturdy patriotism, and a constant attraction to the multitudes of visitors to popular Yarmouth. As regards Mr. Randell’s actual business, it must not be imagined that it is confined to Yarmouth, or even to the Yarmouth district. On the contrary, it extends far afield in East Anglia, and the “Tailor King” holds sway over a large domain, his branches in St. Stephen's Street and Ber Street, Norwich, and in London Road, Lowestoft, being hardly lees busy and noteworthy than his headquarters in Yarmouth.

This representative concern has been so much written about and so well described from time to time, that we cannot pretend to say anything new concerning its operations in the tailoring and outfitting trades. The business is conducted upon the same advanced lines and up-to-date methods as heretofore, and perfect organisation prevails as usual in the several departments for boys’, youths’, and gentlemen’s bespoke tailoring and readymade clothing, gentlemen’s hosiery, shirts, collars, gloves, ties, silk and felt hats, umbrellas, portmanteaus, bags, rugs, &c. Mr. Randell persistently adheres to his old and well-tried policy of producing first-class work at low prices, and giving to every customer the best value for money. Nothing will induce him to depart from this mode of business, or to introduce the taint of inferiority into any of his departments, however tempting may be the prospect of extra profits. The manner in which he holds his own against the keen competition of the day sufficiently proves the wisdom of his policy and the readiness of the public to support absolute honesty in business. Mr. Randell holds a splendid stock of n6w and fashionable cloths and outfittings, all fresh and stylish, carefully selected, and suited to many requirements. His work in bespoke tailoring is par excellence, and his own manufacture of ready-made clothing has a far-reaching reputation for style, quality, fit, and workmanship. Large resources and a thoroughly trained staff enable him to execute every order with remarkable promptitude and despatch, and people know that Mr. Rindell's word is as good as his bond in the matter of punctuality. With him a promise is a promise, not a piece of pie-crust made to be broken. In short, the organisation of this business and the principles upon which it is conducted embody every element conducive to the satisfaction of customers and to the further enhancement of the celebrity attaching to the concern.

Mr. Randell is a thorough master of his trade, and, knowing just where and when to buy, he is ablo to keep up a stock of remarkable excellence, and to sell at prices which put competition “out of the running.” He draws his large patronage from all classes of the community, and when once he obtains an order he considers himself practically sure of the continued support of that customer, to confident is he of his ability to give satisfaction. Certainly the very large number of regular customers whose names appear in his order-books from time to time indicates that that confidence is not without ample warranty. Having established himself by popular consent as the “Tailor King,” Mr. Randell has taken proper steps to prevent the usurpation of his dignity, and has registered that title as his trade-mark (Registered No. 154,061), thus making the right to use it peculiar to himself. Though Mr. Randell has been a hard worker all his life, and though he has not obtained his present position without a struggle, he has imbibed none of the cynicism of the age, and still remains the liberal-minded and genial business man and citizen, well liked in and out of the trade, and as free from the spirit of pessimism as he was when, thirty-four years ago, he first began work in Yarmouth with no other resources than practical skill, a willing heart, and the hope that “springs eternal in the human breast.” He believes, with Thackeray, that “the world is a jolly good fellow,” and acts in accordance with this belief in all his dealings with the world. There has probably never been a more popular sovereignty in East Anglia than that of the sartorial monarch who holds his court in the Market Place at Yarmouth; and Mr. Randell’s full appreciation of the advantages of his regal estate must be apparent to everybody who has read in his advertisements that Gilbertian paraphrase in which he asserts, with pardonable pride, that —

“It is, it is a glorious thing
To be a Tailor King.”


THIS business was originally founded by Mr. G. Self upwards of half-a-century ago, and he subsequently took into partnership with him his son, Mr. G. H. Self, who is now the sole proprietor. The present premises in King Street, which have been occupied for the last thirty-six years, comprise a fine three-storey building. On the ground floor is the handsome double-fronted shop, with a magnificent plate-glass frontage, displaying a choice selection of high-class ladies’ and gentleman’s boots and shoes. The upper rooms are used for warehouse accommodation, and here also is the workshop, spacious, well ventilated, and in every respect perfectly adapted to the requirements of the business. A large staff of skilful and experienced workmen is regularly employed. Every description of footwear is comprised in the extensive stock, among the leading specialities in the gentlemen's department being hunting boots, waterproof shooting boots, indiarubber boots, coachmen's and grooms' top-boots, knickerbocker gaiters made of deerskin and drab cloth, lawn tennis, boating, and yachting shoes, dress patent, court shoes, Oxford lace shoes, and all kinds of dress boots (hand sewn), military jack boots and parade boots, &c. In the ladies' department there is a very large stock of the firm’s own make ladies’ glove, glace, and calf kid button and lace boots and shoes and buckle shoes; also lawn tennis shoes in the most fashionable shapes, watteau, baretta, and gipsy shoes, and other styles in a variety too great to enumerate. A special feature is made of boots for deformed feet, cork boots, &c., and Mr. Self has a very wide reputation for these makes, being highly recommended by the medical faculty, not only in the immediate locality, but in Norwich and remoter places. The business connection is very extensive, Mr. Self’s patrons being resident all over the country, and even in distant lands. A large number of salesmen and assistants are necessarily employed in such a large establishment, and Mr. Self gives his active personal supervision to the working of the whole concern. Popular, and universally esteemed by all who know him, we congratulate Mr. Self upon the magnificent business of which he is at the head, confident that the measure of prosperity he has enjoyed in the past will continue undiminished in the future.


FOR more than half a century the establishment of Messrs. Jackson & Carr has been in operation, and the quality of goods sold carry their own guarantee with them. Sole agents for Corbett's Prize Medal Salt.


HOTEL life is becoming more popular and general every year, and while this is true in relation to towns in all parts of the country, it is particularly so with regard to seaside places and holiday resorts. Yarmouth has been ever to the fore in this respect, the hotel proprietors of this increasingly popular east coast town vying with each other in making the most complete-arrangements for the accommodation of visitors. One of the largest and best family hotels is the Victoria, and it has borne this reputation from its very inception, which took place upwards of half a century ago. It was acquired by the present proprietor three years ago, and under his very efficient management its reputation has been enhanced and its connection considerably strengthened. The Victoria Hotel has a very prominent location; it is close to the Royal Assembly Rooms, and has a good frontage to the Marine Drive. It is substantially built in three and four storeys, and is altogether of very attractive architectural design. It is, however, with the internal arrangements that the visitor is mostly interested, and these will be found to have been carried out on a scale of comfort and convenience that cannot fail to give satisfaction to even the most fastidious and exacting in such matters. There are sixty rooms in all, and from the smallest bedroom to the admirably appointed dining-rooms and drawing-rooms, the furnishings and general fittings are substantial and handsome to a degree. Neither pains nor expense have been spared in this direction, and Mr. Maas has the satisfaction of knowing that he has rendered his hotel fit for the temporary residence of members of the highest ranks of society. He has now in contemplation a scheme for the further enlargement of the premises, a scheme which will very shortly be put into practice. The many attractions of the house will then be increased by the addition of a handsome billiard-room, it having been felt that the omission of this department has been practically the only defect.

The bedrooms, suites of private rooms, dining, smoking, reading, and writing rooms, all contain evidences of refined and elegant taste in arrangement, and nothing has been forgotten in the general equipment that could in any way contribute to the comfort of the guests. There is a nicely fitted bar, where the choicest brands of wines, spirits, and cigars may be obtained. Indeed, Mr. Maas’ long experience as a buyer of these goods is in itself an assurance of their general excellence. Probably the most notable feature in connection with this hotel is the uniform excellence of the cuisine. To this matter also Mr. Maas gives his personal attention. The kitchens are large and fitted with every convenience known to the most accomplished chef. The most perfect order and cleanliness are observed, and the sanitary conditions of the department, indeed of the whole hotel, leave nothing to be desired. The experienced cooks engaged are capable of preparing any known dish in a manner that reflects the greatest credit upon them, and there can be no hesitation in saying that in providing for the creature comforts of its guests, no hotel in Yarmouth has a better founded reputation than the Victoria. At the rear of the house are extensive and well-kept livery and bait stables, which are found to be a great attraction to visitors. Always courteous, obliging, and respectful, Mr. Maas is held in high respect by his guests, and those who place themselves temporarily in his care find that he spares no effort to contribute as far as possible to the enjoyment of their stay in Yarmouth.


THE business carried on under this name and title was established about ten years ago by Mr. F. W. James at 23, Northgate Street, and so grew and developed as to necessitate the opening of other premises. No. 166 in the same thoroughfare was taken over for the purpose of extending the business, and each place has been fitted and equipped with everything necessary to further the interests of the undertaking. The business is of a most diversified character, and includes an extensive dealing in everything appertaining to groceries, provisions, and Italian warehouseman's goods. The business was established under circumstances that could not result otherwise than in the achievement of success, and the position that has been gained in the local trade quite realises Mr. James’ early anticipations. From the first he has striven to supply a superior quality of goods, and to this end he has obtained his entire stock either from the actual producers or from direct importers. This is particularly noticeable with regard to tea, in the selection of which the greatest care is taken. His long connection with this branch of trade gives him command of the home markets, and he has on hand some of the choicest blends at distinctly moderate prices. The Northgate Supply Stores are also noted for the excellence and purity of their coffees, while in sugars, spices, sauces, pickles, bottled and preserved fruits, jams, biscuits, rice, sago, starch, soaps, and, in short, everything appertaining to general groceries, Mr. James has a very extensive stock which he offers at prices that will compare favourably with those of any other house in the town. He is a very large cheese factor, buying extensively of Leicester, Cheshire, Cheddar, Stilton, Gorgonzola, Canadian, and other cheeses, which are all received in prime condition. His stock of provisions is very comprehensive, embracing English, Continental, American, and Colonial goods of the very best brands, in hams, bacon, butter, lard, eggs, tinned goods in fish, meats, fruit, &c. In each department Mr. James experiences a large and increasing demand, and the constant arrival of fresh, consignments ensures the freshness of all goods.

A very special feature is the agency which Mr. James holds for the Hop Bitter Beer of Messrs. Duncan Gilmour & Co. This firm is the largest in the kingdom, and it is freely acknowledged that their productions are superior to any in the market. Mr. James was induced to accept the agency, realising the demand that has existed so long for a really appetising beverage that will not produce the too exhilarating effect of the ordinary ales and stout. Finding that the Hop Bitter Beer of Messrs. Duncan Gilmour & Co. the most nearly attained his ideal in this matter, he has not hesitated to push its sale, and has succeeded in placing it in all the leading hotels, refreshment rooms, and boarding-houses in Yarmouth. This justly-celebrated Hop Bitter Beer differs from all other non-alcoholic drinks in this way. It is not carbonised, the others are. A head rises to it equal to Bass’s Ale and is just as pleasant to the taste, in fact we cannot speak too highly of it. What good may be in kindred drinks is ruined by the carbon used in the manufacture. Mr. James is one of two sole bottling; agents representing the manufacturers throughout the United Kingdom, and his exertions on behalf of the firm are carried on with the conviction that he is recommending a superior article. Quite apart from his prominence among the leading business men of the town, Mr. James is well known for the great interest he takes in local political life. He is also an enthusiastic Oddfellow, in which connection he has held nearly every important office in the Order, and takes special interest in the juvenile branch of Oddfellowship. In everything he undertakes Mr. James enters thoroughly, and it is the whole-heartedness of his proprietorship that has secured so marked a success in his business. the connection is very extensive, and among the permanent patrons of the Northgate Stores are many of the most influential residents in the town and district. On the 29th May, 1889, at a testimony-meeting, presided over by the Mayor and many other distinguished personages, a beautiful address and marble clock were presented to Mr. James.


AT No. 4, Market Place, hard by the parish church, there has for the past twenty-five years been conducted one of the best and most popular book and stationery depots in the town. Organised by Mr. T. P. George, the business was acquired in 1893 by its present capable and enterprising proprietor, Mr. G. T. Davis. The premises occupy a prominent position, the spacious shop, with its ample storage accommodation at the rear, is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically yet tastefully arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment to meet the requirements of a large yet essentially superior class of trade. Books in all branches of literature, conspicuous amongst which are bibles, hymn-books, and works of a devotional character; plain, commercial, school, and fancy fashionable stationery and stationers’ sundries of every description; office requisites of every kind, newspapers and periodicals, which are punctually delivered at the doors of patrons, and a vast variety of fancy goods, cards, &c., incidental to a first-class emporium of the kind. In addition to the above, Mr. Davis holds a splendid stock of all kinds of photographic apparatus, materials, &c., in which he does a brisk business amongst professional and amateur photographers, for the use of the latter of whom he keeps up a well-equipped dark room. For the rest, the business in all its details is conducted with conspicuous ability and energy, and it is clearly Mr. Davis’s resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.


THE modern restaurateur and refreshment caterer nowadays fulfils a most important and much appreciated function in the everyday economy of all large communities, and in this connection the “ancient burgh” of Great Yarmouth of to-day is exceptionally well provided for by Mr. B. J. Foulsham, a valued member of the Town Council, who formed the nucleus of his present prosperous business twenty years ago. Occupying a commanding position, the commodious four-storeyed premises are divided into a splendidly-appointed double-fronted refectory entered at No. 12, and capacious wine and spirit stores and vaults at No. 11, Market Place, adjoining. The restaurant is heralded by a handsomely-appointed shop, the spacious windows of which are always invitingly arranged with cold joints, poultry, &c., and table delicacies of every kind; and here light refreshments of all descriptions are always available at moderate rates. On the floors above there are spacious well-furnished dining-rooms, and a splendid hall capable of seating five hundred guests at table. Mr. Foulsham makes a leading feature of a shilling dinner, which is served daily from 12.30 to 2.30, and includes a cut from joint, two kinds of vegetables, served ad libitum, and bread and cheese. All other meals are served at equally low tariff, and persons may here dine a la carte, or order special dinners of the most recherché description, from hors d'oeuvres through potages, poissons, entrees, rote, entremets, and dessert, with wines, etc., at moderate rates, with the assurance of perfect cooking and unexceptionable attendance. Mr. Foulsham, moreover, has won a widespread and well-merited renown as a caterer for banquets, dinner parties, weddings, soirees, picnics, and other festive functions; and the large and liberal patronage he enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts, quite as much in the public interest as in his own, have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.


AN old-established and eminently reputable house in Great Yarmouth, extensively occupied in this line of business, is that of Messrs. Aldred & Son. This is the oldest establishment of its kind in the town, its inception dating back to the year 1795. The century of its existence is just being completed, and during the whole course of its prolonged career the house has occupied a prominent position in the trade, and been no less distinguished for the superior excellence of the goods handled than for the strictly honourable methods that have marked all its transactions. The present sole head of the firm is Mr. D. A. Aldred, a gentleman who has largely added to the prosperity and status of the house over which he now presides, and in whom the business finds a capable and upright exponent. The premises are admirably located, and are both spacious in extent and attractive in appearance. The two massive plate-glass windows form the principal feature in this locality, from the high-class excellence of the goods displayed and the tasteful manner in which they are arranged. The interior of the premises has been fitted up in an elaborate and elegant style, the appointments including many handsome and unique air-tight and dust-proof show-cases, which are filled to repletion with the most costly articles of jewellery and solid silver goods. The silver articles range from a dainty little tooth-pick to a massive presentation-cup, while various pieces of jewellery are rendered still more seductive by being displayed in morocco cases, with rich purple lining.

Mr. Aldred is thoroughly conversant with the trade in all its bearings, and is perfectly familiar with the best and most reliable sources from which to obtain his goods. The supplies include gold and silver watches for ladies and gentlemen, keyless watches and chronometers, chains in all the latest styles and designs; diamond, dress and mourning rings; necklaces set in pearls, diamonds, and other precious gems; brooches, bangles, bracelets, pins and studs, sleeve-links, and every article of personal jewellery of the best style and quality. Clocks, too, are made here in large variety and with signal success, and many of the public clocks in Great Yarmouth and the surrounding districts have been made and supplied by Mr. Aldred, notable among which stands the Yarmouth Town Hall clock. The house keeps on hand clocks of various kinds suitable for hall or dining-room, bed-room or kitchen, together with English chime clocks, and clocks in marble, gilt, brass, or wood. The display of solid silver and electroplated goods is especially fine, and embraces the latest productions of the best-known makers in Birmingham and London. There are exhibited splendid examples of breakfast and tea services, cruet-stands, spirit-frames, claret-jugs, silver and silver-mounted scent-bottles, cake-baskets, and some magnificent articles suitable for presentation purposes. the house holds also an ample and well-selected stock of spectacles and eyeglasses, opera, field, and marine glasses, and various scientific instruments. Special attention is given to meeting the particular optical requirements of each individual, and oculists’ and hospital prescriptions are faithfully carried out. Every description of repairs to watches, clocks, and jewellery is executed on the premises by skilled workmen, and good work and reasonable prices can always be relied on. Mr. Aldred is also proprietor of the Berlin wool and fancy needlework repository next door, and shows a large and beautiful assortment of these goods suitable for domestic use, ecclesiastical purposes, or bazaars. Both these shops are brilliantly illuminated by electric light, applied in a most effective manner. Mr. Aldred is a gentleman of influence and position in the trade, and held in the highest esteem for his ability, energy, and integrity.


THE department of business operations undertaken by the modern licensed grocer and provision merchant finds an able representative in the person of Mr. A. J. Penny, who after three years of successful trading elsewhere recently acquired the thriving business which had been organised thirty years ago by his predecessor, Mr. Alfred Adams. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position facing the Market Place, “The Indian Tea Warehouse,” as it has suggestively been called, at the “Sign of the Golden Canister,” consists of a spacious double-fronted shop, handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style. The stock comprises all manner of everyday groceries together with the numerous sundries usually associated therewith: special lines in pure and choicely-blended Indian, Ceylon, China, and other teas and coffees of the most noted growths; British and Foreign tinned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies of the highest order; prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and bacon, butter, and cheese, lard, and the freshest of eggs, and a select series of the noted wines, spirits, and liqueurs of Messrs. W. & A. Gilbey, of which an immense bin is held at the rear of the shop, are all fully en evidence at their best, and are all available at the lowest prices consistent with equitable trading. System and courtesy on the part of Mr. Penny and his staff of capable assistants, und the prompt and punctual delivery of all orders, are salient characteristics of this carefully conducted business, and the large and liberal town and country patronage enjoyed by Mr. Penny is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts, quite as much in the public interest as in his own, have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.


IT is particularly interesting to meet with a house of such old standing and high repute as the one which furnishes the theme of the present brief review. Reckoned to be the oldest established pharmacy in the town, the records of the undertaking prove that it was founded as far back as the year 1801; that for a period of sixty years the business was successfully promoted by a Mr. Mubson, who was succeeded in 1888 by the late Mr. Tutton; and that it was finally taken over, three years later, by its present talented and enterprising proprietor, Mr. F. J. Lane. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in the busy Market Place, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout. the stock is composed of drugs and chemicals of ascertained purity and standard strength; all the popular patent medicines of the day; choice toilet, nursery, and sick-room requisites; medical and surgical appliances; and the numerous sundries incidental to a thoroughly first-class pharmacy. Mr. Lane is also the proprietor and preparer of a large series of well-known domestic medicines and specialities, which are in large demand throughout the countryside: and among these special mention may be made of Lane's Diarrhoea Mixture, Tutton's Cough Cure, Lane's Purifying Powders, Lane’s Red Ointment, Vitalising Effervescing Saline, Dr. Monk’s Tic or Tooth-ache Specific, Glycerine and Cucumber Cream, Tutton’s Hair Restorer, Dermoline, Chilblain Lotion, and so on, and so forth. In his well-equipped laboratory at the rear, Mr. Lane operates in every branch of practical pharmacy, including the dispensing of physicians’ prescriptions and the compounding of family recipes, by reason of which he has won the esteem and complete confidence of all the leading local medical practitioners, and the liberal patronage of a very large and still rapidly increasing clientele, drawn, practically, from all classes of the community.


THE above, one of the best known and deservedly prosperous houses in Yarmouth, is engaged in the manufacture of wax, stearine and tallow candles, and has for many years enjoyed the most enviable reputation for the superiority of its productions and its first-class business management. Operations were commenced in this direction in 1839, on the site still occupied by the firm, by the grandfather of the present proprietors, who developed his undertaking with marked energy, enterprise and success. On his retirement, he was succeeded in the management of the business by his son, the late Mr. R. H. Tunbridge. That gentleman filled several offices with considerable credit, and was for some twenty years a prominent and respected member of the Town Council. Some few months before his death, this body showed their appreciation of his services by electing him to the office of Alderman, an honour he lived but a short time to enjoy. The trade, at his accession, was almost confined to tallow candles, wax not then being in such general use as now; and it is worthy of note that, as the demand for them grew, Mr. Tunbridge at once laid down a large plant of machinery to cope with it. This has been added to from time to time, till, at the present time, the manufactory is the largest of its kind in East Anglia; the clients of the firm, however, being by no means confined to that province. It consists of the factory proper, fitted up with the latest type of machinery and appliances, boiler-houses, well-appointed warehouse, packing department and offices. Quite distinct from these is carried on the manufacture of tallow, and ground and whole greaves for pheasants, &c., in which a large trade is done. The articles turned out by the firm are well known for their uniform and reliable quality, and are great favourites with large and careful buyers—notably, their two leading lines, “White Rose” and “Norfolk Wax” candles. An increasing trade is being done in the coloured and decorated candles so popular at Christmas time, and a large stock of these is held in all colours and patterns. Extensive and well-selected stocks are held of every description of candle manufactured; wax, stearine and tallow, and orders of any extent are filled with promptness. The present manager of the firm, Mr. R. H. Tunbridge, is thoroughly conversant with the business in all its details, having assisted his late father in the management for several years. He takes on active interest in all the public movements and institutions of the borough, and has recently been elected to represent in the Town Council the ward in which his firm has such large interests, and the confidence of which his father enjoyed for so long a period.


HISTORICALLY, socially, and commercially, the grand old Duke's Head Hotel at Great Yarmouth is, unquestionably, one of the leading institutions of East Anglia. The date of the first establishment of this splendid specimen of the old English inn it is impossible to fix. It was probably long before we have any recorded history of the place. As is not unusual in cases of such antiquity, there is a tradition to the effect that a subterranean passage leads from this point to Burgh, a small hamlet about four miles away. No archaeologist, however, local or otherwise, has yet succeeded in finding access to this legendary tunnel. There is no question, however, about the actual date of the present structure. It is 1609, as plainly as carved characters can speak, on the little stone which is let into the front of the building; and “1609” is certainly echoed by the magnificently carved oak appointments of the interior. It was, indeed, in the early days of James I.’s reign that the good burghers of Yarmouth quaffed strong ale, and in deep draughts pledged the landlord of the new hostelry, who, for the last seven years, has been worthily represented by its present proprietor, Mr. B. J. Foulsham.

A word or two must be said about the old oak, which is one of the glories of the place. In the bar is a handsomely carved oak mantelpiece, which is perfectly complete, and is, in every respect, a magnificent example of the carver's cunning. Upstairs, again, is a spacious dining-room which is completely panelled in oak. Here, too, at various intervals on the walls, are miniature Corinthian columns, also in oak, the carving of the capitals of which is exquisite. There is also a remarkably fine example of an old oak fireplace and mantelpiece. This room, whose dimensions are about sixty feet by twenty, may be divided into two apartments by means of an oak partition, which, when not in use, folds into a small compass, and being hung on hinges, rolls back against the wall. From this same quaint old room may be had one of the finest views which are to be obtained of the harbour, together with the bridge that joins South-town and Great Yarmouth; and, indeed, the Duke's Head Hotel is within three minutes’ walk of either the Southtown or the Vauxhall Railway Stations.

The hotel contains, in all, about twenty-six rooms, including coffee, dining, and commercial rooms, all of which are furnished in a style of luxurious comfort. There are also commodious stock-rooms, and special attention — as is no more than their due — is given to the particular requirements of “the ambassadors of commerce,” many of whom make the house their temporary home in Yarmouth. There are also well-equipped billiard-rooms, with a series of snug smoke-rooms. The sanitary condition of the bedrooms, as, indeed, of all other parts of the house, is excellent. Mention should be made, too, of a finely appointed bar, where the finest qualities of wines, spirits, and ales, and the choicest of cigars may always be obtained. In this connection, too, it must be recorded that the cellarage of the Duke's Head is said to be the finest in Yarmouth for maturing wines and spirits; and so it is if appearances go for anything, for it hangs, about a foot long, in fungus. The cuisine is most artistic and the table-service efficient; and nothing, indeed, is neglected which is necessary to increase the contentment of the visitor with these excellent quarters. The house is the headquarters of all the principal clubs in the town, and is, moreover, a very popular market house. At the rear is a very large posting establishment, with excellent stabling, where the visitor can always depend upon being accommodated with as good a mount or an equipage for driving as can be obtained in all East Anglia. Adjoining the hotel, and forming an integral part of the property, is the Corn Exchange, which is a veritable hive of industry on market days. It is a very spacious hall, and here Mr. Foulsham can comfortably seat five hundred persons at dinner. The hall is also frequently let for other purposes, such as balls, suppers, &c. Adjoining the Corn Exchange is the excellent tavern known as the Howard Street Vaults, the Exchange facing the thoroughfare of that name. It will be understood that the whole of this valuable property, including the Duke's Head Hotel, the Corn Exchange, and Howard Street Vaults, belongs to Mr. Foulsham. The large measure of success which attends the conduct of the business at these establishments is due, in a very large measure, to the fact that it is entirely under the able management of Mr. Arthur R. Palmer, who has achieved much personal popularity in the district. The firm are agents for the celebrated “Encore” blend of Scotch whiskey.

Mr. Foulsham devotes much of his valuable time and energies to the service of the public, and he is an active member of the Town Council and Watch Committee.


THIS eminent firm was organised as far back as twenty years ago, under the able auspices of its present enterprising proprietor, originally, in a comparatively small shop in St. Peter's Row. Owing to a rapid expansion of his trade, he found it imperative to remove to more commodious premises. These, in their turn, being found inadequate, Mr. Bennett, some six years since, again removed to his present extensive premises, which were entirely rebuilt to meet the exact requirements of his ever developing business. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in King Street, the handsome three-storied building extends backwards for about one hundred yards, to terminate in commodious warerooms at the rear. The spacious double-fronted shop is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets and leading sources of supply both at home and abroad. All manner of every-day groceries, patent medicines, perfumery, and prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and bacon, butter and cheese, meal and flour, lard, and the freshest of eggs, are all fully represented at their best, and customers are promptly and courteously served by a large staff of capable and attentive assistants. In addition to his ordinary business, Mr. Bennett has won a widespread renown as the inventor of “Bennett’s Patent Saffron Flour,” for which he has received the highest possible award at the Norwich Exhibition, May, 1894, viz., the gold medal; also a gold medal at the exhibition in his own town, September, 1894. This flour is used for making the exceedingly wholesome and palatable saffron loaves, saffron cakes, etc., now so universally esteemed by cognoscenti on dietetics, and he has also won a well-merited renown for his special blend called the “Pyramid Tea,” and his series of fine-flavoured non-alcoholic wines. Mr. Walter Bennett exercises a personal supervision overall the details of his large and still rapidly growing business, and his methods and principles of management are identical in nature with those which have in time past influenced and brought about a continuous increase and development in the resources and undertakings of his most noteworthy business.


THE supply of select ironmongery and kindred goods, coupled with the crafts of the modern smith, gasfitter, and bellhanger, finds typical illustration in the “ancient” burgh of Great Yarmouth, at the hands of Mr. H. E. Kerridge, who opened his already prosperous business at 185, King Street but three years ago. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in that busy thoroughfare, the spacious shop is admirably appointed throughout, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock, representing the pick of the latest and best productions of the leading manufacturers of the day. In this way are exhaustively en evidence, all kinds of general and furnishing ironmongery goods; builders', joiners', and cabinet makers’ ironmongery; japanned hollow-ware, tin, brass, zinc, copper, and other metal goods; cutlery and electro-plated ware; tools for all trades, agricultural and horticultural implements, domestic woodware and turnery, and, in short, everything usually to be found in a thoroughly first-class ironmongery store. In his perfectly equipped workshops at the rear, Mr. Kerridge, himself a practical expert, retains the services of a picked staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen for the purpose of executing gas-fitting, bell hanging, and other work, by contract or otherwise, and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large and still rapidly growing connection, as much by reason of the reliability and exceptional excellence of his work, as for the moderation of his charges, and the sound method* and honourable principles which characterise his business transactions.


NO historical record of the business life of Great Yarmouth would be complete that was without special notice of the ancient and famous “Star Hotel.” According to archaeological authorities, the building was erected as a private residence in the latter part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and it is without doubt the oldest hotel in the town, its use for this purpose dating back to the year 1760. There is a popular belief that the Star Hotel was the property and residence of Bradshaw, the President of the Commission by which Charles I. was condemned and consigned to the scaffold, and a copy of the warrant is exhibited in the room in which it was supposed to have been drawn up. This, the principal historic apartment, is known as the Nelson Room. It contains a portrait of that great admiral, painted from life by Keymer, a native artist of considerable renown. The walls of this apartment are lined with wainscot. “They are panelled to the height of five feet, divided at regular intervals by fluted pilasters which support pedestals with terminal figures, alternately male and female, between which there is a series of ornamental panels, with flat arches richly carved. Between the panelling and the ceiling there is a fine moulded border or cornice.. The ceiling is divided by flat bands, like the cornice, into six compartments, which are adorned with ribbed mouldings and pendent fruit and flowers.” In the fireplace are some Dutch tiles, which were taken from an old house in Row No. 83. They are in splendid preservation, and the proprietor has refused a guinea each for them. It may be mentioned that there is here a curious collection of photographs of the “Nockoldonians,” the mysterious name of a society that met at the hotel rather more than twenty years ago, but what the object or aim of the federation was history sayeth not.

Of course, during its public career of more than a century and a quarter in duration, many changes have been made to enable it to meet the requirements of modern hotel life; but the establishment still presents many interesting and unique features to the antiquarian, and has afforded a subject for a learned and valuable paper read to the Norwich and Norfolk Archaeological Society, in the Nelson Room of the hotel, by C. J. Palmer, Esq., F.S.A. The address has been printed and can be obtained at the bar. The Star now possesses every desirable convenience for visitors. It is situated on the Hall Quay, close to the Town Hall and General Post Office. It is a fine, imposing block of three-storey building, with balcony to first floor supported on pillars. At the rear are extensive ranges of stables with loose boxes and lock-up coach-houses, forming the largest and most complete livery, bait, and posting yard in the town. The interior of the hotel comprises large sitting-rooms', commercial, coffee, and smoke-rooms, and spacious dining-rooms. The billiard-room stands at the back, detached from the house itself, entrance being obtained from the yard. Over the door is an opal lamp on which the worthy proprietor, Mr. IH. J. Lane, sua manu, has painted an emblematic device of two crossed cues with three balls “interspersed singly,” as indicating the use to which the room is applied. The apartment is substantially appointed, and furnished with two full-sized modern tables, complete with every accessory for playing the royal game of billiards, pyramids, or pool. Here is to be seen a rare collection of paintings and engravings, some seventy or eighty in number, and comprising works by Sir Godfrey Kneller, R. Westall, Sir P. Lely, Zuccarella, and other celebrated painters and engravers. The private apartments of the hotel, as well as the sitting-rooms and bedrooms en suite, are spacious in size, handsomely and even elegantly furnished, and replete with solid, home-like comforts. The sleeping accommodation is represented by some thirty beds, lofty, well lighted, and well ventilated. Nothing but the highest praise can be given to the cuisine, and the service and attendance are of an exceptionally excellent character. The wines, spirits, ales, and cigars are of the finest quality, being personally selected by the host, who is an acknowledged connoisseur in these matters. Mr. Lane has been the proprietor of this famous hotel for the past nine years, and during that time has made hosts of friends by his geniality, courtesy, and the skill he shows in the management. He employs a large staff, all of whom are well paid, and he spares no expense in meeting the demands of his influential and high-class connection, and keeps up the well-known traditions of the establishment in admirable style. Mr. Lane has had a long and valuable experience in hotel management, and was for some years the owner of the Jack Straw’s Castle, at Hampstead, a house much patronised by Dickens, Washington Irving, and other literary and artistic celebrities.


ONE of the most notable factories in the modern economic history of Great Yarmouth has proved to be the establishment, eight jears ago, of the great industrial business conducted by the East Norfolk Printing Company. They occupy, at 29, Regent Street, convenient premises used for the conduct of the Company’s retail business, their factories being situated at Rows 62, 63, 63-and-a-half and 66, King Street. Their premises are very extensive, supplying ample accommodation for letterpress and lithographic printing; the manufacture of account books, envelopes, &c., relief stamping, paper ruling, bag making and other kindred processes. So rapid and steady has been the expansion of the Company's volume of business that it has recently been found necessary to carry out very extensive and convenient alterations and structural enlargements of the premises. Amongst other improvements which are conspicuous is the extension of the fine suite of well-appointed general and private offices which are furnished with telephonic communication. The industrial departments, which extend from Row 63-and-a-half to Row 66, King Street, include the printing works. Here are over a hundred machines of many different sorts, for as many different purposes, the mechanical appliances being driven by a recently constructed gas-engine. Here too are specially designed machines for lithographic and copperplate printing, for relief and die-stamping, for ruling, engraving, and embossing, with guillotines of the most approved modern type, for paper and label cutting. The working plant, indeed, comprises every requisite which matured experience could suggest. The apartments at Rows 62 and 63 are utilised as paper warehouses and packing- rooms. Very extensive stocks of paper of all varieties are held, and the Company have, with signal success, made a speciality of waterproof paper for bag-making. From eighty to ninety tons of paper are usually held in stock. The stores of general and commercial stationery are also very large. They comprise papers of all kinds, sizes, and grades, from the most noted mills of Scotland, as well as of England and abroad, together with every description of envelopes and other manufactured stationery required in the counting-house, the study, the schoolroom or the boudoir.

The high reputation which the Company have won as general printers has been materially enhanced by their excellent achievements as account-book makers, engravers, lithographers, and printers. They have surrounded themselves with every facility for printing of all kinds, and they are always prepared to execute work in accordance with any special style or design. Their numerous and representatively varied founts of typo are carefully selected from the most eminent British, Continental, and American typefounders. When special occasion arises, the Company cast their own type, as well as engrave crests, monograms, &c., whilst there is on the premises a thoroughly equipped stereotyping foundry. The composing-rooms are amongst the best in the eastern counties. The Company have gained a specially high reputation for gold blocking and catalogue work, and in the latter department they execute much beautifully produced work for florists and nurserymen. They also control a large business in the supply of trade labels, particularly for mineral-water manufacturers. A staff of highly-skilled artists is constantly engaged on the premises, and, altogether, the firm give employment to between fifty and sixty hands. In the publishing section of the Company’s business, too, there is much laudable activity. They have recently issued a popular novel entitled “High Jinks: a Tale of the Norfolk Broads,” and “The Anglers’ Guide,” while their successful “East Norfolk Annual” is in the eighth year of its issue. At the Company’s retail branch in Regent Street, there is a very comprehensive stock of general goods, and in particular, a fine assortment of magic lanterns with slides, arrangements being made on liberal terms for their exhibition at public entertainments. All the branches (including a large three-storey building, which is devoted to paper-bag making) are connected with the offices by telephone. During the last three years, Mr. Alfred Pick, the manager, has brought to the discharge of his duties a thorough technical knowledge of the trade, and strong administrative abilities which stand him in good stead. His commercial methods — and in particular the draughting of some of his business circulars — are admirably enterprising.


THERE are many noteworthy spots along the coast of East Anglia, but none to our mind more interesting than the fine seaport of Lowestoft, which combines the various features of a busy trading port with those of a favourite watering-place and holiday resort. In the latter respect several circumstances have contributed to the popularity of Lowestoft, notably its bracing and healthy atmosphere, charged with the invigorating tonic of the North Sea breezes; and to this recommendation must be added the beauty of its picturesque site and surroundings, and the ease with which visitors may from this point reach the famous Norfolk Broads. There is nothing just like “the Broads” anywhere in the world. They have a distinct individuality, these great lakes, with their many attractions for the yachtsman and the angler. The Norfolk wherry is a boat sui generis, and the wherryman is unapproached in that “skill and dexterity” which should characterise every “jolly young waterman,” whether in Norfolk or elsewhere. In short, people have come to recognise the fact that the Norfolk Broads offer very strong inducements to the holiday-maker who is fond of boating and fishing, and to reach the Broads with convenience one could hardly do better than make one’s headquarters at Lowestoft. On the whole, this ancient seaport is, therefore, a place of more than ordinary importance, and has quite outgrown the reputation it once had of being merely a fishing village. Then, it is still a great place for fish, but that industry is conducted upon a scale which commands respect, and the site of the fishing fleet at Lowestoft is not the least interesting scene presented to the visitor from inland parts. The great fish markets owned by the Great Eastern Railway Company are very interesting, and from Lowestoft enormous quantities of herrings, mackerel, solos, and other fish are despatched over that Company’s line to London and other towns. In fact, the fishing industry is an important factor in the life of the place, giving employment to a great number of men and boys on sea and ashore, not only in the capture of the fish, but in the preserving, packing, curing, and shipping of the same — for dried and tinned fish, as well as fresh, emanate largely from Lowestoft. There are many other trades and industries carried on here, and the nature of these will become apparent to the reader who peruses the articles we have compiled to illustrate the scope of Lowestoft’s commercial enterprises.

As to the aspect of the town in other respects, we have space for only a few words, but it may be truly said that no written description could do justice to a place which has been so well endowed by nature with those beauties in which land and sea unite to charm the lover of the picturesque. Lowestoft stands at a point on the Suffolk coast where the river Waveney enters the North Sea, and is about ten miles south of Great Yarmouth, fifty miles north-east from Ipswich, and 118 miles from London. As in the case of so many seaports dating from ancient times, there is an “old town” and a “new town,” the former standing upon a cliff which is surmounted by a lighthouse (built in 1874), 123 feet above the sea level. Another lighthouse appears on the Ness, which has the distinction of being the most easterly point in England. These beacons are indispensable to mariners on the stormy eastern coast, where many a gallant bark has succumbed to the fury of wind and wave, and where deeds of the most noble and devoted heroism have been performed by Norfolk and Suffolk men in the rescuing of shipwrecked seamen. The newer part of Lowestoft extends southward from the old town, and between the two lies the harbour, with its two substantial piers, stretching seawards for a great distance. The fine Esplanade is one of the attractions of Lowestoft, and is nearly half-a-mile long. There is an excellent dock, built in 1883, in connection with the harbour, and this should be of value in promoting the shipping trade of the port, which is of considerable importance. The handsome Pavilion of the New South Pier is another notable contribution to the enjoyment of visitors.

Of the public buildings of Lowestoft, those most worthy of attention are the Parish Church and the Town Hall. The latter has stained-glass windows which are much admired. In former times Lowestoft was celebrated for a peculiar species of China, which was made from clay obtained in the vicinity of Bellevue Park. Though the records of Lowestoft extend back to an early date, its history has not been very eventful, the chief incidents presenting themselves to notice being the occupation of the town in 1613 by Cromwell, its partial destruction by a great fire in the following year, and the defeat of the Dutch fleet in 1665, in a great naval battle which was fought within sight of the port, the victorious English squadron being commanded by the Duke of York, afterwards King James II. William Whiston, the great mathematician, was rector of Lowestoft. A sign of prosperity is the marked growth of Lowestoft in modern times. In 1801 its population was only 2,509, which little more than doubled itself by 1811. But in 1881 the number of inhabitants had reached 19,690; and by the Census of 1891 the municipal borough was shown to have a population of no less than 23,347.


THE metal trade, comprising one of our most important industrial features, always attaches a special interest, and this is more emphatically the case when it is found flourishing in a town not of general manufacturing renown. Lowestoft is recognised as the great fishing centre, and with the exception of the importance surrounding this industry, it is not considered a great or representative trade centre. There are, however, several important works here, and any account of the industrial and commercial resources of the place would be singularly incomplete without special reference being made to the business conducted by Mr. J. W. Brooke. Its foundation dates back to 1866, and since it has been under Mr. Brooke's proprietorship it has been made one of the principal engineering establishments on the East Coast. Mr. Brooke has had a large experience, both manufacturing and commercial, an experience which stands him in good stead in the conduct of a very extensive and flourishing trade. A very large connection has been built up, and altogether the business has a most salutary effect on the engineering trade of the country.

The premises, known as the Adrian Iron Works, are very extensive, covering an area of eighteen thousand square feet. They are built in the form of a square, the ranges of workshops, stores, and offices enclosing a spacious yard. In the engine-house is one vertical and one horizontal engine of fifty horse-power, and from this place power is communicated with all parts of the works. The mechanical equipment of the place is very modern and valuable, and nothing that experience or a complete knowledge of the requirements of the trade can suggest has been omitted. An interesting department is the boiler-making and fitting shop, where many hands are occupied in the production of vertical and other boilers, in which Mr. Brooke has gained a sound reputation. In this place, among many machines and special contrivances, is a powerful steam-hammer, by means of which, with very little manual exertion, huge pieces of metal may be hammered and battered about in all shapes. Adjoining this is the engineers' and fitters’ shop, in which are fitted numerous lathes, boring, drilling, shaping, milling, and other mechanical tools, and here also there is always a large staff of workpeople busily engaged in the various operations of their department. In the iron and brass foundry a great deal of general work is being carried on, some large castings being turned out, as well as the numerous details for Mr. Brooke's patent specialities, of which brief mention will be made. The pattern shops contain a large number of patterns of details referring to all kinds of large and small goods made, and these are classified so as to be ready for immediate reference. There are also extensive stores for finished goods, while in the front of the works are handsome general and drawing offices, and a large deposit store.

In list form, the productions of the establishment comprise appliances for winding, hauling, and lifting vertical, horizontal, and marine boilers; builders' hoisting and other machinery, continuous lifts, cranes and crab winches, constructive and ornamental ironwork, chain blocks, pulleys and sheaves, single and double dinner lifts, gas, steam, and hydraulic elevators; hauling and winding engines, hoists of all kinds, hydraulic hoists, lifts and cranes, iron and brass castings of all kinds, lifting machinery of every description, overhead travelling and other cranes, pumping machinery for all purposes, portable combined engines and boilers, retorts and machinery for preserving works, self-sustaining lifts and hoists, steam engines of all kinds, steam capstans and winches, shafting, pulleys and gearing, tram wheels, axles, and general work; vertical and inclined cellar hoists, hand or steam wharf cranes, &c., &c., while all goods are manufactured in a careful and exact manner, the designs in each instance being made according to the most modern requirements of trade. There are several articles which have a special interest to which more than passing attention must be given. Mr. Brooke is a thorough engineer, and has from time to time given full evidence of this by introducing either entirely new goods or by improving on existing makes, and to a few of these it is proposed here to call the attention of the trade. The “Universal” Combined Hand and Power Friction Hoist (Brooke's patent). This is quite a new departure in hoisting machinery, and is the outcome of a long and varied experience with many types of lifting appliances. It is simple in its construction, absolutely safe and dependable, and is under the immediate control of the operator. The Clutch Hoist has received very favourable attention at the hands of the trade generally, and has been supplied to manufacturers and others in all parts of the country. At the Royal Manchester, Liverpool, and North Lancashire Show of 1892 it was awarded the silver medal, and its position among the chief implements of its kind thus assured.

Mr. Brooke makes another and more simple type of Combined Hand and Power Friction Hoist, which, while being quick in action and containing all the advantages of a thoroughly reliable hoist, is produced at slightly less cost, and is strongly recommended where ordinary loads have to be operated upon. In the same connection mention may be made of Brooke's Patent Self-sustaining Sack and Bale Hoist. This is made in both “single” and “double” types. It is a very popular style of hoist, and one of its chief attractions is that it is absolutely devoid of danger in use, the patent self-sustaining mechanism rendering it under the perfect control of the man operating. It is worked by means of an endless rope and may be fixed in any position. He is also patentee and manufacturer of The Patent “Universal” Clutch. Amongst the advantages possessed by the “Universal” Clutch is the simplicity and effectiveness of the mechanism embraced in its construction. All working parts are made of steel, and in the event of wear through neglect of oiling, or other cause, they can be easily replaced. By means of an elliptical expander a high degree of frictional contact is obtained with little or no leverage on sleeve; it can even be operated direct by hand, and can be started as quickly or as gradually as may be desired without shock or jar. It is not affected when working amongst dust or grit as the frictional surfaces are completely closed in, and can be applied to working grindstones and emery wheels. The clutch can be cast as part of a pulley or wheel, but it is preferable to have them separate, the boss of clutch being made long enough for wheels or pulleys to be keyed thereon. It is of great service in coupling turbines or water wheels to engine power, and no gas engine can be worked satisfactorily without a good friction pulley on engine shaft. It is particularly applicable for electric lighting, doing away with all shifting of broad heavy belts. The “Universal” Clutch is a great acquisition to belt-driven Hoisting and Lifting Machinery, as it can be set to lift a given weight. When that is exceeded it will slip. This clutch is invaluable for working all classes of machinery with an intermittent motion.

In quite a different department of trade Mr. Brooke has given much attention to the matter of cooking apparatus for large public institutions, and has succeeded in introducing to the trade what is known as Brooke’s Improved Cooking Apparatus, for boiling, roasting, stewing, broiling, bread and pastry baking, and supplying hot baths, with a single fire. It is necessarily a large article, and has a hot-plate range ten feet long by three feet wide. The fire required is but a small one, the heat being carefully and regularly generated over the whole. For hotels, cafes, restaurants, schools, colleges, hospitals, workhouses, barracks, and prisons this apparatus is invaluable, not only performing a large amount of work thoroughly and well, but doing so at a moderate cost after the initial outlay. Mr. Brooke is also the patentee and manufacturer of steam capstan engines and boilers, and he has a special equipment in the works to enable him to undertake steam-boat repairs, and to supply the fittings for steam trawlers and other boats putting out from Lowestoft.

In the various departments there are upwards of seventy hands employed, and besides having introduced an admirable system of departmental management, Mr. Brooke extends a constant supervision over the conduct of the entire business. He is a member of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, and stands high in the estimation of engineers in all parts of the country. He is on the list of contractors to Her Majesty’s War Office, Admiralty, and Indian Office, and in addition to this very influential class of support he carries on a large general trade. In addition to his Lowestoft address he is established at 46A, Market Street, Manchester, his telegraphic address, in the latter city being “Paratus,” and for Lowestoft, “Brooke.”


APART from the fishing industry, which is paramount here, and which affords employment for several thousands of hands, the largest commercial enterprise in Lowestoft is that of Messrs. Lee Barber Oil Mills, Limited. This business has for many years been regarded as one of the leading centres of the oil-milling and seed-crushing industry, and a brief reference as to its capacity and to the methods adopted in the work cannot fail to be attractive in a work endeavouring to set forth the chief industrial and commercial interests of the district. The oil mills were first established upwards of forty years ago, by Sir Morton Peto, and were acquired by Mr. Lee Barber, who recently transformed the proprietorship into a limited company. The premises are very extensive, and comprise a large mill and warehouse with spacious malt stores adjoining. The mill and warehouse is an imposing structure, and is admirably adapted for receiving and storing large quantities of linseed, cotton-seed and rape-seed, besides being equipped with a very powerful machine plant used in the different processes of the business. The building adjoins the harbour, and has a wharf frontage of three hundred feet, where vessels of large tonnage and of deep draft can easily be moored. The ground floor of the place is partially occupied by the engine and boiler-house, and here is an engine of one hundred and fifty horse-power with two boilers twenty feet in length. It will be assumed that the machinery in use necessitating such great boiler power is very extensive. This is so, and it is estimated that the whole of the plant is valued at upwards of £40,000. The firm have spared neither pains nor expense in fitting out their mills in the most modern and complete form, and the mechanical arrangements of the place are as satisfactory as experience and a keen appreciation of the requirements of the trade can make them. The minimum of hand labour is employed, and even in face of this, large numbers of operatives are engaged in each department, the firm paying about £8,000 every year in wages alone.

Adjoining the engine-house and boiler-rooms are huge oil tanks, each containing some hundreds of tons of oil, which is produced at the average rate of twelve tons per diem. The mill proper is on the ground floor, and here are a number of presses for crushing linseed, and an equally large number for cotton-seed, machinery for grinding cottonseed, a number of steam kettles for heating linseed and cotton-seed after crushing, also several pairs of chilled rollers, screens, and elevators for the automatic removal of the material during the processes of manufacture, also two sets of presses known as box presses, for the manufacture of rape cake and compound cakes. On the ground floor is manufactured an article that has become known as quite a leading feature of the house. This is the “Lowestoft Feeding Meal,” composed of rich and valuable feeding ingredients with an admixture of malt. It contains a very large percentage of albuminous or flesh-forming properties and is specially adapted for cows and sheep. It promotes health among stock, and inducing a good appetite, it is valuable as a condiment. It is also a cheap food, and its manurial value is great, seeing that it contains a large amount of nitrogen. The “Lowestoft Feeding Meal” has met with strong support from an influential class of agriculturists, breeders, and graziers, and among the very many gratifying testimonials received bearing out the statements made here are those from R. Wortley, Esq., Suffield, Norfolk; J. Wortley, Esq., Frekenham, Norfolk; L. J. Peto, Esq., Somerleyton, Suffolk; C. S. Read, Esq., late M.P. for North Norfolk; J. L. Garden, Esq., Redisham Hall, Suffolk, and many others. It is made in very large quantities during the summer months in order to meet the winter demand. Within the last six months the Company have started the manufacture of a pure decorticated cotton cake, which has been expressly designed to meet the difficulties which are now characteristic of the American make. It is soft, and therefore easy of digestion; it is free from the highly objectional lumps so often present in the common kinds of imported cake; it needs no special precaution prior to use, while it is a cake of good composition, containing about twelve per cent. of oil with a very high percentage of albuminous substance, and nearly seven per cent, of nitrogen, which renders its manurial value higher than any other cake. On the second and third floors of the mill are huge stores of linseed, cotton, and rape seed, the entire stock reaching some thousands of tons. The upper floor is used for hoisting the different seeds in bags, where it is screened, and from where they are distributed over the building.

Messrs. Lee Barber, Limited, import very large quantities of seed, the linseed and rape coming principally from the East Indies, and cotton from Egypt. Some idea of the capacity of the place may be gathered from the fact that it requires upwards of three hundred tons of seed per week to keep the mill fully supplied. The productions of the mill are enormous, there being about twelve thousand tons of cake and three thousand tons of oil turned out every year. Large consignments of goods are being constantly sent by water to London and the Continent, and in order to directly control the home trade, the firm have two lines of rail laid down in the wharf in connection with the main lines, and by this medium goods are sent to all parts of the United Kingdom. It is needless to say that a business of this magnitude and importance is conducted with energy and enterprise. An admirable system of internal departmental management exists, and over the whole Mr. Lee Barber, still a director of the Company, extends a personal guiding influence. He is a native of Norwich, and has gained his position at the head of Lowestoft commercial life by sheer ability and energy, and by his distinct integrity in all business transactions. Mr. Crawley takes a most active part in the management of the business, and is ably assisted by the other directors, Messrs. F. H. Oates and R. W. Cox, managing director of the Phoenix Oil Mill Company, Limited, of Liverpool.


AMONG the men who have done much, and are still doing much, for the development and welfare of Lowestoft, a position of prominence is duo to Mr. T. E. Thirtle, who for many years has been closely mixed up with the progress of the town, and whose family has been influentially connected with the borough for the last hundred years. The business carried on, that of general and furnishing ironmonger and bellhanger, was founded by the father of the present proprietor between fifty and sixty years ago, and from its commencement has been controlled with exemplary energy and ability. Mr. T. E. Thirtle is one of the best-known men in Lowestoft, both as an enterprising tradesman and as a citizen indefatigable in the discharge of his public duties. The premises occupied are situated at 46, High Street, and were, in all probability, built for the private residence of some rich burgess about the time when Queen Anne ruled over the destinies of England. According to antiquarians, there is no doubt that George II. slept in the house, and a tablet is erected to that effect. The shop has a good frontage and a very considerable depth, and has been fitted up in the best possible manner for the control of a business of this description. There is a large well-appointed show-room, together with warehouse and store-rooms, all filled to repletion with the superior and varied goods offered by the firm. The stocks have been carefully selected from the best-known makers, and comprise general and household ironmongery, artificers’ tools of every description, patent kitchener, register, and other stoves; guns, ammunition, and a special display of Sheffield cutlery. The goods are invariably offered at the most moderate prices, and can always be fully relied upon to be the best of their kind procurable.

Special regard is paid to the requirements of the fishing trade. Mr. Thirtle has had a very valuable experience in this branch of the business, and can offer a selection of goods, coupled with advantageous inducements in price, which cannot be equalled elsewhere. He owns a large and well-equipped smithy in Whipload Road, where a number of hands is employed in repairing fishing gear. He is the owner, also, of a veterinary forge in the Old Market Place, where a good business is in operation. The sum of Mr. Thirtle’s business occupations is not complete yet He is the proprietor of four first-class smacks now fishing off Penzance, and of others engaged in the North Sea. His connection is widespread and valuable, and by his straightforward and honourable business methods and thorough reliability he commands the respect and esteem of all with whom he comes into business connection.

Mr. Thirtle, although so extensively and diversely occupied in industrial and commercial life, like most of our busiest men, finds time to engage largely in the municipal, charitable, and social affairs of the town. He has filled many important public offices with credit and distinction, gaining the admiration of his fellow-townsmen for his wonderful energy and disinterested labours. He is a member of the Town Council of Lowestoft, also of the School Board; he has been captain of the fire brigade for twenty-six years, and the vicar’s warden for Christ Church for fifteen years; he is, also, a member of the Burial Board and the Charity Board, and is prominent in every good cause where example, influence, support, and work are wanted.


WHILE seeking to point out the chief industrial and commercial resources of Lowestoft, special attention must be directed to the business of Messrs. J. Flood & Son. It represents a branch of trade that is of prime importance in every community, and, as artistic and general printers, stationers, paper merchants, bookbinders, account-book manufacturers, &c., Messrs. Flood & Son enjoy a reputation which extends far beyond the limits of Lowestoft, and which is the result of a consistent endeavour on their part to produce high-class work, extending over a long period of years. There are few crafts that require more continuous study and care than printing. Every day something new is required from the typefounders, and each new fount of type or style of paper bristles with possibilities for improved work. The public will always find that the best printer is he who takes a delight in adding one more to his own special designs, and this will, in a measure, account for the pre-eminent position gained by the firm under notice, who are pregnant with new suggestions, and who exert themselves to the utmost for the elevation of the tone of the trade in general.

The business is the oldest of its kind in the town, and was established upwards of forty years ago by Mr. J. Flood. For many years it was conducted by him entirely, but although the founder still takes an active interest in its welfare, the management is principally in the hands of his son. Mr. W. Frank Flood has gained his knowledge of the trade in the best of schools. He is thoroughly practical in every branch of the trade, and besides his technical ability, acquired under the best conditions, he possesses in a marked degree a capacity for internal administration. That his management is of an energetic and enterprising character is manifest in every department, and it must be a matter of deep personal gratification to Mr. Flood, senior, to know that the business he has laboured at for so many years, may be safely left in the hands of one so capable of its proprietorship and of upholding its best traditions. The chief department of the business is, undoubtedly, that set apart for artistic and general printing, and it is the continued object of the firm to excel in producing the highest class of work. In old and in new styles of printing, in contrasts and in similes, in gold and colour printing, and in suggestions for genuine trade improvements, their productions are of a very superior kind, and all bear the impression of having emanated from a leading house.

The premises at The Grove are utilised exclusively for the mechanical departments of the business. They are almost new, having only been erected about three years ago. They are extensive and commodious, and having been purposely built for the firm, are admirably adapted to the special requirements of the trade. On the ground floor are the machine-room — a large department measuring seventy feet by twenty-two feet — the offices, and the general warehouse; while the upper floor has been well arranged into composing-room and paper-warehouse. A keen appreciation of the requirements of a high-class business is noticeable in the general arrangements of the works. In the first place, in order to ensure the best results in printing, the machinery must be perfectly rigid, absolutely free from vibration or oscillation of any kind, and in order to gain this rigidity, the floor of the machine-room is of solid concrete. Practical printers will at once see the benefit of this, and it at once ceases to be a matter of surprise that the firm have gained a reputation as high-class printers. They have spared no pains to obtain the best class of machinery in the trade, and at the time of writing this (May, 1894) they are engaged preparing an illustrated trade circular, setting forth the principles upon which their business is conducted, and giving a full description of the mechanical appliances in use at the works. We have been favoured with proof- sheets of this circular, and may, perhaps, without encroaching upon the favours already extended to us by Messrs. Flood & Son, obtain from it some assistance in describing a few of the special machines in use, and in referring to the resources of the various departments of the business. It may be well to notice by way of preface that each department is conducted on quite an independent basis, as, for instance, the composing-room is entirely separate from the machine-room, and the account-book making department is altogether another branch of the business. Light is a very important matter, and each room has been well considered and supplied in this direction.

The motive power for the general machinery is derived from a two-horse power gas-engine, by Furnival & Co. Messrs. Flood & Son displayed good judgment in the selection of this engine, as, producing neither smoke nor dust, it is particularly clean in working — an obvious necessity to ensure the turning out of high-class printing. The same firm — Furnival & Co., of Redditch and London — supplied one of their well-known large “Wharfedale” cylinder machines, weighing over five tons, fitted with an automatic double-inking motion, rendering it admirably adapted to poster work and illustrations. Messrs. Flood & Son use their “Wharfedale” principally for illustrated and other catalogues, posters, bookwork, price lists, annual reports, magazines, and similar classes of work, in each of which they operate largely. There is also another “Wharfedale” in use at the Borough Works, by the same makers, although smaller, and this has been specially designed to meet the requirements of the best commercial and artistic work. Dioramic and concert programmes, balance sheets, year books, trade lists, artistic colour circulars, and account-book headings are largely produced on this machine, while for the rapid production of hand-bills, bags, fish tallies, tobacco-papers, tickets, bottle-labels, wrappers, manilla-tags, invoices, &c., the firm find their two “Minerva” platen machines — otherwise the “Cropper,” named after its makers, H. S. Cropper & Co., of Nottingham — of great service. There is another platen machine in use at the works, from the works of Messrs. Furnival & Co., named the “Express.” which has many advantages and improvements, and this is reserved exclusively for the better class of colour and high-class work, such as ball programmes, menu cards, toast lists, trade and visiting cards, fancy labels, &c. The Guillotine cutting machine, fitted with a thirty-eight-inch knife, having an instantaneous diagonal cut, is a notable “implement” in the machine-room. and Messrs. Flood & Son find constant use for their treadle perforating machine, for perforating cheque-books, &c., by means of a series of small steel punches; their numbering and paging machine, an ingenious contrivance for numbering and paging cheque-books, tickets, &c., in any manner, changing automatically; treadle wire stitcher, for stitching pamphlets, magazines, and books of various thicknesses; and their Albion and Columbian hand presses. which are now used chiefly for the production of show-cards, window-bills, &c., when ordered in small quantities. From this brief reference to the mechanical resources of the Borough Works, it will be seen that the firm have laid themselves out to cover practically the whole ground of artistic and general printing, and that they have achieved a distinct success in this respect is evidenced from the fact of the constant and increasing demand that is being made upon the capacities of the establishment.

A very special department of the business is that set aside for the manufacture of account books, ledgers, day, and cash-books of all kinds, and to this the firm pay a close and constant attention. They produce their books in a variety of bindings and styles, the paper being, in every instance, of a superior quality, and the workmanship careful and well finished to a degree. Copperplate engraving is undertaken, and for this work a staff of capable and experienced artists has been engaged. Much attention is also given to bookbinding, the productions of this department showing evidences of careful handling, a superior class of work being produced at moderate charges. In each branch of work at the “Grove” establishment, a large and efficient staff of workmen is employed, and by exercising a constant supervision over the execution of all orders, Mr. W. F. Flood accepts the personal responsibility for the quality of their productions. At the High Street establishment a large and flourishing trade has been built up in fancy and general stationery. Here will be found an extensive and well-selected stock of the account-books made at the works, official, commercial, and court envelopes, ruled, note, and blotting papers, and — without attempting a detailed list — every description of commercial and general stationery, a high standard of excellence being maintained in each connection. In addition to these goods, which are comprised under the “eminently useful” class, there are several fancy articles, both for use and ornament, as well as a varied assortment of leather goods, view souvenirs, Bibles, Prayer-books, Church Services, wools and ladies' needlework.

From the foregoing remarks it will be at once seen that the business is of a very comprehensive kind, and it is a strong testimony to the principles that govern the proprietorship, that the members of the firm have the details of every branch “at their fingers’ ends” as it were. That a large and influential connection has been gained goes without saying, and Messrs. Flood & Son spare no pains to render the establishment worthy of a continuance of the gratifying support that has for so long been remuneratively enjoyed. They are well known locally, and in their different spheres — the distinction of age creating the difference — they are held in the highest respect and esteem, Mr. Flood, junior, reflecting the honourable and praiseworthy character, and the business-like and enterprising habits that has always been his father's chief characteristics.


MR. LEACH is a native of Surrey, and his connection with the commerce of Lowestoft dates back for twenty-one years, when he established the business which in his hands has since grown and developed until it has become one of the largest, not only in the town, but probably throughout the entire county. It is of so comprehensive a character that to conduct it properly two separate establishments are necessary, and it is divided between premises at 60 & 61, High Street, and others, known as the Harbour Stores. The latter place comprises a large four-storey building, overlooking the outer harbour and adjoining the entrance to the inner harbour, or what is known as the Bridge. Here are the principal stores for carpets and general furnishing requisites. On the ground floor is a large and lofty double-fronted shop, containing a very choice assortment of all kinds of furnishing and household requisites, and amongst the many goods on hand are several specialities of which more than passing mention must be made. The floor-cloths on view here comprise a very extensive and comprehensive stock, and Mr. Leach has a great variety of stair coverings, oilcloths, linoleums, &o., in various widths, suitable for passages, halls, and rooms. On the same floor will be found a choice assortment of table, standard, and other lamps, in which are carried out the most recent inventions for increasing light and at the same time minimising the risk in use. Cane and wicker chairs in many designs are on hand, and the display of lace curtains is extensive and very valuable, the goods having been obtained from the leading manufacturers. On the first floor will be found a further supply of lace curtains, all kinds of carpets, mats, hearthrugs, linoleums, and every description of flooring material. In carpets Mr. Leach has been successful in obtaining many new and choice designs. Wilton, Brussels, Tapestry, Kidderminster, and other makes are on hand, and in every instance Mr. Leach is enabled to guarantee sound durable quality; various kinds of Persian, Indian, antique, bison, sheep, goatskin, and other hearthrugs are on hand, for dining-room, drawing-room, breakfast-room, and bedroom, at very low prices. The second floor contains a good assortment of bedsteads in all sizes in brass and iron, and a feature of the department is that cots, bedsteads, mattresses, &c., are lent on hire. These goods also come direct from the chief sources of supply, and are strong and well made in every particular. The third floor is partially occupied by a very special department of the business, viz., carpet-planning. All kinds of mats are made, and carpet-sewing is extensively carried on, for which purpose Mr. Leach has an ingenious machine in use, thereby saving a large amount of hand labour. On this floor also is a large stock of wall-papers, there being upwards of one thousand patterns in pulps, grounds, washables, satins, siennas, gold, &c., to select from. Household tinware of all kinds is also stored here, and a large miscellaneous stock of goods.

The High Street premises are extensive, and occupy a prominent corner position. They are principally stocked with oils of all kinds of a superior quality, colours, white lead, varnishes, sheet glass, brooms, brushes, and tinware, &c. At the rear are large warehouses extending some one hundred and fifty feet from High Street, in which very extensive stocks are held of the articles already enumerated. Mr. Leach is the leading cork merchant in Lowestoft, and he has warehouses for storing cork and facilities for manufacturing floats for fishing nets, in which branch of trade he operates largely. The entire business is conducted under the personal supervision of the proprietor, to whose energy and enterprise the marked success that has been achieved is directly traceable. In their combination the two businesses comprise the largest of its kind in Lowestoft. The system of management is simple and the appointments of each department enable the assistants and workpeople to do their work expeditiously, and to the satisfaction of the numerous and influential patrons of the establishment.

Apart from his position among the leading tradesmen of the town, Mr. Leach is a prominent mover in the public life of Lowestoft. He is a member of the Town Council, and has done much valuable work in that capacity. He is also a lover of the fine arts, and is the fortunate possessor of some fine examples of Crome, Vincent, Stark, Barker, distinguished artists of the Norwich school. The phase of his character which most directly appeals to us is his aptitude for all business matters. He has the faculty of confining his attention to any object immediately in hand to the exclusion of everything else, and by developing this gift — for gift it undoubtedly is — he has built up a very large business, with every detail of which he has the closest acquaintance. He is well known in Lowestoft, and commands the respect and esteem of all with whom he comes into contact.


THE saddlery and harness-making industry is represented in Lowestoft, under the best possible conditions, in the well-ordered establishment of Messrs. L. Wren & Son, which is not only the most important, but the oldest established, of its class in the district. Its record dates back for about forty years, and has been of one steady and unbroken progress. The fine old-fashioned double frontage of the premises, which occupy a commanding position in the High Street, is altogether in keeping with the substantial character of the connection which the firm enjoy. The interior is ample enough to admit of the effective display, and the systematic classification and arrangement of the large and thoroughly representative stocks which are always held of saddlery and harness. The firm have gained a high and widespread reputation for the excellence of the workmanship which characterises all the harness which they produce, whether light or heavy, and whether for horses or for ponies. The collars which they manufacture are, in particular, regarded as of specially high quality. The stocks, too, include a splendid assortment of hunting and other saddles for special purposes; whips of the most approved descriptions, and in great variety; all sorts of bits, spurs, and other lorinary goods, rugs and aprons; together with brushes and other requisites for the harness-room and the stable. Here, too, are to be found all descriptions of harness compositions, oils, varnishes, blacking, &c.

A very considerable amount of business is controlled, also, in the supply of tanned garden netting, and raffia grass of the very best descriptions. As manufacturers of, or dealers in, all these classes of goods, Messrs. Wren & Son have gained the unreserved confidence of a very wide circle of customers, including many of the most influential traders in the Lowestoft district, as well as a large number of the most distinguished county families. Mr. Luke Wren, the senior partner, has gained renown all throughout East Anglia as an eminent bee-keeper, who has, with notable success, done much to popularise this occupation, and practically to recommend its adoption on a sound basis. He is the owner of an extensive apiary at Somerleyton, which is regarded throughout a wide area as a model establishment. It is thus that the firm have naturally added to their original industrial business, that of manufacturers, on an extensive scale, of bee appliances. In this department they conduct a very considerable trade, which is rapidly increasing in proportion as the profitable character of bee-keeping becomes known amongst agriculturists generally. “Bees, Hives, and Honey” is the title of the copiously illustrated catalogue of bee-keepers’ supplies, which is issued by Messrs. Wren & Son. A glance at its pages will convey some idea of the vast resources of the establishment in this department which, as already indicated, is under the special control of the senior partner. His son, Mr. Alfred William Wren, devotes his attention to the saddlery business, and in this respect fully maintains all the best traditions of the house. Mr. Luke Wren is gifted with strongly developed administrative powers, and he is thus enabled, notwithstanding the heavy claims which his own business makes upon his attention, to devote much of his valuable time and energies to the service of the public. Thus he is an active Director of the Lowestoft Building Society; Treasurer of the British Schools; and one of the Managers of the Lowestoft Savings Bank.


AN important factor in the commercial economy of Lowestoft is constituted by the admirably equipped establishment of which Mr. Clement Burton, wholesale and retail butcher, is the proprietor. Mr. Burton is a native of Lowestoft, and during the forty-four years which have elapsed since he began his business operations, his active and notably successful life has been associated closely with the history of the development in the material resources of the town of his birth. His business is the most extensive, as it is the oldest established, of its class in the town. The premises occupy a commanding position in the London Road, near to the Bridge, and their appointments are suggestive of the scrupulous propriety which is maintained in the conduct of the business. Here is always to be witnessed a splendid show of prime beef and mutton, together with veal, lamb, and pork in their due seasons, the last-mentioned commodity, however, being supplied only in the winter. Mr. Burton owns farms at Gisleham, Suffolk, upon whose rich pastures are grazed most of the animals used in the conduct of the business. At Gisleham, too, Mr. Burton is a breeder upon an extensive scale, and, in this connection, it should be mentioned that he is a constant, and very frequently successful, exhibitor at the local cattle shows, notably at Lotheringland. He has also extensive grazing-grounds in Norfolk.

A department of his establishment in Lowestoft is constituted by his large slaughter-house in St. Peter’s Street, where all the fittings and arrangements are in keeping with the most advanced practical teachings of sanitary science. The importance of Mr. Burton's financial position is emphasized by the fact that he is contractor to the Royal Navy, while he controls a large amount of business in supplying the requirements of smack-owners and others connected with the shipping trade. His establishment is well known to all the leading residents and visitors in Lowestoft and the surrounding districts, as one where they may always depend upon obtaining the finest of meat (exclusively British) at moderate prices. There is always, too, a fine supply of poultry in season, from Mr. Burton’s farm, and he has gained a special reputation for the excellence of the prime pickled tongues and South Down mutton which are always to be had. The conduct of the business in the summer season is facilitated by the aid of a large ice-house at the back of the premises in London Road. A considerable owner of real estate in Lowestoft, Mr. Burton has a fine private residence, known as Chester House, in Surrey Street, and another upon his farm at Gisleham. He and his family are prominent and active members of the congregation of St. John’s church, and several of his family have gained much well- deserved popularity in social circles as accomplished amateur musicians.


A BRANCH of trade which contributes largely to the internal welfare of every town is that devoted to the supply of household furnishing1 requisites of all kinds, and in this respect Lowestoft is very well placed. The local trade is in capable houses, and, among the most prominent businesses of its kind, a commanding position is occupied by that under the proprietorship of Mr. A. Cooper. It was originally established about thirty-six years ago at 166, High Street, where it was conducted for about a quarter of a century, its removal to its present address taking place about ten years ago. The premises are extensive, and occupy a prominent position at the comer of London Road and the Marina. They comprise a building three storeys high, having a handsome frontage on the London Road, and a depth of a hundred and ten feet on the Marina. The interior of the place has been well arranged to meet the requirements, and not only maintenance, but also for the display of stock, and the various departments are arranged in a convenient and attractive manner.

The whole of the shop and the two floors above, which have been arranged as show-rooms, are set apart for the purposes of a complete furniture stock, and they will be found to be replete with a choice selection of modern goods. In the bedroom department are single toilet tables, chests of drawers, and complete suites in deal, walnut, mahogany, and birch, while the drawing-room and dining-room furniture upholstered in various styles, sideboards, chiffonier cabinets, chimney glasses, fancy tables, and brackets of all kinds, form a very complete and representative stock. Kitchen furniture, Cornice poles, blinds and blind rollers, bedsteads and bedding, mattresses, blankets and quilts, carpets and rugs, mats and matting, painted baizes, floor cloths and linoleums, contribute their quota to the complete list of household goods dealt in. They, however, by no means comprise the stock, for Mr. Cooper has also on hand a very choice assortment of glass, china, and earthenware, cutlery, hardware goods of all kinds, and every description of kitchen ware, fenders, fire-irons, and brasses, and the closer the inspection given to the productions of each department, the more confirmed will be the conviction that Mr. Cooper has spared no pains to place before his patrons a selection of first-class goods at distinctly moderate prices. Special attention may be directed to the assortment of tea, dessert, and table spoons, dessert and table forks, cruets, tea and coffee pots in britannia metal, potosi silver, and electroplate, which, both in the matter of metal and well-finished workmanship, are highly commendable. In quite a different department, Mr. Cooper has a large stock of perambulators and mail carts, which contain all the newest improvements. He employs a competent staff of workmen for repairing and recovering furniture, making, fitting, and laying carpets, and fixing paperhangings, of which goods he has a large stock, containing all the newest and most artistic designs. He extends a constant personal supervision over the management of the entire business, which is a guarantee of its regular and systematic conduct. His ability and energy in the proprietorship have met with distinct success, and the holiness commands a large patronage among an influential class of residents.


QUITE at the head of the local shipbuilding industry are Messrs. D. S. & W. Overy. The business carried on by them has been established for upwards of a quarter of a century, and was founded by the present senior partner, Mr. D. S. Overy. He was born in 1827, at Shoreham, on the Sussex coast, about sixty-seven years ago, and it was at the old town west of Brighton that he first gained an insight into the trade of which he has since proved himself a very able exponent, and with which he has been connected all his life. He receives great assistance in the general management of his business from his son, Mr. W. Overy, who has also had a long experience in the trade, and together they carry on the largest ship-repairing trade in the town. The premises are well situated, adjoining the Graving Dock in the Commercial Road. They are extensive, and have been arranged in a manner that affords every facility for the prompt execution of all orders. There are lines of rail running at the front and back of the works which, having a frontage of a hundred feet and extending to a considerable depth to the rear, afford ample space for carrying on every branch of the trade. The various workshops are appointed in a very superior manner, all modern appliances for the purposes of the trade being at hand. Messrs. Overy constantly employ a large staff of hands, the average number being about sixty, many of whom are engaged in shipping in the harbour.

In the large yards is always on hand an extensive stock of timber of all kinds necessary for the trade, including oak, ash, elm, Swedish and other kinds of wood. All kinds of work in connection with shipbuilding are undertaken, and in building boats for ship’s use or for coast work the firm have an unequalled reputation. They also make masts, spars, blocks, and pumps, &c., and the success they have attained in each direction is largely accounted for by the constant personal supervision that they extend over all work done. By this means they are enabled to ensure not only a well-finished workmanship but also the prompt execution of all orders. They are always pleased to supply estimates of cost for general repairs, and their charges will be found to compare most favourably with those of any other firm on the east coast. The business connection is therefore large, and among all with whom they deal Messrs. D. S. & W. Overy are regarded as at the head of the boat-repairing trade in Lowestoft. They are well known locally and enjoy the confidence of the entire trade.


WHEN one thinks of the extent and importance of the Lowestoft fishing industry of to-day it can hardly be realised that there are businesses existing — at least one which we have in mind — which were associated with the sale of fish when it was conducted in keelers and huts. Long before the harbour or market was constructed — to be exact, in 1830 — a certain Mr. George Gowing sold on the beach the bulk of the fish that was brought to Lowestoft for disposal. This was the small beginning of the business now conducted by Mr. Thomas Richards. The business was first carried on by Messrs. Gowing & Balls, and the first change in its proprietorship brought Messrs. Balls, Barrett & Abigale to the head of affairs. Subsequently Messrs. Balls, Abigale & Richards were responsible for the maintenance of its position, and during the last eight years it has been under the sole proprietorship of Mr. Thomas Richards. This gentleman was born at Newlyn, a well-known centre of the Cornish fisheries, some forty-nine years ago, where now he has a branch establishment. The headquarters of his business are at Lowestoft, and are centred on the herring and mackerel market During the last three years he has also been associated with the trawl market, and the two businesses, combined with his many branch establishments in various parts of the country, place him among the principal fish salesmen in England. His branch offices are at Grimsby, Scarborough, Whitby, Plymouth, Newlyn, St. Ives, and Scilly Islands. He sells largely for the Cornish boats, especially those from Newlyn, Mousehole, Porthleven, and St. Ives. With regard to his operations respecting the Lowestoft boats, he sells for about forty trawlers and many more herring boats. He is also an owner of boats, and has numerous salesmen constantly employed in various parts of Great Britain. His operations then cover a very wide field, and demand the whole of his attention. The characteristic features of his proprietorship have always been those of ability, energy and enterprise; commercial qualities which have also been inspired in his chief assistant, Mr. Robert Browne, a native of Lowestoft, who has been in the fish trade all his life, and has been personally connected with Mr. Richards for the past nine years. In his capacity as a licensed auctioneer he does a large business in the sale of smacks, and herring boats, and fishing gear. Mr. Richards is well known locally and throughout the entire industry, holding the confidence and esteem of all with whom he comes in contact.


THE Somerleyton Working Dairy and Creamery forms, with its several departments, one of the most popular institutions in Lowestoft, and is probably the most extensive of its class in the Eastern Counties. Its popularity is the result of the confidence inspired in the public mind by the well-known fact that almost all the produce sold at this establishment is supplied from the farms of Mr. L. Peto, J.P., at Blundeston and Somerleyton. The headquarters of the Somerleyton Dairy business in Lowestoft occupy a commanding position in Suffolk Terrace, London Road, the best quarter of the town; also branch dairies at Kirtley. They comprise a four-storeyed building with a commodious and handsomely appointed sale-shop on the ground-floor. Here are displayed to the greatest advantage, samples of the several classes of farm produce which have made the reputation of the establishment, including milk, cream, butter, lard, hams, chops, bacon, cheeses of all kinds, poultry, eggs, &c. In the warehouses there is always a large stock of prime cured hams, tongues, chops, bacon, &c. Of these there are generally from three to four thousand pieces in stock. At the rear, and in the basement of the premises are various specially arranged rooms for the processes of separating cream, making butter and cheese, ham boiling, ham and chop curing, &c. There is, too, a cutting-up room, and mincing machines for the manufacture of various kinds of sausages, potted ham, bacon, pork, cheese, &c., the whole of these classes of articles supplied to the public being made on the premises. The equipment of these departments is a model of cleanliness, and the mechanical working plant, driven by steam power, is of the most approved modern type. The slaughtering of the dairy-fed pigs takes place upon the premises of the farms already mentioned, with which there is telephonic communication from the Suffolk Terrace establishment. Orders, therefore, for perfectly fresh poultry and other specially required goods, can be executed at the shortest notice. During the year enormous quantities of ducks, geese, turkeys, fowls, and eggs pasS through this house from the farms. The business in every department is in a flourishing condition, and bears testimony to the excellent management of Mr. Williams.


ESTABLISHED four years ago at Lowestoft, this important business stands to-day as one of the best of its kind in the Eastern Counties, and is largely patronised by collectors, antiquarians, and archaeologists in all parts of the kingdom. Having outgrown her original accommodation, Mrs. J. Overy some time since removed to her present eligible premises, which are favourably situated in proximity to the harbour. The spacious double-fronted shop is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and to effectively display a stock that is remarkable for its great value, volume, and variety alike. Some notion of the contents of the store may be gathered from the following entry of some of the more important items there on sale:— A very fine collection of Lowestoft china, as first manufactured by Mr. Healen Luson, of Gunton Hall, Suffolk, four miles distant from Lowestoft, dating from 1756 to 1820, and comprising some very choice specimens, notably a large plate or dish, and tureen and cover, teapots, cups and saucers, etc.; many fine examples of Chippendale furniture, together with old English carved oak work in cabinets and other forms; geological specimens, including a fine collection of mammoth bones, brought to light by the fish trawlers from time to time; numismatic collections, especially of old East Anglian coins; works of fine art, including occasionally some very valuable pictures by the old masters, old cut glass, old wrought art metal work, etc.; et id genus omne. Mrs. J. Overy also holds a bureau de change for foreign money; gives the best price for old coins; undertakes commissions for the sale or purchase of antiques, valuables, and curiosities; and, in her large and well-equipped workshop at the rear, operates as an expert in repairs and renovations of every kind incidental to her business, which she continues to conduct with marked ability and energy, upon a thoroughly sound basis of honourable mercantile principle.


ONE of the most interesting sights in Lowestoft is afforded by the very extensive business operations publicly conducted in the Fish Market, and one of the largest operators in this connection is Mr. George A. Barbor. This gentleman affords a strong example of what may be accomplished in commercial matters by steady and persistent combination of ability, energy, and enterprise. He commenced life with very few other than natural advantages, and his gradual rise to a pre-eminent position in his special trade is entirely due to his own unaided efforts. He was for some years a partner in the business of Messrs. Mummery & Barbor, and since he has had his business in his own hands he has become one of the largest independent buyers of trawled fish on the east coast, and is known throughout the wholesale trade in every part of the country. He occupies large premises in Clapham Road, which are used as warehouses for fish and salt, and which contain vats for upwards of a million herrings. He exports salted fish in large quantities, and is an extensive buyer of herrings and mackerel for the commission markets. He consigns in bulk soles, turbot, plaice, and other kinds of fish to London, Liverpool, Leeds, Manchester, Birmingham, Bradford, Stafford, and Brighton, and has agencies all over England. Mr. Barbor is ably assisted in the management of his business by Mr. Edward Thain, who has been connected with him for upwards of eleven years. Mr. Thain is very popular with the fish merchants, smack and boat owners of Lowestoft, having held the difficult and onerous position of Secretary of their Fish Rate Committee, during a critical negotiation with the Great Eastern Railway Company in 1893, with reference to a proposed increase or rearrangement of rates for fish carriage. These delicate negotiations were brought to a satisfactory conclusion, principally through the skilful diplomacy of Mr. Thain, who was presented with a handsome testimonial at a public meeting of the trade. Mr. Barbor extends a personal supervision over the entire management of his business, with every detail of which, he is thoroughly acquainted. He is known throughout the whole fish industry of the country, and is recognised as proprietor of one of the chief businesses on the east coast. Being of a very generous disposition he is very popular, locally, and many charitable and other institutions are benefited financially by him, and every movement which has for its object the benefit of the town and its inhabitants is sure of receiving his practical sympathy and support.


ANY record of the present aspect of the vast fishing trade interests of Lowestoft would, indeed, be sadly deficient, without due reference to the important part taken therein by Mr. B. Mummery, who for the past five-and-twenty years has vigorously conducted a business which was organised over sixty years ago. On the market, hundreds of tons of fish pass through Mr. Mummery’s hands annually, such as soles, turbot, brill, plaice, &c., and mackerel and herring. Mr. Mummery is largely interested in trawling smacks, and holds well-appointed offices on the quay. In his wholesale department Mr. Mummery operates on a vast scale, supplying buyers in all parts of the kingdom, notably co-operative stores at Eastbourne, Hastings, Brighton, St. Leonard's, Reading, and elsewhere, and also exporting largely to Ostend, Antwerp and Brussels. Other special departments of Mr. Mummery's extensive business include the supply of salmon, lobsters, and crabs in their respective seasons; the purveying of salt and of Lake Wenham ice — he being one of the principal shareholders in the Lowestoft Ice Company, Limited — and the sale of garden-netting of all sizes and of fish manure in bulk. In his spacious hygienically appointed shop at 6, Bridge Terrace, Mr. Mummery carries on what is reckoned to be the largest retail fish, game, and poultry business in the borough, his premises being always heavily stocked with an abundant supply of every esteemed variety in season, while he also sends basketfuls of fresh fish from the smacks, from 2s. 6d. upwards, to customers in all parts of England. Personally, Mr. Mummery, who, it may be mentioned, is a prominent member of the Conservative Club and a large owner of local real estate, is well known and much esteemed in both social and trade circles as an enterprising-, honourable and thoroughly capable business man, liberal and fair in all transactions, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.


THE busy and flourishing borough of Ipswich, though for many years past it has filled a place of prominence in the commercial and industrial aspect of East Anglia, has not at any time been conspicuous in history. Its position has never been within the sphere of national and political turmoil, and in the comparative quietude it has thus enjoyed the town has been able to make good progress from early times in the arts and industries of peace. Ipswich, or Gippeswic, as it was called by the East Anglians of old, was evidently at ono time a Roman station, this fact having been attested by the discovery of certain remains and relics of masonry and pavements which were clearly of Roman origin. The first authentic record of Ipswich in history, however, appears to have reference to its capture towards the end of the tenth century by the Norsemen, who plundered the town, as was their practice, in the course of their invasions of the East Coast. Few other notable events have occurred here, if we except the several occasions upon which royalty have visited the borough. Edward I. visited Ipswich in 1297; Edward III. went there in 1350; Elizabeth made no less than three visits, in 1561, 1565, and 1578; and George II. honoured the town in a similar manner in 1737. The first charter granted to Ipswich was conferred by King John in 1199. At the present day the town is a municipal and parliamentary borough, and is represented in the House of Commons by two members. Its population in 1871 was 42,947. This had increased in 1881 to 50,213, and in 1891 to 57,360.

The situation of Ipswich (which is the county town of Suffolk), is in some respects a very favourable one for commercial purposes, and its natural advantages in this respect have been greatly enhanced by the public spirit and enterprise of the townsfolk and corporation. The borough is 68 miles from London by rail, and is built principally upon the left bank of the Gipping, a stream which is here merged into the estuary of the “princely Orwell.” There are not a few evidences of antiquity in the older parts of the town, and visitors will find much to interest them in some of the quaint remnants of ancient domestic architecture here to be met with.

But Ipswich has not been content to remain old-fashioned, and several fine public buildings testify to the progressive spirit of its people in modern times, and to the efforts they have put forth to make their town worthy in appearance of the municipal and commercial importance attaching to it. Many of the newer buildings noticed in a ramble through Ipswich would do credit to any town in England. There is, for example, the handsome Town Hall, erected in 1868 at a large cost. This imposing and really beautiful edifice presents a commanding appearance, crowned by its lofty and well-proportioned clock-tower; and the Post Office (dating from 1881), and the new Corn Exchange (opened in July, 1882), are fine structures, in which a similar style of architecture has been followed. The Museum, the Fine Art Gallery, the Mechanic’s Institute, and the Working Men’s College, are not only mentionable as public buildings, but also bear witness to the fact that in Ipswich due attention is paid to the arts, to archaeology, and to the requirements of social and educational improvement. The educational institutions of Ipswich are, indeed, remarkably good, and include, in addition to many other schools of all kinds and grades, a celebrated grammar school, founded in the reign of Edward IV. This historical academy received new foundation privileges from Queen Elizabeth, and the new buildings erected in 1851 are well adapted to the needs of the school, which is endowed with several valuable scholarships.

Ipswich has a number of ancient and interesting churches, most of them being built of flint, in the manner so general throughout the Eastern Counties. Some of these churches present attractive features to the traveller and antiquarian, and one of two of them have stained glass and wood carvings of more than ordinary merit. It was at the Ipswich Theatre that David Garrick made his debut in 1840. Some notable people have claimed Ipswich as their birthplace, including Cardinal Wolsey, William Butler, Bishop Brownrigg, and Clara Reeve. The British Association met at Ipswich in 1851, and the British Archaeological Association in 1864.

Commercially, Ipswich is the leading town in Suffolk, and is the busiest place in East Anglia with the exception of Norwich. Its railway and waterway facilities are excellent, and its trade has been greatly developed since the construction here, in 1842, of the fine Orwell Wet Dock, which has an area of over thirty acres, with a timber basin, and which cost about £130,000. Here there is every accommodation for vessels, with good quays, and other arrangements tending to continuously increase the shipping activity of the place.

A large trade is carried on in coal, cotton-seed, maize, linseed, barley, and iron, these being imported in considerable quantities; and, per contra, Ipswich exports wheat, flour, malt, and manures, besides a variety of manufactured articles produced within the limits of the borough. Of these latter, perhaps the most important are agricultural implements, for which Ipswich has the largest manufactory in Great Britain. Other notable local industries are shipbuilding, engineering, iron and bras founding, some textile manufactures, including rope-making, tanning, brewing, and the manufacture of artificial manures and fertilizers. In all their commercial undertakings, as well as in their municipal and social life, the people of Ipswich display and advancement which entitles their town to rank with the most promising and prosperous in the country, and they have, by their energy and industry, built up a large number of business concerns which possess a strong claim to the attention they receive in the following pages, by reason of the extent of their operations, the varied requirements they satisfy, and the conspicuous ability with which they are conducted.



THE old and famous firm named at the head of this sketch conduct an establishment which, in its particular lines of trade, has few rivals and no superior in England. In saying this we make no hasty assertion, and draw no invidious comparison, but simply render to Messrs. R. D. & J. B. Fraser the credit that is due to them for having founded and developed in this busy town of Ipswich an emporium of high-class furnishings which would do honour to any British community, both as regards the completeness of its scope and the character of its specialities. This great concern is the outcome of a long period of steady development, for the business was founded as far back as the year 1833 by Mr. Roderick Donald Fraser, who retired about twenty years ago. His sons, the present senior partners, succeeded him, and to their energy, enterprise, and artistic instincts are due the remarkable advances made by the house in recent years. Every visitor to Ipswich finds something to admire in the stately block of buildings now occupied by Messrs. R. D. & J. B. Fraser, and this fine warehouse with its commanding frontages, its splendid window display, and its vast stock in the saloons and show-rooms within, constitutes undoubtedly one of the sights of the town, which the residents are proud to show to strangers und friends from a distance as an example of the sort of commercial enterprise that flourishes in this ancient and thriving borough.

The whole premises were rebuilt some twelve years ago upon lines specially suited to the requirements of the business, and in 1892 the last great addition up to date was made, when the old Ipswich Journal office was acquired and rebuilt, thus completing the block, and affording accommodation for the firm’s jewellery department, of which they have made a special feature, besides giving further show-room space for other departments. In their present form, then, the premises seem to us to leave nothing to be desired, either in commodiousness or in working organisation. The retail shops on the ground floor are large and handsomely appointed, and are set apart for the reception of customers making purchases in the furnishing, jewellery, hat, hosiery, umbrella, and other departments, in all of which there is a magnificent stock to choose from. The assortment of elegant and artistic goods in the jewellery department deserves special commendation, showing great taste and judgment in selection, and there is a very valuable stock of diamonds and other gems, mounted in the highest style of the jeweller’s art. A somewhat recent addition to this department is the optical section, with a fine stock of eye-glasses, spectacles, opera-glasses, &c. An experienced and qualified optician is always in attendance hero. The outfitting department is well accommodated and admirably stocked, hats and umbrellas in the latest styles being among the principal features here.

The upper floors of the block, three in number, contain handsome suites of show-rooms, the first floor accommodating the “Eastern Department,” which to many is the most charming and interesting section of this great business. Here are displayed all manner of rare and beautiful Oriental goods, suitable for furnishing and house decoration, these being brought from the best sources of supply through the firm’s own agencies at Algiers and Stamboul. One might spend hours in describing the specialities of this fascinating department, in which are found inlaid furniture from Cairo, Damascus, and Jerusalem; carpets from Turkey, Persia, and Syria; metal and woodwork of the most artistic and unique descriptions from Benares, Arabia, and Kashmir; and a wonderful variety of pottery, including all the noted wares of China, Japan, and India. Very beautiful, also, are some of the Russian, Armenian, and Turkish embroideries; and we noticed many fine productions in coffee tables, brackets, hanging lamps, inlaid pedestals, &c., very suitable for smoking-rooms, lounges, “cosy corners,” &c. These remind us that Messrs. Fraser are adepts in all manner of artistic fitments for houses of every kind and style, and their special designs in “cosy corners,” “ingle nooks,” and all such comfortable accessories of a well-appointed residence, are particularly attractive and well conceived. They always have specimen work of this nature on view in their show-rooms, enabling customers to judge of the results obtained, which are undoubtedly charming from a decorative point of view. Doorways and windows are treated most skilfully in the Anglo-Arab, Jacobean, and other styles, and by such devices as these the plainest and most matter-of-fact interiors can be converted into aesthetic palaces, the increase of comfort being not less noteworthy than the improvement of appearance. With regard to art furniture and decorations Messrs. Fraser are facile princeps in Ipswich, and their “Eastern Department” is an astonishing revelation of resources in this direction.

Turning to more utilitarian matters, we must say a word or two in praise of the firm’s splendid stock of general house furniture in cabinet goods and upholstery, carpets, linoleums, rugs, bedding, fenders, and fire-irons, and all kinds of textile fabrics for furnishing purposes. Those goods are of the newest design, best workmanship, and most reliable quality, most of them being made in Messrs. Fraser’s own admirably equipped factory in St. Mary Elms Street. From this stock a cottage can be furnished for £10 or £15, a villa residence for £50, an eight-roomed residence and hall for £100, or a large house or mansion for £500. And when we say “furnished” we mean “furnished.” It is one thing to “furnish” a house, and quite another thing to simply cram a house with furniture in a heterogeneous and tasteless fashion. The latter proceeding generally costs about twice as much as the former, and gives no satisfaction to anyone except the firm who had the pleasure of carrying out the “contract.” Messrs. Fraser do nothing of this kind. They afford their customers every facility for making a proper and harmonious selection of goods upon whatever scale of cost the furnishing is to be done, and they are always ready with advice, which, coming as it does from men of long and varied experience, is always valuable, and especially so to those who are furnishing a house for the first time. It “pays” distinctly to deal with a firm like this, whose goods are trustworthy, whose prices are moderate, and whose resources enable them to supply every requisite, great and small, and to meet in the most satisfactory manner the tastes and requirements of their customers. It is this conscientious and straightforward dealing which has brought Messrs. Fraser’s establishment into such high esteem, and which makes it a pleasure for their patrons to do business with them, even though it be the usually troublesome and frequently much-dreaded business of house furnishing. The many tormenting problems that present themselves for solution on such occasions lose most of their terrors when skill and experience are at hand to point the best way out of the difficulty, and when it is felt that whatever we do and whatever we buy under such circumstances is not likely to be regretted. From the carpets on the floors to the paper on the walls, from the kitchen to the attic, from the drawing-room to the nursery (and even to those remoter accessories of the nursery, the perambulator and the mail-cart), Messrs. R. D. and J. B. Fraser are prepared to do all that can be done by a “complete house furnisher,” and to meet their customers’ views in every matter of style, price, and quality. No house in the Kingdom can do more than this, and it is not every one that can do it as well and as satisfactorily as this enterprising and well-equipped East Anglian firm.

We need hardly say that Messrs. Fraser control a very large trade. Their connection extends all over the eastern counties, as well as to other parts of the Kingdom, and they are well known in London, where their specialities have been highly commended by expert writers in the ladies’ journals and in other organs of the press. Those who may be in quest of a house will be able to suit themselves through the medium of the important house and estate agency which this firm conduct in connection with their other business. Others who may perchance be contemplating removal can have that also attended to by Messrs. Fraser, who make a speciality of “removals by road, rail, or sea.” Finally, to the reader who has found the house he wants, and who naturally desires to live comfortably in it, we would say in the words of Shakespeare (who seems to have supplied “quotations” for every imaginable occasion!): “Fit it with such furniture as suits, according to the fashion and the time.” There are many ways of doing this, but we know of none more likely to yield satisfactory results than a visit to Messrs. Fraser’s warehouse in Ipswich, and a businesslike consultation either with the principals of that establishment or some member of their courteous and efficient staff. A house which is under the distinguished patronage of her Imperial Majesty the Empress of Germany is, obviously, one of high standing, and in these times it is good policy to deal with a firm that has a reputation too valuable to be sacrificed by anything in the shape of carelessness or loose principles. That Messrs. Fraser’s is an establishment of this class, sixty years of honest and straightforward trading have conclusively demonstrated.

Mr. Roderick Donald Fraser and Mr. Joseph Brownsmith Fraser and Mr. R. Fraser, junior, son of the first-named gentleman, and grandson of the founder of the house, are the present heads of the firm, the latter having been recently admitted into the partnership. The junior partner, therefore, represents the third generation in the proprietary in direct succession from the founder, and bears the same name. Personally the Messrs. Fraser are all highly respected in Ipswich, where they have long been leading members of the business community, and in the year 1993 Mr. R. D. Fraser, the senior partner, filled the high office of Mayor of the Borough with all the credit and distinction which it was fully anticipated would attend his occupancy of the Municipal Chair.


THE firm of Messrs. Cooksedge & Co. carry on a large and important engineering and iron-founding industry at Ipswich, and their well-known Eagle Foundry has a reputation extending throughout the Eastern Counties for the excellence and reliability of its products. The business of this firm was founded upwards of forty years ago by a Mr. Mason, and the late Mr. Cocksedge succeeded to the proprietorship in 1879. Since the death of the latter gentleman, in 1884, his son has ably directed the concern, and has considerably extended its operations by his enterprising management. The Eagle Foundry is centrally situated, close to the docks, with excellent facilities of transport, and is a large and admirably organised establishment, covering about an acre of ground, and comprising all the usual departments of a modern foundry and engineering works. The several shops are equipped with the most improved and effective machinery for the purposes of the industry carried on, and about sixty hands are employed on the premises. There is large warehouse accommodation in connection with the foundry, enabling the firm to hold extensive stocks in readiness for immediate despatch. A leading feature of the business is the manufacture of scales, weighing-machines, and weights, for which the firm have a branch establishment at Lowestoft. They repair and adjust all descriptions of scales and weights in accordance with the new Act, and undertake contracts for repairing and keeping weighing-machines in order in all parts of the country. New machines and weights are always in stock, and can be supplied on the shortest notice. Other specialities of Messrs. Cocksedge & Co.’s trade include castings in iron and brass, columns and girders, tanks, cast-iron fencing, smith work, engine and boiler work, shafting, couplings, pulleys, bearings, steam fittings, engine packing, and all repairs to engines, boilers, and machinery. This firm also make a special study of the requirements of shipping, and supply steering gear, windlasses and winches, copper pipes, hawse and side pipes, bollards and cleats, barge and ship pumps, forgings, rollers and sheaves, deck and chain pipes, &c. Agricultural machinery likewise comes within the scope of Messrs. Cocksedge & Co.’s operations, and they are noted for their oil-cake breakers and crushing-mills for oats, &c. The whole business is personally superintended by Mr. Cocksedge, and its working resources are highly developed. The connection extends throughout the Eastern Counties, and the firm have a number of travellers on the road. They enjoy the confidence of all their customers, and always have plenty of orders in hand — a circumstance which speaks for the general recognition their reliable work has obtained.


THIS business was founded twenty years ago by Mr. Botwood, the present sole proprietor, and has had a highly successful career, due, no doubt, to the fact that Mr. Botwood has always worked on progressive lines, and has identified his name with many notable improvements. He is inventor and patentee of landaus to open and close from the inside, of shafts to suit any size of horse, of the axle step to mount over high front wheels, of a simple mode of opening and closing carriage doors from the driver’s seat, of the new C-spring with double coupling joint and screw to raise two-wheel vehicles horizontally and easily from cob height to that of a sixteen-hand horse, and of the now famous “Queen” brougham and “Queen” landaulette, weighing from five and a-half cwt. Among his many other patents and inventions may be mentioned the kicking staples, to prevent wear and decay of shafts; india-rubber tyres cased with steel, rendering closed carriages more durable, pleasant in use, and nearly free from sound; the new Stanhope seat, to impart free access from back to front seats; self-acting seats to balance two-wheel vehicles when in motion, by a slight movement of the occupant, and without noise, trouble, or the use of screws or keys; and the neat and convenient C-spring “Barlow,” “Ipswich,” and “Graffham” carts. Mr. Botwood’s inventions have met with great favour, and have won for him valuable exhibition honours. His “Queen" brougham and patent “Ipswich” cart, which gained a gold medal and diploma of honour, are unsurpassed, perhaps unequalled, for lightness, moderate price, durability, and finish; and it is not surprising that such elegant and stylish vehicles should have obtained so large an amount of distinguished patronage. The Barlow Patent Cart is also a speciality reflecting high credit upon Mr. Botwood’s inventive powers. It has the patent balancing arrangement, and also the arrangements for altering length of shafts and height of vehicle, retarding motion and relieving the horse of weight in going down hill by his patent hub brakes, all of which features make it a supremely useful and desirable vehicle. We need hardly say that Mr. Botwood does a large business. His inventions have achieved an international reputation, and since 1875 he has sent vehicles not only to almost all parts of England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, but also to America, India, China, Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Austria, Italy, France, Germany, and Switzerland. His spacious show-room in Carr Street, Ipswich, always contain a representative display of his highly-finished productions, and his works in Woodbridge Road are fully equipped for every process of the carriage-building industry, a large staff of experienced workmen being there employed. Mr. Botwood is a thorough master of the trade in all its details, and personally superintends the operations of the flourishing business he has built up with such marked ability and enterprise.


A REMARKABLY large and comprehensive business is carried on by Messrs. Grimwade, Ridley & Co., who hold a leading position in the Eastern Counties as wholesale druggists and drysalters, and enjoy a national renown for some of their specialities. The house was founded in 1820 by the late Mr. Henry Ridley, and has borne its present title since 1843. Mr. Grimwade, however, retired some years ago, and the whole business is now in the hands of, and under the control of, Mr. A. C. Ridley, in conjunction with his sons, Mr. H. Ridley and Mr. A. P. Ridley. The fine commanding corner block occupied by Messrs. Grimwade, Ridley & Co., affords every convenience for their extensive trade, having been specially built for the purpose six or seven years ago. There is a retail chemist’s shop on the ground floor, and also a retail oil and colour department, both of which are very largely patronised by the public. The main entrance to the wholesale department is in Princes Street, and the visitor is sure to be impressed by the excellent arrangements made to accommodate the immense stocks of drugs, chemicals, and drysaltery held by this firm in readiness for all demands. The tanks for oil storage particularly attract attention, and indicate the magnitude of Messrs. Grimwade, Ridley & Co.’s dealings in all kinds of mineral and vegetable oils. A. separate department is provided for acids, and others for soap, resin, -tar, &c., while elsewhere are found mills for grinding anti-corrosive paint, and close by a fireproof vault for storing petroleum. Other features of this great business command attention as we proceed through the premises, such as the new coffee-roasting machine in the basement, working on a novel and effective principle, and the oat-crushing machine and soda-crushing machine, all of which indicate the existence of important departments. All water used for manufacturing and other purposes is carefully distilled in a special boiler for that purpose. On each floor of the premises the arrangements are most convenient and the organisation practically perfect, every facility existing for the smooth conduct of the business.

Besides doing a vast trade in drugs and chemicals, general drysaltery and oilmen’s stores (including jams, provisions, sauces, pickles, oils, and bottled fruits'), Messrs. Grimwade, Ridley & Co. are famed for a number of excellent household specialities, among which their “Royal Orwell” baking powder, custard powder, and Royal Orwell sauce, are prominent. They also prepare a special list for veterinary surgeons, embracing all the drugs, chemicals, and patent medicines employed in that profession. Of agricultural specialities they have quite a number, including Bagshaw’s Foot-rot Dressing for sheep, and King's Patent Carbolic Dressing for seed corn, which effectually prevents the attack of game, rooks, and vermin. The firm’s trade in paints, oils, colours, lead, and glass is a most extensive one, and the same may be said of their operations in all kinds of oilmen’s stores. They are wholesale agents for Down’s “Farmer’s Friend,” Thorley’s Cattle Food, Cooper’s Sheep Dipping, Liebig’s Extract of Meat, Oakey’s Wellington Knife Powder, Margerison’s Fire Lighters, &c. We may mention en passant that Mr. A. C. Ridley, the respected senior partner, engages in sales, transfers, valuations, and arbitrations relating to chemists' businesses, not only in the Eastern Counties, but also in all other parts of the Kingdom. He has had considerable experience in this branch of the business, and is able to afford most satisfactory references, given by various clients for whom he has acted in this capacity. Finally, mention must be made of the confectionery department, which has its headquarters in the Orwell Steam Confectionery Works, nearly opposite the main building. The firm started this department only two or three years ago, but it has been exceedingly successful, and a high reputation has been gained for the purity and excellence of the goods produced. The works are equipped with the best appliances, and might stand as a model of neatness, cleanliness, and practical system.

Altogether, Messrs. Grimwade, Ridley & Co. control a business which is one of the principal commercial concerns in Ipswich, and the continued success of which for many years has amply testified to the ability and judgment with which it is and has been administered. The trade extends throughout the home and export markets, having especially a large and old-established connection on the West Coast of Africa; and the firm’s travellers cover all parts of the Eastern Counties, keeping constantly in touch with the old-established and valuable connection whose support this house has so long enjoyed.
Their telegraphic address is “Grimwade, Ipswich.”


IT is owing to the energetic enterprise of Messrs. Woolnough & Gardiner that Ipswich has gained a considerable reputation throughout the whole of the Eastern Counties, for the manufacture of high-class confectionery, and for the wholesale supply of foreign fruit. This excellently organised business was established about thirty years ago; and for a long period it has been in the hands of the present firm. The record of their business has been one of uninterrupted progress, the result of their having made, at frequent intervals, important new departures, involving valuable developments in the conduct of the trade. Mr. Woolnough has recently retired from the business, which is now conducted with unabated vigour by Mr. Gardiner, as sole proprietor. The firm’s premises were recently materially enlarged, as a necessary consequence of the rapid growth in the value of their business, by the addition to their original quarters of the adjacent building. The establishment as it now stands is centrally situated, and occupies a commanding position in Fore Street, with a fine frontage of about fifty feet. The ground floor of the original portion of the premises is used as a sale and stock room. Adjoining is a well-appointed office, furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of business. The floor above is utilized as a warehouse and packing department. On the ground floor of the new premises large stocks are also held; and here, too, is always to be found a most interesting assortment of samples, representing the various descriptions of goods which they import. These include such dainties as American caramels, with chocolate and fancy goods from France and Germany. Here, too, are to be seen, in their proper seasons, fine displays of oranges in case), with bags of foreign nuts, in which Messrs. Woolnough & Gardiner are extensive dealers. It may be noted that, as a branch of their business, the firm control a very considerable trade in drysaltery.

To the rear is the commodious sugar-boiling house, where the cheaper classes of confectionery goods are produced. The floor above this room forms the department where the “starch goods” are manufactured. This class includes fondants, jujubes, and other crystallized confectionery. These goods require to be run in moulds of powdered starch, and, after the moulds have been placed in a room heated by hot-air apparatus up to the required temperature, they are crystallized. A subsequent drying process is performed, and the goods are then sent up to the packing department, where, along with other goods, they are packed by a staff of girls in boxes, bottles, and other receptacles. A numerous and experienced staff is always employed in the several industrial departments, as it is notable that, in the manufacture of confectionery, a larger percentage of the cost of production is represented by labour than in any other business. In addition to the valuable connection which the firm enjoy throughout the whole of the Eastern Counties, they conduct a considerable and rapidly increasing export trade. Mr. Gardiner personally supervises all the details of his extensive business, thereby ensuring the maintenance of the firm’s excellent and widespread reputation.


THE records of this representative undertaking show that it was organised at No. 47, Norwich Road, as far back as thirty-five years ago, by a Mr. Williams, but that about two years since it was taken over by its present talented and enterprising proprietor, Mr. D. Gobey, who had won his laurels in the trade, during a practical experience of ten years with Mr. R. Seager, of Ipswich, whose business is well known in all parts of the United Kingdom, as being one of the largest and best of its kind. Mr. Gobey has just completed extensive alterations to his premises, which now include the adjoining building; and the fine double-fronted shop is augmented at the rear by an elaborately equipped factory and smokehouses, where a picked staff of experts is engaged in the production, on a large scale, of Gobey's now famous specialities, in the way of primest Suffolk hams, delicious breakfast bacon, plump Bath chaps, potted meats of superior quality, pure home-made lard, and unrivalled pork sausages. The output of these choice delicacies is daily increasing by reason of their intrinsic merits and superior quality, Mr. Gobey, moreover, guaranteeing their absolute freedom from adulteration, and they certainly require no further recommendation other than that which one trial will serve to elicit. Under Mr. Gobey’s vigorously directed administration the business is rapidly making such headway as to offer every assurance that the time is not far distant when it will rank second to none in the kingdom.


THE distribution of select general groceries, prime provisions, and all manner of kindred commodities to meet the demands of a very large and soundly-established connection, which extends, practically, to every part of Ipswich and its populous surrounding countryside, finds able representation at the hands of Mr. Alfred F. Sawer, who entered upon his prosperous career some twelve years since, by opening stores at 45, Norwich Road, which he still retains as a branch depot. In 1892 he took over the business of a Mr. Turner, which had been organised fifty years ago at the commanding corner site formed by 28, Norwich Road and 2, Orford Street, and has since then made these premises his headquarters. “The Granville Stores,” as they are called, consist of a spacious shop, with ample storage accommodation, and are handsomely appointed in the best modern style. All kinds of groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith; special lines in pure and choicely-blended teas and coffees; British and Foreign tinned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies of the highest order; and prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and bacon, butter and cheese, lard and eggs are all fully en evidence at their best, and are all offered for sale, by civil and attentive assistants, at the lowest possible prices consistent with equitable trading. For the rest, the business is in a splendid condition of progressive development, and under Mr. Sawer’s vigorous, yet always prudent administration, the house promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the bright prospect of still better times to come.


THE well-known name of Grimwade ranks prominently among the representatives of high-class trade in Ipswich, and since its foundation by the father of the present proprietor as far back as 1844, the operations have, to a large degree, contributed to the prosperity of merchant tailoring, a branch of work in which he is well known to excel. The situation of the house is, from any point of view, the most favourable to the class of business represented. The firm's premises occupy a commanding position, and are substantial in appearance, and tastefully arranged and appointed, forming altogether a most pleasing feature of his busy thoroughfare. Here are exhibited all the latest fashions in first-class clothing for men, youths, and boys, either made to order or ready made; hats, caps, umbrellas, cardigan jackets, fancy vests, waterproof coats in every variety, hosiery, gloves, scarfs, collars, &c., of the best make, and gentlemen's outfitting goods generally, of every description. In the bespoke department are exhibited Scotch and Irish tweeds, West of England serges and worsteds, in all the newest designs, and drawn from the leading manufacturing houses in the kingdom; and there is an exhaustiveness and variety in the shades, textures, and patterns which afford ample choice to the most refined or most fastidious taste.

The premises are both spacious and commodious, and well adapted to the purpose of the trade, and with the aid of a staff of tailors whose skilful workmanship has greatly tended to enhance the renown of the house, the firm make up everything that comes within the scope of the high-class clothing and outfitting trade. Favoured by the support of long established connections, among whom are included many town and county families of importance, Mr. Grimwade devotes to the control of his business due tact and attentiveness. His liberality is indicated in the fact that everything is charged for at the most reasonable price consistent with the high standard of excellence maintained, and as a firm whose honourable standing is preserved by the constant observance of consideration for the requirements of a distinguished clientele, Mr. Grimwade holds a commercial position of which he cannot be dispossessed by any of the modern experts of clothing trade competition. He is also connected with another high-class tailoring concern, namely, that of Messrs. Grimwade & Cooper, the well-known clerical and military tailors of the Buttermarket. Few business men are better known publicly than Mr. J. H. Grimwade in Ipswich, he having been a member of the Town Council for St. Clement's for the last seven years; he is also a Guardian, takes a great interest in public affairs, and annually provides a dinner to twelve hundred and fifty of the poor children of the town. Mr. Grimwade has recently opened a branch establishment at Clacton-on-Sea, in a most prominent position, at the junction of Pier and Station Avenues, where his highly appreciated clothing can be obtained, and orders placed for future delivery.


MESSRS. TALBOT & Co., whose admirably organised business was founded under comparatively modest conditions in 1840, since when the firm has made continuous progress, until they have assumed the position of honourable prominence in the aerated water trade which they now occupy. At the present moment Messrs. Talbot & Co. are one of the largest manufacturers in East Anglia. Their premises are centrally situated in the immediate neighbourhood of Westgate Street. They extend from Hyde Park Corner a considerable distance along St. George’s Street, with a frontage of a hundred feet to the latter thoroughfare, and cover, in the aggregate, an area of half an acre. The offices are in Crown Street, and are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work incidental to a large business. The manufactory is fitted up with the most approved modern and labour-raving appliances, including every requisite which matured experience could suggest, and a judicious and liberal expenditure of capital could command. At the rear of Lady Lane, a short distance from the main works, there is a forge, as well as a covered van-shed, carpenters' shop, and other rooms devoted to box and case-making and general repairs. Those, with the stables, where there is fine accommodation for more than a dozen horses, cover an extra area of nearly a quarter of an acre. Messrs. Talbot & Co. have gained a reputation which is unsurpassed for the excellence of all their aerated waters, the water used for the productions having been declared, on analysis by Mr. James Napier, F.C.S., F.I.C., to be absolutely free from organic impurity. All the waters are very highly impregnated with carbonic acid gas of exceptional purity. The firm have also, with notable success, made a speciality of supplying their delightful fruit beverages, lime juice, orange, ginger, and aromatic champagne, put up in pint champagne bottles, tin-foiled and labelled. Messrs. Talbot & Co. likewise give special and most successful attention to the preparation of goods for export, and experts testify to the satisfactory manner in which they stand the exceptional heat of the Red Sea and other tropical regions. The firm are, too, widely known for the excellence of their ginger ale, which was awarded, in the open competition at the Brewing and Mineral-water Trades' Exhibition in 1888, the first prize — a silver medal. The valuable and ever-growing business connection of the firm extends over the whole of the district forming the region of the Great Eastern Railway Company’s system. Throughout the whole of that district they keep in constant touch with a wide circle of customers by the aid of an efficient staff of travelling representatives, whose efforts to extend the area of the house’s influence are much facilitated by its high reputation throughout the trade. The firm’s pru e-medal ginger ale commands a wide sale, and can be obtained throughout England, as well as in many continental countries.


THE records of this representative tailoring business show that it was organised as far back as a quarter of a century ago under the able auspices of the late Mr. Bowman, at Providence Street. Upon the decease of the founder, which took place quite recently, his son, Mr. P. Bowman, in the capacity of an expert practical tailor and scientific cutter (who had previously been for seven years with the well-known firm of Messrs. Tumner & Sons), succeeded to the sole proprietary rights of the concern, and, having outgrown the original accommodation, removed to his present more convenient and commodious quarters at 1, Tacket Street. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position in that busy thoroughfare, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its neat cutting-room adjoining, is admirably appointed throughout. In his well-equipped workrooms, Mr. Bowmsn, who personally attends to the cutting department, is valuably assisted by a picked staff of skilled and experienced hands in the production of gentlemen's fashionable attire for all occasions; ladies' costumes, habits, and jackets, &c.; and pays special attention to the making of cycling and shooting suits, he having just introduced a new form of shooting jacket, which permits of perfect freedom for the arms, whilst realising a true fit. Moderate in his charges, and prompt and punctual in the execution of all orders, Mr. Bowman has secured and retained the liberal support of a very large and sound middle-class clientele, and it is a true criterion of, and tribute to, his capabilities, that not only are patrons invariably satisfied with the results of his efforts, but that his valuable connection has been mainly called together through the potent agency of personal recommendations.


IN the completeness of its equipment for the execution of all classes of work connected with the building trades, the well-ordered establishment of Messrs. Thomas Parkington & Son has no superior in the Eastern Counties. Mr. T. Parkington, senior, began his industrial operations in a very small way some thirty years ago; and by the aid of his thorough practical knowledge and exceptionally enlightened enterprise, he soon created a valuable connection which, ever since, he has constantly increased. The members of the firm are now the founder, and his son, Mr. T. Parkington, junior, whose scientific accomplishments enable him to render most important services in controlling the business of the establishment. The Messrs. Parkington’s premises, which are known as St. Margaret’s Works, are very extensive, and occupy a central position in Crown Street. A gateway, forming an important entrance, leads into a large yard. Here are well-appointed offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work, necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. Adjoining are carpenters’, joiners’, plumbers’, painters’ and glaziers’ shops, with extensive warehouses and storage rooms. In addition to the above, the firm have a large timber and stock yard, nearly opposite, in Crown Street; while, in Carr Street, there are yet further stores, together with workshops, and ample stabling.

All the industrial departments are equipped with requisite appliances, of the most modern type, for the saving of labour, and the perfecting of results, in the several classes of operations which the firm conduct. These include, not only the erection of public and private buildings, but also repairing, cleaning, distempering, painting, papering, glazing, plumbing, and sanitary engineering work. In these several departments, the firm conduct a business which is unsurpassed in importance throughout the district. They have successfully completed the construction of many important public buildings, and have, indeed, very recently concluded the erection of the Public Baths, and also the Science and Art Schools, adjoining the Museum, additions to the Boro’ Asylum, New Engine-House for Corporation Waterworks, &c. The firm have, too, gained the unreserved confidence of many of the leading owners of property and house agents throughout a large area, for the promptitude and efficiency which they invariably display in the execution of alterations and general repairs. They employ a large permanent staff of skilled workmen, which includes several expert specialists, as heads of departments. The firm have gained a very extensive reputation as accomplished sanitary engineers; and they have especially distinguished themselves by the efficient manner in which they have executed a large amount of work in connection with the new sewers recently laid down in Ipswich. Mr. Thomas Parkington, senior, whose indefatigable efforts since the foundation of this extensive business have done so much to secure for it its present prominence and distinction, retired at Christmas (1894), in favour of his son, Mr. T. Parkington, junior. He has well earned the repose that should follow labour; and the known ability, energy and experience of the present junior partner afford an ample assurance of the worthy manner in which he will direct the future operations of the concern. We heartily congratulate the firm upon the success which has attended their efforts. Manifestly their resolution, perseverance, and strict integrity has secured a connection which has placed them to-day in a position of importance and value amongst their fellow-townsmen.


MR. SCOTT’S admirably-organised establishment was, originally, founded half a century ago by Messrs. Smith & Ellison. For the last seventeen years it has been under the sole control of the present proprietor, who has, in a marvellous degree, extended the influence of the house and the area of its operations. Mr. Buchanan Scott's premises occupy a commanding and central position in the Old Butter Market. They cover a considerable area, and the interior is appointed in a style of absolute good taste. The total absence of display which characterises the establishment is, indeed, strictly in keeping with the exclusively high-class nature of the business which Mr. Scott controls. On the ground floor is a commodious showroom, with a conveniently-equipped fitting- room adjoining. At the side is a hosiery department, where the stocks are classified and arranged in a most tastefully systematic manner. The floors above are utilised as cutting-out rooms and workshops, which are very spacious, and are thoroughly ventilated. Faultless design and fit are ensured by the employment of several expert specialists as cutters, in addition to a large staff of highly-skilled workmen. It is an integral part of Mr. Buchanan Scott’s successful method that the greater part of tailoring work should be executed on the premises, under the personal supervision of the principal, who is a past-master in the sartorial art. His valuable connection extends throughout the Eastern Counties, and amongst customers of high social distinction in every part of the United Kingdom.

Every facility exists in Mr. Scott's establishment for the production, under the best possible conditions, of riding habits, “breeches,” and pantaloons, together with ladies’ garments of various descriptions. The work executed in the last-mentioned department is invariably remarkable for the originality of design and for the excellence of the cut, finish, and workmanship. Large quantities of goods are frequently made and sent to military officers residing in India or in one of the British Colonies. The firm have, too, a large and most valuable connection amongst hunting and other classes of sportsmen; and it would not be an exaggeration to say that Mr. Scott has secured quite 75 per cent, of the hunting trade in East Anglia. In the hosiery department there is a varied stock of high-class goods, and also a fine selection of gentlemen's outfitting, including silk and felt hats by Tress & Co. and Lincoln & Bennett. The cultured, artistic taste which has been of the utmost value to Mr. Scott in the pursuit of his business, is present with him also in his hours of leisure and recreation. He has made it his favourite avocation to collect fine examples of both ancient and modern art, and he has in his possession a famous collection, numbering several hundreds, including some fine works of Constable, Crome, and other masters belonging to the several schools of early Flemish and English landscape.


HOUSE-FURNISHING nowadays has been reduced to a matter of great simplicity, for there are, in all large communities, firms who make it their business to paint, paper, and decorate entire houses or suites of apartments, and to completely furnish them in any desired style to suit the means of all classes of persons. Such an institution is that of Messrs. Phillips & Son, the oldest furnishing establishment in Ipswich. The business was organised some sixty years ago under the able auspices of the father of its present enterprising proprietor. Over forty years has now elapsed since the business was transferred to its present eligible locate in St. Matthew’s Street, and during that period the original premises were enlarged and improved from time to time, the last addition having been made in 1890, when the adjoining premises were absorbed. As they now stand the premises have a fine facade of forty-five feet, and extend backwards for one hundred and fifty-six feet to commodious warehouses and a well-equipped factory at the rear, while the upper floors of the building are fully utilised as show-rooms. Messrs. Phillips & Son always maintain an enormous stock of soundly-made fashionable furniture and bedsteads and bedding of every kind, from which selections can be readily made (or goods not in stock ordered to be made) to completely furnish the cottage, the villa-residence, or mansion, in any desired style, at strictly reasonable prices. They hold a large selection of carpets, hearthrugs, floor-cloths, and linoleums, and all their bedding and upholstery work is executed upon the premises by expert craftsmen, under the personal supervision of the principal, who guarantees that all materials used therefore are purified by the most improved sanitary process. One of the largest and most varied stocks of paper-hangings to be found under any one roof in the Eastern Counties, may also here be inspected, and in connection with this department the firm undertake painting, paperhanging, distempering, and house decorating work in all their branches, with economy, high efficiency, and despatch. Lastly, at George Street, Messrs. Phillips & Son hold a large warehouse with special lock-up rooms for furniture storage, and undertake household removals, to any distance, in their own special service of removal vans, which are placed under the charge of reliable and experienced men, the firm taking all risks. Altogether, the business stands as one of the most reliable in its line in Ipswich, and it is manifestly Mr. Phillips’ resolution that the high reputation he has won, shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.


IPSWICH has a historical reputation as one of the great English centres of musical culture, and when, four years ago, Mr. H. Whillier opened his music and musical instrument warehouse, he entered a field which was well prepared to appreciate his enlightened spirit of enterprise. He brought to his undertaking a thorough “up-to-date” knowledge of the methods by which the facilities for musical education and enjoyment can be brought within the reach of people who are not extensive capitalists. He has established such intimate and extensive relations with the best sources in London and elsewhere, from which cheap and good music and musical instruments are supplied on conditions which place them within the reach of the possessors of even the most moderately-lined purses, that he has been able to offer, during the period of his commercial operations in Ipswich, special advantages to the great music-loving section of its residents, which they never previously enjoyed. Like most ultimately successful innovators, Mr. Whillier began his work as an apostle of good and cheap popular musical education, under comparatively modest conditions. His original premises were in St. Nicholas 8treet, but the novel economic methods which he introduced soon proved so popular that he was constrained to find better accommodation for the requirements of his business. Thus he has recently removed to his present quarters, which occupy a commanding position in the principal thoroughfare of the town. Here the musical amateur will find a varied selection of violin outfits, comprising violin, bow, case, and extra set strings, together with resin, at prices varying from 15s. to 60s. Mr. Whillier’s choice of accordions is the largest and most representative to be found in Suffolk. A similar remark applies to his exhibits of auto-harps, zither harps, dulcimers, banjos, mouth-organs, flutes, flageolets, &c. But the principal service, perhaps, which Mr. Whillier is rendering to the musical residents in Ipswich and its vicinity, consists in the financial facilities which he offers to them of becoming the proud possessors of pianofortes, organs, and harmoniums, at easy terms to suit all buyers. His exceptional commercial aptitude has enabled him to divest the hire or purchase system of all its possible terrors for timid hirers or purchasers, by eliminating from it every possibly unjust condition. There is a great commercial future for Mr. Whillier in Ipswich.


IN historically reviewing the doings of the noted trading concerns of Ipswich, it is particularly interesting to meet with a house of such old standing and extensive business connections as the one which has been chosen as the theme of the present brief sketch. The “Ancient,” or “Sparrowes” House, is a relic of the medieval age, and accordingly has been much commented upon by antiquarians in magazines and periodicals, as dating back to the year 1567; and as the names of its present tenants usually figure in all such disquisitions, the venerable building acts as a splendid advertisement for their business, which is now one of the best and largest of its kind in the Eastern Counties of England. Although but twelve years have now elapsed since the present style of Messrs. Pawsey & Hayes was assumed, the business has in reality been in the family of the present able and enterprising proprietor for about sixty years. On the dissolution of the partnership this year, the business reverted to Mr. F. Pawsry, now the sole proprietor. Eligibly located in the very centre of the town, the interior of the venerable building has of course been remodelled up to date for business purposes, without, however, resorting to any destructive “Vandalism.” The spacious shop, on the ground floor, is elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to hold and effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods composed of books in all branches of literature, many of which are handsomely bound and suitable for gifts or prizes; plain, educational, commercial, and fashionable fancy stationery; office requisites, and the numerous sundries incidental to a thoroughly first-class stationery emporium. At the rear of the shop there is an elaborately equipped printing and publishing office, with composing rooms on the topmost floor; and in this department the firm carry on an extensive business as printers and engravers, account book manufacturers, and bookbinders, and are publishers of many valuable works, the best-known and oldest established of which is “Pawsey’s Pocket Book” for each year, which is brimful of useful and interesting information and fine steel engravings, and circulates throughout the United Kingdom. On the first floor, lastly, is located the fine subscription library, established in 1791, which contains over seventeen thousand volumes, and is being constantly added to and kept up to date. The firm employ a staff of skilled workmen, assistants and others, and all the affairs of the house are directed by the proprietor in person.


THIS is one of the old representative businesses of Ipswich, having a history dating back for fully a hundred years. During the whole of that period it has remained in the hands of the Cowell family, and has steadily increased from year to year until it is now one of the largest concerns of its kind in the Eastern Counties. The premises have been rebuilt, remodelled, and enlarged from time to time, and the last considerable alteration was effected as recently as 1892, when the front portion of the premises were entirely reconstructed, both internally and externally. The new buildings are of three storeys in height, and of handsome architectural design, and they comprise not only a spacious and well-appointed retail shop, with counting-house, wholesale department, and paper stock-room on the ground floor, but also managers' offices, drawing office, and stock-rooms for account books and envelopes on the first floor, and large and well-lighted work-rooms above. In these work-rooms many girls are employed in paper-bag making, and here also is the bindery, with its excellent equipment of modern machinery. Underneath the whole block extends a light, roomy, and well-ventilated basement, in which we notice a 12 horse-power “Otto” gas engine, supplying power for the electric light installation that lights the entire establishment. Here, also, is the large boiler for the hot-water apparatus whereby the building is warmed, and we also observe a fireproof strong-room for storing valuable goods of various kinds. The remainder of this basement accommodates a vast stock of brown paper and paper-bags.

Turning to the older portion of the buildings we find on the ground floor the boilers and engines for driving the machinery in the printing and other departments. Here, likewise, are two large and perfectly organised machine-rooms, containing twelve steam Platen machines, twelve Wharfedale machines, five litho. machines and twelve steam litho. presses, besides cutting machines, hot-rolling presses, bronzing machines, etc., etc. There is a department specially equipped for grinding litho. stones, of which the firm have a valuable stock. The floor above is mainly devoted to account-book making, and contains all the necessary apparatus for this work, including six steam-ruling machines, paging machines, etc. The top floor contains the principal composing room and the stereotyping room. The firm have a splendid stock of type for all purposes, from poster work to the finest book work, and including all the newest and most attractive “faces” from the best British, Continental, and American founders. The premises are fitted throughout with fireproof doors, whereby the several work-rooms can be isolated in any emergency, and all the departments have homocoustic speaking-tube communication, a great improvement upon the old-fashioned tubes. Altogether this might well stand as a model establishment of its kind, and it reflects equal credit upon its proprietor and upon the progressive town of Ipswich, which is never “behind the times.”

Some idea of the magnitude and importance of the business here carried on may be gathered from the fact that the firm give employment to upwards of three hundred hands in their various departments. They hold large and complete stocks of general and commercial stationery and account-books of their own excellent manufacture, and are noted for their superior productions in all kinds and sizes of paper-bags for every trade purpose. In the printing and lithographing departments high-class work is the rule, and equal success is achieved in everything turned out, from a visiting card to a trade catalogue, or from a billhead to the most elaborate show-cards in the highest style of chromo-lithography. The firm control an extensive rag trade with the chief paper mills throughout England and woollen manufacturers in the West Riding of Yorkshire; about fifty hands are constantly employed in this branch. A very extensive local trade is controlled, in addition to a widespread business in East Anglia generally, and the manner in which this old and noted firm's connection has been expanded is indicated in the fact that they find it necessary to maintain a London office at 19, Ludgate Hill, E.C. Toe whole business is in a condition of advancement and progress which speaks for the ability and enterprise brought to bear upon its administration both in past and present times


THE admirably organised business which Mr. Pratt conducts has a long and honourable record, having been originally founded by Mr. Cameron, upwards of thirty years ago, and ten years later it was acquired by Mr. Pratt, who has had over thirty years’ experience in the tea trade, and for the last twenty years has been in this business. A valuable trade connection for the sale of tea, and a speciality has been made, with signal success, of the supply of pure Scotch oatmeal. That connection was soon materially increased through the thorough technical knowledge of the business possessed by Mr. Pratt, combined with his exceptional commercial aptitude and his well-directed enterprise. The result has been a history of rapid and uninterrupted progress which has been characterised by several important new developments. Thus, about twelve years after establishing his business, Mr. Pratt make a bold and novel departure by opening out a high-class establishment in which the firm conduct a prosperous business as linen and woollen drapers, merchant tailors, &c.

By his practical application of sound commercial principles, and his discrimination in the selection of expert specialists as the responsible heads of departments, Mr. Pratt, in his new capacity, soon gained the unreserved confidence of a large number of influential families, resident in Ipswich and the surrounding districts. So material has been the expansion of the volume of his business that, within the last few years, Mr. Pratt has found it necessary very considerably to alter and extend his premises. These occupy a commanding position in St. Matthew’s Street, and comprise an extensive range of three-storeyed buildings. The exterior has a most attractive appearance in accordance with the popular methods which Messrs. Pratt & Co. have successfully adopted in the conduct of their business. The series of ample show-windows, with their tastefully arranged assortments of beautiful novelties in all varieties of textile fabrics, never fails to interest the by-passers. In the interior is a commodious and well-appointed sale-shop, with a handsome showroom to the rear — spacious enough, in the aggregate, to admit of the effective display, and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the vast, valuable, and varied stocks which are always held.

These include articles of every description belonging to the departments of general outfitting and linen and woollen drapery. There is a specially fine display of hats, caps, shirts, and hosiery, as well as of all sorts of woollen cloths suitable for making up into garments for gentlemen. In the production of these, to order and measure, a very large amount of business is done in the tailoring department. There are conveniently appointed cutting and fitting shops to the rear of the sale-shop. An efficient staff of skilled workmen is employed, including expert cutters, &c., while the bold new developments of Mr. Pratt’s business have proved signally successful. With all the best sources of supply for the various classes of goods in which the firm deal, the proprietor maintains such intimate and extensive relations that he is able to offer exceptionally favourable terms to his customers. Mr. Pratt is possessed of exceptionally well-developed administrative abilities, and is thus in a position not only to give his personal supervision to all the details in the conduct of his extensive business, but to bestow much of his valuable time and energies to the service of the public as a member of the Ipswich Town Council and in other prominent capacities.


THE conditions of modern life have called into existence a number of artistic, delicate, and dilettante occupations, dealing more or less directly with art in various applications to the conveniences and luxuries of life. Many of these are especially suitable for the gentler sex, and indeed, it may be said, are practically monopolised by them. A very high class and representative establishment of this kind is conducted by the lady whose business is the subject of our present sketch. It was commenced only two years ago, and has already become established upon a sound commercial basis, with an influential and ever-widening clientele. The premises were very judiciously chosen, being centrally situated, and consisting of a spacious double-fronted shop, perfectly appointed and fitted with exquisite taste. There is a select stock of high class fancy and artistic goods, art needlework, wedding gifts &c., displaying extreme beauty of design and finish, and we imagine there are few ladies who could visit this establishment and resist the temptation to make a purchase. Hand-painting of various kinds is undertaken, such as painting on screens, stools, &c., for decorative purposes; ladies' needlework is mounted, and designs prepared and traced ready for working. We must not omit to mention that lessons are given in poker work, and the requisite instruments and materials are also supplied. Poker painting has recently become a very fashionable occupation, and consists in drawing designs on wood with the hot points of specially prepared tools, the work being pleasant and the result highly artistic. The teaching and the management of the business keeps Miss Drewell fully employed, and she may be congratulated upon the success that has attended her enterprise, and the ability and artistic skill displayed.


FOR more than thirty years a leading and representative business in its special line in Ipswich, and one that owes its popularity and prosperity solely to the merits of the goods handled, has been to be found in that of Mr. John R. Luff, of the paperhanging warehouse, 43, Upper Brook Street. This noteworthy business was founded in 1860 by Mr. Randell, who brought to the development of his business the result of a long and valuable experience in every department of the trade, joined to indomitable energy and sound business habits. He soon laid the foundation of his enterprise on a secure basis, and succeeded in maintaining a steady progress with every passing year. Mr. Luff came into possession some three years ago, and under his well-directed control the prestige of the establishment has been fully maintained and an important addition made to the transactions in which the house is engaged. The premises occupied are of ample size, conveniently located, and fitted up with every convenience for facilitating the control of business and the effective display of the goods. A staff of experienced workmen is employed, and every description of painting, decorating, and paperhanging is taken in hand and carried out in a manner that is sure to give every satisfaction. A first-class business is in operation by the proprietor as a painter and decorator, and the constantly increasing demand made upon his services is ample proof that the character of the work turned out is giving every satisfaction.

More particularly in the upper walks of his trade, Mr. Luff enjoys a splendid name. His decorative achievements are always marked by boldness and grace of outline, good colouring, and effective harmony with surroundings. As a paperhanger he is highly successful, and his services are sought for, not only in Ipswich, but for a number of miles round. In this direction he carries one of the best-selected stocks in the whole of the Eastern Counties. The stock held has been chosen with much care and taste from the most desirable productions of the best-known makers, and include all the regular lines in rich profusion and the last and most appreciable novelties. There are extensive and first-rate supplies of every description of dark and white pulps, satins and satinettes, borders, grounds, monochromes, lustres, Lincrusta Waltons, French tapestries, Japanese leather papers, dadoes, centre pieces, &c. There are also ample selections of paints, colours, varnishes, brushes, and all other accessories of the trade. These goods are offered at the most reasonable prices, and afford customers a choice which cannot be equalled elsewhere. Mr. Luff is also largely occupied with the business of the house agent, and has always on his lists some of the most desirable and eligible residences. Landlords and property owners intrusting their affairs to his hands can rely upon their interests being thoroughly well looked after and all settlements honourably and promptly made. Mr. Luff is held in high repute as a merchant in superior goods, as a skilful workman, and a thoroughly reliable business man. He commands the respect of all who come into commercial relations with him, while he is well known and esteemed in public life for the active interest he takes in all movements having for their object the welfare and improvement of his fellow-citizens.


IN noticing the many establishments of interest in Ipswich engaged in the various branches of industrial activity, one that deserves special mention is undoubtedly that of Mr. W. I. Curtis, hairdresser, wig maker, and perfumer, who was for many years manager of Mr. Green’s business in this town. Practical hairdressing, in the highest phases of its modern development, has of late years become an art; of which art Mr. Curtis may safely be considered a most able representative and exponent. Although the above house has only recently been established, it has already gained, and deservedly so, a very firm footing. The premises occupied at 37, Carr Street, comprise a well-appointed shop, the whole of which is tastefully arranged with a large stock of hairdresser’s goods, such as perfumery and toilet requisites for ladies and gentlemen—razors, strops, brushes, combs, sponges, etc., etc. At the rear of this elegant emporium is the gentlemen’s hairdressing room, and above is situated that set apart for ladies. Both these rooms are splendidly equipped with hair-cutting, shaving, shampooing, and other conveniences up-to-date usually to be found in establishments of this kind. A special feature is made of the manufacture of plain and ornamental hair, and wig-making of every description, and in this line Mr. Curtis’ long experience and careful study render it quite impossible for him to be equalled, far less excelled. In every department the business is carried on in the most superior style, and the proprietor caters for the patronage of a very large, distinguished, and high class patronage. Mr. Curtis is a man of good standing, and is widely known and respected in trade and family circles. He conducts his notable and successful business in person with marked ability and judgment, and his eminent professional skill and attainments are constantly apparent in the many superior operations and productions in the art and calling of the accomplished coiffeur.


FOR best value, latest novelties, lowest prices in ties, scarves, gloves, collars, underclothing, hats and caps, H. Sunnucks’, 16, Carr Street, Ipswich, is the noted house.


THE position of the Isle of Wight, in relation to the mainland of England, is one which unites the advantages of insularity with those of easy and convenient access, and this circumstance has contributed in no small measure to its popularity as a pleasure resort, since, though it may be considered sufficiently remote from the “madding crowd” of our great cities to satisfy the seeker after rest and bodily recuperation, it is by no means difficult to reach. This unique and delightful island lies off the south coast of Hampshire, of which country it is territorially a part, and from which it is separated by the channels known as Spithead and the Solent, famed in the yachting world. Thus one may readily approach the Isle of Wight from Portsmouth and Southampton, and the means of communication by steamboat are highly satisfactory. From east to west the island measures about 23 miles in length, and its greatest breadth at the centre is a little over 13 miles. The area is upwards of 93,000 statute acres, and the population at the census of 1891 was 78,718, an increase of over 5,000 as compared with 1881.

From a scenic point of view the Isle of Wight may fairly be said to stand unsurpassed in England. In its own particular way it is incomparable. It presents an embodiment in miniature of almost every variety of characteristic English landscape and coast scenery, and from its remarkable fertility and luxuriant vegetation it has been well named the “Garden Isle.” On the northern side of the island the surface is generally undulating, frequently well wooded, and rising gradually from the coast towards the hills in the centre. Further south are reached the loftiest points in the island — St. Catherine's Hill and Boniface Down, both of which are over 770 feet above the level of the sea. The “back of the island” is the name popularly given to the south side, where are found the most characteristic features of the local scenery. Here are the precipitous and formidable cliffs which present such a bold front to the sea; here are the many “chines” or ravines peculiar to the land formation of this supremely picturesque locality; and here is the world-famous Undercliff, which is indescribable, and in which the islanders can claim to possess something perfectly unique.

Beauty of scenery, a balmy and salubrious climate, and a more liberal allowance of sunshine than falls to the lot of any other part of England, have combined to make the Isle of Wight a prime favourite among our health resorts, and to attract to its shores an enormous annual influx of visitors. A notable example in this respect has been set by the first lady in the kingdom to all and sundry her loyal lieges, and the Queens’ island home at Osborne is a demesne well worthy of the royal favour that it enjoys.

While nature is beneficent to the invalid visitor, there are not wanting equally potent attractions for those who may elect to see what the “Garden Isle” can offer to the mere pleasure seeker and holiday rambler. As the headquarters of English yachting, the waters of the Solent present an animated scene in the season, with their graceful freight of white-winged vessels; and at Cowes and Hyde a brilliant and distinguished company assembles annually to participate in the delights of this thoroughly British and supremely fascinating form of sport. Lovely walks and drives abound in every part of the Wight; a walking tour round the island is, indeed, one of the most enjoyable of holiday experiences, and brings the visitor into touch with many a quaint old-fashioned spot, and many a scene of unrivalled natural beauty. Coaching is largely in vogue, and affords a most agreeable method of touring from place to place under conditions favouring the quest of the picturesque without sacrifice of comfort.

For the home-loving Briton the romantic chines of this “ beautiful isle of the sea,” its quaint cliffs and sequestered dells, odd little caves, sandy coves, beetling crags, and wind-swept downs, must over possess an alluring interest; and we can only say that the tourist and holiday-maker who wishes to indulge the spirit of dolce fur niente in a manner alike creditable to his patriotism and beneficial to his purse and his health, will find a wondrous world of unconventional enjoyment awaiting him beyond the blue waters of the Solent.


THE most populous town in the Isle of Wight is the municipal borough of Ryde, which contained 10,952 inhabitants when the census of 1891 was taken. Finely situated on the acclivity of a hill sloping upwards from the Solent, this interesting port is opposite Stokes Bay and Portsmouth Harbour on the mainland, and is four miles distant from Southsea Pier, across the Solent, and 20 miles from Southampton. There is excellent and regular communication by steamer, while from Ryde it is an easy matter to reach any part of the Isle of Wight either by road or by rail. As far back as the latter part of the fourteenth century, when Ryde was called La Rye, the French appear to have thought it sufficiently important to be worth burning; but down to the dawn of its popularity as a seaside resort, viz., about a hundred years ago, it remained but a small fishing village. During the present century, however, Ryde has grown substantially, and has now become a handsome and thriving town, with a busy life of its own in addition to the activity caused by the arrival and departure of many visitors season after season.

Few English ports present a more picturesque appearance. The town rises in terraces from the sea, and at once impresses the visitor by its striking aspect when viewed from the decks of the incoming steamer. The impression produced is favourable, and is not disturbed by a more intimate acquaintance with the place, for Ryde is a clean, well-paved, and well-governed town, with not a few handsome buildings, and every evidence of municipal advancement. It has the advantage of an excellent water supply, and is well lighted by gas. The views in the neighbourhood are remarkably fine, and among the varied features of attraction to visitors must be mentioned the promenade pier, which is over half-a-mile long. The esplanade extends for nearly a mile, and there are well laid out public gardens, with ornamental water. In the yachting season Ryde is a great centre of fashionable life, and the Royal Victoria Yacht Club has its headquarters here. There is considerable maritime activity at Ryde, the dock accommodation being good; and the local yacht and boat builders have a high reputation for work of a superior class. The herring and lobster fisheries are also important and productive industries on this coast. Otherwise there are no industries which can be termed specially characteristic of Ryde; but all branches of general commerce and retail trading have their representatives, and the leading business establishments attain a high standard of completeness in organisation and resources. the town contains many fine shops, notably those in Union Street, a thoroughfare which would do credit to any community, both in appearance and in the character of the mercantile concerns met with therein. These establishments are manifestly well administered, and display a varied range of the newest goods in the market. Ryde has superior hotel accommodation, several churches and chapels, good schools, and numerous charities. There is a Literary Institute, a theatre, a spacious market, and a town-hall designed by J. Sanderson. The town was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1868. It is a favourite place of residence, and there are many fine houses in the environs.



FOR very many years the admirably organised business conducted by Messrs. A. J. & W. Coombes has, in its several departments, formed one of the leading factors in the commercial — and, it might be added also, in the social — economy of the Ryde district. The wide extent of technical knowledge possessed by the two gentlemen who are the members of the firm, combined with their energy and enlightened enterprise, as manifested in the prompt introduction of all approved novelties within the scope of their business, has gained for them the unreserved confidence and the continued support of all classes of the community, including the highest not only in Ryde, but to a large extent throughout the island. Their headquarters occupy a commanding position at 20, Cross Street, with a fine frontage whose attractive appearance is in keeping with the high-class character of the business which the firm control. The ample show-window, with its exhibits of artistically elegant household furniture, including a constant succession of beautiful new designs and patterns, constitutes a point of never-failing interest. The appointments and fittings of the interior are specially rich and tasteful, in harmony with the sumptuous character of many of the contents. It forms a series of elegant show-rooms in which is exhibited a splendidly comprehensive assortment of cabinet work and other articles of furniture. In this department the firm have gained a high reputation for the invariable excellence of the workmanship and the artistic merit of design which is apparent in all their productions. The stocks also include a fine selection of Oriental carpets, of specially designed Axminster and velvet pile carpets, of antique and modern rags, together with Venetian and art blinds, oilcloths, linoleums, cretonnes, and chintzes from the most noted English and foreign looms, Madras and ecru muslin curtains in great variety, and every description of domestic upholstery. At No. 18, Cross Street, the firm retain extensive stores, which are well lighted, perfectly dry, and most suitable for the storage of valuable furniture — the firm undertaking a large amount of this class of business. In the kindred department of removing they also perform, under the best possible conditions, work of every kind, the plant including a full complement of vans, and a competent staff of experienced packers and house fitters.

At 4 Monkton Street, and in East Street are situated the large works belonging to the Messrs. Coombes. In the workshops the equipment includes all the requisites for facilitating the operations of cabinetmaking and upholstery manufacture. Here a strong staff of skilled workmen is employed in the several departments, under the supervision of expert specialists. In their capacity as auctioneers, the Messrs. Coombes enjoy the confidence of a large circle of influential clients, including many of the leading owners of real property in the island. They have had ample experience in the sale, by auction, of land, houses, furniture, pictures and other works of art, &c. They are themselves extensive house agents and valuers, and their awards are regarded as fully authoritative. For the discharge of their professional duties in these several directions they have a well-appointed suite of offices at their headquarters in Cross Street, the registered telegraphic address being “Coombes, Ryde.”

Mr. A. J. Coombes, the senior member of the firm, being endowed with much administrative ability, devotes much of his valuable time and energies — notwithstanding the large amount of attention demanded by his own multifarious business — to the service of the public, and is an active member of the town council of the borough. He and his partner are much esteemed by all classes of the community, and their wide personal influence enables them to render excellent service to the London and Lancashire Fire and Life Insurance Company, for which the firm are agents.


RYDE possesses not a few business establishments which are equally creditable to the town and to their proprietors, and among these there is none more noteworthy than that of Messrs. H. Pack & Co. at the top of Union Street. This well-known and fashionable silk, drapery, and ladies' outfitting warehouse has been in existence upwards of forty years, and has during that period acquired a wide reputation in the Isle of Wight for the novelty and excellence of its specialities, the extent of its resources, and the many inducements it offers to the public in matters of price and quality. The premises occupied by the firm are admirably adapted to the requirements of the business, being of large dimensions, convenient arrangement, and having a commanding central situation. Their attractive external appearance, due to the splendid dressing of the windows, leads the visitor to expect much of the interior, and that expectation is in no sense disappointed, for the shop and show-rooms are laid out with the greatest taste, as well as with every regard for convenience, and they display a range of goods which would do credit to a leading London house. Countless novelties in drapery goods and all the varied requisites of ladies’ fashionable attire are shown in the spacious saloons on the ground floor; and in the show-rooms above there are even greater attractions in the shape of mantles, dresses, costumes, jackets and millinery, all exemplifying the latest fashions with equal fidelity and artistic effect. A special department is that for ladies' underclothing, in which goods of the choicest quality and finish will be found, and Messrs. H. Pack & Co. continue to maintain the high reputation they have so long enjoyed in connection with their wedding trousseaux and special outfits for India and other countries abroad. In dress and mantle-making this firm's high-class work is greatly admired, and they are not less famous for their productions in millinery, in which they adapt the newest Paris models to the tastes and requirements of their patrons. Another notable department is that for family and complimentary mourning. This is stocked with all the most approved fabrics and accessories, and is so well organised that orders can be executed with exemplary promptitude. To meet immediate requirements there is always a well-assorted stock of dresses, mantles, and millinery made up in the newest and most becoming styles, both for mourning and for ordinary wear.

In short, Messrs. H. Pack & Co. maintain a complete emporium of fashionable requisites, and cater so well to the needs of the ladies of Ryde and the district that no other local establishment of the same kind meets with or merits a larger share of public patronage. The firm are “up-to-date” in everything, and are in no fear of detrimental competition, since they have long ago made it clear to their customers that their rule of supplying the newest and best of everything in their line at the most reasonable prices is not merely a catchpenny commonplace, but is actually and continuously carried into practice. One of the secrets of Messrs. Pack’s success is, undoubtedly, the care they bestow upon their making-up departments, and we must compliment them upon the spacious and well-appointed work-rooms provided by them on their own premises for the skilful staff of dressmakers, mantle-makers, and milliners in their employ, many of the principal hands having been in the employ of the firm for many years. Almost all the goods are manufactured on the premises, ladies' and children’s outfitting being a distinct speciality. A large and select trade is controlled by the firm, and their patronage is drawn not only from the elite of society in Ryde, but almost all over the world. They have been honoured by the commands of royalty, and have many customers residing abroad, from whom they receive frequent orders.


ONE of the leading factors in the commercial and industrial economy of the Isle of Wight is, and has been for many years, the admirably organised business of which Messrs. W. & J. Woods are the proprietors. Their well-ordered establishment dates back for nearly a hundred years, when it was founded by Mr. George Woods, the grandfather of the present members of the firm. At the present time the principals are Messrs. Arthur, Henry, and William Woods. These gentlemen are naturally proud of the traditions of the house and its old-established reputation, and they fully maintain its prestige. The major portion of their premises occupies the site of those in which the founder of the firm began his business, and have a commanding situation in Cross Street. About four years ago, to meet the requirements of trade in the present day, when goods for sale must be advantageously displayed to attract the purchaser, the premises were very materially enlarged in accordance with designs specially prepared by the Ryde Borough Surveyor, and they now comprise a handsome three-storey building, having a frontage of about fifty feet, and extending for a considerable distance to the rear, affording ample space for the effective display of the notably comprehensive stocks always held. On the ground floor and also on the upper storeys are spacious saloons in which are exhibited all descriptions of novelties, useful and ornamental, which are introduced here as soon as they are placed upon the market. Here is to be found a splendidly representative and well-selected stock of general furnishing ironmongery, such as baths, toilet ware, copper goods, wrought and cast iron hollow-ware, turnery, and every requisite for the kitchen, together with a great variety of artistic brass, iron, and other metal goods, also lamps, screens, candelabra, gasaliers, brackets, and fittings of every kind in bronze, brass, &c., with ornamental trays and waiters in polished brass, wood, &c. The stocks, too, include a fine assortment of choice door furniture of a highly decorative character. There is, moreover, a practically unlimited choice of electro-plated goods and cutlery, from the most eminent houses in London, Birmingham, and Sheffield.

Show-rooms are specially set apart for the display of grates, mantelpieces, and overmantels, many of which are arranged in designs suitable for different styles of architecture, each suite being complete throughout with grate, mantelpiece, hearth, fender, fire-brasses, rests, &c. The Messrs. Woods also deal extensively in bedsteads and bedding, including spring mattresses. In connection with this department there is a special show-room, in which upwards of twenty different kinds of bedsteads are fitted up with various descriptions of mattresses. The display of kitcheners, stoves, ranges, &c., is very extensive and exhaustive. The firm are the sole district agents for Flavel’s ranges, of which they hold a complete stock in all sizes. They are, too, the sole agents for Russell's well-known “Herald” ranges, and also for “Strange’s A 1 Crystal Oil.” At the rear of the show-rooms are extensive works, each department being thoroughly equipped with the requisite mechanical appliances for the various industrial processes carried on.

The Messrs. Woods control a large amount of business in the fitting up of electrical appliances, and have executed a large amount of work of this class in nearly all the principal hotels in the Isle of Wight. One of their industrial departments is specially devoted to the manufacture of garden seats and kindred classes of goods. Much attention is successfully paid to gas, hot water, and sanitary engineering, these departments being under the control of expert specialists. Adjoining are large stores, in which are held heavy stocks of building ironmongery, and also of bar iron, and nails of all descriptions. The extensive and well-equipped stables attached to the establishment are also at the rear, and there is a separate entrance to them from High Street. Messrs. W. & J. Woods conduct a considerable wholesale business amongst blacksmiths, builders, plumbers, shop-keepers (general), &c. Their retail connections are very extensive, as the relations which they maintain with all the best sources of supply enable them to offer specially advantageous terms to their customers. In their various departments they employ from thirty to forty hands, some of whom are descendants of men who were in the employment of the founder of the establishment. As he brought his sons up to the control of the business with a thorough technical knowledge of its requirements, so the workmen apprenticed their sons to one or other of the several industrial departments. No stronger testimony could be offered as to the excellent terms on which the employers and the employed have always lived in this excellently managed establishment. It should be added that the premises include a well-appointed suite of offices, and that their telegraphic address is “Woods, Ryde."


THE record of the numerous and extensive industrial operations of Mr. Sweetman, jun., goes back to 1870. Mr. Sweetman’s commercial headquarters are in John Street, and these premises also form the offices for the business of the Anglesea Brewery. This brewery has for a long time been one of the most popular institutions in the Island. Its equipment includes approved modern applications of mechanical science to the perfecting of results in the processes of brewing. The productions of the Anglesea Brewery include various descriptions — differing in respect to strength — of mild and bitter ales, and also nourishing stout and porter. These beverages are all noted for their brilliancy, delicacy of flavour, and appetising properties. Mr. Sweetman also controls a considerable business as a wine and spirit merchant, a portion of his John Street premises being admirably adapted to the requirements of this department. Here he holds stocks of excellent ports, sherries, clarets, hocks, Moselles, Burgundies, champagnes, &c., together with all descriptions of spirits and cordials. The scale on which Mr. Sweetman makes his purchases of these classes of goods, and his knowledge of the markets, enables him to offer exceptionally favourable conditions to his. customers. He is likewise the proprietor of the “Castle Hotel,” which occupies a commanding corner position at the junction of John Street with High Street, and is one of the leading houses of public entertainment in the town. Mr. Sweetman, too, controls the business of the extensive bait and livery stables which are attached to the hotel. In his capacity as a brewer and a wine and spirit merchant, Mr. Sweetman conducts a large trade, having a proprietary interest in many licensed houses in the district, and valuable connections all over the Island. The popularity of his Anglesea Brewery productions is, moreover, attested by their large consumption in private families. At 16, John Street, also, he conducts business as a wholesale and retail miller (his mill being at Upton), corn, hay, and straw merchant, and forage contractor, maintaining a large stock of each of these classes of commodities. In the several departments of his business he employs efficient staffs of experienced assistants; and one of the secrets of the success which he has achieved is, unquestionably, the promptitude and accuracy with which all orders are executed. This requires the exercise of organising and administrative abilities such as are possessed in a very high degree by Mr. Sweetman, who personally supervises all the working details of his extensive and many-sided business. He is able, at the same time, to interest himself in matters affecting the welfare of the community, and was, for a time, an active member of the Ryde Town Council.


IN the industrial and commercial economy of the Isle of Wight, an honourably conspicuous position has long been held by the eminent house of Messrs. Hansford Brothers, whose record goes back to 1830, and has been one of substantial and uninterrupted progress. The members of the firm at the present time are Mr. A. Y. Hansford and Mr. J. Hansford, who fully maintain the reputation of the house. The firm originally conducted their operations in George Street, whence they removed, in 1856, to their present premises, at 9-and-a-half, Cross Street. These were built by the firm to designs specially prepared to suit the requirements of their business. It is a singular practical paradox that this establishment, which has the largest frontage — over forty feet — in Cross Street, should have only half a number assigned to it, but the explanation is that the premises are built upon what was formerly a piece of waste land, belonging partly to No. 9 and partly to No. 10, in the street. They comprise a commanding block of buildings four storeys in height, in addition to a basement, and having a facade of very considerable architectural merit. Each of the floors is spacious, running back over fifty feet. The elegantly appointed interior forms a series of show-rooms forming a seemingly endless vista of dining and drawing-room furniture, with a practically unlimited variety of sideboards, couches, sofas, easy-chairs, &c. Here is also a fine display of drawing-room appointments of every kind.

Special attention is given to the upholstering department, which includes a splendid stock of carpets, with an excellent assortment of floorcloths and linoleums in new and artistic patterns. There is, too, a thoroughly representative stock of bedroom furniture of all varieties. At the top of the building are commodious workshops, furnished with all the requisites for the processes of cabinet and upholstery manufacture, &c., which are conducted by an experienced and highly-skilled staff — the manufacture of bedding of pure materials, from a sanitary point of view, being a speciality in this department. Messrs. Hansford Brothers also control an important business as decorators and painters, their operations in this department extending largely to yachts as well as to domestic interiors. The sound artistic taste which is always manifest in the firm's decorative work, as well as the promptitude and efficiency with which all orders are executed, has gained for the firm the unreserved confidence of many influential owners, both of house property and of yachts. The Messrs. Hansford, moreover, have had ample experience in the conduct of funeral ceremonies, and have every facility for undertaking their due performance in accordance with the most approved modern ideas of funeral reform. They have also gained a high reputation for the care and expedition which they display, by the aid of a specially trained and experienced staff, in the conduct of household removals. In connection with this department they have extensive and well-appointed stabling accommodation in the rear of Cross Street opposite to the warehouse. Here, too, they have ample space for the storage of furniture. The firm, however, are perhaps best known to the general public as conducting the largest business in the Ryde district in the supply of furniture on the hire-purchase system, from which, in their case, every element which is not consistent with absolute equity has been eliminated. The Messrs. Hansford, again, are the sole agents in the Isle of Wight for the useful and cheap material known as “Feltine,” which increases the durability of carpets by protecting them from uneven flooring, makes them feel thicker and softer to the tread, and raises the temperature of rooms in winter by preventing draughts coming through the flooring.

The members of the firm are both endowed with strong organising and administrative powers, and thus Mr. J. Hansford, notwithstanding the large amount of his attention which is monopolised by his own flourishing business, is able to devote much of his valuable time and energies to the service of the public. Thus he is an active member of the Ryde Town Council, and of the Art and Science Council, and he is also president of one of the Ryde Building Societies. The Messrs. Hansford are held in much esteem by all classes of the community, and their extensive personal influence enables them to render valuable services as agents for the Royal Fire and Life Insurance Company, with which corporation their connection is historical. In the first year of this prosperous Company’s existence, Mr. Hansford, the father of the present members of the firm, became its representative in Ryde, and Messrs. Hansford Brothers are now amongst the oldest agents on the list of the Royal.


THE records of the representative busmen now under review show that it was established at Ryde as far back as thirty years ago. About ten years since, the business, then being carried on at No. 153, High Street, was acquired by its present talented and enterprising proprietor, Mr. Fred P. Mellish, who, three years later, in 1887, was appointed to the office of Postmaster, and under whose vigorous administration the business expanded so rapidly that be found it imperative to remove to his present more convenient and commodious quarters at No. 42, High Street two years ago. Conspicuously located opposite to Star Street, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically and tastefully arranged, and displays a large stock of goods including books in all branches of literature, rich in bibles, prayer, and hymn books, and works of a devotional character; plain, commercial, and fashionable fancy stationery, account-books and office requisites of every kind; stationers' sundries and fancy goods, photographs, artists’ materials, bric-a-brac, et id genus omni; a particularly large assortment of Messrs. Raphael Tuck's beautiful reproductions of pictures by the old masters, and the products of the Anglo-American Paper Bag Company, of Spitalfields, for which Mr. Mellish acts as the sole agent in the Isle of Wight. In his well-equipped works at the rear Mr. Mellish employs a picked staff of experts, and is thus enabled to execute letterpress and commercial job printing of every kind, in a highly creditable manner with due economy and despatch. Mr. Mellish is publisher of the hymns, &c., used at St. Michael’s Church, Swanmore, Ryde; and in all his duties, both public and private, brings such energy and ability to bear upon the work in hand that he has won the confidence and esteem of a very large circle of desirable patrons and friends.


THE Crown Family and Commercial Hotel is probably one of the oldest high-class places of public entertainment in Ryde, although the records of its earlier history are rather general than definite. It is characteristic of the pleasant social conservatism, which has long obtained within its hospitable walls, that the late “Boots” of the establishment, when he recently retired, had filled that responsible position for upwards of forty- three years. The Crown occupies a most eligible position for the convenience of visitors, whether in pursuit of pleasure or of business, being within easy reach of the railway station and of the Pier, while it stands right in the centre of the commercial quarter of the town. It comprises a block of commodious three-storeyed buildings, whose ample frontage, with its deep bay windows, extending across its first floor, as well as the ground floor, has an appearance of comfortable antiquity which is delightfully suggestive of good old-fashioned English fare, and plenty of it. The proprietress, Mrs. H. T. Halstead, has controlled the establishment for the last twelve years, and, while she has fully sustained all the good old traditions of the house, she has, by the liberal introduction of modern conveniences, very materially extended the valuable family and commercial connection of the establishment. The internal arrangements, as to lighting, heating, and ventilation, are all in accordance with the most advanced scientific ideas.

The numerous apartments include coffee, dining, commercial, smoking, and billiard rooms, together with numerous bedrooms, all of which are furnished in most substantial and comfortable style. Mrs. Halstead has unquestionably succeeded in making the Crown one of the most popular hotels in the town. Special arrangements are made for the convenience of the “ambassadors of commerce” — as is, indeed, their due — the stock-rooms being undoubtedly larger and better equipped than those belonging to any other hotel in the Island. Mrs. Halstead has exceptional facilities for obtaining daily supplies of the finest meat, poultry, game, vegetables, fruit, and dairy produce, and the cuisine, without being unnecessarily elaborate, is thoroughly satisfactory. The cellars have a splendid reputation, which is fully sustained by the excellent judgment and the liberal expenditure of the proprietress. In particular we may mention that the house can supply the finest port to be obtained in Ryde. Nothing, in fact, is wanting to make thoroughly enjoyable a residence, temporary or otherwise, at the Crown.


THE higher branches of practical tailoring, shirt-making, and outfitting in general, find an able representative and exponent at the town of Ryde, in the person of Mr. W. H. Long, who for the past fourteen years has conducted with singular success a business which had previously been promoted by a Mr. Bartlett for a period of six years, and was originally organised by a Sir. Colenutt as far back as the year 186S. Occupying a prominent position in Cross Street, the spacious, full-fronted shop is neatly appointed and arranged throughout in the best modern style, and displays a representative stock of all the best and most fashionable tailoring fabrics and materials for the current season, together with silk and felt hats and caps, hosiery, gloves, and underwear, a very special line in pure linen shirts, made to order, and guaranteed to realise a perfect fit, the newest patterns and styles in scarfs and ties, and outfitting items of every description. In his well-equipped work-rooms, the cutting department of which comes under his personal control, Mr. Long employs a picked staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen in the production of gentlemen's fashionable attire for all occasions, stylish and durable boys' clothing, ladies' habits, jackets, and ulsters, servants’ liveries, and the like, and every garment so made possesses a correctness of style, a perfection of fit, and a faultless finish, that can only be imported by a thorough master of the sartorial art. The high reputation of this typical establishment has always been its best advertisement, and this, coupled with the efficiency and sound judgment that continue to mark the methods of its administration, has secured and retained for the house a patronage characterised by every attribute of desirability and distinction.


WITH the dawn of the year 1894 the fish, game, and poultry supply trade of Ryde received a valuable accession in the form of the already popular “Billingsgate Stores,” at 156, High Street, organised under the capable initiative of Mr. J. Johncox, junior, who, with the assistance of an expert staff of London salesmen and canvassers, has succeeded in securing a fair share of the best family patronage to be had in the town and its environs. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position, the spacious shop, with its modern hygienic appointments throughout, always presents a singularly neat, scrupulously clean, and wholesome appearance, which tends very largely to enhance the inviting character of the abundant and well-arranged stock there en evidence, which “speaks for itself” as having been consigned direct from the “toilers of the deep,” the rivers, lakes, woodlands, and farmyards both at home and abroad. All the esteemed varieties of “fish, fur and feather” in their respective seasons are here to be met with in the very finest condition. The supply of both wet and dry fish, the luscious oyster in its manifold varieties, and other molluscs and highly appreciated crustaceans, such as lobsters, crabs, prawns and shrimps, crayfish, &c., together with neatly plucked and trussed barn-door fowls and other poultry, pigeons and rabbits from across the “silver streak,” and all manner of seasonable English and foreign game, is undoubtedly one of the largest and best selected of its kind to be found under any single roof in the Island; while it is manifest that Mr. Johncox, junior, spares no effort to study the best interests of his customers, and to enhance the high reputation for liberal and straightforward dealing which he now so deservedly enjoys.


THIS notable business is carried on with great enterprise, to which fact its continuous growth is largely due, and it occupies a spacious double-fronted shop at the above address, the windows of which are rendered attractive by the fine display of novelties they present. Every characteristic of a first-class clothing and outfitting establishment is here noticeable, and we observe that at the present time the firm are making a special study of their tailoring department. In this connection the stock is replete with the newest and most fashionable cloths of every kind, selected from the output of the best manufacturers, and the standard of excellence maintained in the making-up is a high one. All garments are out by the most experienced cutters, and Mr. Holmes is enabled to guarantee perfect fit and best workmanship at prices which will compare favourably with those of any other house. Not only are all branches of gentlemen’s tailoring carried out with skill and taste, but the requirements of the rising generation are also amply provided for, and our boys can be as well and smartly dressed at this well-known Ryde establishment as they can in London, while in most cases the cost is less, when quality of material and workmanship are duly considered. Every novelty in style, pattern, and fabric is shown by Mr. Holmes from season to season, and special attention may be called to the inducements he offers in such matters as gentlemen’s jacket suits and morning suits, tourist and shooting suits, fashionable frock-coat suits, light dust coats, covert coats, &c., all of which are turned out very smartly at exceedingly moderate prices. The whole range of boys' and youths’ clothing is covered, all requirements for college, school, and general wear being studied with effect, and special attention is given to the juvenile department, in which some very “natty” and becoming styles are shown for boys of all ages and sizes, as well as a modification of sailor costume adapted for little girls, and well suited for holidays at the seaside. As to general outfittings, Mr. Holmes presents a fine stock to the notice of the public, including all the new styles in hats, ties, collars, shirts, &c., and the best makes of hosiery and underwear. In short, this is a complete outfitting emporium, with the exception of boots and shoes, and in each department an exceptional range of choice is offered, the stock being one of the largest and most complete of its kind in the Isle of Wight. The entire business, in all its practical and commercial details, is personally superintended by the experienced and energetic principal, who is to b« congratulated both upon the excellent organisation of his establishment and upon the widespread connection he has acquired in Ryde and the surrounding districts.


IT is now upwards of sixty years since the late Mr. J. A. Purnell founded this well-known house-furnishing emporium, which has from the first been conducted in High Street, Ryde, and is still carried on under his name. The present premises were rebuilt by Messrs. Purnell, and constitute the finest furniture warehouses in the Island. They extend from No. 6 to No. 8 inclusive in High Street, with large store-rooms and show-rooms at the rear of Nos. 5, 6, 7 and 8, and there is also a factory in Manor Gardens, the whole being comprised in one block. The establishment presents an attractive outward appearance, the large plate-glass windows being always well dressed, and displaying leading features in each department of the business. Internally the arrangements are excellent, the space at the firm’s disposal for showroom purposes being no less than eleven thousand square feet. Carpets form one of the principal specialities of this house, and there is a splendid display of the best English, Continental, and Oriental makes, together with an almost endless variety of rugs, mats, and mattings. The same comprehensiveness is noticeable in the department for curtains, curtain materials, and all kinds of upholstery fabrics and decorative textiles in tapestries, silks, velvets, plushes, cashmeres, cretonnes, chintzes, laces, and muslins. Turning next to the cabinet furniture, the visitor is impressed with the complete provision made for every requirement. Couches and easy chairs are shown in a great many attractive styles, and there are suites adapted for dining-rooms, drawing-rooms, morning- rooms, boudoirs, &c., in every fashionable design and material, besides hall, library, and bedroom furniture in the same extensive variety. The artistic beauty shown in the patterns of this furniture, as well as the highly finished workmanship, commend it at once to our approval, and speak for the resources of the firm as manufacturers. These resources may be judged by a visit to the works, which are equipped with every requisite in tools and machinery, and where a numerous staff is regularly employed. The firm are manufacturers of most of the goods they sell, including bedding, to which they devote special attention, using' only the beet and purest materials, and turning out goods of the most reliable quality.

Messrs. Purnell are funeral furnishers and cremators, carrying out orders in connection with the latter department at Woking Crematorium. which is the nearest one for this part of the country. They also do a large business as auctioneers and valuers, and have auction rooms at the rear of their premises, known as the Manor House Auction Rooms, where they conduct sales of furniture and other goods. They are agents for the Lancashire Fire and Life Insurance Company, an office of well-known stability, and are thus in a position to transact all insurance business upon the most favourable terms. Special facilities exist for conducting removals of household furniture; and Messrs. Purnell are noted as house decorators and repairers. Ball-room decorations come within the scope of their trade as a speciality, and they carry out the principal contracts for this class of work in Ryde and the vicinity. Messrs. Purnell are honoured by royal patronage both at home and at the German court. As well as supplying goods to the Queen and other members of the Royal Family at “Osborne,” they have quite recently forwarded goods to Her Majesty’s castle at Balmoral. They are upholsterers by appointment to the Royal Victoria Yacht Club. In all departments of their trade they are noted for high-class work, and complete house-furnishing contracts are executed in the promptest manner and at the most reasonable prices for goods of superior style and quality.

The business is administered with marked ability and enterprise by the Messrs. A. and J. Purnell, sons of the late Mr. J. A. Purnell (who, it may be remarked, was for many years a member of the Ryde Town Council); and the house continues, as in the past, to enjoy the support of a valuable and widespread connection, including nearly all the prominent families resident in this part of the Isle of Wight. Both the partners are well known in athletic circles, and Mr. J. Purnell was the originator of the present Ryde Football Club, of which he is now the secretary. He is also deputy-captain of the Ryde Rowing Club, and was one of the promoters and secretary to the first carnival held in Ryde, and we believe England, which took place about ten years ago with gratifying success. Our readers will find Messrs. Purnell's showrooms well worthy of a visit, and we recommend this course as the best means of becoming acquainted with the resources of an establishment which is distinctly a credit to Ryde as well as to its energetic and experienced proprietors.
Telegraphic address: “Purnell, Ryde.”


THE important and comprehensive business now under review was organised many years ago at No. 24, Union Road, Ryde, under the able auspices of the father of its present talented and enterprising proprietor. Upon his succession to the business Mr. Clement Jackman, whilst retaining the original premises in Union Road as his works, opened his fine shop and show-room in George Street about eighteen months since. Here he maintains a heavy stock of all manner of goods. Gas and hot and cold water fittings; every description of gas lamps, globes, and glasses; all kinds of household ironmongery, tin, zinc, brass, and copper wares; plumbers’, painters’, and bellhangers’ materials and requisites; modern sanitary appliances; paraffin, colza, and other oils; paints, varnishes, and enamels; paperhangings and house decorative items of all kinds are all fully represented up-to-date, and are offered for sale, both retail and wholesale, at specially advantageous terms. In hit perfectly equipped workshops in Union Road, Mr. Jackman retains the services of a staff of skilled workmen and others in constant readiness to proceed to any part of the Island for the purpose of executing work by contract or otherwise; undertaking coppersmith's work for yachts and private houses; the tinning of culinary utensils; ironmongery and other repairs; gas and water fitting, bellhanging, and whitesmiths’ work; tin, iron, zinc, and copper smithery; the painting, paperhanging, and general decoration of houses; and plumbing and sanitary engineering in all their branches; and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large, valuable, and widespread connection, as much by reason of the reliability and exceptional excellence of all his work as for the moderation of his charges, and the sound methods and honourable principles which characterise his business transactions.


THIS favourite family and commercial hotel was founded originally in the year 1847, and wag acquired in 1887 by the late Mr. A. Drake, who had previously been proprietor of an hotel at Tunbridge Wells, where he was a member of the Board of Guardians and also of the Local Board. Under his able management the York Hotel at Ryde added considerably to its reputation, and the success that has attended it is well maintained at the present time under Mrs. Drake, who has directed the establishment with marked ability since her husband’s death four years ago. Having an excellent situation in George Street, the York Hotel is very conveniently placed both for commercial gentlemen and for families visiting Ryde on pleasure bent. It is a fine three-story building with an imposing frontage, and a total of about forty rooms, making up some thirty beds, and affording excellent accommodation in every case at a moderate tariff of charges. This hotel is beautifully situated on the top of a hill, the principal sitting and bedrooms commanding extensive and uninterrupted views of Spithead and Southampton Water, and during the season good views may be obtained of the principal races of the Royal Yacht Squadron and Victoria Yacht Club. In the distance may also be seen the towers of Osborne House, the private residence of Her Majesty, also Portsmouth Harbour and Southsea, all of which are easily reached from this hotel, which is a most convenient centre for visiting all places in the island and neighbourhood, including Bournemouth and Southampton, whence there is a daily service of boats during the summer.

There are the usual coffee, commercial, smoking, and other public rooms, all of which are spacious and well furnished; and in addition to these the ladies' private coffee-room, reading and writing rooms, present all the attractions of handsome and appropriate appointments. Every modern refinement and convenience contributes to the comfort of guests at the York Hotel, and a first-class chef and excellent wines, spirits, and cigars are certainly not the least among its many recommendations. Visitors have every facility for obtaining horses and carriages, there being a capital livery and bait stable attached to the hotel, with ample accommodation in the shape of loose boxes, &c The York Hotel is a headquarters of the Cyclists' Touring Club, and also of the “Bachelor’s Club,” and of the Vectis Cycling Club. The York Hotel has been patronised by many illustrious personages, among them being the Empress of the French, who occupied apartments in the hotel after her escape from France in 1870. In the ladies’ coffee-room we noticed a fine oil painting representing the ‘Gazelle’ passing Whitecliffe Bay, and bearing the legend: “Escape of the Empress of the French, September, 1870, on board the ‘Gazelle,’ Sir J. M. Burgoyne, Bart.” A full and interesting description of the escape of Her Imperial Majesty was given in Temple Bar in 1873.

The York Hotel has always enjoyed a high-class patronage, and continues to do so, its general organisation and management leaving nothing to be desired. Mrs. Drake is an esteemed and popular hostess, amply experienced in all the details of hotel business, and the house will certainly lose none of its prestige and good repute under her careful and judicious administration.


THERE is no high-class pharmacy in the Isle of Wight which has gained a larger measure of popularity than that which is conducted by Mr. William Smith. His establishment has an honourable record which goes back to 1840; and, during the period of twenty-one years which have elapsed since it was acquired by Mr. Smith, its valuable connection has been very materially extended. His premises occupy a commanding position and have an ample frontage, whose attractive appearance is in keeping with the popular methods which Mr. Smith has adopted in the conduct of his business. A splendidly ample show-window exhibits a constant succession of beautiful novelties in toilet requisites and other classes of goods. In the interior, which is elegantly appointed, there is an effective display of goods which include every description of drugs and chemicals which are invariably of absolute purity and in the best possible condition, together with surgical appliances, all the popular patent medicines and proprietary articles, and every requisite appliance for the sick-room, the nursery, and the toilet.

With the best sources of supply for all these classes of goods, Mr. Smith maintains relations of such intimacy and extent that he is able to offer exceptionally advantageous terms to his customers, and he retails patent medicines at “Stores” prices. At the rear is the thoroughly equipped dispensing department, which receives the special attention of the principal. Prescriptions sire dispensed with fidelity and accuracy, and with the purest ingredients; the directions of the British Pharmacopoeia (which is the legal standard for the preparation of medicines in this country) are strictly followed, and thus the fullest intentions of the physician are faithfully carried out. As an operative dentist, too, Mr. Smith’s technical knowledge and skill, combined with his matured experience, have enabled him to create a large and ever-growing practice. In this department a large glass case exhibits a fine assortment of artificial teeth. The charges are as moderate as is compatible with the best of materials and workmanship. This comprehensive establishment also includes amongst its resources a homoeopathic department, where the dispensing of prescriptions and the attenuation of medicines are performed strictly in conformity to the rules of the Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia.

Family medicine cases, containing the principal tinctures or pilules in general use, are always in stock; and customers' cases are refilled. Mr. Smith has gained a reputation, which is very widespread, for a long series of specialities of which he is the sole proprietor and maker. Amongst these are “W. Smith’s Tonic Liver Pills”; his “Cough Elixir”; “Chilblain Remedy”; “Corn Eradicator”; “Quinine and Iron Tonic”; “Voice and Throat Lozenges”; “Mella Rose Balm” and “Balm of Glycerine and Camphor” for chapped hands, rough skin, &c; “Neroline Kalydor,” for sunburn, pimples, &c; “Milk of Cucumber”; “Chromo-Redivivus,” for restoring hair to its natural colour; “Scurf Pomatum”; “Cherry and Areca Nut Tooth Pastes”; “Cockroach and Beetle Food” are among the many proprietary articles prepared by him. The tastefully-produced card, in which the list of his specialities is set forth, has also a useful map of the town of Ryde.


DURING the forty years which have elapsed since Mr. T. M. Chiverton began his commercial, industrial, and decorative work in Ryde, his extensive technical knowledge has enabled him to make his well-ordered establishment an important factor in the economic activity of the Isle of Wight, while in regard to one of its departments it has become a leading centre of artistic life in the district. His commodious premises occupy a commanding position, and have a fine double frontage. The show-windows, with their tastefully arranged and thoroughly representative exhibits, constitute points of never-failing interest. The interior is handsomely appointed, and effectively displays the comprehensive stocks which are always held. As an artist's repository, the establishment has justly attained a very high reputation. Here will be found a fully representative stock of colours by such eminent manufacturers as Winsor & Newton, with brushes, canvas, and paper; pencils by Rowney & Co., Wolff & Co., Winsor & Newton, and all other requisites for studio and sketching purposes. For decorative work Mr. Chiverton holds at all times a splendid selection of mirrors, porcelain and terra-cotta vases, white-wood goods, decorative pedestals and bowls, &c. He is, too, the principal agent in Ryde for the celebrated “Glacier” decoration for windows. The stocks also include a practically unlimited choice of paperhangings, together with requisites of all descriptions, for the several industrial processes which are carried on by the firm. To the rear are spacious workshops, equipped with all the appliances for facilitating the operations of picture-frame making, gilding, mount cutting, picture cleaning, &c Other shops, equally well-equipped in their way, afford accommodation to a large staff of skilled workmen, including plumbers, painters, glaziers, gas fitters, &c. The principal exhibits much artistic taste in the execution of the numerous and important contracts for house decoration which he undertakes. Mr. Chiverton is endowed with much administrative ability, and personally supervises all the details of his extensive business.


THE extensive business of Messrs. H. V. Carter & Co., at Ryde, is a notable one in this interesting trade, and ranks with the leading concerns of its kind in the South. It was founded upwards of forty years ago by Messrs. Carter & Co., and in the hands of its present proprietor fully maintains the reputation it has long enjoyed for high-class work. The premises occupied by the firm in Union Street form a fine set of show-rooms, with an extensive frontage, and afford every facility for the display of vehicles. Both the ground floor and the first floor of this spacious three-storey building are devoted to show-room purposes, while the top flat is used as a trimming loft. At the rear, in Union Road, is a commodious two-storey building, which forms the factory, and here all manufacturing operations are carried on under the most favourable conditions, the skilled workmen employed being assisted in their labours by all necessary machinery and tools of the most modern type. For the making of the heavier parts of carriages there is a well-equipped smithy; and in the body-making and wheelwrights’ department, as well as in the painting and varnishing shops, and the trimming loft, an efficient staff is always at work, under the active supervision of the principal. The display in the show-rooms is a most comprehensive one, and serves to indicate the extent of the business, for here may be seen every style of vehicle in vogue at the present day for driving purposes, from the simplest village cart to the largest and most elaborate four-in-hand coaches.

The revival of coaching in these days has induced Messrs. Carter to bestow special attention upon the building of coaches in the most approved style, and some very fine specimens of their work may be seen plying upon the regular tourist routes throughout the Isle of Wight, and various places in the South of England. They have just recently sent a coach to Bournemouth, which is acknowledged to be the best one in that district. This firm have identified their name with some notable improvements in carriage building. Mr. Carter is endeavouring to promote the use of the pneumatic tyre in the island, and has a section of the premises set apart for illustrating and explaining its advantages. For some time this firm traded as G. H. Mulliss & Co., the partners being Mr. G. H. Mulliss and Mr. H. V. Carter. Mr. Mulliss has now withdrawn his name from the concern, and Mr. Carter is sole principal. Mr. H. V. Carter is a member of the Institute of Coachbuilders, and a thoroughly practical master of every detail of his trade. The firm's work is widely and favourably known for elegance, strength, and finish, and their ample resources enable them to undertake the building of every description of carriage to order, on the most moderate terms, and also to execute repairs effectually and promptly. This establishment holds the leading place in Ryde, and in all departments of the trade Messrs. H. V. Carter & Co. control a large and important business, and enjoy the support and confidence of a very valuable and influential connection.


THIS is an old-established concern of very high repute in its line, and was founded upwards of fifty years ago by the father of the present proprietor. It has always been carried on upon the same site, but the original premises have been replaced by the larger and more convenient modern building now occupied. Here there is a fine spacious shop for the seed department, with extensive show-houses which are open to the public daily for the inspection of goods, while at the rear are the large nurseries, extending back to West Street. Mr. Dimmick, however, has other nurseries at Upper West Street, Pellhurst Road, and Ashey Road, all of which are favourably situated, being devoted to the rearing of trees, shrubs, flowering plants, hollies, ivies, conifers, &c., for park and garden purposes. In these productions Mr. Dimmick excels, and always makes a superb display, affording the widest possible range of choice for buyers. Another specially attractive feature is his magnificent rosery, in which every known variety of the “queen of flowers" is brought to perfection. Special attention is given to fruit trees, and great success has always attended the efforts of the firm in this department; while in the matter of trees for ornamental planting superiority is aimed at and achieved. To sum up Mr. Dimmick’s specialities briefly, they may be said to consist in vegetable and flower seeds of every kind, fruit trees, roses, evergreens, Dutch bulbs in season, hardy climbers, and all manner of ornamental shrubs and trees. Thus it will be seen that the whole scope of the seedsman's and nurseryman's trade is covered with the one exception of those seeds which are purely agricultural, such as pasture grasses, cereals, &c.

Besides all this Mr. Dimmick does a very large trade as a florist and floral decorator, and has a great reputation in this connection for bridal and hand bouquets, memorial wreaths and crosses, loose cut flowers for church and table decoration, and button-hole bouquets and sprays for the hair. The bouquets are made up with much artistic taste and skill, and in the case of bouquets, wreaths and crosses, boxes are provided so contrived that they can be sent in perfect condition either by rail or parcel post. We also noticed a large stock of porcelain wreaths and crosses, dried flowers, &c., in many new and beautiful designs. These have the advantage of permanence. Mr. Dimmick's stock in the High Street shop includes every requisite for gardening, such as fertilisers, chemical manures, insecticides, labels, &c., &c., and forms quite a horticultural emporium. For floral decorations this is a celebrated house, and Mr. Dimmick always carries out the decorations for the Victoria Yacht Club and for the Infirmary Ball, as well as for many private functions. He enjoys a large amount of distinguished patronage, often sending large quantities of shrubs to the royal gardens and grounds at Osborne; and his general connection extends all over the island, particularly around the east coast. Reliable workmen can be supplied on the shortest notice to set out new gardens and plantations, or to remodel existing ones. The whole business is under the personal supervision of the proprietor, who possesses the most ample practical knowledge and experience. The late founder of the house was a town councillor of Ryde, but the present Mr. Dimmick, his son, does not aspire to municipal honours, preferring to give his undivided attention to the large and exacting business over which he presides.


A CHIEF centre of attraction in Union Street is the large establishment of Mr. Richard Colenutt, Jun., which ranks as a leading house in Ryde for the supply of groceries, provisions, confectionery, Italian and other foreign comestibles, oilmen's sundries, and various household requisites. It was in 1843 that this important business was founded by Mr. R. Colenutt, Sen., by whom it was very successfully conducted and energetically developed for over half-a-century. Quite recently the founder handed over the concern to his son, the present proprietor. The fine premises, spacious and commodious, and very handsomely appointed, afford every facility for the business, and present an appearance which would do credit to any London house. There are convenient offices, large storage accommodation, and all the accessories of a perfectly organised establishment, conducted upon the “stores” principle, but quite open to the patronage of all the public. To meet the requirements of an unusually large trade, Mr. Colenutt holds a vast and comprehensive stock. There is no necessity to speak in detail of the various departments of this stock, or to mention specialities where everything is of the best value and most reliable quality. Attention may, however, be drawn to Mr. Colenutt’s teas, which are a leading feature of the business, and it should be mentioned that he is sole agent for Ridgway’s teas in Ryde, and also for the Happoowella Ceylon Teas, which have met with great favour. Soups and preserved goods generally are also prominent items in the trade of this house, and Mr. Colenutt’s jams are all made specially for him.

Among the advantages offered by these stores to the local public are the following:—(1) No entrance fee or annual subscription; (2) no officialism or incivility, (3) the daily collection and delivery of orders free of charge; (4) weekly books treated as cash; (5) all articles not approved, exchanged or placed to the credit of customers; (6) no charge for price list, and no expense of postage incurred; (7) the advantage of being able to buy goods in one's own neighbourhood just when required, and of inspecting them before purchasing, without the trouble of remitting money to a distance, or of unpacking and returning empty packages. Deposit accounts are arranged to suit customers’ convenience, and the best possible delivery system is in operation, daily for Ryde and suburbs, and at frequent intervals for other parts. Mr. Colenutt supplies the best goods obtainable at prices calculated upon a very moderate margin of profit. Mr. R. Colenutt, Sen., the founder of the business, has long been a conspicuous figure in public life at Ryde, of which town he has been Mayor twice. He is at the present time an alderman of the borough and of the County Council, a member of the Fisheries Committee for Hampshire, and a prominent member of the Committee of the School of Arts.


MR. MARLOW formed the nucleus of his now prosperous business at No. 3, Melville Street, some fifteen years ago, but by reason of the rapid expansion of his trade, was led, five years later, to open new premises at No. 19, Union Street, still, however, retaining his original shop as a branch depot. It will suffice, for the purposes of this brief review, to give a concise descriptive sketch of the headquarters, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. Eligibly located in a conspicuous position, the spacious double-fronted shop always presents a singularly attractive appearance on account of the abundant and varied stock there invitingly displayed of plain and fancy breads and biscuits, toothsome cakes, pastry and confectionery, and tempting table delicacies and choice wines, ales and stouts. In addition to this light refreshment department, there is a comfortably arranged luncheon-room, and a splendidly appointed salle-a- manger, where daily menus a la carte are smartly served at moderate charges by a staff of civil and attentive assistants. Soups, fish, entrees, joints, rotes, entremets sueres, cheese, dessert, and wines and malt liquors, being tabled up to date, and testifying to the presence of a perfectly equipped kitchen, and accomplished culinary artists.

In addition to the production of supplies for his two establishments, and large daily round of regular family customers, Mr. Marlow has won an unsurpassed reputation for the exceptional excellence of his rich and aesthetically ornamented wedding, birthday and other special cakes; and he controls perhaps the largest business in the Island as a purveyor of recherche ball suppers, wedding breakfasts, banquets, &c, for which he is always open to provide for by contract, and to supply glass, china, plate, cutlery, and linen on hire, with or without experienced waiters and other attendants, «U such festive functions entrusted to his management being carried out with a careful competence which proclaims the supervision of a past- master in the art of successful refreshment catering. Personally, Mr. Marlow is well-known and much esteemed in all parts of the Island as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man, and he continues to conduct his establishment with the intelligence and spirited energy which have been the foundation-stones, so to speak, of his past and present prosperity.


THIS establishment was originally founded by Messrs. Copnall & Adams, who were succeeded by Mr. Wintle. Five years ago it was acquired by the present proprietor, Mr. J. Coldwell, trading as J. Coldwell & Co., who brought to his undertaking a thorough technical knowledge of the business. The premises, which are known as the Ryde Civil Service and Co-operative Stores, occupy a commanding position in the High Street, and have a fine double frontage, running back for a distance of about 60 feet. The well-appointed interior admits of the effective display of samples and the classification of the stock held. The establishment throughout is admirably adapted for the conduct of a very extensive business in the supply of groceries, provisions, wines, spirits, beers, patent medicines, earthenware, china, glass, brooms, brushes, and ironmongery. At the rear are conveniently-fitted offices for the transaction of financial and other business. Here, too, are commodious store-rooms in which are held large stocks of non-perishable articles. In the grocery department a special feature has been very successfully made of the supply of China, Indian, and Ceylon teas. Mr. Coldwell has gained a deservedly high reputation as an expert tea-taster and blender, having had an extensive London experience, and being in touch with the primary sources of tea supply in Mincing Lane. The blends of tea which he offers for use in Ryde are specially prepared to suit the chemical characteristics of the local water supply, and by their use consumers therefore obtain very considerable advantages through the completeness of the infusion effected.

Special attention is also given to the provision department, which is supplied with the imported produce of the best American, Irish, and Continental markets. Large stocks are also held of patent medicines, earthenware, china, glass, brooms, brushes, ironmongery, lamps, travelling trunks, toilet soaps, perfumes, candles and night-lights, knife- boards, &c. The resources of the establishment are completed by the extensive stocks of wines, spirits, and malt liquors which are always held. These are of the best qualities and are invariably in excellent condition. The high class of the business controlled in this department is indicated by the fact that Messrs. Coldwell & Co. are agents for the well-known houses of H. R. Williams & Co., of London, wine and spirit merchants; the Anglo-Bavarian Brewery Company, as well as for the ales and stouts produced by such famous firms as Whitbread, Barrett, Long, the “Wickwar” Brewery, &c Mr. Coldwell's purchases are made in the best markets on a scale of great magnitude, and upon such favourable terms that he is able to conduct, under most satisfactory conditions, a considerable amount of wholesale business on his own account. He has also gained, through the invariable excellence of all the goods which he supplies the unreserved confidence of a large number of the most influential families resident in the district. The principal is assisted by an efficient and experienced staff. He is, too, endowed with such strong administrative ability that he personally supervises all the working details in the conduct of his extensive and ever-growing business.


THE domestic machinist, nowadays, fulfils a most important function in the economy of every well-regulated community, and in this connection there is no name that is better known than that of Mr. Edmund Ward, who formed the nucleus of his now prosperous business in Monkton Street, over a decade ago. Mr. Ward, who enjoys the distinction of Official Repairer by Appointment to the Cyclists’ Touring Club, is an expert mechanician, thoroughly well conversant with every modern improvement in cycles, sewing machines, bassinettes and mail carts, wringing and mangling and domestic machines of every kind, of which he always holds a very large stock from the leading manufacturers of the day, and especially noticeable are the celebrated “Quadrant,” “Referee,” and “Starley” cycles, and the “Vertical Feed" sewing machine, for all of which he acts as the sole local agent. All machines in stock are available for cash on specially advantageous terms, and machines may also be had on hire, or exchanges effected with mutual satisfaction. In his perfectly equipped workshop, Mr. Ward, with a skilled staff, undertakes the cleaning and repairing of cycles and domestic machines of every kind with economy, high efficiency, and despatch; and it is manifest that he spares no efforts to develop his business, by sedulously studying the wants and best interests of all those who favour him with their patronage.


TWENTY-SIX years ago, the excellently-equipped establishment, of which Mr. W. R. Jolliffe is the proprietor, was founded by his father, and, ever since, the family record has been intimately associated with the important work of supplying the commissariat requirements of a large section of the population of the Ryde district. The energy and enterprise of the present proprietor have enabled him to extend the area of the valuable connection created by his predecessor. The premises have a fine frontage to St. John's Road and High Street, which is in keeping with the popular methods successfully adopted by Mr. Jolliffe in the conduct of his business. The entrance is at the corner, and the convenient arrangement of the interior admits of the effective display and the careful arrangement of the large stocks which are always held. The numerous fittings are substantial and the ample show-windows, with their tastefully-arranged displays of appetising comestibles, form points of unfailing interest.

The stocks include all descriptions of groceries and provisions, which, in each case, represent standard qualities. There is also a splendid assortment of such choice table delicacies as are to be found in Italian warehouses of the first class. Here, too, will be found in profusion all the requisites for the toilet and the laundry. With the beet sources of supply for all these classes of goods, the proprietor maintains relations of such long standing and extent that he is able to offer specially advantageous terms to his customers. The invariably excellent quality, and the prime condition of all the commodities which he offers for sale, has gained for him the unreserved confidence and the steady support of many of the leading families resident in the district. He has with signal success made a specialty of the supply of the finest teas, and is sole district agent for the famous Mazawattee tea. Another specially attractive feature in the conduct of this well-ordered business is the holding of large and fully representative stocks of Macfarlane, Lang & Co.'s biscuits and cakes. Mr. Jolliffe employs a numerous staff of experienced and courteous assistants; and he has created a thoroughly organised system in accordance with which families are waited upon daily by his representatives for orders. The principal has a large measure of administrative ability, and effectively supervisees all the details of his extensive business.


THE typographic art has for the last half century been admirably represented in the well-ordered establishment of which Mr. F. W. Sargent is now the proprietor, having succeeded Messrs. Gabell & Son four years ago. Mr. Sargent brought to his undertaking a thorough technical knowledge of letterpress printing. To this advantage the proprietor of the “Ryde Printing Works” (the establishment is known by this designation) adds a spirit of enlightened enterprise which he has so well directed that the resources of his establishment are now equal to the execution of any description of printing, and at the lowest possible rate of charges. His premises occupy a convenient position, and have been excellently adapted to the requirements of the business. They comprise well-appointed offices furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of clerical work. The machine-room is equipped for the facilitation of rapid and effective printing, and in the composing-room the assortment of modern type of all varieties is very comprehensive. Orders are quickly and efficiently executed for all descriptions of commercial and general printing, including “in memoriam” cards, programmes, menus, and wedding and invitation cards. The proprietor meets a recognised public want by regularly issuing, during the Ryde season — from June to September — his “Weekly Programme of Events,” of a local character. The considerable circulation of the “Programme” amongst the most select class of residents and visitors makes it a valuable medium for advertisements. He has also published the programme of the Ryde Royal Regatta. His working plant includes several founts of type sufficient in quantity to enable him to execute high-class book work and to issue several important magazines, including the “Holy Trinity Church Magazine,” the “St. John’s Church Magazine," and the “Congregational Home Messenger”; also the “Vectensian,” a publication issued each term and illustrative of the work of the Isle of Wight College. Mr. Sargent also controls a considerable amount of business in bookbinding. In the several departments an efficient staff of skilled workmen is employed under the supervision of the principal. His valuable and ever-growing connection extends all over the island. He is held in much respect by all who have business relations with him, and his extensive personal influence enables him to render valuable services to the well-known Phoenix Fire Office by acting as its sole representative in the town and neighbourhood.


THE Art Gallery in Union Street, Ryde, of which Mr. E. H. Turtle is the sole proprietor, is the only one in the Isle of Wight; but it is a host in itself, and quite the finest and most complete we have seen on the South Coast. The building has a very attractive appearance from without, which is heightened by the splendid display always to be seen in the show-window, many valuable works being placed on view here from time to time, to the gratification of the artistic passer-by. Mr. Turtle gives the whole of his attention to his art gallery, which is the outcome of fifty years’ earnest and continuous work, and the appreciative visitor will readily admit that even half a century is none too long a period in which to gather together so many real artistic treasures as those presented to our notice here. The gallery is in a separate building of its own at the rear of the Union Street shop, but conveniently approached through the same. It possesses a capital light, and exhibits a very wide range of art works of genuine worth and merit, including a very liberal proportion of pictures by old masters of eminent repute. These, by reason of their age, authenticity, and characteristic features, represent the outlay of much capital, and possess a very high monetary value at the present day.

We do not propose to give even a superficial summary of the many notable paintings, &c, on view in this gallery. To do so would be difficult in a brief space, and would also discount the usefulness of the capital catalogue which Mr. Turtle has so carefully prepared, and in which he has incorporated much biographical and other information respecting the artists represented therein. When we say that paintings by Gainsborough, Murillo, Edward Petitte, Paul Potter, Spagnoletto, Barbalunga, Eeckhout, Niederhausenn, Frans Hals, Van Leemputten, David Teniers, Jean Baptiste Monoyer, Pietro Wouverman, J. V. D. Stoffe, Carlo Maratti, Cruickshank, E. Bird, R.A., Jan Steen, and many other distinguished artists of past and present times are exhibited in this gallery, the comprehensiveness and representative character of Mr. Turtle’s collection will be understood. He has some very fine examples of the Dutch and Flemish Schools of the seventeenth century, including works from the pencil of Teniers and Rubens; and among the finest modern pictures in the gallery are those of Van Leemputten, who is accounted the best painter of sheep in Europe, and whose “Moutons au Paturage” (No. 23), is a charming production. We noticed an interesting portrait of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales at the age of twenty-two years; and besides the oil paintings, there are numerous examples of water-colour drawing of a high order of merit. Not the least noteworthy features of the gallery are several capital paintings from the brush of the esteemed proprietor himself, for Mr. Turtle is an artist as well as a connoisseur, and has done much good work in his time, making a special study of highly-finished drawings in charcoal, which are his specialite as an executant. One of these beautiful works was very graciously accepted by H.R.H. the Princess Beatrice for the Balmoral bazaar.

Mr. Turtle has had many eminent artists and critics here to view his gallery, the fame of which has spread far beyond the confines of the “little Isle across the Solent.” In short, this gallery is a great credit to the all-round knowledge and judgment of its cultured proprietor, who regards it with justifiable pride, and displays the greatest enthusiasm in all matters connected with it. No visitor to Ryde, who can derive delight from the contemplation of a beautiful picture, should fail to pay a call of duty and pleasure combined to Mr. Turtle’s gallery. He will find his trouble amply repaid by what he will see there. The genial and courteous proprietor of the gallery, though now in his eighty-fourth year, is still mentally and physically active and well able to attend to the practical details of his profession. In proof of this he informed us that he had several water-colour drawings which had been touched by mildew owing to defective seasoning in the paper. He sent them to the artist, who pronounced them entirely spoilt; but Mr. Turtle determined to make an effort to save them. He brought all his inventive resources and practical experience to bear upon the matter, and has succeeded in taking out the mildew spots without injury to the drawings, and without leaving any signs of the operation. We mention this not only as an instance of Mr. Turtle’s undiminished practical skill, but also as a hint to anyone who may have water-colour drawings affected in a similar manner, and who may desire a remedy without being able to find one. Doubtless the best thing to do under the circumstances would be to consult Mr. Turtle and enlist his services.


THIS business was started by its present proprietor, Mr. E. F. Brook, about seven years ago at No. 2, High Street, and in consequence of its rapid growth it was transferred, in 1890, to the commodious premises now occupied. The well-appointed show and sale-room contains as comprehensive a stock of rubber, gutta-percha, waterproof, airproof and leather goods as can be found in the South of England, the leading specialities including ladies’, gentlemen’s, and children’s waterproofs; carriage aprons and mats; hot water bottles, enemas, elastic stockings, Martin’s bandages, and nursing aprons; sponge bags, garden hose, gas tubing and sheet rubber; fishing tackle in great variety, and all kinds of leather goods, amongst which trunks, portmanteaus, bags, and dress cases figure prominently. Each section of the stock is replete with the newest and best goods, and special attention is given to waterproof garments of every kind; the requirements of yachtsmen and sportsmen in general being particularly well provided for in this connection. Horse clothing, cart and waggon covers, &c, are also largely stocked; and we noticed water beds, air beds, mattresses, cushions and pillows, bed sheeting, and other similar goods, all of which are of the moat reliable quality. Perhaps the chief speciality of the depot consists in ladies’, gentlemen’s, and children’s waterproofs. These are shown in the newest materials and patterns, and are of that neat and stylish cut which distinguishes waterproof garments of the present day from those ugly and uncomfortable productions which are now, happily, things of the past. The Isle of Wight India-rubber Depot is, in fact, thoroughly “up-to-date,” and reflects great credit upon Mr. Brook, who evidently understands every detail of the trade. Each season the stock is replenished with attractive novelties, and the establishment has worthily secured a large amount of local patronage in the island. Mr. Brook personally superintends the entire business, assisted by an efficient staff, and the promptitude with which he executes all orders is much appreciated by his widespread connection.


MR. HENRY Osborne occupies a position of unique importance in the Isle of Wight as the only practical engraver resident in the island. In establishing himself in Ryde, where he has conducted a flourishing business since 1880, Mr. Osborne brought to his enterprise a London experience of sixteen years, combined with an ability to produce excellent work very quickly, a high degree of artistic taste, and much commercial aptitude. These advantages he has turned to such good account that he has created a most valuable connection, which extends all over the island. His premises occupy a commanding position in Union Street, and at the rear are extensive work-rooms, admirably equipped with all requisite mechanical and other appliances for facilitating the various artistic and industrial processes which are conducted on the premises. The sale-shop is extensive enough to admit of the effective display and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the valuable and comprehensive stocks which are always held. These include a choice selection of leather goods, including dressing-cases, writing cabinets, folios; also pocket cutlery, table-napkin rings, photograph frames, and a great variety of other fancy goods. As a practical engraver, Mr. Osborne’s services are in great demand in all parts of the island. The title of “The Isle of Wight Heraldic and General Engraving Office,” which is given to his establishment, is fully justified by the facts, and the proprietor adequately fulfils all the functions of designer, practical engraver, printer, stationer, brass- plate manufacturer, die sinker, die stamper, and illuminator. The designing and engraving of church brasses; the cutting of steel dies, and engraving work, arms, crests, monograms, &o., on gold, silver, ivory, stone, steel, and electro-plate, for jewellers, stationers, printers, ironmongers, or any trade requiring assistance. A large amount of important work passes through Mr. Osborne’s hands in the form of illuminating addresses and other artistic operations. As an instance of the rapidity with which large orders are executed in this department, it may be mentioned that he and his assistants painted, for the Royal Victoria Yacht Club, over eleven thousand small flags in five days. He also produces large wood letters. Much excellent lithographic printing, too, is executed on his premises. Mr. Osborne personally supervises all the working details of his business.


A WALK, down Union Street, the leading business thoroughfare of the thriving town of Ryde, will reveal to the visitor not a few mercantile establishments that are equally creditable to the borough and to their proprietors. Among the number we doubt if any will be found more noteworthy than the fine shop conducted by Mr. S. J. Bishop. The large business here carried on has a local record of about thirty-five years and has been for the past eleven years under the proprietorship of Mr. Bishop. The premises in Union Street were specially built for the purposes of the trade and are of large extent, comprising offices, store and sample rooms, and fine cellars, the whole running back to Union Road, where we find the well-equipped bottling department provided with every working facility. Mr. Bishop’s stock is very valuable and comprehensive, and has been selected with the skill and judgment that might be expected from one of his long practical experience in the trade. Everything is obtained from the best and most trustworthy sources of supply, and in most cases the goods come direct from the growers. In ports and sherries Mr. Bishop has some particularly high-class specialities, while his clarets, burgundies, champagnes, hocks, moselles, and other wines, are all of well-known brands, and calculated to appeal to connoisseurs. Mr. Bishop has some very fine “Sandeman” ports, some natural sherries free from spirit, and several parcels of Messrs. Cossart, Gordon & Co’s celebrated madeiras (for which he is agent). All of these are highly recommended. He also gives due attention to the pure, nourishing wines of Australia, imported direct in original casks.

In the spirit department of his business, Mr. Bishop’s arrangements are equally complete and satisfactory for the supply of high-class liquors. He is direct agent here for Veuve Emile Siguin & Co.’s noted brandies, and also stocks Hennessey’s, Martell's, and other cased brandies of high repute. Scotch and Irish whiskies are represented by the products of several celebrated distilleries, and the special “Royal Glenury” Scotch whiskey has fine flavour and maturity. We also notice the famous “Old Bushmills” among the Irish whiskies. Rums, gins, liqueurs, and cordials are all largely stocked in superior qualities; and Havannah, Mexican, and British cigars are supplied both in wholesale and retail quantities. Mr. Bishop is agent for Bass's ales and Guinness’s stout in cask and bottle. He also supplies Burton and other ales in small casks, Pilsener lager beer, the finest Devonshire cider in cask and bottle, and Schweppe's and Randall's mineral waters, as well as the Royal Belfast mineral waters of Messrs. Ross. Altogether the business is thoroughly comprehensive, embracing every feature of the wine, spirit, and beer trade, and Mr. Bishop is in a position to supply families on the most advantageous terms, owing to the excellent connections he maintains with the best foreign houses. He makes free delivery of goods to any part of the island by his own vans, and sends wines and spirits carriage paid to all parts of England. Possessing a masterly knowledge of the trade, acquired in the course of his long London experience with Messrs. Tod & Bishop, of Idol Lane, Great Tower Street, Mr. S. J. Bishop has been successful in building up one of the best businesses of its kind in this neighbourhood, and the character of the patronage he enjoys is in itself an unmistakable evidence of the good quality of everything he supplies, and of the straightforward methods with which he has identified his name.


THE photographic art, which in recent years has made such remarkable progress, is nowhere in the Isle of Wight more skilfully exemplified than in the studios of Messrs. Debenham & Sons. This eminent firm have a reputation of thirty years’ standing as specialists in all branches of portrait, landscape, and marine photography, and their work is unsurpassed in finish, style and fidelity to the original. For twenty-four years Messrs. Debenham have occupied their present premises in Union Street, Ryde, where Mr. Arthur Debenham opened the studio of the firm in this town, and where he still remains as head of the concern. The premises are admirably suited to the requirements of a high-class photographic establishment, for, in addition to the studios and operating-rooms, printing-rooms, and other departments perfectly equipped for the actual practice of the art, there are spacious and elegantly appointed reception- rooms, which exhibit many superb examples of the firm’s talent. Here one may notice portraits painted in oils, others finished in crayon and water-colour, and some very beautiful ones on opal. The sizes range from miniature to life size, and every portrait is marked by the vivacity, tone, and natural pose and expression which stamp the work of the accomplished artist. Portraiture, it may be remarked, is the feature of the Ryde studios, while those at Cowes (under the management of Mr. A. W. Debenham), make a speciality of yacht pictures, and undoubtedly excel therein. At each of their establishments the firm show pictures of all the “crack” racing yachts, and those of the ‘Valkyrie,’ ‘Britannia,’ ‘Navahoe,’ ‘Vigilant,’ ‘Satanita,’ and other famous craft are among the finest work of the kind we have seen.

Messrs. Debenham have been honoured by the patronage of many illustrious and distinguished personages, including the Prince of Wales, the Princesses Maud and Victoria, Prince Henry of Battenberg, the Emperor of Germany, and the late Emperor and the Empress Frederick, some of whom “sat” to them during a recent yachting season at Cowes. We saw at the firm's studio some notable portraits, including one of the Prince of Wales, in a group with four admirals, one of the Duke of Hamilton, and one of the late Bishop of Winchester; and special interest attaches to an album containing portraits of members of the Royal Yacht Squadron. A similar album may be seen at the Cowes establishment. Altogether, this is a firm of photographers whose work has reflected credit upon an art which is equally beautiful and useful, and whose name is identified with the latest advancement in method, as well as the highest perfection in result. Mr. Arthur Debenbam, the respected head of the firm, is a thorough master of portraiture and general photography in every technical and artistic detail. lie exercises a watchful supervision over the entire business, but the skill and experience of his son, Mr. A. W. Debenham, enable him to leave the establishment at Cowes to the management of that gentleman, and thus to give his own attention more particularly to the studios at Ryde. The firm also have branches at Holbein House, Sandown, Isle of Wight; und at 69, Palmerston Road, Southsea, these testifying t> the widespread connection and far-reaching reputation they enjoy in their art.


A COMFORTABLE hotel, where the accommodation is good and the tariff of charges moderate, is a distinct advantage to any town, and is particularly so in a place like Ryde, where provision has to be made for the reception of a large annual influx of visitors. We have pleasure in calling the attention of our readers to the excellent hotel, the Albany (and the only one of that name in the Isle of Wight), under the proprietorship of Mr. J. E. Vardy, which was opened about twelve years ago. Mr. Vardy acquired the Albany Hotel and Restaurant in 1891. For eighteen years previously, however, he had conducted the Star Hotel here, and may therefore be said to possess not only a thorough knowledge of the hotel business, but also a special acquaintance with the requirements of Ryde in this respect. The Albany is situated directly opposite the entrance to the pier and port of Ryde. This position is obviously a most advantageous one, and not only is the railway station in close proximity, as well as the pier and harbour, but the site is quite central in the town, and coaches start from here for excursions to all parts of the island. The hotel contains a large number of rooms, including drawing, dining, sitting, and smoking-rooms. All these rooms are spacious, well-lighted and perfectly ventilated, while the appointments combine elegance with comfort. The visitors’ rooms face the sea, so that from each window there is an attractive prospect, and no better view of the pier can be had than that obtained from the windows of the Albany, which directly face it, and from the vantage-ground from which the best photographs of the pier are taken.

Among the many recommendations of the Albany, not the least consists in its excellent cellars, containing the choicest wines, spirits, and malt liquors. These are dispensed at the well-appointed bars, where the best tobaccos, cigars and cigarettes are also obtainable. We have already alluded to the good repute of the cuisine. In this, as in all other matters of administration, Mr. Vardy is most careful and precise. Nothing escapes his attention, and no trouble is deemed excessive when the good name of the house depends upon it. Only to mention one instance of his methods: he makes a practice of buying all his own poultry as chickens a month old, and then proceeds to rear them upon the most approved plan, preparing them for the gastronomic mission they are destined to fulfil. Thus, one may always depend upon a tender and toothsome fowl at Mr. Vardy’s table; and the same care is exercised with regard to other viands, and with equally satisfactory results. In short, we have here a hotel which is distinguished for comfort, cleanliness, an irreproachable cellar, and a table that leaves nothing to be desired. When we add that it is equally characterised by moderate charges, good attendance, and proprietary courtesy, we complete the list of merits that go to the making of a first-class modern hostelry. Mr. Vardy is a capital host, and a deservedly popular man in Ryde. He is a member of the committee for the Ryde Sports and Amusements, and takes a prominent part in the organisation and working of the Horse and Flower Shows. He is the right man in the right place at the Albany Hotel, and the house was never in greater favour than under his proprietorship.


THIS old-established and important business was founded nearly sixty years ago, and has long been regarded as a leading concern in this locality. Messrs. Hooper have always had their premises in Pier Street, and they built their present handsome shop about fifteen years ago with the object of securing the best possible accommodation for their large and growing trade. The establishment is spacious and admirably arranged in every particular. The walls of the shop are tastefully decorated with artistic tiles, and these, together with the marble slabs upon which the stock is displayed, and other appropriate fittings impart a cool and cleanly appearance to the place, which is just what one looks for in a depot of this kind. At the rear are the offices and the fish-cleaning department, and throughout the premises perfect cleanliness prevails. The well-lighted shop is so arranged that all goods are displayed to the beat advantages, thus facilitating selection by customers, and the stock is of the choicest quality throughout, all supplies being perfectly fresh and in prime condition.

The finest fish in their various seasons may here be obtained, including salmon, cod, turbot, halibut, hake, soles, whitebait, &c; and of shell-fish there is always a large choice, embracing native and other oysters of excellent quality, as well as crabs, lobsters, &c. Ae dealers in game, Messrs. Hooper also do a very large trade, and they receive direct supplies of grouse, pheasants, quail, partridge, blackcock, hares, and other objects of the sportsman’a gun in season; while for poultry of all kinds theirs is an establishment justly esteemed. At the rear of the premises is situated a well-stocked ice-house, and the firm are consequently in a position to supply their customers regularly with ice in any desired quantity. At 25, High Street, Messrs. Hooper have a branch establishment, similarly organised to the one in Pier Street, and doing the same class of trade. The firm maintain a very extensive and valuable connection, sending goods to all parts of the island, and besides conducting a large family trade, they supply the principal hotels in Ryde and the vicinity. Families are waited upon daily for orders, and no effort is spared to maintain the high standard of quality which has secured for this house the confidence of such a large and far-reaching circle of patrons. Mr. Edward Hooper and his son, Mr. H. Hooper, are the principals of the firm. Both gentlemen possess a sound practical knowledge of the trade and take an active part in the administration of the business, in which they are assisted by a thoroughly competent staff.


THESE admirably equipped works were, in 1893, acquired by Mr. F. W. Flux, who conducts the business under the above name, and whose enterprising management has greatly increased the scope of its operations. The premises are commodious, centrically situated in an important thoroughfare, and in every way adapted for a modern printing office. Machinery with all the latest improvements has been obtained. All orders are executed in a careful, workmanlike, and tasteful manner, strict personal supervision being given by the proprietor over every department. A speciality is made of concert and entertainment printing in all the latest and most artistic styles of paper, type, and ink. Nothing more need be said of the excellence of the results produced in this class of work than that programmes have, on several occarions, been here prepared for royal entertainments at Osborne. Trade printing of every description; auctioneers’ posters and work generally; magazine and book production; wedding, mourning, invitation, and visiting cards; relief stamping and book-binding are all undertaken and skilfully executed by an experienced staff.


THE records of this undertaking show that it was organised as far back as the year 1852, under the able auspices of its present senior partner, Mr. W. Locke, who developed his trade to such good purpose, that he found it expedient some years ago to entirely rebuild and remodel his premises upon modern lines, and subsequently to call in the valuable assistance of his two sons, Messrs. A. J. & C. A. Locke, as coadjutors in his fast-expanding business. The spacious double-fronted shop, with its well-ordered general and private offices adjoining, is handsomely fitted up in the best modern style, and presents a singularly neat, clean, and wholesome appearance, which tends very largely to enhance the inviting character of the abundant and varied stock there maintained. The firm employ a picked staff of experts to slaughter, dress, cure, &c., upon their premises, choosing none but splendidly-conditioned animals, bred specially for them by the leading dairy farmers in the island. There is a perfectly-equipped abattoir, while the premises set apart for sausage and lard-making are provided with an “Otto” gas-engine, for driving the sausage and other machines. Prime dairy-fed pork, home-cured pork, hams and chaps, home-made brawn and lard, and Wiltshire bacon, together with their far-famed sausages are turned out daily for sale in prodigious quantities, large supplies being regularly sent to London, and all parts of the country. The firm do not, however, permit their local trade to lapse even by one iota, for they sedulously cultivate their large family trade, and ensure the prompt delivery of all orders by employing a large staff of courteous and capable assistants. Mr. W. Locke — who, it may be noted, en passant, has been a valuable member of the Ryde Town Council for the past eight years — and his estimable sons, continue to exercise a constant personal supervision over all the affairs of the house, and their methods of management are identical in nature with those which have in times past influenced and brought about a continuous increase in the resources and undertakings of their now unique and most noteworthy business


THE admirably organised business which is conducted by Mr. C. J. de Launay has for twenty years formed an important factor in the commercial economy of Ryde. When it was acquired, three years ago, by the present proprietor, he brought to his enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the requirements of the trade. His premises occupy a commanding position at 120, High Street, and have a fine double frontage, whose attractive appearance is altogether in keeping with the high class of the business which Mr. de Launay controls. The two ample plate-glass show-windows, with their tastefully arrayed exhibits of appetising comestibles and choice liquors, constitute points of never- failing interest. The interior is handsomely appointed, and is roomy enough to admit of the effective display of the heavy and comprehensive stocks which are always held. At the rear are the offices and also capacious stores, where are held heavy surplus stocks of non-perishable goods in readiness for all demands. Mr. de Launay controls an important and rapidly-growing business in the supply of all descriptions of groceries and provisions, and he maintains such intimate and extensive relations that he is able to offer specially advantageous terms to his customers, whose list includes many of the most influential families resident in the district. He has justly gained a high reputation as an expert tea-taster and blender. Of his knowledge and skill in this department his customers have the full advantage in the form of the excellent blends which he offers at very moderate prices. That which he retails at 1s. 10d. per lb., and which is especially popular, is a fine mixture of strong Indian and delicately flavoured Ceylon teas. The ample resources of the establishment are completed by the fully representative stocks which are held of the best brands of wines and spirits, and of the finest productions of several brewers of malt liquors, which are retailed both in cask and in bottle. Mr. de Launay is district agent for the eminent firm of Messrs. Kennaway & Co., wine and spirit merchants, of Exeter. In all departments of his business he makes his purchases in the best markets, and upon such favourable conditions that he is able to conduct a considerable and ever-growing wholesale business. He employs a large staff of efficient and experienced assistants under his own supervision, so that all orders are promptly and accurately executed.


FOR fashionable dressmaking there is no establishment in Ryde with a reputation of longer standing than that of which Miss M. E. Ashton is now the proprietress. The history of the business here carried on can be traced back over a period of nearly a century, and for fully forty-five years prior to its acquisition by Miss Ashton it was conducted under the name of Pittman. The present proprietress assumed the sole control of the establishment about two years ago, but she had been connected with it as a worker for fourteen years previously, and can thus be said to possess a complete practical knowledge not only of dressmaking in general, but also of the work and clientele of this house in particular. Miss Ashton transferred the business to its present address from the premises formerly occupied at No. 72, Union Street. No outward display is made here, but the interior of the establishment at once stamps it as being of a superior character. The show-rooms and private fitting-rooms are elegantly and tastefully furnished; and when we turn to the work-rooms we find them well lighted, well ventilated, and in every respect admirably suited for the accommodation of the large staff of skilled workpeople employed. In the show-rooms we have many evidences of Miss Ashton's capabilities as an interpreter of the fashions of the day in ladies’ dresses. The several attractive and stylish designs for dinner, ball, and walking dresses which occupy prominent places in this lady's saloons present notable instances of the artistic feeling and taste which now enters into the work of the high-class ladies' costumier in such a marked degree; and the same may be said of the fine productions of this establishment in mantles and millinery.

Practically the whole range of fashionable feminine attire is comprised within the scope of Miss Ashton’s business, and in each department a remarkably high standard of merit is maintained. Court dressmaking is a branch in which Miss Ashton has been specially successful, and the house has obtained a considerable amount of distinguished patronage among the elite of the county. Her work in ladies' evening dress is considered equal to that of the leading London artists, and she makes a large proportion of the drawing-room or Court presentation dresses for ladies resident in the Isle of Wight. Miss Ashton's general clientele is of the highest class entirely, and no effort is spared to maintain the prestige of the establishment, the talented proprietress giving her personal attention to the wishes of each of her many patrons, and thus ensuring the most satisfactory results in the ultimate execution and completion of their orders.


ESTABLISHED five years ago in premises located on the opposite side of the busy High Street, at Ryde, under the able auspices of its present proprietor, the records of this thriving general grocery and provision supply stores show that its commercial development became so rapid, that three years had barely elapsed before Mr. R. Morris found it imperative to remove to his present quarters. The spacious full-fronted shop is admirably appointed throughout in the best style, and effectively displays a complete stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment. All manner of select everyday groceries, together with the numerous household sundries, chandlery, brooms and brushes, &c., usually associated therewith, special lines in pure and choicely-blended teas and coffees, British and foreign tinned and bottled comestibles, and table delicacies of the highest order, and prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and bacon, cheese and butter, lard, flour and meals, are all fully represented in the very finest condition. En passant it may be noted that Mr. Morris acts as the sole local agent for the Manchester Fire and Life Insurance Company, and is the secretary for the Isle of Wight district of the Shepherds’ Friendly Society. He employs a well-trained staff of assistants, and personally superintends his entire business in a manner and upon principles which have won for him the esteem and liberal support of a very large clientele.


THIS important town and fashionable watering-place comprises East Cowes and West Cowes, and occupies an advantageous situation on the banks of the River Medina, at the point where that broad and navigable stream flows into the Solent, viz., at the extreme northern apex of the Isle of Wight. East Cowes, the smaller of the two divisions, was only a very small village a few years ago; but has grown considerably of late, and now has a population of 2,872. It is an ecclesiastical parish in the parish of Whippingham, and is situated on the right bank of the river. West Cowes stands upon the opposite side of the Medina, in the parish of Northwood, and contains two ecclesiastical parishes, viz., St. Mary and Holy Trinity. The situation of West Cowes, which is upon the slope of an acclivity, is very picturesque, and it presents an attractive appearance from the water. Communication between the two divisions of Cowes is maintained by a steam ferry, and also by a floating bridge some little distance up the river. West Cowes has a population of 7,748, and, together with East Cowes, forms a very favourite and fashionable resort, and also an important seat of trade and industry.

Of the public buildings here, perhaps the most notable are the churches. St. Mary's, West Cowes, dates its history from the middle of the seventeenth century, but was rebuilt in 1868. Holy Trinity Church underwent enlargement about thirty-three years ago; and there is a Roman Catholic church, built in 1795, and dedicated to St. Thomas of Canterbury. In East Cowes is situated the church of St. James, notable for the fact that its foundation-stone was laid in 1831 by Her Majesty the Queen, who was then Princess Victoria.

A notable feature of West Cowes is the parade, a fine promenade, from which very attractive views are obtainable of the harbour, etc., with the varied scene of marine activity which is one of the charms of the place. A new esplanade, of great length, is also being constructed, and both West and East Cowes are well provided with public recreation grounds. As far back as the reign of Henry VIII. Cowes was deemed sufficiently important to have two forts erected for its protection at the mouth of the river, one on each bank. In one of these forts (called West Cowes Castle) Sir William Davenant, the poet and dramatist, was imprisoned for a time by the Parliament (1650), on account of his Royalist proclivities; and here he wrote part of his heroic poem, “Gondibert.” This historic edifice now forms the clubhouse of the Royal Yacht Squadron, and the fact reminds us that Cowes is the headquarters of English yachting. The Royal Yacht Squadron Club dates from the year 1812, and includes among its members many of the flower of the British nobility and aristocracy, who own some of the finest yachts afloat, with an aggregate tonnage of nearly 30,000. At West Cowes the London Yacht Club has a place also, and during the yachting season (May to October) the mouth of the Medina presents a scene of surpassing interest to all lovers of the finest form of aquatic sport. From a social point of view the “season” here is equally important, for the rank and fashion of Britain is numerously represented at Cowes what time the regattas are in vogue, and “society” is seen at its best in the pleasant functions of that period. At any time a visit to Cowes is enjoyable, but during the yachting season it is doubly so, the most characteristic features in the life of the place being then en Evidence.

Cowes has many excellent local institutions, and its business activity is unmistakable. Industrial enterprise is chiefly exemplified in the shipbuilding and engineering establishments along the banks of the Medina. Yachts are built hero in great numbers, and the Cowes yacht-builders are world-famous for the speed and elegance of their craft, to which fall many of the laurels of the racing season. All general trades connected with the life of a modern English town are also well represented at Cowes, together with a variety of useful arts and industries; and a very important branch of local business is the provisioning and fitting out of yachts with all stores and requisites for long or short cruises. The following articles will indicate more particularly the nature and scope of the representative trades of East and West Cowes, and the undertakings of various firms engaged therein.



IT is certainly something to be the oldest existing concern in a great national industry, and this distinction can be claimed by the eminent firm of Messrs. C. Hansen & Sons, who are probably the oldest yacht-builders in the world. The history of their famous business dates back as far as the year 1732, and for over a hundred years it has been carried on under the name of “Hansen.” The first of that family to connect himself with this business was the captain of the Concordia, which, in 1772, put into Cowes in a damaged condition. Captain Hansen married and “settled down” here, and being a shipwright by trade, he acquired this yard, which was then the possessor of a forty years' reputation. Under his control the concern rapidly increased, and its growth has continued from then until now, when it is reckoned as one of the foremost businesses of its kind in this part of England. The present partners represent the fourth generation from Captain Hansen, and are respectively Mr. Charles Cleaver Hansen, Mr. Henry Samuel Hansen, and Mr. Frederick James Hansen — all gentlemen of sound practical experience, and withal taking an active part in local affairs, as well as in the management of their flourishing business.

Messrs. C. Hansen & Sons carry on a very large and comprehensive industry. They are ship, yacht, steam-launch and boat builders, joiners, block and spar-makers, engineers, shipsmiths, brass-fitters, painters, and plumbers; and besides carrying out building contracts for almost all kinds of craft, they make a speciality of the execution of repairs of every description. The firm have at their extensive ship-yards and works three patent heaving-up slipways and gridiron. They also supply everything pertaining to ships' outfits, and manufacture a considerable proportion of such goods and requisites in their own large and admirably equipped workshops. Altogether, Messrs. Hansen employ about two hundred highly skilled hands in the various departments of their trade, and as yacht, ship, and boat-builders, they have a splendid reputation for high-class work. Their three yards, with the workshops connected with each, furnish resources of the most valuable character, for the expeditious carrying out of large contracts. “Point Yard,” at West Cowes, has a most convenient situation, and possesses splendidly organised building sheds and workshops, together with two of the patent heaving-up slipways already mentioned. “Goshawk Yard,” at East Cowes, affords every facility for building and repairing yachts and boats, the large and convenient sheds being adapted for the construction of yachts of all tonnages. This yard has a depth of about six hundred feet, with a good and clean gridiron, and there are here roomy yacht stores to let. The “Minerva Yard,” also at East Cowes, has a river frontage of one thousand feet, and a patent slipway seven hundred feet in length. There are good mud berths for any size of yacht, and accommodation for hauling up any number of yachts for winter drying, together with every convenience for fitting out.

As our readers are doubtless well aware, Messrs. Hansen have a world-wide fame as yacht-builders, and some of the best and fastest English yachts of modern times have been constructed at their yards. They are prepared to submit plans and specifications for building new yachts, or to build from gentlemen's own designs; and small orders receive the same care and attention as large ones. A list of the yachts built by Messrs. Hansen for their many distinguished patrons, would include the names of a large number of the most successful racing craft of recent years, and among them are noticeable some particularly large craft, such ae the ‘Goshawk,’ of 239 tons, the ‘Galatea,’ of 137 tons, the ‘Minerva,’ of 400 tons, the ‘Oceana,’ of 206 tons, and the ‘Lady Sibell,’ of 193 tons. They turned out during 1893 the ‘Lais,’ a fast 40-rater cutter yacht for Mr. John Gretton, junior; and in 1894 the ‘Asphodel,’ 20-rater, for Prince Henry of Battenberg, and the ‘Fleur de Lis,’ a very swift 5-rater, for Major Montgomery, the ‘Thelma,’ a 20-rater for Mr. A. Barclay Walker, the ‘Mystery,’ 2-and-a-half-rater, for the Hon. H. L. Mulholland, M.P., besides many other craft of various types, including steam, and torpedo pinnaces, and some hundreds of service boats. Not only do Messrs. Hansen build all these yachts, etc., but they also fully equip them, both for sail and steam power, and in every department of the industry they thus so fully exemplify, they turn out work which gives the highest satisfaction. The firm are contractors to the Admiralty, the War Office, The Trinity House Corporation, the National Lifeboat Institution, and Her Majesty's Colonies, and they are also marine Surveyors, Assessors and Insurance agents. Under the able and vigorous administration of the three co-partners named above, the affairs of this old and distinguished concern continue in a state of progressive prosperity quite commensurate with the unsurpassed reputation it has so long maintained in the interesting industry with which its name is identified.
Telegraphic address:— “Hansen, Cowes.”


SUCH a trade as that of Messrs. R. Rowe & Sons is particularly characteristic of Cowes, where yachting has its headquarters, and where so many sailing vessels of every type and size are fitted out with blocks, spars, and all the various items of their rigging and working equipment. The firm under notice is a leading one in its line, and has enjoyed a highly prosperous career ever since it was first founded in 1859 by Mr. R. Rowe, who eventually took his sons into partnership. The original premises soon became too small for the rapidly growing business, and the establishment as it now stands is the result of much enlargement and improvement. The different workshops, covering a considerable area of ground with a large frontage to Medina Road, are all admirably appointed, and the firm have a large plant of the most suitable modern machinery in operation, driven by steam power. Messrs. Rowe’s manufactures comprise blocks, spars, mast-hoops, cleets, deadeyes, handspikes, Sec., and they also execute all kinds of blacksmith’s work for ships and yachts, making a special feature of yacht work of the highest class. In this latter connection the firm are widely and favourably known, and enjoy a large amount of distinguished patronage. They have done important work for the Prince of Wales's famous and victorious yacht ‘Britannia,’ which so well upheld the national honour during 1894, and it is noteworthy that ever since the Prince has had a yacht, Messrs. Rowe have been honoured by the commands of his Royal Highness, and have been entrusted with such work as comes within the scope of their business. In addition to all they have done for the ‘Britannia,’ this firm have also executed a lot of work for other well-known yachts, including Prince Henry of Battenberg’s ‘Sheila’ and ‘Asphodel,’ and among others of note, the ‘Sunbeam’ and ‘St. George.’

As block and spar makers, Messrs. Rowe are at the head of their trade, and besides maintaining a valuable and influential local connection at Cowes, they send their productions in large quantities to Belfast, Birkenhead, Kingston, London, Gourock, Greenock, Glasgow, and many other great yachting and shipbuilding centres. Mention should be made here of a very clever appliance which Mr. Rowe, senr., invented a number of years ago, but which he unfortunately omitted to patent. This is a socket sheave made upon the principle of ball bearings, but having small rollers instead of the balls, these being found to serve the purpose best in this case. Wear and tear of pulleys is greatly saved by this clever ides, while the whole appliance is much easier to work than the old-fashioned ones, and the invention has undoubtedly been of great value to yachtsmen. Messrs. Rowe produced this socket sheave some twenty years ago. The ‘Valkyrie’ was fitted with the socket sheaves by Messrs. Rowe, prior to her last voyage to America, and it is generally admitted that no racing yacht is capable without them. The firm have a lot of very important work in hand as we write, and are busy in making the blocks and supplying the ropes for the new patent boat disengaging tackle, which is being supplied to nearly all the Continental governments. Mr. A. W. Rowe is now the sole principal of this eminent firm. He is a thoroughly practical man, well known and esteemed in yachting circles, and the active supervision he bestows upon every detail of his extensive business tends to fully maintain the distinction this house has so long enjoyed in its important branch of trade.


A HOUSE of European renown in all the higher branches of ladies’ and gentlemen's tailoring, is named at the head of this article. It is now upwards of seventy years since the firm of Messrs. John Morgan & Sons commenced operations at Cowes. They began with one shop — No. 47, High Street; and at the present time they occupy, in addition to that, Nos. 46, 48, and 49, in the same thoroughfare, giving a street frontage of about one hundred and fifty feet, with three entrances, and forming probably the finest establishment of this particular kind in the South of England. In fact, Messrs. Morgan's business has progressed concurrently with the increase of Cowes in fashionable prestige, and as this town is the headquarters of yachting for England (and we might say for Europe), so the firm under notice are regarded as leaders in the supplying of fashionable and correct yachting outfits, which form the specialite of their business. At the same time other branches of sartorial art are most efficiently exemplified, and one has only to remember what a throng of notabilities in the social world betake themselves to Cowes for each yachting season, to perceive that a select and high-class tailoring house of this description has a large and important mission to fulfil in catering for a clientele that is in every respect worthy of its skill and resources. Glancing for a moment at the arrangement of Messrs. Morgan's premises, we find at No. 46, general show-rooms, with offices; at No. 47, separate show-rooms for the ladies' and gentlemen's tailoring departments; and at Nos. 48 and 49, special and exclusive accommodation for the yacht outfitting branch. The entire place is splendidly appointed, and bears the unmistakable cachet of distinction in its handsome fittings, and its magnificent stock of high-class goods.

In these days, when the injunction, “Place aux dames!” is more imperative than ever, the ladies’ department of such a business as Messrs. Morgan's is one which commands a special amount of attention. Artists of talent are retained to develop and create designs appropriate to the period, and the styles thus produced in ladies’ attire are all that can be desired. Nowadays it is de rigueur that costumes, jackets, &c., of tailors’ make shall be worn by every lady who aspires to be considered perfectly and smartly dressed. On this point every requirement is studied and satisfied by Messrs. Morgan, who must be classed with the foremost London firms as exponents of ladies’ tailoring in its most advanced and artistic aspects. They produce a great variety of becoming designs in all kinds of ladies’ costume, and are particularly successful in riding, yachting, boating, travelling, and walking attire, which call for such special skill, care, and invention in treatment, in order to secure a tasteful, harmonious, and original ensemble. It is not too much to say that this firm’s costumes for ladies are veritable works of art, showing in their production the employment of every resource and qualification which tends to perfection in result. Moreover, ladies can always depend upon finding at this establishment the all-important “something new,” which is in constant request; and coupled with this element of novelty they are assured of the highest excellence in style, fit, workmanship and finish. The fair sex are severe critics, and it is therefore a true criterion of Messrs. Morgan’s superior work that ladies are invariably pleased with the results of their efforts.

The satisfaction afforded to gentlemen customers is no less complete, and is equally appreciated. There is a splendid stock of the best and newest materials for gentlemen’s tailoring, and the work produced meets with the highest approval. As to the yacht outfitting department, it is perhaps the most notable feature of the business — certainly in this branch of their trade Messrs. Morgan have the largest connection of any English firm, and a glance at their ledgers will reveal the names of most, or one might say almost all, of the leading yachtsmen of the day. At the time of our visit we were shown the fine equipment for the sailors manning the ‘White Heather,’ an outfit representing no less than £250 in outlay. Messrs. Morgan regularly fit out the crews of about one hundred yachts each year, and the extent of their turnover in this department will be seen when we say that the cost of an outfit for the sailors of a modern yacht of the class attended to by this firm ranges from £50 to £500. A very large business is also done in yachting caps, which are sent all over the world, and we were shown a manufacturer's bill for these goods amounting to considerably over £500, and this for only three months' purchases.

All Messrs. Morgan’s work in ladies' and gentlemen's tailoring and yacht outfitting is done on their own premises, in spacious, airy, and beautifully clean work-rooms; and they employ in each department a large staff of tailors of the highest skill. Some of the firm's workmen have been with them for close upon forty years, and there are others holding responsible posts in the establishment who entered the service of the house many years ago as errand-boys. All this speaks well for the friendly relations maintained between the firm and their employees. Messrs. Morgan's trade, we need hardly say, is entirely of a high-class character, and their patronage is drawn from the elite of the social world at home and abroad. They are specially honoured, by warrants of appointment to Her Majesty the Queen, T.R.H. the Prince and Princess of Wales, H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, and H.I.M. the Empress Frederick; and they are under the immediate patronage also of the Princess Louise (Marchioness of Lorne), the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, Prince and Princess Henry of Battenberg, Prince and Princess Christian, and H.I.M. the German Emperor, besides holding special appointments to the Royal Yacht Squadron, the Royal London Yacht Club, and the Imperial and Royal Yacht Squadron of Austria. In the ladies’ show-rooms at Cowes are to be seen the Royal Warrants of Appointment to the Queen (dated 1869 and renewed in 1885), to the Princess of Wales (1870), and to the Empress of Germany (1870). The gentlemen’s show-rooms display the warrants of appointment to the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Duke of Westminster (as Master of the Horse, for liveries), the Austrian Yacht Squadron, &c.

Messrs. Morgan have a London branch in Regent's Street, with which they maintain the closest communication, and where they conduct a trade identical in character with that at Cowes. Mr. Charles Morgan has charge of the London house, and at Cowes Mr. Henry Morgan is in command. Mr. Henry Morgan was at one time a somewhat prominent figure in local public life, but of late he has abstained from those affairs. It may be added, in conclusion, that Messrs. John Morgan & Sons never advertise, but depend entirely upon their splendid connection and unblemished reputation for the further development of a business which has few equals and no superior among similar concerns in Britain.


THE exceptionally enterprising firm of which Messrs. G. & E. Watts are at the present time the members, has a record which extends back to 1809, and which, in a large measure, forms an epitome of the history of the developments which have taken place in the industrial resources of Cowes, especially those resulting from the greatly increased popularity of the harbour as the headquarters of the yachting world. Both the members of the firm have a thorough technical knowledge of the trade, and their acquaintance with the modern applications of hygienic science to sanitary engineering is complete. At the same time their cultured taste in artistic decorative work has been of the greatest service in securing for them the confidence and the continued support of many leading yacht proprietors. The original quarters of the firm were in High Street, but they have occupied their present commodious premises in Medina Road since about 1830. These comprise extensive warehouses, stores, and general and private offices, all well-appointed and appropriately equipped. At the rear of the offices are extensive workshops.

The valuable and comprehensive stocks held by the Messrs. Watts comprise paints and enamels of all colours and of every description; also varnishes, including enamel, copal, oak, and pine; brushes, glue, glass, &c.; all kinds of sanitary appliances: patent anti-fouling compositions, 4c. The firm have surrounded themselves with every facility for the prompt and efficient execution of orders of all descriptions coming within the scope of their business, and they are employed regularly by many of the most influential owners of house property in the district. But the special characteristic of their business consists in the sanitary fitting up and the painting and decorating of yachts. In regard to this department of their business the firm hold the leading position in Cowes — which, having regard to the specialists class of the work, is saying a good deal. During the season of 1894 the firm were at work on board all the leading yachts; and their valuable connection in this direction is constantly extending.

The members of the firm are both endowed with strong administrative abilities, and are thus in a position, personally and efficiently, to supervise all the details in the conduct of the business. Mr. G. Watts is also enabled to devote much of his valuable time and energies to the service of the community. He was formerly chairman of the Local Board. He is also a member of the Board of Guardians, and was for some time churchwarden of St. Mary's Church.


COWES being the headquarters of English yachting, the building of yachts and sailing-boats generally is one of the chief characteristic industries of the place. In this important trade Mr. C. Sibbick, whose business was established about five years ago, has come rapidly to the front, owing to the excellence and improved character of his work, which has met with prompt recognition. Mr. Sibbick was one of the first to give special attention to the building of small raters and fast cruisers; and this branch of the industry developed considerably about three years ago, since which time he has turned out several “crack” vessels. He continues to make this class of work his speciality, and is, we believe, the only builder in Cowes who has done so. Small raters and cruisers owe much to Mr. Sibbick for the efforts he has made in their improvement, and his work is marked by so many important features of excellence that it is not difficult to understand the success that has attended his business.

His yard, known as “Albert Yard," and situated in Thetis Road, is admirably organised and equipped for the purposes of the trade, and gives employment to a large number of skilled workmen, who perform their duties under Mr. Sibbick’s immediate supervision. Besides the offices, designing rooms, sheds, and building shops, there are here four hauling-up slips, which are a great convenience. Fast-sailing centreboard boats and steam launches are built to order in the best, style and upon the most approved lines, and there are several yachts, &c., always on hand for sale or hire. Mr. Sibbick's small raters are built from his own special designs, and are immensely successful. Last year (1893) the ‘Maiko,’ belonging to Prince Henri de Bourbon (built by Mr. Sibbick), took prizes in the racing at Pola, winning both of the two races in which she was entered. Speaking of this contest, the ‘Yachting World’ of May 4th, 1894, said: “To Prince Henri of Bourbon fell the laurels of the Pola Regatta. He won the cruisers’ race with the ‘May,’ while the ‘Maiko’ carried off two races. The second victory of the latter was of the highest interest to the yachting world. It showed clearly that in the ‘Maiko’ we have found a boat of the first order. We have in her a boat that shapes equally well in a light wind or a good breeze.” After beating the noted one-rater ‘Sacharissa’ in the first race, the ‘Maiko’ proved her superiority by showing a clean pair of heels to all her competitors in the second encounter, despite the fact that she was delayed a little by grounding near the first buoy off Point San Pietro. Subsequently, however, she steadily increased her lead to the finish, and the result of the race was never in doubt.

During 1894 Mr. Sibbick has built fifteen more raters (first class), the principal of these being: ‘Tartar II.’ (owned by Mr. Hewitt), which has won twenty-six prizes out of thirty starts; the ‘Romara,’ winner of twenty-three prizes out of twenty-five starts; and the ‘Shrimp,’ which is reckoned the best of all, having captured fifteen prizes in fifteen runs. At the time of our visit to Mr. Sibbick’s yard ‘Tartar II.’ was in dock there, and also the ‘Tortoise,’ belonging to the Earl of Harrington. The two-and-a-half-rater, ‘Yvery,’ owned by Philip Percival, Esq., was recently lengthened and improved by Mr. Sibbick, with the result that she immediately surpassed all expectations, winning in nine matches four “firsts” and five “seconds.” Mr. Sibbick has just built a yacht for Count Andrassy, one for Baron Biedermann, two for the Clyde, and three for Kingstown, among others. He has also done work for Lord Dudley, and many other distinguished yachtsmen, and has an extensive connection among members of the Royal Yachting Society. Just recently he has been favoured with an order from Lord Wolverton for a two-rater yacht to race in the Mediterranean. He is undoubtedly a leading man in his particular line, and himself takes a keen interest in yachting, being a member of several well-known yacht clubs, and of the Town Regatta Club of Cowes.


WITHIN the space of five years Mr. Charles Brown has built up at the above address one of the best businesses of its kind in the Isle of Wight, and has organised an establishment which compares favourably with any in Cowes for attractive appearance and complete equipment. Bringing to bear upon his venture a thorough knowledge of the grocery, provision, and wine and spirit trades, Mr. Brown has accentuated his success by a conspicuous spirit of enterprise, and has won support and inspired confidence by the prompt and careful attention he bestows upon his customers' varied requirements. His premises in High Street have been admirably arranged to suit the purposes of the business carried, on, and comprise a fine double-fronted shop, with three large plate-glass windows which display the goods to great advantage, while the interior is spacious and well appointed. The offices are at the rear of the shop, and beyond these are extensive stores and packing departments, the former containing large reserve stocks of goods, while the latter usually present a very busy scene, especially in the yachting season, when many orders are daily got ready for despatch. It should be noted that Mr. Brown, besides catering to a large and growing family connection, has acquired a great amount of valuable patronage in yachting circles, and pays special attention to the provisioning of yachts for voyages to any part of the world. This latter department calls for exceptional knowledge and experience, of which Mr. Brown has proved himself the possessor, to the complete satisfaction of his customers. His resources enable him to provision yachts at very short notice, but, of course, he is in a better position to guarantee satisfaction when yacht-owners give him sufficient time to allow of the meats, soups, &c., being specially preserved and tinned for the particular voyage in view.

It is part of Mr. Brown’s business to furnish correct estimates of stores required for any voyage at a few hours' notice, on being advised of the number of persons and length of cruise. As the provisions necessary for a cruise in the Arctic seas are so widely different from those required in the tropics, it is obvious that his experience is of great use to yacht-owners in assisting them to a proper organisation of their stores. Mr. Brown issues two printed lists in connection with his business, one giving a comprehensive detail of yachting requisites of every kind, while the other is a general list of groceries, comestibles, teas and coffees, wines, spirits, beers and mineral waters, which, for scope and completeness, would do credit to any leading London house. The whole range of the purveying trade is covered by his exhaustive stock, which embraces not only the finest growths of teas and coffees, the most reliable standard articles of grocery and general provisions, and the choicest wines, spirits, and malt liquors, but also an infinite variety of those preserved and portable table delicacies which are almost as indispensable to the modern household as to the yachtsman and traveller. To attempt an enumeration of these goods would be to make a catalogue of all the recognised specialities of an Italian and French warehouse of the highest class, and we must, therefore, refer the inquiring reader to Mr. Brown’s published price list, which contains all information, conveniently and concisely set forth.

In Cross Street, Cowes, Mr. Brown has his large bottling stores, and also his department for the supply of forage, an important item in his trade. He has erected special machinery for roasting coffee on his premises in High Street, enabling him to supply this article in the finest condition; and we note also that he deals largely in Devonshire butter of a particular quality which cannot be obtained elsewhere in Cowes. Probably the largest stock of ales and stouts in screw-stoppered bottles to be found in this neighbourhood is held by Mr. Brown, who is also noted for his fine old Scotch whiskey (fourteen years old), and for his specialities in the famous sherries of P. Domecq & Co., for whom he is agent. Mr. Brown is also agent for the Phoenix Fire Office. He ships bonded stores duty free for yachts, &c., outward bound, and conducts an exceedingly large and constantly increasing trade, being supported by a great many leading families in the Isle of Wight, as well as by his numerous yachting patrons. He holds the honour of being a purveyor by special appointment to Her Majesty the Queen, the German Emperor, the ships of the German navy and of the United States navy; and his business may truly be pronounced one of the most flourishing and rapidly progressive in this part of the Kingdom.

With the control of such an important concern on his hands it is obvious that Mr. Brown must be an exceptionally busy man. Nevertheless he has found opportunity to make himself favourably known in other spheres, and particularly in that of politics. He is a very prominent and active Conservative, a vice-president of the Cowes Conservative Club, and a member of the Conservative Association of the Isle of Wight. As a member of the Local Board of Cowes he renders good public service, and is most diligent in the discharge of all the duties of office, now an urban District Councillor. Mr. Brown is a Freemason, a Forester, and also an Oddfellow, of which society he is Deputy Provincial Grand Master for the Isle of Wight.


A CONSPICUOUS factor in the social and commercial economy of Cowes has for many years been the admirably equipped establishment of Messrs. Parkinson & Longman. The prosperous business has a long record, extending back to 1823 — a record of uninterrupted success and substantial progress, culminating in the appointment, as chemist to Her Majesty the Queen, of Mr. S. Harman Longman, who, until May, 1894, was the sole proprietor of the establishment. At that date Mr. I. Parkinson became a member of the firm, and Mr. Longman, while retaining an interest in the business, ceased to take any active share in its control. Mr. Parkinson brought to his enterprise a thorough knowledge of the business on its commercial side, and a wide technical and professional experience, which he has turned to the best advantage. The commodious premises which the firm have always occupied have a commanding position in High Street, and comprise a full-fronted sale-shop, the attractive appearance of whose exterior is altogether in keeping with the high class of the business which the firm control. The interior is admirably appointed and elegantly fitted. The stock includes drugs, whose absolute purity and efficacy are guaranteed; and here, also, are to be found all the popular patent medicines, and every modern requisite for the sick-room, the nursery, and the toilet. Messrs. Parkinson & Longman have gained more than a merely local reputation for the invariable efficacy of the various specialities of which they are the sole proprietors and manufacturers. Of these numerous specifics mention maybe particularly made of their “African Dentrifice”; of “Parkinson’s Cremolanine," for all eruptions of the skin caused by wind or sun; of the firm’s “Phosphorised Bark and Iron Nerve Tonic”; of “Parkinson's Anti-Neuralgic Tabloids,” Dandelion, Cascara, and Camomile Elixir; Carbol Eucalyptus Sawdust; Digestive Saline; Parkinson's “Rose Cream” for shaving; Parkinson's Anti-Tussine, the infallible cough cure, &c. At the rear of the premises is the dispensing department, which is the leading feature of the establishment. The firm, in this department, maintains — as it has long held — the unreserved confidence of the leading medical men and the most influential families in the district. They also control a large business in the fitting up and the refitting of medicine chests for ships’ use. the high respect in which the firm are held by all classes of the community — their business connection includes many members of the most distinguished social circles in the United Kingdom — enables them to render useful services as agents to the Scottish Union and National Insurance Company.


ONE of the most important and successful industries in Cowes is conducted by Mr. H. Guy at his Solent Steam Engine and Boiler Works. This extensive business has been established upwards of thirty-two years, starting under the name of H. Guy, and ultimately resuming that title after a period of eight years passed under that of Guy & Hunter. Mr. Guy remains solo proprietor of the concern, and continues the energetic policy by which he has made it a leading business in its line. The works cover a considerable area of ground, and include well-appointed offices, draughtsmen's offices and private rooms, in addition to the various workshops. The latter are admirably organised, and contain a valuable plant of the most improved and powerful modern machinery adapted to the purposes of the industry. Every branch of engineering, millwright’s work and boiler-making, is carried on in accordance with the latest principles, and a leading feature is the manufacture of marine engines, for which this establishment has long been noted. In this connection mention must be made of Mr. Guy’s patent surface condenser, which enables the tubes of surface condensers to be cleaned in much less time than hitherto, and consequently permits of the cleaning being more frequently performed, and of the engines being maintained in a correspondingly higher state of efficiency than was formerly possible. This valuable invention is so contrived that the whole of the tubes can be removed from the casing bodily, together with the two tube-plates in which they are fixed. This not only facilitates the work of cleaning, but also simplifies the construction of the condenser, and renders the use of ferrules, packings, and glands unnecessary. The invention is suitable for steam boats of all descriptions. It can also be applied in converting any old form of condenser, and is especially advantageous in cases where sufficient room is not left to draw the tubes, Mr. Guy’s patent permitting the tubes to be used in two lengths. Very noteworthy, also, are Mr. Guy’s patent slide valve arrangement for tandem engines, and his patent steam and exhaust pipes. These form a source of economy and efficiency, besides facilitating disconnection for examination or repair, and they have consequently met with a very favourable reception.

Steam launch and boat building constitutes another branch of Mr. Guy’s business, for which special accommodation is provided in Medina Road. Here the firm have every possible facility for their work, and we saw on the premises a fine specimen of their capabilities in the shape of a steam launch, built entirely on these premises, and supplied with machinery from the works in High Street. The superior finish of this handsome little craft at once commands admiration, and indicates the high-class nature of the work which Mr. Guy habitually turns out. Such excellent results speak volumes for the resources of the establishment, and could only be obtained by employing the most skilful workmen in each department and using the highest quality of material. Sail-making also forms a branch of this extensive business, so that Mr. Guy can not only build a boat, but fit it out completely, either with engines and machinery or with sailing gear, as may be required. Upwards of twenty-five experienced workmen are employed in the various departments of the business, which includes the making of oars, sculls, and spars, in addition to the work already mentioned; and special facilities exist for the execution of repairs of all kinds. The house has been honoured by the patronage of royalty, and has been entrusted with much important work by leading yacht and launch owners. At the time of our visit to the works we noticed a yacht in course of construction for Major Shuttleworth. A very large trade is controlled, with a high-class connection, and the whole business is under the personal supervision of Mr. Guy and his sons, all of whom have had the most extensive practical experience, and have acquired a complete mastery of the trade in its every detail.


THE famous Marine Hotel at Cowes, now known as Drover's Marine Hotel, is supposed to be the oldest hostelry in the Isle of Wight. The present proprietress has records which date back over two hundred years, and there is every reason to believe that the hotel was in existence as an inn as far back as the reign of Henry VIII. At all events, it is one of the most notable houses of its kind in the country, and has been honoured by the patronage of the most distinguished visitors to Cowes for many years past. Everybody is familiar with the four-storey embattled building which forms the structural habitation of this celebrated hotel, and from year to year one may note continued improvements in the arrangements for the accommodation of guests, which show that the proprietress is not allowing the house to rest on its own laurels, but is bent upon keeping it thoroughly up to the standard of modern requirements. The electric light has lately been installed, and this is a modern innovation which meets with every approval, especially as the light is very clear, brilliant, and steady, the steam engine and dynamo being on the premises. At present the Marine Hotel is alone at Cowes in possessing the electric light, and the large arc lamp suspended outside the hotel is, when lighted, a constant attraction to the purely local population.

The Marine Hotel has a splendid situation on the Parade, with a fine outlook over the Solent. It contains about one hundred rooms, including spacious dining, drawing, smoking, and other public rooms, besides the numerous bedrooms and private apartments en suite. The proprietress also has command of about a hundred rooms outside of the hotel, but during the Cowes season the patronage is so large that even these extensive resources frequently prove insufficient for the accommodation of the many visitors. At the Marine Hotel the cuisine has always been a special feature, and continues to receive the most careful attention, while the old-time renown of the house for a perfectly stocked cellar is fully maintained. Thus even the oldest institutions are often found leading the way in matters of modern enterprise. Among the many illustrious personages who have patronised the Marine Hotel may be mentioned H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, the late Emperor of the French and the Empress Eugenie, the Comte de Paris, the Duc de Chartre, the Crown Prince of Saxony, and many others. The hotel has also been greatly favoured by the foreign embassies, and a few years ago it was patronised during one year by the diplomatic representatives of almost every Continental country. Last year the Turkish and Portuguese embassies were among the guests. Drover’s Marine Hotel also enjoys the most select private patronage, and numbers the elite of the social world in the large circle of its fashionable clientele. For upwards of twenty-five years it has been conducted under the name of Drover, and the present proprietress, Mrs. Drover, possesses every qualification of experience, tact, and judgment calculated to sustain the prosperity of the establishment under her direction.


The house under notice is the oldest of its kind in the Isle of Wight and dates its history from the year 1790, when it was founded by Mr. Jacob Hewitt, grandfather of the present proprietor. The latter gentleman, Mr. Alf Hewitt, has his son, Mr. Fred Hewitt, in partnership with him, so that the third and fourth generations in direct succession from the founder are now represented in the firm. The premises occupied are situated in the High Street, and are very spacious and commodious. The tasteful manner in which the windows are dressed, coupled with the evident good quality of the wares displayed therein, combine to make this one of the most attractive business establishments in Cowes, and suggest at the same time the magnitude and select character of the trade carried on. At the rear of the premises are large warehouses and packing-rooms, running down to the water's edge, where the firm have a capital quay for landing and shipping goods. This is particularly convenient when we remember that they have a very large and influential connection in yachting circles.

The goods dealt in by this firm embrace every staple article and every luxury pertaining to the trade of the grocer, provision dealer, and French and Italian warehouseman, and among the many specialities we note in the comprehensive price-list issued by the house, perhaps none is more important than tea. In this department the firm supply the choicest growths of China, India and Ceylon, and have a special feature in their “Royal Osborne Mixture,” of which the late Emperor of Germany remarked that it was the best he had tasted, and forthwith ordered a quantity for his household. Coffees from the most celebrated Eastern plantations are also stocked in large quantities, and there are cocoas, chocolates, sugars, preserved milk, spices, condiments, biscuits, &c., all of the choicest quality. Toilet and household soaps, brushes and turnery, and all manner of domestic sundries find a place in this establishment, and among the various goods which may properly be classed as delicacies we observe soups, invalids’ preparations, all kinds of potted meat and game, entrees, hams, tongues, sauces, pickles, essences, jams, jellies, preserved vegetables, bottled fruits, dried herbs, dried fruits, and all the comestibles usually found in a perfectly organised Italian warehouse.

The wine and spirit department is stocked with the best brands and vintages, selected with great care and judgment, and the firm have always a full supply of the leading makes of aerated waters, fruit syrups, cordials, &c. They are sole agents in Cowes for W. & A. Gilbey's celebrated wines and spirits, and have also the agencies for Bass & Co., Allsopp & Co., Ind, Coope & Co., Garton & Co., the Anglo-Bavarian Brewery Company, Guinness & Co., Pilsener Lager Beer, and Schweppe’s mineral waters: while, in another department of their trade, they represent Messrs. Wood & Co., the noted coal merchants. Stores for yachts are selected and put up specially, and the firm can ensure satisfaction in this connection, having had long experience in packing goods so as to ensure their keeping properties in all climates. When sufficient notice is given, bacon, hams, and other provisions are specially cured and dried. Wines, spirits, tobaccos, tea, &c., are shipped duty free to yachts and other vessels sailing to foreign ports, and all goods are packed and delivered on board on the shortest notice.

It may be mentioned also that this firm are agents for the Norwich Union Fire, Life, and Accident Associations, and can effect insurances on the most favourable terms for their clients. Messrs. Hewitt & Son hold special warrants of appointment as purveyors to Her Majesty the Queen, and H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, and they are also honoured by the distinguished patronage of the Duke of Edinburgh, the Marquis of Lorne, the King of Denmark, and the Empress Eugenie, while the late Emperor of Germany and the late Emperor of the French (Napoleon III.) were also among their illustrious patrons. They are purveyors to the Royal Yacht Squadron, and many of the most prominent yachting men of the day are constant customers of this house for provisions, groceries, wines, spirits, and other stores. Having always supplied the finest quality of goods obtainable in the home and foreign markets, Messrs. Hewitt & Son have long enjoyed the confidence of a most influential connection. They are regularly patronised by the leading local families, and do, a large trade, their own vans being kept for the delivery of goods to all parts of the neighbourhood. As we have already said, Mr. Alf Hewitt and his son, Mr. Fred Hewitt, are the co-partners in this notable firm. The senior partner is one of the best-known men in Cowes, and has done good public service, sparing considerable time for the diligent discharge of his duties as a member of the Local Board of Health, of which he has been twice chairman.



THE foundations of this business were laid about a century ago, and it has always been carried on at the above address in the interesting High Street of Cowes. The premises, however, have been much extended and improved from time to time, and have been adapted to the needs of a business which has never ceased to develop since its inception. The establishment now presents a very attractive appearance, heightened by the fine display of goods in the large plate-glass windows. In arranging their premises, Messrs. Dear & Morgan have found it convenient to devote No. 91, High Street, specially to the wine and spirit department, and here they stock a very large assortment of choice growths and vintages in foreign wines, together with the best brands of Irish and Scotch whiskies, French brandies, liqueurs, &c. We note important specialities in all these, as well as in the most celebrated natural and manufactured mineral waters; and special attention is called to the famous and unsurpassed brandies of John Exshaw &c Co., for which eminent firm Messrs. Dear & Morgan are agents at Cowes. They are also sole agents here for R. Fry & Co.’s celebrated Brighton mineral waters. At the rear of the wine and spirit department are situated the firm’s well-appointed offices.

Passing into No. 90, High Street, we find this spacious and handsome shop devoted to the grocery and Italian warehouse branch of the business. The display is exceedingly tasteful in arrangement, every article being carefully selected from the best sources of supply. Here are teas and coffees of the choicest varieties, sugar, spices, cocoa, dried fruits, and all manner of groceries; and in addition to these there is one of the finest stocks of preserved comestibles and table delicacies to be met with anywhere, embracing soups, turtle, Brand’s famous specialities, all sorts of tinned and potted meats, fish and game, pies, hams, tongues, bacon, sausages, pickles, sauces and condiments, fruit juices, essences, jams and jellies, marmalade, preserved vegetables, bottled fruits, dessert fruits in syrup, dessert fruits crystallised, glace, and dried, &c., &c. Cheese, butter, and other dairy produce are also largely dealt in, and the firm have a separate department for corn and flour, in which they do an extensive trade. They are sole agents at Cowes for Brand & Co.'s preserved provisions, soups, entries, &c., which are indispensable to yachtsmen and travellers. Messrs. Dear & Morgan hold a very eminent position as purveyors of stores and provisions to yachts going en voyage to every part of the world. Cowes is the great headquarters of supply in this respect, and the firm under notice play a leading part in the trade. They publish a most exhaustive list of stores suitable for yachting cruises, and carry out all orders for the supply of the same with the greatest care. The requirements of any kind of voyage can be properly provided for, the best results being assured when customers give the firm sufficient time to specially prepare the requisite articles for the cruise contemplated. Spirits, tobacco, tea, &c., are supplied to yachts and shipping duty free from Messrs. Dear & Morgan's Bonded Stores in Medina Road, West Cowes, and no charge is made for customs agency.

At the rear of their shops the firm have extensive warehouses and packing departments, and as their premises run down to the waterside, they possess good quay accommodation, from which they load and unload goods with every facility. Messrs. Dear & Morgan keep a great stock of all kinds of household, kitchen, and cabin sundries, and they also have a special department for patent medicines, proprietary articles, perfumery, and toilet requisites. Altogether, this business is one of the foremost concerns of its kind in the South of England, and its support is drawn from the most distinguished circles. A very large wholesale and retail trade is controlled, delivery of goods being promptly made to any part of the Isle of Wight by the firm's own carts and vans; and there is also an extensive export to the Mediterranean, Italy, and the Continent generally. The house has an excellent name in yachting circles, supplying many of the leading yachtsmen; and its connection extends amongst the most prominent local families as well, while special warrants of appointment are held authorising the firm to style themselves purveyors to Her Majesty the Queen, the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Buke of Connaught, the German Emperor and Empress, and the Empress of the French; and we may add that the firm have actually supplied Her Majesty with groceries and provisions during the whole period of her reign, and before then to the Duchess of Kent; whilst upon their books are the names of many of the most influential members of the aristocracy connected with the yachting world.

Mr. Morgan died nine years ago, and Mr. Dear’s death occurred a year later. The business was then acquired by Messrs. Thomas Edward Barnard, John Wright Brown, and Joseph Bunnell May, who constitute the present personnel of the firm. All three gentlemen are well and favourably known in Cowes, and Mr. May has been a member of the Local Board, from which, however, he had to retire on account of ill-health. The entire business is under the able personal supervision of the principals, and we may regard the marked success that has attended its long career as not only creditable to the enterprise governing its administration in the past, but also prophetic of the prosperity that will, it is safe to predict, be a conspicuous feature of its history in time to come.


SUCH an establishment as the Cowes Steam Hemp and Wire Rope Works affords a striking exemplification of the state of perfection at which rope manufacture has arrived, and of the resources that are now brought to bear upon this important industry. The works in question have been in existence since 1820, but the business itself was founded by the father of the late Mr. Henry Bannister over a hundred years ago, at a time when all rope was made by hand. Since 1820, a large plant of machinery has been laid down, and the works greatly extended by the addition of saw-mills, and later of grinding and gristing mills, making the establishment in its entirety the largest industrial concern of the kind on the island. As rope manufacturers the firm confine themselves to a high-class trade, and make a very special feature of ropes for yachts. In fact, in this department they hold the leading position, and their yacht ropes are sent to all parts of the world — even to Belfast, Dublin, and Gourock, which are themselves noted rope-making centres. They also supply many rope manufacturers with these special yacht ropes, which are acknowledged to be the best it is possible to procure. So great, indeed, is the fame of Bannister's ropes, that designers of yachts frequently specify that the ropes must be Bannister's make. Of these yacht ropes it may be said that they are made in all sizes and for all purposes, and are a product of the finest Manilla, Russian hemp, Italian hemp and flax. In finish and every detail of quality and manufacture they are unsurpassable.

The house of Bannister has always pursued a most enterprising policy, and was, we believe, the first to introduce wire rope as a superior substitute for hemp in vessels’ standing riggings. This firm were also among the first to take up Good's Automatic Spinner, an American patent for making manilla yarns, and they conceived the idea of superseding cotton belting by manilla rope for driving the machinery in cotton mills, chiefly, an idea which has been largely carried into effect at Oldham and elsewhere. In short, the late Mr. Henry Bannister was one of the most progressive men in the trade, and his death, which occurred in 1893, was widely regretted. The premises have twice suffered from fire, and as they were almost wholly reconstructed after the last outbreak in 1871, they are at present both substantial and commodious. There are two rope-walks — the chief one being one thousand feet long, while the smaller one is for making cords and twines. There is also a walk for hand-spinning for very special purposes, and when it comes to this class of work there are few firms that can approach Messrs. Bannister. The plant of rope-making machinery, both for hemp and wire, is very extensive, and embraces the most improved apparatus driven by steam power. The tarring shop and other departments all present features of interest, and combine to make this ropery one of the best in the Kingdom for equipment and organisation. Vast stocks of raw material are held in the shape of bales of hemp and flax from all the chief sources of supply.

The specialities of the firm’s manufacture may be briefly stated as follows:- Fine yacht rope and hawsers, fine bolt rope, extra fine bolt rope, tarred and white manilla rope and hawsers, extra fine manilla rope, bleached flax rope, coir rope and warps, merchant rope and hawsers, medium rope and hawsers, superfine bolt line and Hambro’ line, yacht spun-yarn, houseline and marline, engine spun-yarn, hand lead lines, deep-sea lead lines, log lines, twines, box cords, wire ropes of all circumferences, wire cord, copper cord for lightning conductors, wire seizings, and fencing strands. In all the above-named goods a widespread and very important trade is carried on; also in flexible steel wire rope and hawsers, and estimates are given for outfitting ships and yachts, and for fitting rigging, &c. We have mentioned the saw-mills and gristing mill which are run in connection with these works. In both cases the equipment is excellent, and the firm do a large amount of grinding and crushing for farmers and the trade, besides conducting a business in English and foreign timber. They have also a wharf and stores at Solent Wharf, Medina Road, West Cowes, and a patent slip where small boats and launches may be laid up. Altogether about fifty hands are regularly employed in this flourishing business.


THIS important business was founded about twenty years ago by Miss Cole at Shooters’ Hill, Cowes, and was acquired some eight years since by the present proprietresses. The Misses Pegg brought to their enterprise a thoroughly cultured taste in reference to artistic dressmaking and millinery, combined with an ample technical experience which their exceptional aptitude has enabled them to use to the greatest advantage. They have thus very materially extended the valuable connection which was created by their predecessor, and have gained the unreserved confidence and the continued support of many of the most illustrious and distinguished amongst the periodical visitors to the Isle of Wight. As a result of the rapid growth in the volume of the business, the Misses Pegg, eighteen months ago, removed from their original quarters to the conveniently situated and commodious premises which they now occupy. These, which are known as Gloster House, occupy a commanding position in High Street. In order to suit them for their present requirements, the premises have been considerably altered, and the front portion, indeed, has been practically rebuilt. They comprise a full-fronted sale shop and show-room; an ample show-window, with its tastefully arranged exhibits, forms a point of unfailing attraction. The interior is decorated and appointed in a style of substantial and unobtrusive elegance which harmonizes with the sumptuous splendour of the contents.

The artistically industrial operations of the firm are absolutely restricted to dress-making and millinery. The work-rooms, which are spacious and well ventilated, are on the first floor, and here is employed a large staff of highly skilled experts, including several specialists for particular classes of work. Here, too, as, indeed, throughout the whole of the establishment, the operations are under the assiduous supervision of the principals, who are endowed with well-developed administrative abilities. The stocks, which are carefully selected by the aid of the intimate and extensive relations which the principals maintain with the best markets, include all the newest and most attractive textile fabrics in the most approved colours and patterns. The supply of these is as prompt, and the representation of the latest and most artistic ideas is as complete as can be found in the best appointed establishments in the West End of London or in Paris. The millinery department, too, is replete with every new attraction in hats, caps, and bonnets, feathers, flowers, and other trimmings. It is appropriate to the character of the local attractions that the Misses Pegg should, with signal success, have made a speciality of the production of yachting gowns and coats in perfection - and, indeed, everything else requisite for a yachting outfit. The splendid connection which the firm now enjoy enables them to number in their list of clients many members of the royal family, and other illustrious and distinguished persona gee visiting at Osborne, as well as other members of the highest social circles making a temporary stay at Cowes. It is doubtful, indeed, if any other establishment in the locality can be credited with holding a more prominent position in the trade.


THE well-equipped establishment which is now the property of Messrs. W. Jones & Son has, for many years, constituted one of the most important factors in the industrial resources of Cowes. The firm, whose business originally was that of general smiths, has an honourable record extending back to 1849, when it was founded by Messrs. J. and W. Jones, in St. Mary's Street. The rapid increase in the volume of the firm’s business necessitated a removal almost immediately to the more commodious premises which have served to form the nucleus of the present establishment. Some four years ago the firm assumed the style and title of W. Jones & Son, its members being Mr. W. Jones and his son. Both of these gentlemen have a thorough technical knowledge of the several departments of their business. They have recently created an engineering department, which is under the supervision of Mr. J. Jolliffe, who has taken a share in the business, and having had considerable experience in engineering, both ashore and afloat, the firm is capable of doing any kind of repairs that may be required on any vessel, sail or steam, so that the premises now comprise a very extensive smithy, with five forges, a steam hammer, lathes, &c. The working plant, indeed, is so complete that it represents all the most approved modern applications of mechanical science to the saving of labour and the perfecting of results in the various processes which are conducted on the premises.

The Messrs. Jones give constant employment to a dozen or more highly skilled workmen, under their own assiduous supervision, and they are surrounded with every facility which matured experience could suggest. The firm give special attention to the execution of repairs of all kinds, and to the production of castings, which are made to pattern, drawing, or specification. They have an excellent reputation for the rapidity with which they execute ship work, and, with signal success, they have made a speciality of supplying yacht fittings. In this connection they have many and important transactions with the leading yacht builders in Cowes, and it may be noted that the Messrs. Jones have executed a considerable amount of work on the ‘Britannia,’ the famously successful yacht which is the property of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, in addition to many other principal yachts. It should be understood, however, that general smiths’ work continues, as of yore, to constitute the staple business of the firm. In this respect they are the occupants of a uniquely useful position in the town, inasmuch as other firms in the locality who execute smith work, do so, for the most part, simply to meet their own industrial requirements. Messrs. Jones & Son have patented a capstan which gives increased power and saves a great deal of labour. They have received many flattering testimonials from yachtsmen who have had their boats fitted with these capstans. The Messrs. Jones are personally well known and are held in high esteem by all classes of the community.


A STRONG, local and professional interest of a two-fold character belongs to the admirably equipped establishment of which Mr. J. H. Cory is now the proprietor. The business itself dates back for upwards of fifty years, having been established more than half a century ago, by Messrs. Weeding & Son. Mr. Cory succeeded in 1892; but before his advent in Cowes, he had for nearly thirty years successfully conducted an important pharmacy in Newport, having succeeded his father in the business, which was founded about a hundred years ago by his grandfather. Owing to his ill-health, he was compelled some time ago to retire into private life, his brother succeeding him in the conduct of the Newport business. Having settled in Cowes, and happily recovered his health, he acquired his present business at the period already indicated. The thorough technical and professional knowledge, and the wide experience which he brought to his new enterprise have been turned to such excellent account that he has already materially extended the excellent connection which was created by his predecessors.

His premises occupy a commanding position in High Street, and comprise a three-storeyed building, having a full-fronted shop, a portion of which is utilized as a show-room, while the remainder forms a dispensing laboratory. The exterior, with the tastefully arranged exhibits in the ample show-window, has an attractive appearance which is altogether in keeping with the high-class of character of the business which Mr. Cory controls. The stock includes all descriptions of drugs and chemicals of absolute purity and in the best condition, together with surgical appliances and all the most popular patent medicines, as well as a splendidly varied assortment of requisites for the sick-room, the nursery, and the toilet. The stocks also include a practically unlimited choice of mineral and aerated waters, the artificial descriptions being manufactured by such eminent firms as Mumby & Co., Randall, Sloper & Co., and others. Mr. Cory has gained more than a merely local reputation through the invariable efficacy of some of his own specialities which he has successfully introduced to the trade and to the public. Amongst these may be mentioned his tonic neuralgic pills, his quinine and iron tonic, and his effervescing fruit citrate. These are all in large and increasing demand. Very special attention is given by the proprietor to the dispensing department. During the period of Messrs. Weeding & Son’s proprietorship of the establishment they received the distinction of being specially appointed chemists to H.M. the Queen. The traditions of the house are being maintained by the patronage which Mr. Cory continues to receive from members of the Royal Family, as well as from distinguished members of Her Majesty’s household at Osborne.

Notwithstanding the heavy demands which have been made upon his attention by his extensive business concerns, Mr. Cory has been in the habit of devoting much of his valuable time and energies to the service of the public. Whilst resident in Newport, he was an active member of the Town Council, and he was also churchwarden for the late Canon, afterwards Dean, Connor, of Windsor, now deceased.


ONE of the oldest and best-known industrial establishments in the Isle of Wight is that known as the Vectis Works, at which Messrs. W. White & Sons carry on their extensive operations. For the history of this notable concern we have to go back as far as the year 1804, and was for many years conducted by the late Mr. W. White as an iron and brass foundry. It was commenced at the present address, but the premises here have been considerably enlarged to meet the increased requirements of the trade, and they now form a very extensive and commodious establishment, comprising store-rooms, show-rooms, and offices, with spacious yards and sheds for boiler-making, in addition to the busy workshops which were the nucleus of the place, and in which the business was originally started. The Vectis Works can show a very complete equipment of improved modern machinery, and their resources are amply attested by the excellent work they turn out.

In the show-rooms we saw several fine models of yachts and other vessels, for which the firm have gained medals from the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, London, and these remind us that Messrs. W. White & Sons have distinguished themselves as steam-yacht and launch builders, not less than as engineers and boiler-makers. Their shipyard, which is a little way from the works, but is still in High Street, was acquired in 1878. It was formerly the property of Mr. Michael Ratsey. Here the firm have every facility for their important yacht and boat-building trade, and they are in a position to turn out any kind of craft, for sport, pleasure, or traffic, though their speciality is in steam-yachts and launches. Among the noted yachts built by Messrs. White may be mentioned the steamships ‘Paulina,’ three hundred and seventeen tons; ‘Vista,’ ‘Linotte,’ ‘Bronzewing,’ ‘Goshawk,’ ‘Zaroslavna,’ ‘Insect,’ ‘Luna,’ ‘Marchessa,’ ‘Mena,’ ‘Moonbeam,’ and many others. In racing yachts, among others, the ‘Ghost,’ ‘Stephanie,’ ‘Dolphin,’ ‘Bairn,’ are equal for beauty and speed to any in the yachting world.

Messrs. W. White & Sons have always enjoyed distinguished and valuable patronage, both as engineers and as yacht-builders, and they have done a large amount of work for Osborne. The name of this firm is associated in the public mind with work of a high-class and reliable character, and the reputation it has so long enjoyed is as well maintained to-day as at any period in the past. For this circumstance, credit is due to the very able and judicious administration of the present sole principal, Mr. Edwin White, who personally superintends the entire business. Through him the house retains the confidence of its widespread and influential connection, and shows continuous development in its trade from year to year. Mr. White takes an active part in public life at Cowes, and is a County Councillor and a member of the Local Board, in both of which capacities he has found time and opportunity to render good service, despite the many and exacting claims made upon his energies by the large business of which he is the head.


THIS is a leading firm in the Isle of Wight, not only for the supply of all kinds of furnishing ironmongery, but also for yacht-fitting, brass-founding, bell-hanging, copper and tin-plate working, and gas and water-fitting in all its branches. The business has been established upwards of thirty years, and for twenty-seven years it has been in the hands of the present proprietor, Mr. G. H. May, trading under the title which heads our sketch. From the first the firm has occupied its present premises in High Street, and these are easily discerned by anyone in search of them, owing to their fine frontage and very attractive appearance. There is also another establishment at Arctic Road. The establishment has been much altered and improved from time to time, and is now admirably adapted to the requirements of the business. The handsome frontage is the most recent addition, and has immensely increased the value of the premises for commercial purposes. At No. 126, High Street the place extends back to the water’s edge, a distance of about two hundred feet, and here are the various workshops of the firm, admirably equipped, and presenting a busy aspect, a large staff of experienced workmen being employed. In all cases the best class of work is turned out, and the reputation of the house for reliability is thus amply sustained.

Special attention is given to yacht-fitting, and in this department the firm are particularly well known and largely employed. Their shop and showrooms contain a splendid stock of nautical instruments of all kinds, including compasses in great variety, binnacles, adjusting instruments, verifiers, log-glasses, fog-horns, cabin and engine-room lamps, gauges of every description, and everything in the shape of cabin fittings. These articles ore all of the highest quality, and bear the names of the most noted makers. Messrs. G. H. May & Co. also manufacture the R.Y.S. (Royal Yacht Squadron) stoves and cooking ranges, which embody many improvements, rendering them specially adapted to yachting requirements; and in (heir show-room for goods of this class they display a fine general stock of stoves, ranges, grates, tiled hearths, and furnishing ironmongery of all kinds. The principal trade, however, is in yacht stores and yacht fittings, and this comprises a wide range of work in iron, copper, brass, tin, and other materials, whereby the firm's skilful staff is kept busily employed. The workshops have the best modern appliances for their several purposes, and the whole business, in both its industrial and its commercial aspects, is under the personal supervision of the sole proprietor. The firm, by their energetic methods, promptitude, and straightforwardness, have acquired the support and confidence of a widespread and representative connection amongst yachtsmen and the public generally.


THE business over which Mr. Drover presides was founded by his father, and is undoubtedly one of the oldest and most important concerns of its kind in the Isle of Wight. The offices are conveniently situated, and comprise a commodious suite, affording every facility for the transaction of business. Mr. Drover has long maintained a valuable and influential connection as a ship agent and broker, and has always been favourably known for his prompt and careful attention to all business entrusted to him in this department. He has also successfully developed a large commission trade in various classes of merchandise, and particularly in coal. Acting as agent for the leading collieries, he is in a position to supply steamers with the best quality of coal on the lowest current terms. Mr. Drover is also agent for Messrs. Charles Francis, Son & Co., West Medina Mill, Newport, Isle of Wight, one of the best-known firms of cement manufacturers in the south of England. Underwriting receives Mr. Drover's most careful attention, and he has distinct advantages therein as representative of some of the leading underwriters in Great Britain and the Continent. The subject of our sketch has had an unusually wide and comprehensive experience in commercial and financial transactions, and especially in shipping circles; and those who know him speak of him as a keen business man, straightforward and practical in method, and watchful of his clients’ interests, which he rightly looks upon as identical in a measure with his own. Mr. Drover consequently has the support of a capital connection, and stands high in the confidence of all with whom he has business intercourse.
Telegraphic address: “Drover, Cowes.”


THIS extensive business was founded as far back as the year 1782 under the name of Johnston, and has always been carried on upon its present site. Over sixty years ago it came into the hands of the late Mr. R. H. Matthews, and under that gentleman’s very able and energetic administration the house became a leading one in its line. Its high position is fully maintained at the present day, and its name continues to be identified with goods of the finest quality, and business methods of the most honourable character. The premises, which have been partly rebuilt, are situated at Shooters’ Hill, and comprise a large and handsomely fitted double-fronted shop. Connected with the shop by speaking tubes are large stores, situated at the rear of the premises, and containing heavy reserve stocks of all goods dealt in by the firm. As general grocers, and wine and spirit merchants, Messrs. R. H. Matthews & Sons control a very extensive family trade. Besides catering to the leading families of Cowes and the district, Messrs. Matthews make a speciality of yacht stores, and give estimates for the provisioning of yachts for cruises to any part of the world. Long experience has given them many advantages in this matter, and they are well known for the accuracy and completeness with which they provide for all requirements, as well as for the superior quality of everything they supply.

The firm hold a most comprehensive stock of groceries, provisions, preserved meats, jams, tinned fruits, and all manner of specialities in comestibles suitable for home use or for the requirements of yachts. They also keep one of the best stocks of choice wines and spirits in Cowes, and are sole agents here for Raggett’s Nourishing Stout as supplied to Her Majesty the Queen. All Messrs. Matthews’ wines and spirits are selected with the greatest care from the best shippers and distillers, and before being offered for sale are matured in their own bonded stores at Medina Commercial Wharf, whence yachts and shipping going abroad can be supplied duty free. Messrs. Matthews are part proprietors and managers of this wharf, which contains large accommodation for cargoes. It is the landing place for H.M.'s troops; bonded warehouse for wet and dry goods. Large coal stores both for house and shipping. Another very important department of this fine old business is that for the supply of corn, hay, and straw, and it should also be noted that tobacco and cigars of the best makes form a considerable item in the trade of the house. Altogether the business is a thoroughly representative one, admirably organised, and sustaining its long-established reputation with unfailing vigour and efficiency. This is the result of the able manner in which Messrs. A. J. and F. W. Matthews, the present principals, have adhered to the recognised policy of the concern, and maintain the approved methods of its administration. Both are gentlemen of the best practical experience in their trade, and both give careful attention to the details of the business.

Mr. A. J. Matthews is also well known as an active and zealous County Councillor and member of the Local Board; and Mr. F. W. Matthews throws his energies into his work as a business man. As our readers are doubtless for the most part aware, Messrs. A. J. and F. W. Matthews are sons of the late Mr. R. H. Matthews, whose death, which occurred very recently, was so much regretted in the neighbourhood. The deceased gentleman was born in 1807, and was the son of Thomas Matthews, and grandson of Commander Robert Haven, R.N., who had command of the several ships of war that lay in Cowes harbour for the reception of prisoners during the long continued French war in the latter part of the last century. It was in 1832 that the late Mr. R. H. Matthews acquired the grocery business we have here briefly noticed, and he remained an active partner therein up to the time of his death, which took place, from the effects of a chill, in the present year (1894). He reached the great age of eighty-seven, and took a lively interest in business and public affairs to the last. In his younger days he figured prominently in local life, and was a member of the old Town Commissioners, a member of the Local Board of Health, a shareholder of the Commercial Wharf Company and Legal Quay, one of the founders of the Gas Company, Ferry Company, and Waterworks. For many years he represented the parish of Northwood on the Board of Guardians. He was highly esteemed as he was prominent, and his death was mourned as the loss of one who had always had the interests of the town and its people at heart, and who had done much for the prosperity of Cowes. Of his sons, the present heads of the firm, it may truly be said that they have proved themselves worthy of their father, and have displayed in all their work those habits of industry and application which were characteristic of him throughout his long career.

We may add two other items of interest to our brief account of this noted firm — (1) Messrs. Matthews were the last windmillers in Cowes, and (2) they used in former times to supply goods to Lady Blashford, who, it will be remembered, occupied the old Osborne House, prior to the acquisition of that beautiful demesne by Her Majesty the Queen, who caused to be erected the present noble mansion.


HAVING been deemed worthy of the patronage of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, and H.I.H. the Empress Eugenie, this typical business holds itself in worthy prominence among the principal purveying establishments of West Cowes. The business was organised as far back as forty years ago under the auspices of Mr. W. Slade, sen., and has since 1880 been carried on by his sons, at the two addresses, Nos. 9 & 52, High Street, West Cowes. Both shops, with their substantial fitments, always present a particularly neat and clean appearance, which tends most emphatically to enhance the inviting appearance of the stock maintained, in the form of expertly dressed carcasses, sides, joints, and cuts of meat, large supplies of country poultry and rabbits, and pure ice for refrigerating purposes, and kitchen and table use. Home-fed ox beef and wether mutton, veal and lamb in their seasons, together with choicely corned beef, prime pickled tongues, are all fully represented in the very finest condition for consumption. Messrs. E. Slade & Sons, in addition to their large, aristocratic, family connection, have also sedulously cultivated a large yachting, shipping, and hotel trade, and they continue to conduct their business in a manner and upon principles that cannot fail to preserve and even enhance the high reputation they have so long and so deservedly enjoyed.


THE Globe Family Hotel still maintains its prestige and position among the leading caravanserai of Cowes, and during the past twelve months has been fortified and much popularised through its passage into the hands of Mr. W. J. Keeping, as its genial and courteous proprietor. The substantial three-storied building facing the Parade commands an uninterrupted view of the Solent, and presents a singularly pleasing and attractive exterior. All that ingenuity and money can do to render the hotel comfortable has been done. There are twenty-two large, well furnished apartments in form of dining and smoke rooms, sitting-rooms, and scrupulously clean and tidy bed-chambers; while the kitchens and domestic offices are equipped strictly up-to-date. The cuisine is all that could be desired, the attendance is unexceptional; moderate charges characterise the tariff of the establishment in all respects, and under the judicious management of the host, Keeping, “The Globe” promises to sustain its past popularity in the favour of the public, as one of the most desirable of “homes away from home” to be found in the Isle of Wight.


ESTABLISHED in the year 1876, this typical business is now under the sole proprietary control of Mr. Joseph Maynard (trading as Edwin Way & Co.), whose sagacity and experience in relation to all matters connected with the corn, flour, meal, seed, and forage providing trade should win for him the liberal support of a very large and valuable local connection, strongly developed among yachts and ships, the firm supplying the Royal Yacht Squadron with all their needs and requirements in this line. Favourably located in a conspicuous position in the High Street, the spacious double-fronted shop is well fitted up with bins, &c., for containing adequate supplies of such various commodities as corn, flour, beans, and meals; toppings, pollards, and bran; Hungarian, English and American self-raising flour; corn-flour, semolina, tapioca, oatmeal, barley meal, Indian meal, &c.; potatoes, peas, haricots, split peas, &c.; linseed and linseed meal, groats and lentils; hunters’ and horse condiment, rock salt; Thorley's food and calf meal, Chapman’s Royal oils, Spratt’s biscuits and foods of all sorts; cage-bird seeds and foods, and china and glass sanitary appliances for birds; aviaries, breeding, show and other cages; reliable vegetable seeds, guano, manures, &c.; seeds for birds and poultry, dog-biscuits, &c., and hay, straw, moss, litter, and the like, the firm acting also as sole local agents for Messrs. Chapman & Son's cattle oil-cakes and Carter’s bird-seeds, &c. Messrs. Edwin Way & Co.’s resources and facilities are, indeed, of a distinctly superior character, enabling them to offer many special advantages to regular customers and large buyers, and to execute all orders, however large or urgent they may be, in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Personally, Mr. Joseph Maynard is well known and much esteemed in local and yachting circles as an enterprising, honourable and thoroughly capable business man, liberal and fair in all transactions, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.


MR. JOHN ABRAHAM, after many years of the soundest practical experience in all tranches of the modern clothiers' and outfitters’ trade, entered into business operations at Cowes, in the year 1887, as the proprietor of the now popular establishment known as “The West Cowes Clothing Hall.” Occupying a commanding position on Shooters Hill, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and displays a stock of goods, all of which have been chosen with great care and judgment; and may be accurately described as typical of stylish ready-made suits and single garments of every description for men, youths, and boys; a speciality, for which he has won a widespread and well-merited renown, being Mr. Abraham’s clothing for little boys. The stock, moreover, includes silk and felt hats, and caps; gloves and hosiery, shirts and underwear, ties, scarfs, collars, cuffs, braces, studs, and outfitting items of all kinds up-to-date; all goods being offered for sale by the staff of polite and attentive assistants, at the lowest prices consistent with equitable trading. For the rest, the business under Mr. Abraham’s vigorous and tactful management has grown to be immensely popular; and it is clear that Mr. Abraham spares no effort to study the best interests of his customers, and to sustain the high reputation which he now so deservedly enjoys.


THIS busy municipal borough is the capital of the Isle of Wight, and is situated on the River Medina, near the centre of the island. Newport is a place of considerable historical interest, and possesses several noteworthy institutions dating from past times; among these must be mentioned the Grammar School, founded in 1612, and the endowed school for girls, which was started in 1761. the town is pleasant and attractive, with not a little agreeable quaintness in some of its features. It is a flourishing place in a commercial sense, and has railway communication with Cowes, Ryde, Sandown, and other local centres. Its position in medias res, so to speak, makes it an advantageous point from which to carry out a tour to the various places of interest in the Island, and many visitors make it their headquarters. By way of Cowes or Ryde, and thence by steamer to Portsmouth or Southampton, communication with the mainland is easy.

In a commercial sense Newport is a prosperous town, a large amount of business being necessarily transacted in supplying the requirements of a resident population of 10,216, which is, of course, greatly augmented at certain seasons of the year by the large influx of visitors from all parts of the United Kingdom. In addition to the trade of domestic supply, actively carried on by the local shops, there is a considerable commerce in such commodities as corn, malt, timber, and flour, which are exported to various quarters.

The manufacturing industries of Newport are not numerous, but some of them display a condition of much advancement, such as the brewing, milling, and brush-making trades, and there are notable firms engaged in engineering and metal working, lace and mat making, and the production of mineral waters. The surrounding districts depend largely upon Newport for their general supplies, and the principal local houses in the grocery and provision, wine and spirit, drapery and clothing, and kindred trades, have valuable and extensive connections for a good many miles round the island capital. Their business operations all impressed us as being conducted with marked ability and enterprise, and certainly the merchants and traders of Newport are in no respect behind their brethren elsewhere is those qualities of progressive energy which are the chief factors in modern commercial success.

No account of Newport, however brief, would be complete without some mention of the historic castle of Carisbrooke, of which we give an illustration. This ancient fortress is close to the town; indeed, Carisbrooke may be called a suburb of Newport, and a very charming suburb it is, with a church eight centuries old. The castle stands upon a hill, and dates from Danish times. It has been a place of great strength, and possesses a strikingly beautiful gateway. From the castle magnificent views are obtained, and within it are many features of interest to the visitor, including the rooms occupied by Charles I. when a prisoner here, the window out of which he attempted to escape, and the chamber in which the young Princess Elizabeth died, within a year after the execution of her unhappy father, the king. Another noteworthy object at Carisbrooke Castle is the ancient and remarkably deep well, the water from which is of very fine quality. Here a patient, but not too willing, donkey works a species of large treadmill, by the action of which the water is raised. The well is said to be nine hundred years old, and is over 130 feet deep. Altogether, Carisbrooke Castle is one of the most interesting monuments of the past in the Isle of Wight, and amply repays the attention of the visitor. The following articles deal with some of the representative firms of Newport, and indicate the character and extent of their various operations.



No business in Newport has made greater progress in the same length of time than has that of Mr. Edward Morris during the ten years which have elapsed since its foundation. His premises at 39, High Street, Newport, comprise a commodious corner establishment with a fine frontage and a long rearward extension. Here there is every facility for carrying on such a business as that in which Mr. Morris is engaged, and the arrangements for the display of goods are excellent. As to the stock itself, it is one of the best in the Island, embracing every class of modern furniture, and showing many very attractive specialities in goods of superior design and workmanship at remarkably moderate prices. One can completely furnish a house from Mr. Morris's stock with every requisite, from the carpets and mattings to the overmantels, bedding, tapestries, and curtains, and including, of course, suites of cabinet and upholstered furniture in any desired style for every apartment, from drawing-room to bedroom. Being an actual manufacturer, Mr. Morris is in a position to ensure workmanship and material of a thoroughly reliable character. He has workshops in Mill Street, where he employs a competent staff of cabinet-makers and upholsterers, and with these resources at his command he is prepared to execute all orders with the utmost promptitude and accuracy. But Mr. Morris's characteristic enterprise has not permitted him to rest content with the successful development of this one business. Some eighteen months ago he built the extensive premises at 28, High Street, Newport, which he now occupies as a glass and china warehouse. This is a fine three-storey establishment, with a splendid shop 50 feet long, and spacious store-rooms at the rear. The shop is literally packed with goods from floor to ceiling, and the display is beautiful and interesting, there being here a most comprehensive stock of fictile wares of every kind, both decorative and utilitarian. We noticed many new and handsome designs in dinner, dessert, breakfast, and tea services, in all the fashionable and artistic tints and colouring! now in vogue; and Mr. Morris makes a brilliant show of English, Belgium, and Bohemian glassware in infinite variety. He also displays a choice assortment of art pottery, and has developed a business which, for completeness of organisation and thorough advancement, is highly creditable to the town, as well as to himself, as its proprietor and director.

In addition to all this, Mr. Morris has added a department for portmanteaus, travelling trunks, hand-bags, writing-desks, work-boxes, and toys of every description, and he holds a stock of these goods which embraces everything that is new and noteworthy in the several lines mentioned. He also has a branch establishment at 9, Birmingham Road, West Cowes, where business is conducted upon the same comprehensive lines as at Newport. Mr. Morris also holds at his Universal Stores an extensive stock of ironmongery, including brass and iron kerbs and fenders, fire brasses and irons, Oxford hip baths, galvanised and wrought-iron goods, cutlery, electro-plated goods, kitchen utensils in copper and iron, brushes, brooms, mats, &c. He has been entrusted with orders from, and regularly supplies, the officers of regiments stationed at Parkhurst, and also the escort to Her Majesty at East Cowes Barracks.

From what we have said concerning his extensive commercial undertakings it will readily be understood that Mr. Morris is an exceedingly busy man. The demands of his widespread connection make exacting calls upon his time and energy, especially as he is a firm believer in the importance of personally supervising all the details of his trade. Nevertheless, he has found opportunity to render useful public service at Newport, where he takes a keen interest in all local affairs. He is a Guardian of the Poor, and was for six years a member of the Town Council. Both in public life and in business, Mr. Morris is much respected for his straightforward methods, whereby he has gained the confidence of the community.


AMONG the representative business houses of Newport this large ironmongery establishment is at once one of the oldest and one of the most prominent. Its history dates from the year 1760, and it is generally regarded as the leading house of its kind in the town. The present title has been borne since 1882, but Mr. Horspool is lately deceased, and the present partners are Mr. Arthur Wood and Mr. E. H. Tame, the latter having taken Mr. Horspool’s place. At the above address in Pyle Street, Messrs. Wood & Horspool (as the firm is still styled) occupy very commodious premises, having a frontage of about 75 feet. The stock is remarkably attractive and comprehensive, embracing every description of goods pertaining to the modern ironmongery trades. The firm make a leading feature of household ironmongery, particularly in the shape of new and artistic designs in goods for furnishing purposes; and they have a splendid display of chandeliers, grates, tiled hearths, fenders, &c. One portion of the premises is devoted to this class of goods, together with what is termed “general ironmongery,” while the remainder is set apart for heavy goods, agricultural implements, &c.

The furnishing department is replete with every description of metal ware which enters into the equipment of a modern house, including both decorative and utilitarian articles, and also a large variety of domestic machinery of a labour-saving kind. The latest improvements are shown in ranges, gas-fittings, &c., and it is evident that Messrs. Wood & Horspool are in a position to execute from stock at the shortest notice all orders for furnishing requirements, from a service of the finest electro-plate to the varied items of a complete kitchen outfit. In all manner of builders' and general ironmongery their stock is equally complete, while in the department of agricultural implements and horticultural engineering they have manifestly made special provision to meet the largest and most varied requirements. As to the character of their goods in this latter connection, it will suffice to say that they are sole agents here for such celebrated firms as Messrs. Ransomes, Sims & Jefferies, Ipswich; Messrs. J. & F. Howard, Bedford; Messrs. R. Hornsby & Sons, Grantham; Messrs. R. Hunt & Co., Earl's Colne; and Messrs. Samuelson & Co., Banbury.

At the rear of their premises, Messrs. Wood & Horspool have spacious and well equipped works, where they employ a numerous staff in the manufacture of entrance-gates, hurdles, palisadings, strained wire fencing, &c., and are agents for the best and most renowned makers of portable and fixed steam-engines, threshing-machines, &c., for all of which they have a large sale and a high reputation. They also deal in guns, revolvers, ammunition, and other sporting requisites, and execute orders for bell-hanging, electric-light fitting, sanitary work of all descriptions, &c. Oils and colours form another feature of the firm's trade, which, it will be seen, is thoroughly exhaustive of the important branch of commerce to which it appertains, nothing being omitted from it which could properly be classed as or with ironmongery. In every instance (unless made by themselves) Messrs. Wood & Horspool's goods are selected from the best sources of supply. All orders are executed with the utmost promptitude, and skilled workmen are kept in readiness to proceed anywhere at. a moment’s notice to carry out the instructions of customers. They hold a Royal Appointment to Her Majesty the Queen, granted in 1891, and enjoy the support of a widespread and influential connection in Newport and all parts of the Isle of Wight.


THIS large and important business ranks as one of the leading industrial concerns of Newport, and was founded upwards of a hundred years ago. For a long period it was carried on by the firm of Messrs. Way & Minns, but for the past twelve months the present title has been borne, Mr. A. C. Whittome being the principal. The Vectis Ironworks, as the firm's premises are called, cover a large area of ground, and comprise iron and brass foundries, smiths’ shops, erecting shops, and all the incidental departments of a large modern engineering works, and are fully equipped with the best and most improved machinery for every purpose of the industry engaged in. Messrs. Whittome devote special attention to the manufacture of plant for mills, cement works, gas works, and breweries, and are highly successful in this class of work, their machinery being characterised by many valuable features of improvement. Other productions for which the Vectis Ironworks are now especially noted, include agricultural implements, steam, oil, and gas engines, boilers, windmills, water-wheels, turbines, pumps, rams, lifts, tanks, water mains, pulleys, shafting, gearing, &c. All these are either supplied new, or repaired, and in every instance the work turned out is of a very superior character. Messrs. Whittome hold a large and comprehensive stock of engineers’ and general mechanical sundries, and are usually able to execute orders without the least delay. Agricultural implements are among their specialities, and they have the beet facilities for executing repairs to all kinds of farm machinery, &c., with economy and despatch. Their well-equipped foundries also enable them to turn out iron and brass castings of every description to order. Milling engines and plant, and well-work in all its branches may perhaps be regarded as the most prominent features of this large and well-organised business. Messrs. Whittome are sole agents in the Isle of Wight for Crossley’a celebrated oil engines, and are district agents for Messrs. Wallis & Stevens, the noted agricultural implement makers, of Basingstoke. A large staff of hands is employed, and the firm control a widespread trade. Mr. Whittome fully maintains the reputation of the concern, and conducts it upon lines calculated to greatly enhance its prestige in the trade.


THESE notable works were started as far back as the year 1850 by their present respected proprietor, Mr. James Guy, senr., whose name has thus, for over forty years, been associated with the wheel and waggon trade at Newport. The works are situated close to the railway viaduct, taking in several of the arches of that structure, and having offices which front upon High Street. They cover a considerable area of ground, and are admirably appointed for the purposes of the trade carried on — the smithy, machine shop, waggon-building shop, and other departments being equipped with every appliance to facilitate the progress of the industry. In the machine shop wo were particularly struck with an invention of Mr. Guy’s for cutting the tongues of spokes. By this clever apparatus the spokes of an entire wheel can be cut in the very short space of three minutes, and with a great saving of labour. Another of Mr. Guy’s inventions is also in use here, viz., a contrivance for wheel binding, by which the necessity of hammering the tyre on to the wheel is quite obviated, and better results are obtained. These appliances indicate the thought and study Mr. Guy has brought to bear upon his industry, every department of which is conducted in a manner tending towards continuous progress and improvement. We believe that Sir. Guy was the first builder to turn out spring vans and light spring trolleys, and these have always been a noted speciality of his works, as also are all kinds of waggons and tradesmen's carts, in which he combines the merits of strength, lightness, and neat appearance in a marked degree, and are made from thoroughly dry-seasoned timber. All Mr. Guy’s work is favourably known for superior finish, as well as for solidity, and he maintains his reputation in these respects by careful personal supervision. Repairs of every description are carefully carried out, and having an efficient staff of skilled workmen in his employ, Mr. Guy is in a position to execute all orders entrusted to him with promptitude and satisfaction to his customers. His work can always be relied upon, and his prices are the lowest, consistent with good quality — two circumstances that have won for him the support and confidence of a large and valuable connection.


THE Carisbrooke Brewery has been since 1878 in the possession of Mr. C. J. Dashwood, who has pursued a very enterprising and successful policy since he assumed the proprietorship. Mr. Dashwood’s first move was to bring the brewery “up-to-date,” and to place it upon a footing enabling it to hold its own against the keen competition prevailing in the trade. To this end he considerably enlarged the premises and fitted them with much new plant and apparatus. Subsequent improvements have increased the general efficiency, and the brewery is now second to none in point of equipment and working organisation. No effort has been spared to bring everything into line with modern ideas, and the result of Mr. Dashwood's enterprise is seen in the excellent quality and character of his products. The brewing department is under the supervision of an expert; the best selected malt and hops are used, together with water of good quality, and the beers turned out will compare favourably with any produced in this part of the country for purity, brilliancy, and fine flavour. In mild and bitter ales Mr. Dashwood is particularly successful, and his double stout is also an article meriting high commendation. Any of the Carisbrooke Brewery beers are delivered free of carriage throughout the island, and the prices are subject to » discount of five per cent, for cash within one month of delivery, when the delivery is made by the firm's own vans. In connection with the brewery there is a well-equipped public bar, and a large trade is also conducted in wines and spirits, which are carefully selected, and of a character commensurate with the high standard of merit maintained in the matter of malt liquors. Mr. Dashwood has a very extensive and valuable family and general connection in Newport and many other parts of the Isle of Wight, and there are several well-known houses belonging to, and exclusively supplied by, the Carisbrooke Brewery. Without neglecting his business (which receives his constant personal supervision), Mr. Dashwood has found time to play an active and useful part in local public life, and he is a diligent and useful member of both the Newport Town Council and the County Council of the Isle of Wight.


THE important and interesting art industry of the monumental sculptor and mason is carried on in all its branches at Newport by Mr. Frank Cooper, who has been established here since 1876. Originally, Mr. Cooper occupied premises in Union Street, but about eight years ago he removed to his present address in St. James’ Street. He turns out every description of monumental and architectural sculpture in granite, marble, Portland and other stones. In all cases his productions are characterised by artistic design and faultless workmanship, and he is prepared to submit photographs to guide his customers in their selection, or to carry out special designs to order in any style or material. Memorials are, of course, a speciality of the establishment, and these are produced in the greatest variety of designs to suit any requirement, and are fixed in all parts of the Kingdom, distance being no object. Monuments are skilfully restored, old inscriptions re-cut, and new ones engraved. Mr. Cooper submits estimates and sketches free of charge for all monumental work, and is prepared to carry out his patrons' instructions with absolute accuracy in the shortest possible time. He has gained the full confidence of a widespread and influential connection, and has recently sent off a fine piece of memorial work to Gibraltar. Mr. Cooper is a thorough master of his art, and a sound business man as well. His establishment at Newport is well worth a visit, and those who inspect the show-rooms will note among the many features of interest there exhibited a choice assortment of wreaths and crosses, beautifully wrought in artificial flowers, of which Mr. Cooper always keeps a select stock.


THE large business here carried on was founded in 1852 by Mr. J. E. Snellgrove, who afterwards took his son, Mr. A. J. Snellgrove, into partnership. These two gentlemen constitute the firm at the present time, and both take a very active part in the administration of its affairs. The firm’s premises present what is, to our mind, the prettiest and most Attractive frontage in the town. Connected with the shop are roomy workshops, well appointed with every facility and appliance for the practical departments of the trade. Messrs. Snellgrove deal very extensively in paperhangings, and claim to have the largest stock of these goods in the Island. They certainly show a most attractive and varied assortment, which seldom falls below an average of twenty thousand pieces, and which always includes the newest and most artistic patterns, offering a wide range of choice at all prices. The firm also stock everything essential to the other branches of their trade, including the latest designs in gas-fittings, plumbers’ requisites and sanitary appliances, baths, lamps, oils, paints, dry colours, varnishes, brushes, and every description of plain and fancy glass for glaziers’ work. They carry out all orders for plumbing, gas-fitting, glazing and decorating in the best style, and with the utmost promptitude and judicious economy, devoting special attention to sanitary plumbing, for which they are specially qualified. In each department first-class workmen are employed, including a decorative artist of special skill and ability, and experienced men can be sent to any part of the island on short notice. Messrs. Snellgrove have obtained the large and important contract for painting and decorating the new asylum now in course of erection — a proof of the confidence in which they are held. They are sole agents for “Duresco,” an excellent patent distemper for walls, &c.; and Mr. A. J. Snellgrove is agent for the Scottish Union and National Fire and Life Insurance Companies, and sole agent for the Vectis Plate-Glass Insurance Company. Both the principals of this firm are locally well known and popular, and stand high in the esteem of a large and valuable connection. The senior partner was, for thirty-one years, a prominent figure in public life at Newport—eighteen years as a Town Councillor, and two years as Alderman; and he only withdrew from this sphere of activity on account of ill-health, which prevented him discharging the duties of office with his wonted energy and diligence.


THE business now presided over by Mr. Thomas Jenkins, builder and contractor, and slate, cement, &c., merchant, monumental and general mason, has been prominently before the public since 1826, and has been in the possession of the present proprietor for the last fifteen years. Mr. Jenkins is a man of wide experience and has succeeded in raising his house to a position of eminence it never before occupied. The headquarters of the firm are at 49, Upper St. James' Street, and comprise well-appointed private and general offices, together with workshops, sheds, and extensive yards in Orchard Street and on the Town Quay. A large staff of bricklayers, masons, joiners, carpenters, plumbers, slaters, plasterers, &c., is employed, and every department is kept in the highest state of efficiency. Extensive stocks are held of slates, cement, lime, stoneware goods, fire goods, whiting, laths, hair, plaster, tiles, paving-stones, sanitary appliances, &c., and a glance at these supplies is enough to convince the observer of the fact that a business of more than common importance is being carried on here. The character of his work is well-known and can be thoroughly relied upon. The extensive resources at his command enable him to carry out whatever he undertakes in a prompt and efficient manner. Several of the local contracts have been secured by him, amongst which may be mentioned the building of the Jubilee Clock Tower, Schools, and the New Swan Hotel, additions to the Literary Society, &c.

As a merchant in slate, cement, and other building materials, he supplies the best class of goods procurable, and has always on hand ample stores to meet all emergencies. Being the sole agent for Messrs. J. Bayley White Bros., the well-known cement manufacturers, he can offer their specialities in large or small quantities. Mr. Jenkins is also doing a large business as a monumental mason, and in his spacious show-room may be seen a first-class collection of tombs, head-stones, crosses, monuments, tablets, fountains, and every description of sculptured work. In this, as in other departments, a splendid connection is maintained, and the satisfaction being given is plainly indicated in the constant increase in the transactions. Mr. Jenkins is controlling his business with admirable energy and a careful consideration of the wants and wishes of patrons, and he commands, as he deserves, the respect and esteem of all who come into relationship with him.
Telegrams should be addressed, “Jenkins, Newport, Wight.”


THIS important industrial concern was founded in the year 1859 by Mr. C. Wheeler, who was joined about three years ago by Mr. W. Hurst, the present firm name being then adopted. The business carried on is a large and comprehensive one, and the premises occupied in Holyrood Street are devoted to the purposes of offices and show-rooms, to which they are admirably adapted, having been at one time a church, and being therefore very spacious and commodious. The stock held in these show-rooms embraces a great variety of iron wares, such as panel- fences, gates, railings, sash weights, furnace bars, drag-shoes, bakers’ oven works, forge backs and troughs, and all kinds of kitcheners, ranges, stoves, &c. Besides these goods there is a large display of machinery specially adapted for agricultural requirements, and including steam and horse power chaff-cutters, corn and other mills, horse-gears, corn and seed separators, corn-dressing machines, turnip cutters, root pulpers, harrows, etc., etc. In all such machinery as the above, Messrs. Wheeler & Hurst show valuable improvements, increasing the utility and durability of the article, and rendering it additionally serviceable to the farming community. The same may be said of all this firm’s manufactures, and particularly of their kitcheners, stoves, and similar apparatus, which embody many new and excellent features. Messrs. Wheeler & Hurst's works are in Sea Street, and are of considerable extent. The various workshops are fully equipped with the most effective appliances for their several purposes. The iron and brass foundries are very efficiently organised, and the firm are in a position to turn out castings of every description to order on the shortest notice. Employment is given to a numerous staff of hands, and these works are kept constantly busy by the demands of Messrs. Wheeler & Hurst’s extensive trade. Besides supplying their own manufactures to a wide circle of customers, this firm are sole agents here for H. Bamford & Son’s agricultural implements, and are also agents for several other well-known and highly reputed manufacturers of farm machinery and appliances. The business is ably and energetically conducted under the personal supervision of the experienced principals, and is one of the leading concerns in Newport, Isle of Wight.


IN connection with the glass and china trade of the Isle of Wight, there is no house that is possessed of a higher reputation than that of Messrs. Dabell & Co., who formed the nucleus of their extensive wholesale and retail business five years ago. Messrs. Dabell & Co. act as the accredited local agents for most of the principal British and Foreign manufacturers of glass, china, earthenware and kindred goods; and in their spacious double-fronted showroom and warehouses maintain an enormous up-to-date stock of goods, conspicuous amongst which may be seen many recherché examples of fashionable breakfast, dinner, tea, toilet and other sets; vases and art pottery, &c., bearing the celebrated marks of Royal Worcester, Crown Derby, Copeland, Minton, Wedgwood, Sevres, Limoges, Doulton, Dresden and other wares, together with fine cut and engraved table, and ornamental, plain and coloured glass, and useful stoneware, earthenware, and the like. A special department, which the firm have sedulously cultivated, and in which they do the largest business on the Island, consists in the hiring out of glass and china for public banquets, balls, &c., at reasonable rules: they being prepared, at the shortest notice, to supply goods for a complete change of five hundred covers at table at a time. Messrs. Dabell & Co.’s resources and facilities are indeed of a distinctly superior character, enabling them to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner; and their house stands high in the estimation of a very large and widespread connection.


THIS well-known and highly-esteemed family and commercial hotel has been established since 1643, and is one of the oldest hostelries in the Isle of Wight. In days before the railway came it was the principal posting house in Newport, and even now its posting business is a very valuable one. Mr. James Kerfoot, the present proprietor, bought the freehold a few years ago, and entirely rebuilt it, making it one of the best hotels in the island for commodiousness and excellence of appointment. The building in its new form is a lofty and handsome four-storey building fronting on High Street, and extending a long way to the rear. It contains upwards of twenty-two rooms, comprising dining, drawing, smoking, billiard, and commercial stock-rooms, and in all cases the furnishings are of the most appropriate character, everything being provided to ensure the comfort of guests. The billiard-hall is one of the finest in the South of England, measuring twenty-five feet by sixty-five feet, and containing three tables by Burroughes & Watts, with all accessories and fittings of the best description. We believe that the “Swan” is the only hotel in Newport which has a complete arrangement of hot and cold-water baths, and this “modern convenience,” we need hardly say, is greatly appreciated by visitors. There is a well eighty-five feet deep connected with the hotel, holding ten thousand gallons of water and overflowing from four hundred to five hundred gallons daily. The house also has a reputation for the excellence of its cuisine, and for the efficient and courteous attendance furnished by its well-trained staff of servants. There is a perfectly fitted bar, at which wines and spirits, malt liquors, cigars, &c., all of the choicest quality, may be obtained. First-class stabling, loose boxes, and lock-up coachhouses are also notable features of this establishment, and there is a carriage drive back and front. Mr. Kerfoot personally superintends everything connected with this old and noted hotel, which, under his able direction, has secured an increased share of the influential and desirable patronage it has enjoyed for many years past.


MR. ALBERT MIDLANE has been established in Newport for upwards of forty-four years, and has during the whole time occupied the same premises, 29, Upper St. James' Street. The establishment is capitally located in a conspicuous corner position, and the windows always display an extensive and attractive selection of ironmongery goods. The interior comprises shop and storerooms and is well appointed with every description of goods belonging to this class of trade. Mr. Midlane gives the business the full benefit of his close personal attention, and his stocks are large and comprehensive, comprising the best class of articles procured from the best-known and most eligible sources. They include general and furnishing ironmongery, carpenters’, masons', and joiners’ tools in great variety; lamps, brackets, chandeliers, ranges, cooking stoves, tin goods of every description; cutlery from the leading Sheffield houses; brushes, and all kinds of kitchen and dairy utensils. There are besides ample stores of benzoline, paraffin and colza oils, and pitch, tar resin, and glue. The house holds the agency for Willcox and Gibbs’ Silent Sewing Machine, and also for Strange's A 1 Crystal Oil.

This firm do the largest trade on the Island in paraffin oil, which is sent round in their own vans to customers all over the Island, and they were the first to introduce this system, over twenty years ago. Mr. Midlane is the largest tin-plate worker in Newport, and has well-appointed works in another part of the town, where a numerous body of workmen is employed. All kinds of repairs are taken in hand and carried out promptly and satisfactorily. Water is laid on, pipes and taps put in order, gas-fittings erected, and bells hung by experienced operatives. By supplying only the best class of goods, and executing all orders in an efficient and thoroughly business-like manner, a widespread and valuable connection is being maintained. Mr. Midlane is well-known in the district, and everywhere held in respect for his upright and honourable methods of dealing. He is a gentleman of culture and literary taste, and is the author of “There’s a Friend for Little Children,” which has been translated into almost every language in every children's hymn-book over the world; “Elizabeth Stuart, the Faded Flower of Carisbrooke Castle,” and of “The Days we Still Remember, or the Robin of the Chine,” which contains many interesting reminiscences of Leigh Richmond and his “Annals of the Poor.” In addition to many other equally interesting poetical and prose compositions, several of which have received the notice and approval of Royalty, may be mentioned his “Catechism of Carisbrooke Castle,” his “Vecta Garland,” “Leaves from Olivet,” &c.


THE great advantages of the “roller system” in its best form are strikingly exemplified at the large mills of Messrs. Arnell Brothers, who have been established at Newport upwards of half-a-century. This firm have always moved with the times, whenever so doing meant progress of a valuable nature, and they have always been among the first to recognise and adopt new methods which have emerged successfully from the test of practical experience. As a result, their mills are equipped to-day with the most powerful and effective roller plant and accessory machinery known in the milling trade, and the latest improvements have been adopted in each department with eminently satisfactory effect. The aim of the firm is to conduct all processes at the highest rate of speed consistent with excellence. The corn ground by Messrs. Arnell Brothers is of the choicest growth and is obtained direct from the principal sources of supply at home and abroad. This material being ground and dressed according to the best methods now prevailing in the trade, a flour of distinct superiority is the result. For this flour, in its several grades (adapted to different requirements), and for all the secondary products of their industry, Messrs. Arnell Brothers have a very large sale, their connections extending all over the Isle of Wight and the neighbouring mainland. The business is admirably organised in every respect, and, with the ample resources of production they possess, Messrs. Arnell Brothers are enabled to execute all orders with the greatest promptitude. They have excellent delivery arrangements by means of their own vans, and supply the varied requirements of their large clientele in a manner that meets with high approval.

Mr. W. T. Arnell is now the sole principal of this important concern, and personally superintends all its operations. He takes a deep interest in the volunteer movement and is himself an active and popular officer, being captain of “E” Company in the local corps. Captain Arnell is a well-known figure at the annual meetings of the National Rifle Association at Bisley, where he has won important prizes, and has on four occasions been selected as a member of the English Twenty to shoot for the National Challenge Trophy.
The firm's telegraphic address is “Arnell, Newport, Wight.”


THIS large and important business has been established upwards of half a century, and enjoys the support of a widespread and valuable connection in and around Newport. It was formerly, for many years, carried on as J. & W. Gubbins, but that title has now been replaced by the firm name of W. Gubbins & Son. The premises are situated in a very favourable position in High Street, and, being double-fronted, they possess two handsome show-windows, which always contain a fine display of the firm’s specialities in the book, stationery, and music trades. The appointments are excellent, and the arrangement of the large and comprehensive stock is thoroughly conducive to the convenient transaction of business. Messrs. W. Gubbins & Son keep a full range of everything in the shape of commercial, general and fancy stationery, besides books, and stationers' sundries in the greatest variety; and they show one of the best selections of British and foreign fancy articles in the town, comprising many attractive novelties in leather and brass goods, writing-desks, work-boxes, etc., etc. The firm are sole agents here for the Ordnance Survey maps, and always have a stock of these on hand. In addition to the stationery trade, they conduct one of the leading local businesses in music and musical instruments. A very extensive stock of pianofortes, harmoniums, American organs, violins, flutes, and other musical instruments is on view in the warehouse, and these may be had upon the most liberal terms for cash, or on the three years’ system if desired. Second-hand instruments are also available at greatly reduced prices. All the best makers of pianofortes, etc., are represented, and all the general routine of a large musical instrument business is attended to, including repairs and tunings. Every accessory for instruments is also supplied, and the firm do a large and constantly increasing trade in sheet music. This stock is always being added to and replenished, and all new music is sold at half the marked price. Altogether, great enterprise and sound practical knowledge are displayed in the administration of this old-established business, and the firm retain the confidence of the public by their straightforward methods and unfailing promptitude in the execution of orders.


AS the centre of a very large and important farming and agricultural district, the town of Newport is peculiarly well adapted as a locus from whence to control a brisk business in corn, seeds, and kindred commodities, and in this connection the trade finds no abler representative than Mr. Samuel Guy, who formed the nucleus of his extensive wholesale and retail business in Pyle Street, as far back as eight-and-twenty years ago. Occupying a conspicuous position, the spacious shop is substantially fitted with bins and other fixtures, and ample storage accommodation for the maintenance of an enormous stock of carefully selected produce in the way of household and other flours, meals, &c., corn, barley, oats, beans and other farinaceous seeds, all manner of agricultural seeds of tested germinating power and special strains; hay and straw, Thorley's food and spice for cattle, bird seed and poultry foods, dog biscuits and the like. Mr. Guy’s resources and facilities are, indeed, of a distinctly superior character, enabling him to offer many special advantages to both regular customers and large buyers, and to execute all orders, however large or urgent they may be, in a prompt and satisfactory manner, and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large local and rural connection, by reason of the moderation of his prices, and the sound methods characteristic of his business transactions.


ESTABLISHED as far back as the year 1852 by a Mr. Sheath, this thriving business was acquired some four years ago by Mr. A. W. Abraham, and under his able administration has been strengthened and expanded into one of the most important concerns of its kind in the island. Occupying a conspicuous position in Upper St. James' Street, and supplemented by a detached slaughter-house and curing department, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its adjoining office, modern fitments, and hygienic appointments, always presents a singularly clean and wholesome appearance, which tends most emphatically to enhance the inviting character of the abundant stock there effectively displayed. Only Isle of Wight meat is sold, the animals being slaughtered, dressed, cured, and otherwise treated by a staff of experts, to be offered to the public and trade in form of fine dairy-fed carcases, prime home-cured hams, bacon, chaps, &c., refined lard, and genuine all-meat pork sausages, freshly made day by day. Mr. Abraham's principles of business may be summed up in but a few words. He has always made it a hard and fast rule to supply meat of one quality only, viz. the best; to fix his charges according to the fluctuations of the market at the lowest, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner, by the employment of a staff of thoroughly efficient assistants, and it is doubtless largely due to a knowledge of these facts that his house has become so widely popular, and that such an extensive and thriving business has been developed.


THE higher branches of ladies’ and gentlemen’s tailoring find an able representative in the person of Mr. Edward J. Airs, who organised his present prosperous business over seventeen years ago. The premises occupy a conspicuous position, and the spacious shop is handsomely appointed throughout, effectively displaying a particularly large and varied stock of all the best and most fashionable of tailoring fabrics and materials for the current season; together with silk and felt hats and caps, hosiery and gloves, shirts and underwear, ties, scarfs, and outfitting items of every description. In his executive department, Mr. Airs, himself an expert practical tailor and scientific cutter, is valuably assisted by a picked staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen for the production of gentlemen’s fashionable attire; and he has won quite a special reputation for his skill in the department of ladies’ tailoring; he has sedulously cultivated a large connection among the principal families resident in Newport, and his house stands high in their estimation, as much by reason of the exceptional excellence of his work, as for the moderation of his charges. Mr. Airs, it may further be mentioned, takes a deep and beneficial interest in all matters musical, and is now the popular secretary of the Newport Orchestral Society.


THIS is probably the oldest established pharmacy in the Isle of Wight, having been in the hands of the Cory family for fully a century, and the present proprietor, Mr. Francis A. Cory, ably maintains the reputation of the house as a first-class concern. Handsome and commodious premises are occupied, and the windows of the well-appointed double-fronted shop are rendered highly attractive by the choice display of goods they contain. The stock is very comprehensive, and includes everything essential to the modern chemist's trade in the shape of pure drugs and pharmaceutical requisites, together with proprietary articles, toilet preparations, surgical appliances, &c., all of undoubted excellence and reliability. Amongst these various articles are many specialities with which Mr. Cory’s name is associated. He issues a list of these, explaining their nature and properties, but limits of space oblige us to refrain from more than the mere mention of some of the most important, such as Cory’s Althaean Cough Elixir, Cory’s celebrated Corn Cure, Cory’s Little Sugar-coated Granules, Cory’s Effervescing Fruit Saline, Cory’s Restorative Hair Wash, Spring and Autumn Medicine, Hop Tonic Bitters, Quinine and Iron Tonic, Stomach and Liver Pills, Toothache Essence, Chilblain Liniment, and Nervine Tonic Pills — all of which have worthily established themselves in public favour.

This establishment is a depot for photographic chemicals of all kinds at London prices, and foreign natural mineral waters, aerated waters, horse and cattle medicines, sheep dip and farm requisites are also largely supplied. All proprietary articles are sold at makers’ prices for cash, and many preparations of a useful nature may be had here at prices very much lower than those charged for articles of similar composition manufactured out of the Island. Mr. Cory is an Associate of the Pharmaceutical Society, and personally superintends the business in all its details. The dispensing department is a very special feature, and has for years past enjoyed the patronage of the local medical faculty, as well as of the principal families resident in the town and district. In this connection none but the finest drugs and chemicals are employed, and the greatest care is taken to compound them in accordance with the prescriber’s intentions. The scale of charges is arranged at the lowest rate consistent with the use of the purest articles, and travellers from abroad may be glad to know that Mr. Cory prepares the prescriptions of foreign physicians according to the formulae of their respective countries. He is also specially-appointed agent for Cowley's celebrated Pills and Rheumatic Embrocation.


TONSORIAL art finds a capable representative in the person of Mr. F. Beach, the present sole proprietor of a business which was organised over half-a-century ago by the late Mr. W. Beach. The spacious shop is elegantly appointed throughout, and displays a various assortment of high-class goods, composed of many beautiful examples of fashionable coiffeurs, wigs, fronts, scalps, scalpettes, fringes, &c., and all kinds of ornamental hair work made up on the premises, together with a splendid series of Mr. Beach's celebrated preparations for the hair, and a particuarly fine assortment of combs, brushes, sponges, soaps, razors, perfumes, and choice toilet requisites and articles de luxe of a kindred character. Mr. Beach, moreover, holds a very large but select stock of fashionable stationery and stationers' requisites, artistic fans, fancy glass and china, and fancy goods of every kind in leather, wood, metal, ivory, &c., most suitable for wedding and birthday presents, and they probably hold the largest stock of fancy goods on the Island. His hairdressing saloon is replete with every modern improvement and appliance; and here he operates in every branch of ladies' and gentlemen's hairdressing, and undertakes his specialty in ornamental hair-making. Moderate in his charges, and exhibiting exceptional skill in all departments of his work, Mr. Beach has won the full confidence of a very large yet select clientele, and with regard to the present condition of his business it may be stated that all its characteristics are those of a house whose nature has been influenced, and whose methods have been formed, by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of trade.


THE purveying of fresh meat of exclusively the best quality, finds able representation at the hands of Messrs. G. W. & D. Brown, the proprietors of a business which they jointly formed in the year 1883. Mr. G. W. Brown — who it may be mentioned, inter alia, is an enthusiastic sportsman, and noted as the possessor of the finest breed of shooting spaniels on the island — and his brother, Mr. D. Brown, are both of one mind in so far as the value of perfect ventilation and sanitary measures is concerned, and their spacious shop, with its tiled walls and neat appointments throughout, tends very largely to enhance the inviting character of the abundant stock displayed. Home-fed ox beef and wether mutton, house lamb and veal, in their respective seasons, together with prime pickled tongues, and choicely corned beef, are all fully represented in the very finest condition for consumption, and are all offered for sale at the lowest current market prices. Families are waited upon daily for orders and all commands are promptly and carefully delivered by the staff of polite and attentive assistants; and it is clear that both partners strive to do their utmost, not only to sustain, but to steadily enhance the high reputation which they now so deservedly enjoy.


PRACTICAL horology and the kindred crafts of the modern working jeweller, silversmith, and scientific optician find an able exponent in the person of Mr. E. F. Wray, who, at the fall of the year 1893, acquired the thriving business which had previously been carried on in the High Street for a period of about thirty years. Occupying a conspicuous position, the shop is elegantly appointed throughout, and displays a varied stock of goods. Gold and silver watches and chains of the best English and foreign manufacture, including the celebrated Waterbury watches, for which Mr. Wray acts as the local agent; clocks and timepieces of every description, together with artistic bronzes and articles de vertu; fashionable gold, silver, and gem jewellery, and fancy bijouterie; sterling silver and electro-plated ware; spectacles and eye-glasses to suit all sights; opera and field glasses, barometers, thermometers, and optical instruments of every kind are all well represented up to date. In his executive department, Mr. Wray, as a practical expert, undertakes the cleaning and repairing of watches and clocks, plate and jewellery, with economy, efficiency, and despatch; and his house stands high in the estimation of a very large and widespread town and countryside connection by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which always characterise its business transactions.


ESTABLISHED over thirty years ago, this representative grocery and provision supply store was acquired some three years since by Messrs. J. E. Cole & Co., who have so far expanded the business that it now ranks high among the principal trading concerns of Newport. Occupying a prominent position in the busy High Street, the spacious shop is admirably appointed and fitted throughout, displaying a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have been chosen with great care and judgment from the best sources of supply. All manner of select everyday groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith; special lines in pure and choicely blended teas and coffees; British and foreign canned and bottled comestibles and table delicacies of the highest order; all the popular patent medicines and kindred proprietary articles of the day; and prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and bacon, butter and cheese, lard, and the freshest of eggs, are all fully represented at their best. The business in all its details is energetically promoted with marked ability and enterprise; and under Messrs. Cole & Co.'s careful administration the house promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the bright prospect of still better times to come.


THIS beautiful resort, “the pride of the Undercliff,” and perhaps, the most salubrious spot in the Isle of Wight, presents a forcible illustration of the manner which some of our finest and most esteemed watering-places have grown up from a positively insignificant beginning. As recently as 1825 or 1830, Ventnor was an obscure and tiny fishing village, with nothing to recommend it save the rare natural beauty of its situation, and the remarkable mildness and geniality of its delightful atmosphere. These advantages, of course, soon became recognised, and in a very few years the place was transformed from the rude seaside hamlet to the pleasant and popular resort of holiday-makers and seekers after health, rest, and change of air. An esplanade was constructed in 1848, and in 1872 the pier was opened, this latter structure being much improved in 1887. Gradually the metamorphosis of Ventnor proceeded, and to-day we find it a singularly pretty and well-built town, climbing up and down the slopes and terraces of its sheltering cliffs and downs, which amply protect it from all Borean blasts, and presenting from the pier-end one of the most picturesque scenes imaginable.

Ventnor is ten miles south of Ryde, with which port it is connected by the Isle of Wight Railway, thus possessing very satisfactory means of communication with the mainland. The town is well governed by a Local Board of eighteen members, and has a public recreation ground, gardens, and the usual institutions of a thriving modern community of nearly 6,000 inhabitants, including excellent schools, and several places of worship. The facilities for amusement and recreation generally are abundant, and those who are fond of sea-bathing will obtain it in perfection here, the beach at Ventnor being an ideal one of yellow shingle, and; undoubtedly one of the best in the country for bathing. Many curious fossils and mineralogical specimens are found here, notably at Ventnor Cove, whence a steep path up Boniface Down leads up to the well-known Wishing Well.

The climate of Ventnor loaves nothing to be desired by even the most fastidious. The mistaken idea prevails in some quarters that Ventnor is very hot in summer. We have it on the authority of the residents (who ought to know their own climate) that they never experience extremes either of heat or cold. Hence the value of residence here to anyone suffering from chest or lung complaints. While the immense bulk of the Down completely shelters Ventnor from the cold airs of winter, and its southern exposure gives it the benefit of all the sunshine of this favoured region, it is kept cool in summer by the refreshing sea breezes, and oppressive heat is practically unknown. The National Consumption Hospital is here, a fact clearly betokening the beneficial character of the air; and Ventnor is probably freer from rain and damp than any other place in England. For the wild and romantic beauty of the scenery along the Undercliff, in the best part of which Ventnor is situated, we must leave Nature herself to speak. Words are powerless to convey an idea of the aspect of this unique tract of coast — the visitor must see it for himself, and marvel, as all his predecessors have done before him.

There is excellent hotel accommodation at Ventnor, and visitors will find an abundance of comfortable and well-conducted boarding-houses. The shops in the town display a variety of goods fresh from the best markets, and are managed by their proprietors with undoubted skill and judgment. They supply in a satisfactory manner all the requirements of residents and visitors. About a mile to the east of Ventnor is the very picturesque village of BONCHURCH, a favourite winter resort, very mild, dry, and salubrious, sheltered in winter, and cool in summer. WROXALL is two miles north of Ventnor, and is a growing place.



THIS admirably organised business, of which the present proprietor is Mr. Frederick Corbould, was founded in 1840. The premises which constitute his headquarters occupy a commanding situation in High Street, and he has also a well-equipped branch establishment on the Esplanade. The High Street premises have a most attractive frontage, which is altogether in keeping with the high class of the business which the proprietor controls. On the ground floor is a well-appointed sample-room. The telegraphic address is “Corbould, Ventnor.” To the rear are very extensive warehouses and cellarage. There are, indeed, two ranges of cellars, one above the other, extending backwards for about two hundred feet, the lower range being devoted to the holding of the stocks of the choicest wines. Here the fungus-crusted walls and bins, and the dust of a generation of many of the bottles are suggestive of the splendid maturity of much of the liquid treasure of these cellars. They are notably dry, and are, in every way, well suited to the preservation of wines and spirits in the best possible condition, and also to the processes of bottling malt liquors, in which the proprietor controls a very extensive business.

Some idea of the vast resources of this establishment may be gained from a reference to the “special list of wines, spirits, liqueurs, ales, and stouts,” which is periodically issued by Mr. Corbould. His wines are either imported directly by himself, or are obtained at first hard from the great shippers who are the sole agents in this country for special brands. The champagnes in stock include, for example, unsurpassed parcels of such grand wines as Heidsieck's Dry Monopole and Irroy’s & Roederer's. Mr. Corbould is able to supply the excellent “Carte Noire” of the “Duc de Montebello” brand at the moderate price of 60s. There is a fine choice of sparkling and still hocks, including in the latter class the magnificent “Dom Dechaney” hockheimer. The “Scharzberger” in the list of moselles, as also the “Domaine de la Mothe,” which is amongst the sauternes, is quoted at 96s. It is of the vintage of 1869. There is an excellent selection of Burgundies, and, amongst the Bordeaux shipments, are found such specialities as the Pontet Canet of 1885, and the Chateau La Rose, twenty-five years old. Amongst the ports are included shipments of Grahams, in 1878; Hoopers, 1870; and other choice parcels, going back to 1847 and 1834, these being quoted, respectively, at 192s. and 240s. The sherries, too, comprise a pale, rather dry, description, thirty years old, and a magnificent old wine of 1853 at 144s. The spirits are all of high quality and thoroughly matured. The whiskies, especially, can be recommended as blends of the choicest old malts, unsurpassable for delicacy of flavour, and of guaranteed age. Mr. Corbould’s enterprise manifests in the constant introduction of such novelties as the remarkably cheap and sound California wines, Big Tree brand. He is also the specially appointed agent for the ales of Messrs. Worthington & Co., Limited; for Bass's and Guinness's ales and stouts, for Canadian Club and Glen Grange Scotch whiskies, for Pilsener lager beer, and for Devonshire champagne cider. He also deals largely in Schweppe’s and other mineral waters, and in Lambert & Butler’s tobaccos and cigars.


THE carriage-building industry, which is necessarily of exceptional importance is a district so much frequented by tourists as the Isle of Wight, has been represented in Ventnor by the admirably organised establishment of Mr. E. C. Martin, ever since he established it in 1853. His spacious premises are conveniently situated in Albert Street, and comprise a commodious show-room with every facility for the inspection of the numerous beautifully finished vehicles of various descriptions which stand here. To the rear are the industrial departments, including the workshops severally devoted to the operations of body-making, painting, upholstering, and smiths’ work. The equipment of these shops is so complete as to include most of the latest approved appliances for the perfecting of results in the several processes of carriage-building. So excellent, indeed, is the working plant, and so competent the large staff of expert workmen whom Mr. Martin employs, that he is able to compete in the production of carriages of all descriptions with any house in the United Kingdom, and that upon the most favourable terms. He has surrounded himself with every facility for the manufacture, to pattern, drawings, or specifications, of any and every class of carriage, from a fully-equipped coach to a rustic cart. Orders for repairs, too, are executed at his establishment with such promptitude and efficiency that he has gained the unreserved confidence of many of the leading families resident in the district. Mr. Martin, who has a large measure of administrative ability, supervises all the details of his extensive business. He is personally well known throughout a wide area, and is much respected by all classes of the community for his unsullied integrity and the spirit of liberality which animates all his business transactions. We may add that he is ably assisted in the management of the business by his sons.


THIS firm was founded in 1836 by Mr. Jonathan Jolliffe, the father of the present proprietors; and the family record since has formed an epitome of the notable development of the district in which their transactions have been conducted. The founder, full of years and honourable commercial distinction, retired six years ago, and was succeeded by his two sons, Messrs. H. Way Jolliffe and Albert Edward Jolliffe, who fully maintain the prestige of the house, while, by the wise direction of their spirit of energetic enterprise, they are constantly extending the sphere of its influence. The business was originally established at Bonchurch, where a well-equipped branch establishment is still maintained. The headquarters of the firm, however, were removed seven years ago to Ventnor, where the premises occupy a commanding position in Pier Street. The firm is the oldest in Ventnor engaged in the business of house and estate agents, and the lead which they have gained they steadily maintain. Thus they are entrusted with the letting or selling of the principal houses, estates, farms, &c., throughout the district of which Ventnor is the centre, and in the conduct of this class of business their activity, zeal, and absolute accuracy have acquired for them the unreserved confidence of a large number of the leading property owners within the area. For the convenience of visitors to Ventnor, the Messrs. Jolliffe keep a list, which is corrected daily, and which may be implicitly relied on. They do not issue printed lists which would, in a large measure become obsolete almost as soon as published, but any one wishing to be furnished with particulars concerning any special kind of property may obtain the information by applying to the Messrs. Jolliffe, who will send a list of all such available property on hand.

The firm have also a high reputation as coal agents, and representing several of the most noted collieries in the several coalfields of the country, they are able to offer specially advantageous terms to their customers. They are, in particular, agents for the Caradoo Wallsend Company’s coals, as supplied to H.M. the Queen. In this department their operations are on a very large scale, and are both wholesale and retail. They have depots at the railway, where they constantly hold stocks of from sixteen to seventeen hundred tons of coal, and their carts may be seen any day delivering coal in Ventnor and throughout the surrounding districts. The Messrs. Jolliffe are also the specially appointed agents for the Dominion Line of Steamships, and for Messrs. Burden & Co’s steamship service between London, the Isle of Wight, and Poole. Both the members of the firm are endowed with a large measure of organising ability, and give their special and personal attention to all matters affecting the interests of their clients. Mr. H. Way Jolliffe is thus enabled, notwithstanding the large amount of his attention which is absorbed by his own business, to take an active interest in public affairs, and Mr. A. E. Jolliffe takes a lead in the promotion of athletic sports. Both these gentlemen are held in high esteem by all classes of the community, and their extensive personal influence enables them to render valuable services as agents to the Commercial Union, Fire, Life, and Marine Insurance, the Mutual Life Assurance, and the Crown Accident Insurance offices.


EVERYONE who has visited Ventnor is familiar, by sight at least, with the Royal Marine Hotel, perched upon the cliff-side one hundred and fifty feet above the level of the sea, and overlooking all that is beautiful and interesting in this most delightful of seaside resorts. The Royal Marine Hotel has been in existence considerably over half a century, during the whole of which period it has been practically under the same proprietary — a fact which has had much to do with its uninterrupted success. Since the first commencement of the present premises in 1840, the establishment has been greatly extended from time to time, and it is now the largest, as well as the most famous, hotel in Ventnor, with an unrivalled situation facing due south, and commanding magnificent views of the sea and all the picturesque beauties of the Undercliff.

The internal structure and arrangement of the Royal Marine Hotel fulfil the promise held forth by its fine external appearance. The entrance-hall is of imposing size, and is fitted up as a conservatory and lounge, the decorations being charming. On the left are the reception-room and the hotel office, and passing thence we reach the spacious coffee-room, and the large drawing and sitting rooms, all of which are handsomely furnished in a style both tasteful and luxurious. On the right of the entrance-hall we note the hydraulic elevator for passengers and luggage, and observe that it is of the newest and most improved type. Here also is another noble reception-room and drawing-room, and adjoining is the finely-appointed smoking-room, adorned with a number of very valuable and interesting old sporting prints. There are lavatories, perfectly fitted in every detail, and supplied with hot and cold water.

The Royal Marine Hotel possesses some very fine apartments en suite for the accommodation of families and gentlemen visiting Ventnor for long or short periods, and these display the same refined elegance in their furnishings as we have noted elsewhere in this admirably appointed hotel. No expense has been spared in matters of decoration and general equipment, and nothing has been left undone which could increase the comfort and satisfaction of guests. The many bedrooms are models of what a proper sleeping chamber should be — beautifully furnished, faultlessly neat, and as airy and cheerful as the most fastidious visitor could desire, the panels of the bedroom doors being inlaid with hand-painted decorations specially executed in London. All the public-rooms of the Royal Marine Hotel are upon a scale of great excellence and commodiousness, and particularly the fine dining-room, which has accommodation for a large number of guests, and is undoubtedly one of the handsomest salles-a-manger in the Isle of Wight. The kitchens are entirely separate from the hotel, being in another building, and the necessary means of conveyance is furnished by a specially constructed kitchen tramway. The advantages of this are obvious, and so well is the plan contrived that there is not the smallest chance of any odour of cooking entering the hotel and annoying sensitive olfactory organs. The cuisine at the Royal Marine Hotel is unsurpassed, being under the supervision of an accomplished chef; and the same high commendation may be justly bestowed upon the cellars of the house, which contain a stock of wines, amongst which are some of the choicest vintages of the century.

In short, the “Royal Marine” realises our ideal of a perfect modern hotel, and justifies the favour in which it is held by the most distinguished circles. It is under the patronage of H.R.H. Princess Beatrice (whose arms are by special permission displayed), and also of other members of the English Royal Family. It has also been patronised by Continental sovereigns, members of several royal and princely houses of Europe, and many of our more prominent American visitors. We ought to add that there are bath-rooms in each wing, and that a large saloon is available to visitors for entertainments, dances, &c. Fire-extinguishing appliances by the well-known firm of Messrs. Merryweather are placed on all floors of each wing of the hotel, and a fire escape is fixed on the outside, which can be used at a moment's notice. The sanitary arrangements of the hotel are upon the latest principle, and may be pronounced perfect. Finally, the pleasure grounds lead direct to the shore and overlook the esplanade and pier; carriages can be had by visitors at moderate charges; and coaches and chars-a-banc leave the hotel every morning (Sundays excepted) during the season for Freshwater, Alum Bay, Carisbrooke, Newport, Cowes, Whippingham, and other places of interest in the island. Mr. W. Bush Judd has succeeded his father in the control of this high-class hotel, and directs its affairs with conspicuous ability and success. Mr. Judd, senior, though he has retired from the management of the hotel, still takes an active part in public affairs, and is much respected in Ventnor.


SPLENDIDLY situated on the Esplanade, in the midst of the most attractive features of Ventnor life, the Queen’s Hotel enjoys exceptional advantages which have made it a great favourite with visitors to this charming watering-place. Its history dates back over a period of thirty years, and it is now in the possession of a company, of which Mr. T. H. Urry is Chairman, the management being in the very capable hands of Mr. George P. Wood, late of the Hotel Metropole, London. “The Queen's,” as it is familiarly called by its many patrons, is close to the pier, and while it commands a splendid view of the “front,” the sea, and most of everything that is interesting in Ventnor, it may be recommended for quietude and genuine comfort. The hotel busses ply to and from the railway station, and visitors will find that every arrangement is made to promote their convenience. The Queen's Hotel is select without being expensive, and the tariff of charges has been carefully calculated upon a moderate basis. The spacious and commodious premises, forming a substantial four-storey block, present an imposing appearance, and have been splendidly arranged for hotel purposes. All the public rooms are large and handsomely appointed, and there is an especially fine dining-room capable of seating fifty guests. The sitting and drawing-rooms present the same excellence of equipment, and there are smoking-rooms and ladies' and gentlemen's coffee-rooms, all most appropriately fitted up. The numerous bed-rooms are beautifully furnished—in fact the whole character and organisation of the establishment bespeaks liberality on the part of the proprietary, and attests the care and efficiency of Mr. Wood's management. The incandescent light is among the several improvements that have brought this fine old house quite “up-to-date,” and placed it upon a level with the best seaside hotels in England. The cuisine and wines leave nothing to be desired, and a word of special praise is due to the attendance, which is always prompt and courteous. The Queen’s Hotel is purely a family hotel of a high class, and is patronised by a very superior clientele. Whole suites of rooms are frequently called for by visitors to this establishment, and are constantly held in readiness to meet such requirements. Mr. Wood has been very successful in his management of “The Queen’s.” He has carefully sustained the character of the house upon those lines which have won approval in the past, and has brought to bear upon the routine of the administration the fruits of a varied and extensive experience, whereby he has become acquainted with the requirements and preferences of different guests, and with the best means of meeting their wishes. Under his direction this excellent hotel should be even more prosperous in time to come than at any former period of its successful career.


FOR very many years one of the most popular of the commercial institutions in Ventnor has been the admirably equipped establishment of which Mr. Charles Albert Smith is now the proprietor. Its record dates back to 1836, when it was founded by Dr. Gawthorpe. Since Mr. Smith, some thirteen years ago, became proprietor of the establishment his sound and extensive professional and scientific knowledge has enabled him very materially to extend the valuable connection created by his predecessors. The premises suggest, by their very attractive appearance, externally and internally, the high-class nature of the business which Mr. Smith controls. They occupy a commanding position at 3, High Street, and comprise a handsome building of three storeys with an extensive frontage. Of this the stonework is inlaid, to the extent of a large space, with highly ornamental Doulton tile work, and the pediments are of the same material. The spacious interior is elegantly appointed, and with its numerous and conveniently disposed fixtures, it admits of the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large stocks which are held, and which include everything which might naturally be looked for in a chemist’s establishment of the highest class. The chemicals and drugs comprise everything which finds mention in the British pharmacopoeia, and they are invariably of absolute purity and in excellent condition. Here, too, are to be found all kinds of requisites, offering a practically unlimited choice of requisites for the sick-room (including surgical appliances), the nursery, and the toilet.

Mr. Smith has gained a reputation which is much more than merely local for a variety of popular specifics of which he is the proprietor and sole manufacturer. These include his digestive or live-long candy, his quinine and iron tonic, effervescing saline, quinine and rosemary lotion for the hair, cleansing household ammonia, cockroach and beetle food, which is quite harmless to domestic animals, and Smith's bog oak marking ink, which remains perfectly fluid, flows readily from the pen, requires no heating or preparation, and is perfectly durable, no matter how frequently washed. Of these and other specialities Mr. Smith publishes a list on a handsome card, which also contains useful and trustworthy information with regard to the local train and postal services. He has, too, with signal success, made a speciality of the supply of photographic requisites of all descriptions, including chemicals, cameras, and other apparatus, his stocks embracing everything which might be required by either a professional or an amateur photographer. For the use of customers there is a “dark room” at the rear of each of his establishments.

At 76, High Street, he has a well-equipped branch, with which he has established telephonic communication from his headquarters. The circumstances under which he did so illustrate Mr. Smith’s energetic character, and his practical knowledge of applied science. When he opened this branch establishment direct and rapid communication with it became a necessity. There was, however, no one in the town competent to fit up electrical apparatus, and so Mr. Smith proceeded to execute the work himself. He did so in such a satisfactory manner that several firms in the locality requested him to perform similar services for them; and electric telephone fitting has now become an important department of his business. He has, indeed, in this class of work, executed several important contracts in various parts of the island. In this regard his position amongst the chemists in the Isle of Wight is unique. He fully recognises, however, that dispensing is the chief and most responsible duty of the chemist, and gives the closest attention to every detail connected therewith. None but skilled assistants are employed as dispensers, and the prices charged are as moderate in all cases as is compatible with such guarantees. In this department he has gained the unreserved confidence of the leading members of the medical profession in the district, and in his general business he commands the steady support of the most influential families resident in the district.


THE grocery and provision trade in Ventnor finds an old-established and thoroughly responsible exponent in Mr. Henry Pearson. Mr. J. Fowler successfully laid the foundation of this business a quarter of a century ago, and raised it to a position of considerable prominence. He was succeeded in 1889 by Mr. E. T. Simpson (of Devizes), who was succeeded three years ago by the present sole proprietor, Mr. Henry Pearson, under whose experienced and energetic management the prosperity and influence of the house have been materially augmented. The premises have a handsome frontage, and the large plate-glass windows display a choice selection of high-class groceries, Italian goods, and provisions. The interior is thoroughly well-appointed and arranged for the accommodation and exhibition of the large and varied stock. Every department is stocked with a first-class selection of goods, including tea, coffee, preserved fruits, spices, biscuits, and confectionery, all the leading proprietary articles, and toilet and laundry requisites, as well as hams, bacon, butter, lard, and every kind of provisions. There are also large assortments of mats, brushes, household utensils, and general turnery goods. The whole of these supplies have been carefully chosen from the best-known sources, and, buying as he does in large lines direct, the proprietor is in a position to offer his customers the finest class of goods at the lowest possible prices. The house is specially noted for its tea, the supplies in this branch being the largest and most important in the district. Blending is done on the premises, and the firm's well-known mixture of Indian and Ceylon teas as offered at 2s. per pound is recognised as being the best value for money procurable. Special attention is given to the prompt execution of all orders, under the immediate supervision of the principal himself. The business relations of the house are not confined to Ventnor, but extend for a considerable distance in the vicinity among the leading and most important families and the principal hotels. Mr. Pearson is recognised as an enterprising and reliable business man, and is much respected both in trading and social circles.


IN their youth Mr. R. H. Tolman and his confrere in the trade, Mr. Bolland, were both apprenticed to the same firm of high-class confectioners at Clifton, Bristol, and both have now attained to the highest distinction as caterers to the “creature comforts” of the community. It was in the year 1866 that Mr. Tolman formed the nucleus of his now noted restaurant in the High Street at Ventnor, with a branch establishment at No. 27, Pier Street. Both of these popular high-class refectories are conducted upon precisely similar lines. Eligibly located in a commanding position, the spacious double-fronted shop, with its fine salle-a-manger adjoining, is luxuriously furnished in the best modern style, and always presents a particularly inviting appearance, by reason of the abundant and varied stock of pure household breads, and plain and fancy biscuits, including Tolman's own celebrated Scotch biscuits, and genuine biscuit powder, muffins, crumpets, noted sally-lunns, &c., there en evidence; together with toothsome cakes, and French and ornamental pastry, Horniman's teas (for which Mr. Tolman is the local agent), hothouse and other luscious fruit in season, and tempting table delicacies of every kind. In the restaurant, visitors are promptly served by courteous attendants with dishes a la carte, the menu comprising a very large selection of soups (including genuine turtle soup), removes, entrees, entremets sucres, ices, and dessert, all of which proclaim the presence of many accomplished masters of the culinary art. In his magnificently equipped kitchens and hygienic bakery, Mr. Tolman employs a picked staff of chefs, bakers, and others, for the preparation of his famous invalid and clear and thick turtle soups, and the making and artistic ornamenting of his rich bride cakes, according to the formula from which the celebrated Chester wedding-cake, supplied to H.M. the Queen, was made. Mr. Tolman, moreover, enjoys an unsurpassed reputation as a high-class refreshment contractor, in catering, in his usual style of elegance, for banquets and wedding breakfasts, recherché dinner parties, routs, ball suppers, and other festive functions; and is prepared, at the shortest notice, to send skilful men cooks to dress dinners and turtles, and well-trained waiters to serve at the tables of his patrons in all parts of the country. Personally, Mr. Tolman is well known and much esteemed in local circles as an enterprising, honourable, and thoroughly capable business man; and the manner in which he has guided the course of his business has met with an approval that is amply attested by the liberal patronage accorded to his house by a very large number of the best families resident in, or on a visit to, the Isle of Wight.


THIS well-known establishment has a reputation of half-a-century for reliable goods in all departments of the wine, spirit, and beer trade. It is one of the leading concerns of its kind in Ventnor, and has been especially successful under the management of Mr. Frank Winter, who has been its sole proprietor for the past five years. Extensive and convenient premises are occupied, and every facility exists for the proper conduct of the premises in both its wholesale and its retail branches. The warehouses and cellars contain large and carefully selected stocks, all of which are obtained from the most trustworthy sources of supply, and there are several specialities which deserve a word of individual mention. One of these is Mr. Winter's celebrated “Isle of Wight” Sloe Gin (registered), which enjoys a great reputation as a pure and wholesome stimulant, highly beneficial to the liver and kidneys, as well as a very agreeable liqueur. This is prepared only from sloes procured on the island, and is of very superior quality. We also note that Mr. Winter is agent here for the “Real Mountain Dew” Scotch Uam Var whisky, and for the “Glen” special Irish whisky, while he also supplies the best of the other favourite brands in both Scotch and Irish whiskies.

In wines he has a stock worthy of the attention of connoisseurs, and embracing genuine old wines of a fine character at low quotations. Other specialities include a choice selection of cordials, Stone’s ginger and orange wine, the various foreign liqueurs, and all mineral and aerated waters in general demand. Malt liquors receive careful attention, and ales and stouts are supplied in prime condition, both in four and a-half, nine, eighteen, and thirty-six gallon casks, on draught and in bottle. This is the agency for the Anglo-Bavarian beer, which now enjoys great and well-merited popularity. Altogether, Mr. Winter’s business is thoroughly comprehensive, and is splendidly organised in all its departments, being under his own constant personal supervision. A high standard of uniform excellence is maintained in everything supplied, and a very extensive wholesale and retail trade is controlled with a valuable connection in all parts of Ventnor and the neighbourhood. Mr. Winter enjoys considerable personal popularity in the town, where he is well known and respected — born in London, has been connected many years with London establishments, Mr. Winter has also travelled in many parts of the globe, including Africa, where be spent some years up country. His ideas are strictly progressive.


THIS important and first-class business was established upwards of fifty years ago, and has been in the hands of the present proprietor for the last twelve years. Mr. J. S. Cox has, during his whole term of proprietorship, conducted his concern with marked ability, and has succeeded in raising it to a point of prominence among similar local establishments. The principal shop is both extensive and handsome, with fine imposing frontage and spacious interior admirably appointed. The walls are faced with artistic tiles, and the appearance of the place in its tout ensemble is very bright and pleasing. At the rear of the shop are the offices. Mr. Cox has always on hand a large and varied stock of the primest class of meat. He spares neither expense nor pains in providing the choicest of everything he handles, and his facilities for so doing are unsurpassed. Home-fed oxen and sheep and Welsh mutton are the leading lines with the firm, a special item being also made of the finest pickled tongues. The status of the business carried on by Mr. Cox is. demonstrated by the fact that his house has been patronised by Her Majesty the Empress of Austria, by H.H. the Sultan of Johone, and many of the British nobility, and that, with one single exception, he supplies the whole of the hotels in Ventnor and the district. An efficient and attentive staff of assistants is kept, and patrons can always be sure of prompt and polite attention, and of having their orders delivered punctually to the time stated. Mr. Cox is highly regarded both in business and private life, and is justly looked upon as a representative man in the branch of trade with which he has been so long and honourably associated.


THIS beautifully situated house possesses a special interest as having, at one time, been the residence of the late John Sterling, a man of letters, well known in the forties, and of whom both Archdeacon Hare and Thomas Carlyle (who were his personal friends) wrote biographies. Subsequently, the late Captain Newall, C.B., lived here, and after his death the house remained closed and unoccupied for about two years. It was thon (some eighteen years ago) taken by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Mitchell, and opened by them as a private boarding establishment. The house is a three-storey building of very attractive external appearance, and has a charming situation on the most desirable part of the Undercliff. It stands in its own prettily laid-out grounds, and is within five minutes’ walk from the railway station. There are upwards of fifteen bedrooms in the house, in addition to the dining, drawing, sitting, and smoking rooms. The requirements of indoor amusement are met by an excellent pianoforte and a first-rate bagatelle board, while outside there are splendid croquet lawns, tennis courts, greenhouses, conservatories, &c. Very fine views of the town and of the sea may be had from the windows of “Hillside,” and the house forms one of the most agreeable and pleasant places of residence that a visitor could desire. Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell do not confine their attention to promoting the comfort of their guests within the house only. They study their convenience and entertainment in various other ways, and at one o'clock each day they send a private conveyance down to the Esplanade, so that any of their patrons who may prefer driving up the hill to walking, may do so, free of charge. This is only one of the many evidences displayed of careful consideration for the interests and comfort of guests. The cuisine and attendance at “Hillside” are excellent, and a liberal table is provided, many delicacies being served in season. In short, “Hillside” may be strongly recommended as a first-class boarding establishment, where every homo comfort awaits the visitor. With a reputation extending over eighteen years, this house, we need hardly say, is well and favourably known, and it enjoys the patronage and recommendation of a very select and influential connection.


THE comprehensive business which now calls for favourable consideration as one of the most extensive of the trading concerns of the Isle of Wight, was organised at its present eligible quarters in Ventnor some seventeen years ago, under the able auspices of its present estimable and enterprising proprietor, Mr. Arthur J. Potts. Occupying a commanding position in Pier Street, the spacious handsomely appointed double-fronted shop is admirably arranged to effectively display, in special departments, a vast and varied assortment of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the latest productions of the leading manufacturers of the day, both at home and abroad, while at the rear there is a lofty store-room, covering an area of fifty feet by twenty feet, and filled to repletion with surplus stock, for the supply of wholesale buyers. A goods entrance from Town Road leads to the warehouse, where there is every facility for the safe packing and prompt despatch of goods to customers and trade buyers not only in all parts of the Island, but throughout the United Kingdom and even abroad, brisk business being also done in the supply of glass and china for public banquets, private parties, &c. Within the artistically arranged show-room, the glass and china department is rich in every class of fashionable toilet, dinner and kitchen-ware, cut and plain table glass, recherche ornamental glass, and the productions of Royal Worcester, Minton’s, Doulton's, Sevres, Limoges, Dresden, and other ware; Bretby art pottery, Clark's fairy lamps, &c.; the “Warehouse” being the sole depot for the Royal Worcester Porcelain Company, and for Herr F. Goldscheider’s Vienna porcelain busts, figures, in the Isle of Wight.
In the fancy department Mr. Potts holds an enormous stock of plain and fancy stationery and stationers' sundries, bags and purses, superior cutlery, Japanese and Indian productions, and every novelty as soon as produced. Mr. Potts, who employs an adequate staff of courteous and capable assistants, is eminently reputed among his private patrons and trade clients alike as a dealer in goods of thorough reliability and excellence, and his house stands high in the estimation of a widespread home and appreciable export connection, by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always characterised his business transactions.


NINE years have now elapsed since Mr. J. Sanders formed the nucleus of his now thriving licensed grocery store, which is eligibly located in a prominent position in Pier Street. The spacious double-fronted shop is admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically, yet tastefully, arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the best markets. All manner of select high-class groceries, together with the numerous household sundries usually associated therewith, all the best and most popular brands of wines, spirits, and bottled beers, including Messrs. Kennaway & Co’s Exeter wines and spirits, Bass and Co.’s beer, and Guinness's stout in cask and bottle; British and foreign canned and bottled comestibles, and table delicacies of the highest order, prime provisions of every kind in the way of hams and Wiltshire bacon, butter and cheese, lard, and the freshest of country eggs, and special lines in pure and choicely-blended teas and coffees are all fully represented at their best, and are all available at the lowest store prices for cash. As an expert tea-taster and blender, Mr. Sanders enjoys a widespread and well-merited renown. He blends his teas on the premises with extreme care, and makes a speciality of his “Tiger” blend of rich Indian and Ceylon teas at 1s. 10d. per pound, for which there is a very large local and general insular demand, while his special pure China tea has been highly recommended by the late Sir Andrew Clarke. Mr. Sanders employs a staff of courteous and capable assistants to execute and deliver all orders with promptitude and care, and the sound and straightforward principles which characterise all his business transactions, have met with an approval that is amply attested by the liberal patronage accorded to his house by many of the leading families resident not only in Ventnor, but throughout the Isle of Wight.


ESTABLISHED in the summer of 1893, under the able auspices of its present enterprising proprietor, this excellently conducted drapery business has already become one of the most popular and liberally patronised of the trading concerns in the busy High Street of Ventnor; and doubtless the most effectual way in which to indicate its true character, scope, and aims would be to give a concise descriptive sketch of the establishment as it now stands, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. Eligibly located at No. 4, High Street, familiarly known as Clarence Buildings, the spacious full-fronted shop, with its ample storage accommodation, is handsomely fitted and appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically, yet tastefully, arranged to hold and to effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment from the latest productions of the leading manufacturers of the day, and is particularly rich in fashionable novelties and articles of standard worth and excellence. All manner of everyday drapery goods for both persons] wear and household use, including dress stuffs and materials for the season, and carpets, floorcloths and linoleums, fancy drapery wares in charming variety, and haberdashery of every conceivable kind, together with complete ranges of Messrs. Briggs & Co.’s celebrated embroidery silks, transferring designs, and art needlework materials, are all fully represented, and are all available at the lowest prices consistent with equitable trading, while special attention is devoted to the exemplification of the latest London and Paris fashions in millinery and dress and mantle making, by a staff of expert modistes on the premises, with due economy, high efficiency, and despatch. For the rest the house develops continuously in all its resources and operations under Mr. Sharpe's careful yet always energetic and enterprising direction, and a very large trade of a sound medium-class character is done. Mr. Sharpe's valuable connections extending practically to all parts of Ventnor and its surrounding countryside.


THIS representative music warehouse was organised in Ventnor in the year 1881 by Messrs. Giles & Ponder, but some seven years later it passed into the hands of Mrs. Knight, who placed the entire business under the capable managerial control of her son, Mr. Wavell Knight, who is well known in local musical circles and amongst entertainment entrepreneurs who visit Ventnor as one of the most tactic and successful of business managers in the arrangement of concerts and public amusements. Trading under the old style and title, Mrs. Knight has been exceptionally fortunate in securing the commanding premises she occupies. The commodious warehouse is arranged in form of a handsomely-appointed suite of show-rooms, wherein may be inspected and tested side by side the latest and best pianofortes of such celebrated makers as Erard, Bechstein, Brinsmead, Broadwood, Kirkman, Collard & Collard, Rogers, and other leading manufacturers of the day; together with the best yacht pianos, American organs, and stringed, reed, brass, and other musical instruments; while the collection of sheet and book music is perhaps the largest and best selected of its kind in the Island; Mr. Knight making it his duty to secure the music direct from the publishers as soon as issued, so that his stock is kept not only rich in standard pieces, but strictly up-to-date. A skilled practical staff is retained on the premises to undertake tunings and repairs; a pianoforte practice room is courteously open to patrons: and many special advantages are offered to those who wish to purchase instruments for cash or on the easy payment system, or to hire or exchange goods. For the rest the business is indeed a conspicuous example of substantial success worthily achieved; and all its characteristics are those of a house whose nature has been influenced and whose methods have been formed by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of trade, principally drawn from the resident aristocracy and gentry of the Island.


DURING the twenty years which have elapsed since Mr. Charles Mitchell began his operations in Ventnor, his services in connection with transactions of various kinds, in both real and personal property, have become increasingly appreciated by a very large and influential section of the community. His premises occupy a convenient situation in Church Street, and comprise a suite of well-appointed offices. An efficient staff of clerks is employed. Mr. Mitchell controls a considerable amount of business as an auctioneer. He is, moreover, a surveyor and valuer, and is in the habit of making valuations for transfer, probate, &c. His special attention, however, is, above all, given to the conduct of his large and comprehensive business as an estate agent. He has a thorough acquaintance with the characteristics and the value of all the landed and house property within a wide area, most of it having, at one time or another, passed through his hands. There is, therefore, no better authority on the subject, and Mr. Mitchell's vast store of experience and information is always at the service of his clients. In connection with this department of his business, he issues monthly his “Isle of Wight Property Gazette and Register.” He also places at the disposal of all interested his very copious and carefully corrected (day by day) list of apartments to let in Ventnor and its vicinity. The “Property Gazette” is to be seen at many of the leading hotels throughout the United Kingdom. Mr. Mitchell is well known and is much esteemed by all classes of the community, and his great personal influence enables him to render valuable services to the Rock Life Insurance Company, the Scottish Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and the Caledonian Fire Insurance Company as their district agent. Mr. Mitchell makes a speciality of sanitary surveying, having been engaged with the firm of D. & D. Stevenson, of Edinburgh, who acted for the Corporation in the drainage of Leith and the new town of Edinburgh. Mr. Mitchell was four and a-half years sanitary surveyor to the Borough of Ventnor, and now has a large private practice in this line.


IN 1880 an important addition was made to the resources of the high-class drapery business in Ventnor by the commencement of what has proved to be the very important and successful operations of Mr. Walter Hammond. His premises occupy a commanding position in High Street, and comprise two adjacent houses, three storeys in height, numbered 101 and 103. The original premises, at 101, were specially constructed for the purposes of the business. Some three years ago, as a result of the rapid expansion in the volume of Mr. Hammond's business, the extension was made, the new portion of Providence House, as it is called, constituting a series of elegant show-rooms. There is now a very spacious frontage, with three ample show-windows of plate-glass. The interior is handsomely appointed, stretching back for about sixty feet, and affording ample space for the effective display of the comprehensive stocks which are always held. A mere enumeration of the different departments, each of them being adequately stocked, into which the establishment is divided, is justly suggestive of its great resources. These departments are devoted respectively to calicoes, prints, sheetings, blankets, flannels, quilts, table-linen, table-covers, curtains, cretonnes, dimities, window hollands, carpets, rugs, oil-cloths, mats, French and English dress materials, black and coloured silks, costumes, skirts, mantles, hosiery, gloves, ribbons, flowers, feathers, lace, silk ties, handkerchiefs, gentlemen's hosiery, wool goods, stays, underclothing, baby-linen, trimmings, haberdashery, straw goods, &c. The proprietor has, with signal success, made a speciality of the supply of Swiss, Scotch, and Madeira work, and customers can be supplied with bedsteads and bedding at wholesale prices.

To the rear of the showrooms is a large building, altogether devoted to the production of dresses, costumes, mantles and millinery, large staffs of expert workers being engaged, under the supervision of ladies who have received a thorough professional training in their several departments. Visitors to this well-ordered establishment will be impressed by the evidence which is afforded on every side of the high class of the business which Mr. Hammond controls. The pleasure of a visit to the establishment is much enhanced by the courteous zeal manifested by the staff of experienced assistants in seeking to meet the special requirements of each customer. All the working details of the extensive business are under the personal control of the principal, who is endowed with a very large amount of organising and executive ability. Outside of his own business, this has been notably illustrated by his successful efforts in the creation of the Isle of Wight Mutual Plate Glass Insurance Society, Limited, an admirably managed institution, of which he was for many years chairman, and which, under his wise control, and that of his fellow directors, is rapidly extending the area of its useful operations.


THIS eminent firm dates back to 1840, and the family record since then constitutes one of the most important and interesting pages in the history of the Isle of Wight. The members of the firm at the present time are Mr. C. Dear, the founder of the establishment, and his two sons, Messrs. Maurice and Henry Dear. These gentlemen, by their splendid energy and enterprise, are constantly extending the area of their valuable connection, and their business is now so comprehensive that, in respect to supplying the requirements of the household, its resources are equal to those of the so-called “Stores” in the largest centres of population. Their headquarters are at No. 5, High Street, while at No. 8, which is right opposite, they conduct a large business as pork-butchers and provision merchants, &c. They have also admirably equipped branch establishments at Shanklin and at Niton. The premises at No. 5 have a very handsome and imposing appearance, which is altogether in keeping with the high-class character of the business which the firm control. The interior is handsomely appointed, and is commodious enough to admit of the effective display of the vast and comprehensive stocks which are always held. It is impossible, within the necessarily brief limits of this notice, to convey an adequate idea of the enormous resources of the establishment, of which some notion may be obtained by a reference to the copious and voluminous “Current Price List” which is periodically issued by the firm. It should be noted, however, that the stocks include all descriptions of the best grocery and provision goods, together with such table delicacies as might be looked for in an Italian and French warehouse of the highest class in the West End of London.

A special feature in the conduct of the business consists in the daily roasting of coffee, the firm having special plant for the purpose, manufactured by T. Fletcher, of Warrington, and driven by a gas-engine of 2 horsepower. Here, too, is to be found a very large and varied assortment of teas, mineral waters, patent medicines, and proprietary articles, drugs and chemicals of absolute purity and in the best condition, household and toilet brushes, mats, stable requisites, baskets, wicker and rush goods, woodware, and many other articles of daily use. In the perfumery department, again, the stocks include all the most popular specialities of the leading manufacturers for the hair, teeth, and skin. At the rear of the sale-shop, and approached by a flight of stairs, is the Japanese department, which is filled to overcrowding with choice Oriental goods of all descriptions. At the head of the staircase stands a pair of splendid Florentine agate vases and their pedestals, handsomely carved. At the rear of this department are the well-appointed offices, furnished with telephonic communication. Below there are extensive cellars, in which are held stocks of wines and spirits, the Messrs. Dear being agents for W. & A. Gilbey, both in Ventnor and in Shanklin. The firm have, too, extensive stores, and a large warehouse kept at a uniform temperature of sixty degrees, to maintain, in prime condition, a large store of bottled goods.

The premises on the other side of the street are double-fronted, and the fittings of white enamelled tiles convey the pleasant idea of scrupulous cleanliness which absolutely prevails throughout the establishment. It is fitted up with every convenience for making a splendid display, while underneath are extensive pickling, salting, and other stores. This department has a high reputation for the quality of the sausages which are sent to various parts of England and Wales, and the same may be said of their excellent pork. They slaughter in their own houses, and make their own Strasburg potted meat, rearing their own pigs and poultry, and killing them as required. They employ a staff of between twenty-five and thirty young men under the supervision of the principals. Mr. C. Dear is now far advanced in years, but still devotes a large portion of his valuable time and abilities to the service of the public, having been a member of the Local Board, and is now a director of the Gas Company, and the local Secretary of the British and Foreign Bible Society, &c. Mr. Henry Dear has charge of the Ventnor establishment, while Mr. Maurice Dear is in charge of the Shanklin branch.

15, 17, 19, 21, and 22, VICTORIA STREET, VENTNOR.

THIS admirably conducted and commodious hostelry has been established upwards of twenty-four years, and has always enjoyed a well-merited reputation. The hotel premises are very extensive, with a long and attractive street frontage, and the internal arrangements are those of a first-class house of entertainment where the satisfaction of guests is an object carefully held in view. Facing south and west, the hotel is fully sheltered from east winds, and its situation is a very pleasant one. There are good tennis-courts and pleasure grounds open to the sea, only one minute’s walk from the hotel. Having been several times altered and enlarged, Rayner’s Hotel is now replete with every appointment consistent with modern requirements. It contains upwards of fifty rooms, among which are a handsome and spacious coffee-room, with good pianos; a fine room suitable for large parties, who can be provided with dinners, teas, &c., on the shortest notice: and several tastefully furnished suites, arranged as private apartments for families and gentlemen. “Rayner’s” is a great favourite with commercial men, whose wants are specially studied, and for whose convenience there are large stock-rooms, bath and smoke rooms, &c. Indeed, the proprietor leaves nothing undone which may conduce to the comfort and satisfaction of all under his roof, and his personal popularity is not less marked than that of his well-ordered hotel. This is, we believe, the largest and cheapest temperance hotel in the island. All kinds of mineral waters and the best cigars are supplied; the cuisine is excellent, and the tariff of charges very moderate throughout. Perfect cleanliness and efficient attendance are also very satisfactory features of this house. An omnibus meets all trains at the station, and the hotel is a starting point for daily excursions to all parts of the Isle of Wight. In short, “Rayner’s” may be appropriately described as “a home away from home,” and the most fastidious traveller could not desire a higher recommendation than that.


THIS business was established more than twenty years ago, and was acquired close upon four years since by the present proprietor, under whose able management it has been considerably developed in all directions. The premises occupy a commanding position at the corner of the Madeira and Trinity Roads. They comprise a handsome and commodious double-fronted shop, elegantly appointed throughout. At the rear of the shop is a compact office, &c. Mr. Loosemore is thoroughly conversant with the trade in all its branches, and is indefatigable in his endeavours to obtain the best of everything to put before his customers. The supplies embrace tea, coffee, fruits, spices, biscuits in great variety, all the best-known proprietary articles, a choice and varied selection of Italian goods and table delicacies, extracts and essences, jams, jellies, preserved meats, sauces, &c. the extensive stock of provisions includes hams and bacon of prime quality, the best kinds of English, American, and Continental cheese; fresh country and imported butter, lard, and eggs. Bacon is made a leading speciality with the house, Mr. Loosemore being the local agent for Messrs. Charles and Thomas Harris & Co., Limited, the celebrated Wiltshire bacon curers, who carried off the gold medal at the Paris Exhibition in 1880, and have the honour of regularly supplying the Queen, the Prince of Wales, and the other members of the royal family with their superior breakfast delicacy. This establishment is also the depot for the Midlothian meal, that is so largely recommended by the medical faculty. A competent staff of assistants is employed, and customers receive the most prompt and courteous attention. The business in all its details is managed, personally, by Mr. Loosemore, end the establishment is patronised by one of the largest and most influential connections in Ventnor. The Madeira Road Branch Post Office is conducted on the same premises.


THIS representative business was organised at its present eligible quarters in Pier Street, Ventnor, in the year 1884, under the able auspices of its present estimable proprietor, Mr. Henry A. Ives, who is a valued member of the Committee of the Ventnor Literary Institute, and was ono of its most active agents in the formation of the Free Library. Mayfield House, as it is popularly called, presents a handsomely appointed, spacious ground-floor shop, facing Pier Street, every available inch of space within which is utilised for the storage and effective display of a vast and varied stock of goods. Books, in all branches of literature, including bibles, hymn and prayer books, and works of a devotional character; plain, commercial, school, and fashionable fancy stationery, and stationers’ sundries of every description; account books and office and library requisites of all kinds; all the leading local, London, and other newspapers and magazines; and a vast assortment of souvenirs and fancy articles, games, toys, et hoc genus omni are all fully en evidence; while a special feature is made of picturesque photographs, many of them exquisitely coloured by hand, by artists on the premises, the collection of which, in sixteen large albums, is said to be the largest and best of its kind in the Island. In his executive department, Mr. Ives undertakes bookbinding in all its branches, die-sinking, embossing, crest and monogram printing, and fancy printing of all kinds. He is printer by appointment to the Local Board. Mr. Ives has been an ardent stamp-collector for over twenty years, and has the largest and most comprehensive stock of foreign stamps in the Island. He does a large trade in this direction with the foreign visitors to the Isle of Wight, and the liberal patronage he enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts, quite as much in the public interest as in his own, have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.



THIS well-known and enterprising firm originated about thirteen years ago at Wroxall, and were at first corn merchants and millers only. Subsequently they added the department of bacon-curing, which has become one of the most important features of their extensive business. The premises occupied are conveniently situated, and comprise a large four-storey block, well arranged as mills and warehouses, with detached premises set apart for offices. Extensive stocks of corn from the best sources of supply are held in the warehouses, and by thus carefully selecting their material, using the best machinery, and employing skilled labour only, Messrs. Flux & Son are enabled to ensure the constant production of the finest quality of flour. For this product they have a very large and increasing sale. The firm under notice possess the distinction of being the only bacon curers on a large scale in Hampshire, and their works for this department, inaugurated ten years ago, was the third bacon factory started in the United Kingdom. The curing houses were specially built adjoining the mills, and were further enlarged about two-and-a-half years ago. They are substantially constructed and laid out upon a convenient plan, while their equipment is in accordance with the best methods for economising labour and ensuring perfection in the work done. This place is known as the “Isle of Wight Bacon Factory,” and the extent of its operations may be gathered from the fact that an average number of one hundred pigs arc here slaughtered and dressed every week. The firm have, however, facilities for dealing with as many as three hundred a week if necessary. The pigs are all “natives,” only Isle of Wight porkers being dealt with, and the bacon turned out is of a superior quality which has commended itself to the favour of the trade and the public wherever it has become known. Messrs. Flux & Son have extensive and valuable connections in London and Portsmouth, and their “Isle of Wight Bacon” is sent to practically every part of the United Kingdom. Both in flour and in bacon this firm send out goods of prime quality only, and in both departments they control an immense wholesale trade, which is supplemented by important dealings in salt, in which commodity they are large merchants.

The principals of the firm are Mr. W. Flux, and his son, Mr. W. A. Flux, both taking an active part in the management of the business. The senior partner is also well known in local public life, and has rendered much valuable service therein. He is Chairman of the Parish Council, Chairman of the Newchurch School Board and of the Parochial Committee, and a Commissioner of the Parish of Newchurch, where he has also been an Overseer of the parish for the past six years. Mr. Flux and his son are both greatly respected in this neighbourhood, and are as favourably known in business for their straightforward methods as for their spirited and progressive enterprise.


THE comprehensive business now under consideration was organised over sixteen years ago by its present enterprising proprietor, who has succeeded in raising his business to its present eminent position. Located hard by the Railway Station, the premises in reality constitute a large general «tore. The ample accommodation provided is divided into a series of distinct departments, of which it may collectively be observed that they are all stocked with goods, fairly exhaustive in each department In this way are represented select general groceries, prime provisions, and kindred goods; fresh farm-fed pork, flour, corn, seeds, &c.; patent medicines, crockery, meal — in which he does a very large trade — and ironmongery wares of every kind, together with domestic hardware and the like; and a baker’s department with well-equipped bakery attached. Mr. Bull’s own vans deliver bread daily to regular consumers dwelling throughout the Wroxall and Ventnor districts, and also convey orders sent to any of his other departments; and he acts as the Wroxall agent to the City of London Fire Insurance Company. The business is indeed in a splendid condition of progressive development, and, under Mr. Bull’s personal supervision, the house promises to continuously eclipse its past successes in the prosperity of still better times to come.



THE excellently equipped establishment of Messrs. J. G. & W. Jolliffe has for many years constituted one of the principal factors in the industrial and commercial activity of the Bonchurch district. The business was established some sixty years ago by the father of the present proprietors. The premises comprise commodious offices which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of business, and adjoining are commodious yards and workshops, the former affording space enough for the systematic arrangement of the heavy and valuable stocks which are held. The workshops, too, are excellently equipped, and the working plant includes all the requisites of the most approved modern type, for the perfecting of results in the processes of wood-working. An efficient staff of skilled workmen is permanently engaged in making window-sashes, frames, doors, and other appliances required in the execution of building contracts. For the due performance of such contracts the firm possess every facility; and they possess a wide and successful experience in controlling, by the aid of experts, the several processes of plumbing, glazing, painting, decorating, and other branches of the building trades. A speciality of this house is sanitary and hot-water engineering, and many important contracts have been carried out in this direction.

The Messrs. Jolliffe have gained a well deserved reputation for invariably using materials of the best quality; and the promptitude and efficiency with which they execute all orders for repairs have gained for them the unreserved confidence and the steady support of the most influential owners of house property throughout the district. In the interests of the same class of clients, as well as of the public in general, the firm maintain a valuable and ever growing connection, and control a very large amount of business in their capacity as house and estate agents and valuers. Their lengthened experience in dealing with real property of all descriptions in Bonchurch and the surrounding district renders their services in this department of unique utility. The firm are accustomed, moreover, to undertake the entire conduct of funerals. Both the members of the firm take a direct and personal interest in the conduct of the business in all its details; and, at the same time, their exceptionally strong administrative powers enable them to devote a considerable amount of their valuable time and energies to the service of the public. Thus Mr. J. G. Jolliffe holds the responsible office of clerk to the Parish Council, Assistant Overseer of the parish of Bonchuroh, while Mr. W. Jolliffe is Parish Councillor and one of the Overseers for the same parish.


THIS business was established upwards of sixty years ago by Mr. Daniel Day, the father of the present members of the firm — Messrs. Daniel and Alfred E. Day — and the long family record, during the interval, forms an epitome of the development, material and social, of the district throughout that period. The firm conduct an extensive business, and their premises include spacious yards in which are held stocks of timber, stone, and other building materials. Here, too, is a series of workshops, equipped with all the requisite appliances for cutting and connecting wood, stone, marble, &c. They have gained a high reputation as builders, and are surrounded with every facility for the execution of contracts of any extent. The members of the firm have always kept themselves in touch with the great developments which, in modern times, have been made in practical sanitary science and in decorative art, and they have thus been able to retain the unreserved confidence and the steady support of a wide circle of influential customers. They have, too, had a large experience in the conduct of funerals, and have at their disposal all the appliances for the performance of obsequies, in accordance with the most advanced ideas of funeral reform. As monumental masons, they hold stocks of marble, and other suitable stone, carefully selected for the purpose, and most of the churchyards and cemeteries within a wide area contain evidences of their artistic skill and excellent taste.

The Messrs. Day employ a permanent staff of skilled workmen end the number is increased indefinitely in accordance with the exigencies of contracts. In intimate connection with their operations as house builders and repairers, they control a large and ever growing business as house and estate agents and valuers, and in this department of their business they have an ample experience. In their capacity as market gardeners, they cultivate extensive grounds in Upper Bonchurch, where they grow vegetables, fruits, and flowers. Both the members of the firm personally supervise all the working details in the several departments, and, at the same time, are enabled to devote much of their time to the public interest. Mr. Daniel Day is an Overseer of the Parish of Bonchurch, Parish Councillor, and assessor and collector of taxes. He and his brother are much esteemed by all classes of the community, and their extensive personal influence enables them to render valuable services as sole agents, in the Bonchurch district, for the Royal Fire and Life Insurance Company.


ONE of the finest sites in the Isle of Wight is that occupied by Sandown, which is beautifully placed at the head of the bay of the same name. This noble bight of the Channel, likened by not a few travellers to the Bay of Naples in beauty of contour, extends from the Culver Cliffs in the west, rearing their lofty summits 600 feet above the sea, to the promontory of Dunnose in the east, and has a width of about five and a-half miles from point to point. The beach is unsurpassed for bathing purposes, and this circumstance has been a potent factor in assisting the growth and prosperity of Sandown as a watering-place. Other notable advantages have contributed to its rapid increase in modern times, and to the popularity it now enjoys as a seaside resort. The scenery in the neighbourhood is charming, embracing many of the most picturesque features of the landscape along the southern shores of the island; and the climate is not less delightful, the atmosphere being of that balmy and salubrious nature which tempts both the invalid and the pleasure-seeker from more vigorous regions to spend long or short periods here both in summer and winter.

When the northern parts of Britain are fast bound in the clutches of the frost king, when the hardy Scot wades knee-deep in snow, and even Londoners shudder in the gloom of leaden skies, and wonder what could ever have induced Charles Kingsley to write an ode to the east wind, sunny Sandown. revels in a climate more suggestive of the Riviera than of these islands of ours, and the broad waters of its splendid bay, reflecting the sapphire of the cloudless vault above, assume a depth of blue that might well turn the Mediterranean “green with envy.” And then in summer, when the dwellers in our great inland towns and cities swelter in dust and heat, and even the fields and lanes of the rural districts have more than enough of ardent Sol and his oppressive rays, breezy Sandown cools itself in the soft sea airs, to breathe which is to inhale new life at every inspiration. Happy the place that can charm alike in January and in July, and happy the people who can call it “home”!

Sandown is six miles south of Ryde, with which it has good railway communication. It is thus easily accessible, and a more enjoyable holiday resort it would be hard to find. One can visit many interesting places from here. Shanklin and Ventnor are readily reached by rail; and Bembridge, with its pretty bay, and Brading, with its church, and the Roman villas not far distant, can be visited by road, the drive being a thoroughly delightful one. There is plenty to do at Sandown itself, where the bathing is unexceptionable, the boating excellent, and the town itself not by any means devoid of interest. The population is 3,120 here, and a Local Board of Health, consisting of fifteen members, in whose hands the government of the place is all that can be desired, judging from the progress that has been made in various directions during recent years. There is a capital pier, erected in 1878, besides a sea-wall and promenade. For the most part the houses of the town are built upon rising ground, well above the sea, and the views command many a picturesque prospect.

Sandown’s ecclesiastical parish was formed in 1847, out of that of Brading. The parish church of Christ Church was erected in 1845, and there are several other churches and chapels. The Town Hall dates from 1869, and new Local Board offices were added six or seven years ago. Near the shore of the bay stands “Sandown Cottage,” once the residence of John Wilkes.

Accommodation has to be provided at Sandown for a large influx of visitors-from a distance, and this requirement is well met by the local hotels and numerous boarding-houses, which are comfortably appointed, and have the reputation of being admirably conducted. Not a few of these establishments are charmingly situated, and within easy access of all the most enjoyable features in the life of the place. As to the commercial aspect of Sandown, that is, of course, secondary, the raison d’etre of this pleasant resort being evidently to afford as much pleasure and physical benefit as possible to the many who journey hither in quest of health, rest, and quiet recreation. At the same time it is impossible to overlook the considerable amount of business done in this growing town; chiefly, of course, in supplying the requirements of residents and visitors. The general trades of a modern community are well represented, and the local shops, well stocked with everything in their several lines, are enterprisingly managed. Though, in a sense, “far from the madding crowd,” they are in no respect behind the times, and cater to the wants of their patrons in a highly satisfactory manner.



THIS is one of the oldest firms of wine and spirit merchants in the Isle of Wight, the history of the house dating back as far as the end of the last century. During the more than four-score years that have elapsed since then, the name of Yelf has always been favourably known to residents in the island for the high quality of the goods with which it is and has been associated; and at the present day this excellent reputation is fully maintained, the firm doing a very large and high-class trade, both at Sandown and at their old establishment, 53, Union Street, Ryde. The premises at Sandown are very extensive, comprising offices, order and bottling department, extensive stores, cellars, &c., affording every facility for a business of this kind. The stocks held are upon an equally large scale, and are more than ordinarily comprehensive, embracing every description of wines and spirits now in general demand.

Messrs. Yelf & Co. are in a particularly favourable position for meeting the requirements of connoisseurs in such standard wines as Ports, Sherries, Clarets, Burgundies, Champagnes, Madeiras, Hocks and Moselles. Having the entree to the best sources of supply, they are enabled to make highly satisfactory selections in these wines, and their stock is thoroughly representative of the best growths and vintages. They also stock the leading brands of Italian, Australian, Hungarian, and Californian wines, which have become so popular by reason of their purity and fine natural properties. In Brandies, Scotch and Irish Whiskies, Rums, Gins, and all the favourite liqueurs and cordials, the same high standard of excellence is maintained; and a very extensive trade is done in bottled ales and stouts from the most celebrated brewers. The firm, of course, supply the famous “brews” of Bass, Allsopp, and Guinness, and in addition to these they have the sole bottling agency here for Raggett's Nourishing Stout, and are also agents for the much esteemed “St. Pauli” lager beer. Genuine Devonshire cider, hop bitter beer, and the best aerated waters, in bottles and syphons, likewise form an important feature of their widespread wholesale and retail trade. The Ryde establishment is devoted wholly to the ale, wine and spirit trade, but at Sandown the firm have an additional department as agents for Lipton’s celebrated teas; and here also they act as house and estate agents, having offices ad-joining those for the wine and spirit business. The whole concern is ably and enterprisingly conducted under the personal supervision of the principal, and, as we have already intimated, Messrs. Yelf & Co. stand high in the confidence of an influential connection, many of the local gentry and leading families being among their regular customers. We have much pleasure in according recognition to a business so admirably organised as this, and which has for so many years maintained an honourable position in the trade.


MR. F. HILLIER founded his establishment some twelve years ago; and, by his knowledge of his trade, he has created a valuable connection, which now constitutes one of the leading commercial factors in the Sandown district. His headquarters occupy a commanding position, the interior of which is well appointed, and, with its numerous and conveniently disposed fittings, it is ample enough to admit of the effective display of samples, and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement of the large stocks which are always held. These include corn, flour, agricultural and garden seeds, bird seeds and poultry foods, oatmeal, potatoes, &c. The proprietor also retains extensive stores in Grafton Road, where great quantities of com, hay and straw are always held. The stocks held here also comprise all the celebrated dog biscuits and other articles usually found in such establishments. With all the best sources of supply for the various descriptions of commodities in which he deals, Mr. Hillier is able to offer exceptionally favourable terms to his numerous customers. He has gained a well-deserved reputation for invariably supplying goods of standard quality, and he has thus gained the unreserved confidence and the steady support of many of the most influential families resident in the neighbourhood. The prompt and accurate execution of all orders is ensured by the constant supervision of the principal.


AN important and influential branch of business is that represented by Mr. John Bunt as indicated above. Operations were begun in this direction upwards of twenty years ago, and from the first have been conducted with notable ability. A steady progress has been maintained in the extent and value of the transactions engaged in, and the house is in every respect entitled to be regarded as one of prominence. The premises occupied comprise handsomely appointed private and general offices, and every convenience for the despatch of a business of this nature. As an estate agent, Mr. Bunt has had a wide range of experience, and has an intimate knowledge of the value of residential and business property in the island, so that intended investors can place the utmost reliance upon his judgment and advice. The property committed to his care receives his close personal attention. He provides suitable and responsible tenants, effects every description of repairs in the most economical manner, and collects rents. Prompt and satisfactory settlements are made in all cases, and the name of the house is synonymous with everything that is straightforward and honourable in this important branch of business. His lists contain the most eligible property to be let or sold in the district, and during the season his register of apartments will be found of the utmost service to visitors. Mr. Bunt is doing a large business us a valuer, and no more qualified or reliable person can be found to carry out this difficult and responsible operation, whether it be for probate, legacy duty, transfer of business, or compensation claims. His decisions are the result of careful examination joined to sound knowledge and integrity of character, and invariably commend themselves to the judgment of both parties. Mr. S. R. Bunt (trading as Messrs. Bunt A Co.), Old Broad Street, London, is Mr. John Bunt's uncle, and undertakes all his auctioneering business. Mr. John Bunt is the sole agent in this district for the well-known Guion, Orient, Castle, Dominion, and American Steamship Companies, as well as for the Alliance Fire and Life Insurance Company and the Railway Passengers' Insurance Company. He is also largely occupied as a coal merchant, and has large yards attached to his premises which are always well stocked. He represents the well-known Caradoc Colliery Company, and orders in this department are promptly filled at the lowest current prices. Mr. Bunt’s standing in trading and financial circles is of the highest, and the success he is enjoying has been well earned by the industry and probity that have marked his career.


TECHNICAL horology, and the kindred crafts of the modern working jeweller and scientific optician, find an able exponent in the person of Mr. James Dore, who for the past twenty years has conducted a business which was founded as far back as the year 1860. About seven years ago, Mr. Dore took a now departure by adding a special photographic branch to his business, his private studio and workshops being located at the rear of his shop in the High Street; and here he operates as the patentee and maker of the “Dore Printing Frame” for photographers, and aa a manufacturer on a large scale of superior photographic lantern slides, for which the Medal and Diploma were awarded at the World’s Fair, Chicago, 1893; and Prize Medals at the Crystal Palace Photographic Exhibition, 1890; at Edinburgh, Cardiff, and elsewhere. The spacious shop at 27, High Street is elegantly appointed, and is most methodically arranged to effectively display a stock of goods that is remarkable for its volume and variety alike. Gold and silver watches and chains of the best English and foreign manufacture, clocks of every description, jewellery of the best and newest designs in great variety, electro-silver plate, both useful and ornamental, table cutlery, spectacles, folders, telescopes, field and opera glasses, etc., are all fully en evidence. The photographic department is the depot for photographic plates, papers, cameras, and other apparatus; while magic lanterns and slides are supplied at makers' list prices. In his well-equipped workshops, Mr. Dore, with expert assistants, undertakes the repairing and adjustment of all kinds of watches, clocks, musical boxes, photo-apparatus, and complex mechanisms, the making of jewellery to order, jewellery and plate repairs, gilding, etc., the making of spectacles to suit any sight, and replating work, etc., with due economy, efficiency, and despatch; and the patronage he enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.


THIS important and comprehensive business was inaugurated at the former place about sixteen years ago, the establishment at Shanklin being opened eight years later. The Sandown premises are situated in the High Street, and comprise a large and handsome corner shop, fronted by several plate-glass windows, and having a spacious room at the rear, which is used by Mr. Martin for the purposes of his well-known circulating library. This is conducted in connection with Mudie’s, and maintains a large and constant supply of books for all readers. It numbers upwards of four thousand volumes, and embraces works of history, biography, travel, adventure, fiction, &c., with a special department of books for juvenile readers. Some twenty of the leading London periodicals are also obtainable at this library monthly, as soon as published. The library arrangements are excellent, and it is very largely patronised by visitors and residents at Sandown and Shanklin. Mr. Martin does a very extensive trade in photographs, of which he holds an immense and superior stock, together with a choice selection of photograph albums, and Frith’s new “Opaline” views, which have met with great favour. A very special feature is the stock of books held, the largest, by a long way, in the island, and which embraces all the leading standard works, and includes a large selection of books for boys and girls.

As a pianoforte and music warehouse this establishment is likewise well known to the public, and the stock in this department is very complete. Pianofortes by the leading makers may be had at the lowest prices for cash, or upon the three years’ system, and they may also be hired for any period. American organs, violins, guitars, banjos, and all instrumental accessories are kept in stock, and in every instance good value is guaranteed, and liberal terms are offered to cash purchasers. The stock of sheet and volume music is a very large one, and includes all the newest vocal and instrumental compositions of the day. New music is sold at a discount of twopence in the shilling from the “nett” price. We ought not to omit mention of the excellent pianofortes of the Music Trade Association of Great Britain, which are a speciality with Mr. Martin. These are really first-rate instruments, selling at the moderate price of forty guineas, and equalling in tone, touch, and other essential features many instruments at half as much again.

Mr. Martin keeps a fine stock of general stationery and stationers' fancy goods, and he is also well known for the excellence of his specialities in artists' materials, of which he holds a large assortment. Another important department is that for printing, all kinds of plain and fancy work being turned out in capital style at moderate prices, new ideas and excellent finish forming a special characteristic of this branch of the business. Mr. Martin, in conjunction with Mr. George Brown (who was the founder), publishes the “Sandown Almanack and Handbook,” which has reached its twenty-fifth year of issue. This is a remarkably useful publication, containing a great amount of valuable local information, and enjoying a very large circulation. Altogether, Mr. Martin’s business is one of the first in its line at Sandown and Shanklin, and is conducted with great ability and enterprise by the principal in person, who spares no effort to keep his establishments thoroughly “up to date,” and to retain the full confidence and continued support of his large and influential clientele. He attributes his success in a great measure to his guiding principle of supplying the wants of his patrons so completely in assortment, quality, and reasonable charges, that they should be satisfied of the needlessness of going or sending to any of the large towns for anything in his way of business.

Mr. Martin deserves special credit for the part he has taken in initiating a genuine early-closing practice at Sandown and Shanklin one day in each week. On Wednesdays his shops are closed at 1.30 P.M., with the laudable object of giving his numerous assistants a real half-holiday. We believe be is the only tradesman in Sandown or Shanklin who closes at this early hour on Wednesday; and while his staff undoubtedly appreciate the consideration thus shown to them, his customers in general have also signified their approval of this liberal measure by readily falling in with the arrangement, and transacting their business with him on the morning of the day in question.


THE well-ordered establishment, of which Mr. F. Cantelo is the proprietor, was founded twenty years ago, and was, for a long period, successfully conducted by Mr. E. W. Cantelo. Since the present proprietor assumed control, some three years since, the ample technical knowledge which he brought to his enterprise, combined with his vigorous and well-directed energy, has enabled him materially to add to the valuable connection. Mr. Cantelo's premises occupy a commanding position in High Street, with a fine frontage. The ample plate-glass show-windows, with their tastefully arranged displays of useful and decorative hardware goods, include a constant succession of the latest novelties. The commodious interior is handsomely appointed, and well admits of the effective display, and the carefully systematic classification and arrangement, of the large, valuable, and notably comprehensive stocks, which are always held, of furnishing and builders' ironmongery. The premises also comprise commodious workshops, which are equipped with all the requisite working plant, of the most approved modern type, for facilitating the operations of the firm as plumbers, locksmiths, gas, water, electric bell, and telephone fitters, and bell-hangers, and general metal workers.

Special attention is given to cycle work, a large quantity of parts necessary for repairs being kept. Mr. Cantelo holds the appointment of official repairer to the Cyclists' Touring Club. An efficient staff of skilled workmen in all departments is employed. Mr. Cantelo is, also, a shoesmith, and the shoeing establishment, in connection with his business, occupies extensive workshops in Bridger Street. The stocks of goods held in the warehouse include splendid assortments of general ironmongery, suitable for domestic purposes, and artizans’ cutlery of the best quality, electro-plated goods in great variety, Britannia metal goods, washing and wringing machines, weighing machines, sewing machine*, lawn mowers, axes and hammers, spades and shovels, tools for carpenters, joiners, cabinet-makers, and engineers; bedsteads and spring mattresses; stoves, ranges, and kitcheners; ropes and twines; varnishes, oils, colours, and glass; and electric bells and telephone appliances and fittings. Bicycles, tricycles, mail-carts, and perambulators are stocked, and either can be hired by the hour or any longer period. Mr. Cantelo also controls a considerable amount of business in lubricating and lamp oils, including colza, linseed, paraffin, sweet, sperm, and other varieties. The proprietor maintains relations of such extent and intimacy with all the best sources of supply, that he is able to offer to his numerous and ever-growing circles of customers, the best that the markets can supply, and upon exceptionally advantageous terms. Mr. Cantelo bestows his personal and assiduous supervision upon all the working details of his extensive and flourishing business, with the result that all orders are executed with the utmost punctuality and accuracy. He is well known throughout a wide district, and is held in much esteem for the strict commercial principles and the spirit of liberality which animate all the business transactions of the house.


AMONG the hotels of Sandown the King's Head is the oldest, and the reputation it has so long maintained marks it as one of the best. It occupies an excellent situation — none could be better for the purposes of a first-class hotel — and is a handsome four-storey building, standing in its own grounds on the Parade, and commanding uninterrupted sea views. There is a second entrance, also, in High Street, which is quite as much used as the Parade entrance. Mr. George H. Conquest, the present proprietor, acquired the hotel a few months ago, and he has made important alterations which are undoubtedly great improvements. The premises have been extended, the grounds better laid out, and arrangements made to build a fine conservatory as an additional attraction to the place. This work is in progress, and by next season the King’s Head Hotel will be immensely improved in many ways. Meanwhile, the interior of the hotel has received first attention, and the whole place has been elegantly refurnished and substantially fitted up with everything essential to the perfect comfort of guests. All the rooms now show handsome appointments, and the whole establishment may be said to have been brought thoroughly up to date, thanks to Mr. Conquest's liberal enterprise.

The King's Head may be justly termed the leading commercial hotel of Sandown. It offers capital accommodation to business men and travellers, and is only about five minutes' walk from the railway station. Busses meet all trains. Among the notable features of this house are the ladies’ drawing-room, private sitting-room, billiard-room, luncheon and dining-rooms in connection, hot and cold baths, and a well-appointed bar, where only the best wines, spirits, cigars, &c., are served. The cuisine is excellent, and the table d'hote dinner, served at separate tables, is a speciality upon which Mr. Conquest may be heartily congratulated. Another speciality is the moderate inclusive terms for Saturday to Monday visits, which includes table d'hote dinner on Saturday; breakfast, luncheon, and dinner on Sunday; and breakfast Monday morning. We commend this well-ordered hotel to those who like substantial comfort at moderate charges, within easy access of everything that is interesting at Sandown; and it is easy to foresee that the already extensive and valuable clientele of the King's Head Hotel will be notably increased under the genial and courteous regime of the present proprietor, who has made himself thoroughly popular during the few months that have elapsed since he assumed the position and responsibilities of “mine host.” It may be added, for the information of some of our readers, that the King’s Head is a well-known posting establishment, and is fully equipped in this particular.


POPULARLY known in Sandown as “Rembrandt House,” by reason of its having been originally occupied by a photographic artist, this noted tailoring and outfitting establishment was opened as such about twelve years ago. During the fall of the year 1893, the business was acquired by its present proprietor, Mr. W. Pennells, under whose management it has taken permanent rank among the principal trading concerns of the town. Eligibly located in the High Street, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style. Mr. Pennells holds a very large and comprehensive stock of goods, all of which have manifestly been chosen with great care and judgment. Stylish ready-made suits and single garments for men, youths, and boys in all standard sizes; silk and felt hats and caps for all occasions; boots and shoes for both sexes, in a great diversity of styles, shapes, and sizes; gloves and hosiery, shirts and underwear, ties and scarves, collars, cuffs, braces, studs, handkerchiefs, and outfitting items of every description, are all fully represented at their best, and are all offered for sale by the staff of polite and attentive assistants at the lowest prices, consistent with equitable trading. Mr. Pennells and his staff of expert cutters and tailors devote special attention to the making of gentlemen's, youths' and boys’ fashionable attire to measure, from exclusively the newest and best fabrics and materials for the current season, and every garment so made is turned out in a state of perfection; and it is a true criterion of, and tribute to, Mr. Pennell's capabilities that not only are patrons invariably satisfied with the result of his efforts, but that his large and still rapidly increasing connection has been mainly called together through the influence of personal recommendations.


NOWHERE are the characteristic beauties of the Isle of Wight more conspicuously displayed than at Shanklin, a watering-place which has attained extraordinary popularity in modern times among those visitors who appreciate the scenic loveliness and climatic advantages of the south coast of the island. Shanklin has an unrivalled situation, and has grown very rapidly in recent years as the result of public recognition of its unique attractions. Half a century ago it contained about forty houses and less than two hundred inhabitants. To-day it is quite a thriving little town, with a population of 2,750, and many of the elements which constitute a favourite seaside resort. It stands on the coast, three-and-a-half miles north-east of Ventnor, seven miles south-east of Newport, and nine miles south-west of Ryde, and has good railway communication. The older part of the town nestles snugly beneath the shelter of the vast bulk of Shanklin Down, which rises to a height of seven hundred and seventy feet above the sea, and commands magnificent views. The fashionable quarter is found on this elevated ground, than which there could hardly be a more charming site for a residence. Shanklin has the inevitable pier, and from the end of that structure one may survey the coast-line for a distance to right and left. Eastward extends the fine sweep of Sandown Bay, with its splendid beach and unsurpassed bathing facilities. This carries the eye as far as the Culver Cliffs, and oven beyond that to the distant coast of Sussex. Westward, the first notable object is Shanklin Chine, with Luccombe Chine beyond; and the view in this direction is bounded by Dunnose Head, the scene of the wreck of the training-ship Eurydice, which foundered here in a squall on March 24th, 1878, with the loss of three hundred lives.

Shanklin Chine, which may fairly be termed the chief of the local natural attractions, is one of those remarkable fissures common on this part of the coast of Wight. It commences about half-a-mile from the sea, and pursues a serpentine course shoreward, gradually widening and deepening as it proceeds, until at its mouth it attains a width of one hundred and eighty feet and a height of two hundred and seventy feet. Through this romantic chasm flows a stream of water, making a delightful little cascade towards the upper end; and the stupendous walls of the gorge are thickly clothed with shrubbery, softening all its ruggedness, and imparting to the scene an indescribable sylvan loveliness. A writer thus speaks of this marvellously picturesque ravine: “So thick is the foliage here that in certain parts it is quite dark, but still here and there little arrows of sunlight shot their way through the intertwining and interlacing branches overhead, or in places great sudden glories of sunlight, dazzling and brilliant, greeted the half-blinded, bewildered pilgrim. And this sunshine revealed here and there old grey rocks, upon which grew in rich profusion the dark green moss, damp and glistening. Gnarled old trunks of trees reared themselves proudly over my head, whose topmost branches I could now and again catch a glimpse of as they tossed and waved in the rising breeze. But it was not until I had gone some distance up the Chine that the most romantic view was obtained, where the boldness of the windings of the chasm, a picturesque stone bridge, green and grey, and apparently hoary with dim antiquity, though doubtless it is really new, which here and there crosses the deep ravine, the soft murmur of the tiny waterfall, and the exclusion of all prospects, combine to produce the highest effect of all. Here is a pretty little fountain upon which Longfellow wrote some charming lines, which I quote:

“O traveller stay thy weary feet,
Drink of this fountain pure and sweet,
It flows for rich and poor the same.
Then go thy way remembering still
The wayside well beneath the hill.
The cup of water in His name.”

Luccombe Chine is another beautiful spot about a mile to the southward of Shanklin, and here the visitor encounters yet another natural marvel, the Landslip. This extends from Luccombe to Bonchurch, forming the beginning of what is known at Ventnor as the Undercliff, and it was created, they say, in a single day some two centuries or more ago, when several miles of the lofty cliff or down slipped seaward and, so to speak, “set up for itself” on a less exalted level. No pen can describe the sublime grandeur of the scene here presented — the result of one of those tremendous and awe-inspiring performances in which Nature ever and anon manifests the gigantic forces at her command, and mocks the relatively puny achievements of the “lords of creation.”

Turning again to Shanklin town (which comprises the parish of Shanklin and part of that of Brading), we may note that the government of the place is in the hands of a Local Board of nine members, and that considerable enterprise is displayed both by this authority and by the inhabitants in general in the making of arrangements calculated to render the stay of visitors agreeable and beneficial. There is excellent hotel and boarding-house accommodation at Shanklin, and the town possesses the indispensable libraries, and also a Literary and Scientific Institute, with reading-room and a hall for entertainments. There are several places of worship, both for adherents of the Established Church and for Nonconformists; and among the interesting features of the parish church of St. James is a curiously carved oaken chest, the gift of Prior Silksted of Winchester in 1512. The delights of a sojourn at Shanklin are accentuated by the fact that visitors can satisfy their requirements for the time being at the local business establishments, which are well conducted and well stocked, and of which we shall have something to say in the reviews now placed before the notice of the reader.


PRACTICAL pharmacy finds an able and enterprising exponent at the town of Shanklin, in the person of Mr. Albert Tovey, who recently (in the summer of 1894) opened his already popular establishment, appropriately called “The Modern Pharmacy,” in the busy High Street. Occupying quite a commanding position, the spacious shop is elegantly appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most methodically arranged to effectively display a thoroughly representative stock of goods, composed of an exhaustive series of drugs and chemicals of ascertained purity and standard strength; all the popular patent medicines of the day; a select series of useful domestic medicines and chaste pharmaceutical preparations, compounded by Mr. Tovey, such as his famous “Tonic Liver Mixture.” Here also may be obtained “Phosphated Quinine and Iron,” “B.P. Quinine Wine,” “Iodized Sarsaparilla Mixture,” &c.; choice toilet, nursery and sick-room requisites, all manner of medical and surgical appliances, spectacles and eye-glasses to suit all sights, and a special line in Tovey’s celebrated quarter-pound packet teas. Moreover, Mr. Tovey makes a leading specialite of choice perfumery, in which department he has always been very successful.

Besides manufacturing several deservedly popular perfumes, including the celebrated “Shanklin Zephyrs,” the “Riviera Bouquet,” Old English Lavender Water, &c., he bottles all the favourite perfumes, as Opoponax, Wood Violet, Stephanotis, &c., &c., which are imported direct from the celebrated distilleries at Grasse, and guaranteed “ bottled as imported,” and has constantly on hand a choice selection of the productions of the first perfumers of the age, including “Atkinsons,” “Piesse & Lubin,” the “Crown Perfumery Company,” &c. All perfumes and toilet articles are sold by him at popular prices. A novel feature of the business is that Mr. Tovey issues a monthly aesthetically printed publication called “Tovey’s Shanklin Referee,” which provides an accurate railway time-table for the Isle of Wight, a tide table showing high water at Shanklin, and concise information respecting his business, and some of the most useful medicines and preparations which he makes. In his perfectly equipped laboratory at the rear Mr. Tovey operates in every branch of practical pharmacy, devoting the most careful and competent attention to the dispensing of physicians' prescriptions and the compounding of family recipes, and his skill and accuracy in this responsible department has already won for him the confidence of all the local medical practitioners and the liberal support of a large clientele.


ESTABLISHED upwards of twenty-five years ago, the well-known house named above has long been acknowledged to be one of the leading hotels in Shanklin, and its recent acquisition by Major Broackes is a circumstance which augurs well for its continued success and popularity. Moreover, no less than a thousand pounds has lately been expended upon the premises in making alterations and improvements which will tend to greatly enhance the comfort and convenience of visitors. The Madeira Hotel stands in the most quiet and select part of Shanklin, and, at the same time, it is only five minutes' walk from the railway-station, two minutes from the sea, and five minutes from the famous “Chine.” It is a three-storey building, and has the appearance of a private residence, possessing a handsome porticoed entrance with pleasant verandahs which are rendered very attractive by a profusion of plants and creepers. There are also grounds and conservatories belonging to the house, admirably laid out, and contributing to its charm as a place of residence.

The entire establishment has undergone complete renovation quite recently, and the large expenditure above alluded to has produced highly satisfactory results. New cellars have been built, a new public bar has been added, and everything calculated to render the house better adapted to the purposes of a high-class hotel has been done. In addition to the dining, drawing, smoking, and reading rooms, there are numerous bedrooms. and private suites are available for those who desire them, the furnishing and decorations being in every instance most elegant and tasteful. The incandescent light is now being fitted throughout the house. The kitchens have been thoroughly overhauled, and the most approved modern culinary arrangements adopted, with a view to increasing the reputation long enjoyed by this establishment for its excellent cuisine. Only the finest qualities of wines and spirits are served, and Major Broackes has already been justly complimented upon the fine character of his ales. There are good stables in connection with the hotel, and a capital tennis-lawn affords facilities for amusement. Families are taken en pension, and commercial gentlemen and cyclists will find the accommodation at the Madeira Hotel equal to the best, while the charges in all cases are moderate.

Major Broackes is a genial and painstaking host, whose efforts to ensure the satisfaction of his guests are sure to win increased favour for the Madeira Hotel. He has only lately assumed the proprietorship, but already there are evidences of a master-hand in the routine of the establishment, and one cannot help thinking that Major Broackes's habits of military regularity and system will prove of great value to him in the conduct of a house where provision has to be made for the constant arrival of visitors requiring accommodation and attention. The past career of Major Broackes has been one of more than ordinary prominence, and to Army men his name will long be familiar in connection with his arduous and difficult work at Aldershot. Born at Bristol, he entered the Army in 1858, and remained with the 4th Dragoon Guards until 1874, when he proceeded to Curragh Camp as first assistant in the Mounted Provosts, and in 1881 he was appointed Assistant-Provost-Marshal at Curragh Camp. He saw active service in Egypt in 1882, having been called upon to form a troop of Mounted Police for that campaign, and was much complimented upon his work there. In 1885 he became Provost Marshal of the Army and Commanding Officer of the Military Police Corps at Aldershot, with the honorary rank of Captain; and a year later he carried out the important task of forming a Foot Corps of Police by order of the War Office. On the occasion of the review at Aldershot in the Jubilee year, he had the honour of conducting Her Majesty about, and was complimented upon his arrangements in this important matter, subsequently receiving from the Queen the Jubilee Medal and a letter from Windsor. He was afterwards gazetted honorary Major. Throughout his career at Aldershot Major Broackes displayed those qualities of tact, judgment, and administrative ability which are absolutely indispensable in the occupant of such a position as he there held; and when he retired from the Army (on account of the “age clause”) in the present year (1894), he left his post sincerely honoured, respected, and regretted by all. Moreover, he was presented with an address and a purse of one hundred pounds by the inhabitants of Aidershot as a token of their appreciation of the services he had rendered to the town by his courtesy and consideration to all with whom he came in contact, and by the assistance he had given, through the force under his command, to the civil police and others engaged in the preservation of order and discipline in the town and neighbourhood. The many officers and soldiers of Her Majesty’s Service who know and respect the ex-Provost-Marshal and Commanding Officer of the Military Police Corps will assuredly be glad to hear of the success of the popular Major in the new sphere of life into which he has entered at Shanklin with the most encouraging prospects.


MR. W. WARNE began his industrial and commercial operations as a boot and shoe manufacturer, in Shanklin, upwards of twenty-four years ago. His original quarters were in Station Road, but some twenty years ago his rapidly growing business induced a removal to the present premises which now form one of the most popular establishments in the district. These have a fine double frontage, with ample show-windows, and the well-appointed interior, with its numerous fittings, affords ample accommodation for the display of the large and notably comprehensive stocks which are always held. Mr. Warne successfully caters for all classes of the community, and his stocks therefore include every description of boots, shoes, slippers, and kindred classes of goods for ladies, gentlemen, and children. There is in particular a practically unlimited choice of high-class medium and heavy boots and shoes. His specialities include, too, representative stocks of the well-known “Hardwear” and also the “Electric” boots, together with examples of the manufactures of the famous firm of Hewlett and White. With all the sources of supply for those goods not produced on his own premises in which he deals, Mr. Warne maintains such intimate and extensive relations that he is able to offer exceptional advantages as to prices to his numerous customers, amongst whom are many of the most influential families resident in the district. Many of them, however, prefer to have their boots and shoes made specially to order and to measure on the premises. Mr. Warne is himself a thoroughly accomplished boot and shoe maker, with a complete technical knowledge of the trade, and he employs a competent staff of highly-skilled workmen, who are also always available for the prompt execution of repairs of all kinds. He is, likewise, the sole district agent for Mortimer's Plymouth Dyeing and Cleaning Works, which are celebrated for superiority of workmanship, prompt execution of orders, and moderate charges. Some five years ago Mr. Warne made an important new departure by opening, for the business of a job-master and livery stable proprietor, the St. John’s Mews, which are conveniently situated just off High Street. Here Mr. Warne has created a valuable posting business, and carriages of all descriptions, including cabs, dog-carts, phaetons, &c., are let by the day, hour, or job, at strictly moderate charges. The stock of vehicles includes a large break, for picnic and other parties. Mr. Warne is gifted with much administrative ability, and personally supervises the working details of all the departments of his extensive business. He is much esteemed by all classes of the community, and is assistant superintendent at the Congregational Chapel School.


THE records of this representative business show that it was organised in premises on the opposite side of the High Street some two-and-twenty years ago under the able auspices of the late Mr. F. B. Gray. The superior merits of his productions led to such a rapid increase in demand that barely three years had elapsed before Mr. Gray found it imperative to remove to the present eligible quarters, where, after his decease, the business has been vigorously continued by Mrs. Gray, trading under the style and title designated above. Occupying a commanding position, the spacious double-fronted shop is handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and is most invitingly arranged to display an abundant and varied stock of plain and fancy breads and biscuits, including hot breakfast-rolls and Scotch scones; genuine brown, Coburg, germ, whole-meal and Vienna breads, and the celebrated “Hovis” and Dr. Allinton's breads, for which Mrs. Gray is the sole local agent; together with Pascall’s famous malted sweets, Cadbury’s and Suchard’s chocolates, toothsome cakes and confectionery; high-class pastry, and tempting table delicacies of every kind — a few neat round tables being provided for the accommodation of customers desirous of partaking of light refreshments. In her perfectly equipped bakery, everything is maintained in a state of spotless cleanliness and purity, and only the finest of ingredients are used by the staff of expert bakers, patissiers, and confectioners there employed. With every modern facility and convenience thus at her command, Mrs. Gray operates on an extensive scale. She also undertakes the making and artistic ornamentation, to order, of special rich wedding, christening, and birthday cakes, pastry, confectionery, &c., for all of which she enjoys a widespread and well-merited fame, and her house stands high in the estimation of a very large and valuable connection.


PRACTICAL horology and the kindred crafts of the modern working jeweller and scientific optician find an able representative in the person of Mr. Fred. G. Baker, who entered upon his present prosperous career as far back as the year 1860, originally at Sandown. In 1873 Mr. Baker removed to his present eligible, quarters in Shanklin, and the premises occupy a conspicuous position, the spacious full-fronted shop being elegantly appointed and most artistically arranged to effectively display a large stock of goods. Gold and silver watches and chains of the best English and foreign manufacture, clocks and timepieces of every description, together with fashionable gold and silver jewellery, silver and electroplated ware, suitable for gifts and presentations; spectacles and eyeglasses to suit all sights, and opticians’ goods of all kinds are all duly represented up to date. In his perfectly equipped workshop, Mr. Baker has won a special reputation as an expert craftsman of the highest standing; and undertakes the cleaning and repairing of watches, clocks and complex mechanisms, plate and jewellery, with due economy, high efficiency and despatch, and the large and liberal patronage he enjoys is ample evidence of the fact that his efforts, quite as much in the public interest as in his own, have not failed to meet with deserved appreciation and support.


IN illustration of the English high-class charcutier’s special branch of business, no better example could perhaps be afforded than the one which has been selected as the theme of the present brief review, Over seventeen years have now elapsed since Mr. T. Hodgkinson entered upon his present prosperous career as a purveyor of pork and porcine products of the highest order. Advantageously located in a prominent position, the spacious shop, brilliantly illuminated after dusk by Cowan gas lamps, and handsomely appointed and equipped in accordance with advanced hygienic principles, always presents a singularly clean and wholesome appearance, which tends very largely to enhance the inviting character of the stock there displayed. In addition to a large supply of prime dairy-fed pork, in the form of expertly dressed carcasses, sides, joints and cuts, the stock includes choicely cured hams, bacon and chaps, pure lard, delicious breakfast bolognas, together with the high-class raised pork pies and superior all-meat sausages freshly made day by day, with which Mr. Hodgkinson’s name has become so closely and creditably identified throughout the Isle of Wight. He does a large trade in butter, and undoubtedly has the largest sale in Shanklin for this commodity. Mr. Hodgkinson, moreover, is the sole agent in Shanklin for the celebrated brand of “Kattiwarree Tea,” in which alone he does a very brisk local business. A full staff of assistants come under Mr. Hodgkinson’s personal directions in the service of customers and in waiting regularly upon families and hotels for orders, which are promptly executed, and the entire business continues to be vigorously conducted upon principles which cannot fail to sustain and steadily enhance the high reputation of the house as the leading one in its line at Shanklin.


ALTHOUGH barely over two years have elapsed since this business — which had previously been in existence for some years — was acquired by Mr. E. J. Hawes, it has already taken permanent rank as one of the leading drapery depots in Shanklin, and has grown to be immensely popular amongst gentlewomen in search of fashionable drapery goods in general and select under-garments in particular. The spacious double-fronted shop, with its elegant mantle and millinery show-rooms at the rear, is appointed in the best modern style. General and fancy drapery goods for both household use and personal wear are exhaustively represented. Specialities are made of ladies’ lingerie and trousseaux, baby-linen sad layettes, mantles and millinery, hosiery and gloves, Irish table-linens, calicoes, sheetings, and heavy Manchester wares of every kind; and a staff of expert modistes is retained on the premises to exemplify the latest London and Paris fashion fancies in millinery. An adequate staff of polite and attentive assistants wait upon patrons in a prompt and satisfactory manner; and the entire business, under Mr. Hawes' personal supervision, is conducted in a manner which cannot fail to sustain and even enhance the high reputation and liberal select support it now so deservedly enjoys.


THIS well-known and important business was established twenty-three years ago, and has been in possession of the present proprietors, Messrs. Russell Brothers, for the past seventeen years. During the whole period the concern has been vigorously managed, and has been gradually developed from comparative small beginnings into one of the leading and most influential businesses of its kind in the town. The premises occupied are prominently located, and both in size and arrangement are well adapted to the control of a first-class butchering trade. The interior walls are lined with white enamelled tiles, and the aspect of the place throughout is one of neatness and perfect cleanliness. The shop is beautifully lighted by the incandescent light. The latest sanitary inventions have been utilised in the construction of the slaughtering houses, and Messrs. Russell spare no trouble nor expense in providing the best of everything, and their facilities for so doing are unsurpassed by any of their competitors. They have always on hand a choice selection of the primest beef, mutton, lamb, veal, and every kind of meat according to the season. The specialities for which this establishment is most widely known are Southdown mutton, Welsh mutton, prime corned beef, scalded calves' heads and feet, pickled tongues, &c. The proprietors slaughter their own stock, and the meat offered can always be relied upon to be fresh killed and of the primest quality. An adequate staff of assistants is kept, and orders of any magnitude are delivered punctually by own traps to any part of Shanklin and the suburbs. The connection is of a superior character, and lies mainly among the principal families, hotels, and restaurants. The individual partners are Mr. R. Russell and Mr. W. Russell, both of whom have had a long and valuable experience as meat purveyors. They give their close personal attention to the business in every detail, and are anxious at every point to uphold the excellent name their house has so long enjoyed. They are energetic, straightforward, and obliging tradesmen, and command the respect of all who have dealings with them.


DURING the comparatively brief period of six years, Mr. F. W. Prouten has succeeded in securing a very large share of the best family, boarding-house, and hotel custom to be had in the rapidly rising resort of Shanklin, by reason of the fact that his is generally acknowledged to be the cheapest house in the fish, poultry, and game trades, when quality is taken as the criterion of cheapness. Mr. Prouten's resources and facilities are indeed of a very superior character, enabling him to get the pick of the markets, and thus to stock an abundant fresh daily supply of all the esteemed varieties of fish and game in season, together with farm-fatted poultry and pure ice for both kitchen and table use. The stock is always most invitingly displayed in his spacious appointed double-fronted shop in the High Street, where everything is maintained in a scrupulously clean and neat condition. A capital oyster-bar is open to customers who desire to partake of the toothsome bivalve at its best. Mr. Prouten employs none but courteous and capable assistants, and retains a special outdoor staff to wait upon families, hotel-keepers, and others daily for orders, which are promptly and satisfactorily executed, while the business in all its details comes under his constant supervision, and is promoted with an ability and energy that cannot fail to strengthen the high reputation it has hitherto so worthily sustained.


THE excellently organised business conducted by Messrs. Flux & Co. has a record extending back for close on twenty years, having been established by the late Mr. Edwin Way. Mr. W. Flux, the principal of the present firm, was, indeed, for many years manager of the important department of Mr. Way’s extensive business which now constitutes the well ordered establishment of which he is at the head. Upon Mr. Way’s decease he acquired the business, bringing to his enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the trade. Messrs. Flux & Co.’s premises occupy a commanding situation in the High Street. The interior is specially commodious, running back for a considerable distance, and it is fully adapted throughout to the special requirements of the business. There are in particular ample facilities for holding very extensive stocks of such bulky goods as hay and straw. The stocks also include corn and agricultural seeds of every description, potatoes, oatmeal, flour, and bird seeds of all kinds. A very extensive business, both wholesale and retail, is maintained by the firm, their customers including many of the leading proprietors of hotels, posting stables, &c., throughout a wide area. Mr. W. Flux, who is the sole proprietor, has gained by his genial courtesy, and the spirit of fairness and liberality which characterises all his transactions, a large degree of popularity amongst all classes of the community. He is the local secretary of the Oddfellows' Society, is on the Committee of the Chrysanthemum Show, and takes an active part in promoting the interests of other horticultural societies. At the same time, his great organising powers enable him to personally supervise all the working details of his extensive and growing business.


MB. W. FORTEATH began his operations AS A plumber and ironmonger, in Shanklin, in 1882, and as the result of his thorough knowledge of the business he has succeeded in making his admirably equipped establishment a leading one in the district. His premises occupy a convenient position and comprise two spacious warehouses, one of which is utilised as a sale-shop for retail business, and the other as a showroom, being handsomely appointed and fitted for that purpose. The frontage is very extensive, and the show-windows, with their fine displays of useful and attractive novelties, constitute points of never failing interest. The interior, with its numerous and conveniently disposed fittings, is ample enough in its space to admit of the effective display of the large and valuable stocks which are always held of all descriptions of ironmongery and hardware goods. Mr. Forteath, with signal success, has made a speciality of the supply of kitchen utensils; fancy, plain, and enamelled toilet sets, water cans, baths, &c.; also safety and fancy lamps, in which there is a constant succession of new and beautiful designs, &c. A considerable amount of business is transacted, wholesale as well as retail, in the best crystal and paraffin oils. With all the best sources of supply for the various classes of goods in which he deals, Mr. Forteath is enabled to offer exceptionally advantageous terms to his numerous customers. In his workshops he gives regular employment to an efficient staff, and, being himself a registered member of the Worshipful Company of Plumbers, London, he exercises a supervision which is as useful as it is assiduous. He has thus gained, in his capacity as a sanitary and heating- engineer, the confidence of very many of the leading owners of house property in the district.


THIS is one of the most beautifully situated hotels at Shanklin, and is, in fact, one of the oldest in the place. It was rebuilt some twenty years ago in its present handsome and commodious form. The house is situated in the upper part of the town, about 250 feet above the sea, and close to the head of the Chine. This is the most picturesque and healthful part of Shanklin, and well justifies the words of S. C. Hogg, F.R.C.S., when he said: “My experience is distinctly favourable to Shanklin as compared with many other places I have tried; although the air is mild, yet it is most invigorating, and seems to be quite devoid of the enervating influences which, to my mind, detract from the worth of most winter resorts.” The doctor goes on to say that he considers “the upper part of the town, especially the Grange Road and Church Road district, as the most desirable”; and here it is that Hollier's Hotel is situated. The hotel stands in its own beautiful and extensive grounds. Internally it is elegantly appointed, and besides the usual public rooms of a first-class hotel, there are upwards of forty-five bedrooms and several private suites of apartments. It will thus be seen that the establishment is an extensive one. To our mind its organisation is perfect, and visitors to Shanklin will find no more pleasant place of residence. The sanitary arrangements are especially satisfactory and have been certificated by the medical officer of health. During the season four-in-hand coaches leave the hotel daily, and visitors have every facility for making excursions to all places of interest. Hollier's is strictly a family hotel of the highest class and enjoys the patronage of a very select and influential clientele. It is noted for the excellence of its cuisine and wines, and for every refinement and convenience that modern tastes demand. The old-time reputation of this fine hotel is admirably sustained by Mr. Eugene Schmitt, the present proprietor. Mr. Schmitt will be remembered by many as having formerly been at the Granville Hotel, Ramsgate. He acquired Hollier’s Hotel about two years ago, and has brought his sound judgment and large experience to bear upon its management with the happiest results.


THE Shanklin Brewery was founded as far back as the year 1838 by the grandfather of the present proprietor, and under Mr. Harry Taylor’s control it has maintained an increasing reputation for the excellence of its productions in mild and bitter ales, which are its leading specialities. The brewery premises cover a large area of ground, and are equipped with plant and utensils of the best modern type for scientific brewing, and every process of the industry is carefully and skilfully carried out under the most favourable conditions. Equal care is brought to bear upon the selection of materials, and Mr. Harry Taylor makes it a rule to use only the best malt and hops. These ingredients, combined with a capital supply of pure and suitable water, enable him to fully maintain the fine character for which his beers have always been noted. He brews five grades of ale, beer, and bitter ale, ranging in price from 1s. to 1s. 7d. per gallon, and makes a special feature of a light bitter beer at 1s. 2d., which can be strongly recommended for family use. The best London porter and London stout are also brewed, and these are of a quality which it would be difficult to excel. Mr. Taylor has a very influential connection, and does a large family trade, supplying most of the gentry in the district round Shanklin. His average “brew” of ten quarters a week is maintained the year round. Besides his private connection he has “tied” houses in the neighbourhood, and all these have a reputation for good ale which speaks well for the brewery. Mr. Harry Taylor looks after the business in person, and is most energetic, in the administration of its affairs. His father, Mr. W. O. Taylor, has now retired from business, but continues to take an active interest in local matters. He is a member of the Shanklin Local Board, and was one of the first to be elected to that body.


THIS important business is one of the leading concerns of its kind in the Isle of Wight, and has been established since the year 1880. Originally, Mr. Gould, the founder and sole proprietor, occupied premises in Atherley Road, but, about thirteen years ago, he removed to his present address in North Road, at the corner of High Street, where he has much larger accommodation. The establishment here is very extensive and comprises warehouses and show-rooms devoted to the ironmongery and furnishing departments, besides stores for oils and colours. At Shanklin Railway Station the firm have also large timber-yards and steam saw-mills. The High Street premises are substantially built, and afford every facility for storing and displaying a most comprehensive stock of furniture, iron-mongery, glass, and china. The furniture comprises a variety calculated to meet the requirements of all classes of society, from the cottage to the mansion. The goods come from all the leading manufacturers, and a splendid display is made in the show-rooms at prices to suit all pockets. General and furnishing ironmongery of every description is in stock, besides the newest patterns in china, glass, and earthenware, and there is a fine assortment of carpets, linoleums, and floor-cloths, and a large stock of bedding, baths, cots, &c.

Messrs. Gould also stock a quantity of sheet-glass, oils, and colours, and they supply everything that comes under the head of builders' ironmongery. The timber-yards and saw-mills at the railway-station are admirably organised and equipped, and here is maintained a fully assorted stock of seasoned timber in all forms for the use of builders, contractors, joiners, &c. Drain-pipes, hair, plaster, cement, whiting, slates, and all other building materials are held in readiness for immediate supply in any quantity, and the firm have the sole agency here for the celebrated “Anchor Brand” best London Portland cement, made by Messrs. Hilton, Anderson, Brooks, & Co., Limited. Altogether, the trade controlled is a very comprehensive one, and covers a wide area, the connection being both extensive and influential. It may be noted that this firm also operate in various branches of trade akin to those above mentioned, even to supplying steam-boilers for works, &c. There are upholstery workshops, too, in connection with the premises in High Street. The whole of this large business comes under the immediate personal supervision of Mr. Gould, and owes all its success to his very capable and energetic methods of administration. Mr. Gould is well and favourably known in Shanklin, both in business and in private life.


THIS is one of the leading business houses in Shanklin, and has a history dating back as far as the year 1852. About seven years ago, Mr. H. W. Daws, who came to Shanklin for his health, acquired the business, and under his able management it has steadily increased in prosperity. The premises occupied have an excellent situation in the High Street, and comprise extensive shops, show-rooms, and warehouses, with a fine street frontage. The facilities for display afforded by the large windows are fully availed of, and the show of goods is always varied and attractive. Internally the establishment is admirably arranged, and extends a good way back, affording ample space for laying out the large stock to advantage. The ground-floor of the premises is divided, one portion forming a convenient shop, with offices at the rear, while, opening out of this shop are spacious show-rooms displaying a very comprehensive selection of furnishing ironmongery. The specialities of the firm comprise ranges, grates, tiled hearths, and marble and wood mantelpieces, and of these leading features the newest and best designs are on view, the ranges embodying all the latest improvements, while the tiled fireplaces and the chimneypieces present a variety of highly artistic patterns. In other departments we note stoves for gas, oil, coal, and coke, smiths’ tools and sundries, lawn-mowers, all kinds of domestic and other utensils in brass, copper, and tinware, electro-plated and sterling silver goods, cutlery, baths, japanned goods, locks, bolts, screws, nails, gas-fittings in the newest styles, and a fine assortment of hall, table, and floor lamps, chandeliers, &c. There are also tools for all handicrafts, and a stock of guns, ammunition, and sportsmen's requisites. In short, the establishment is a complete emporium of the hardware and ironmongery trade. At the rear of the premises are extensive workshops, where practical work of the best kind is done in gas-fitting, plumbing, bell-hanging, and other kindred branches of trade, the most skilful workmen being employed for these purposes. The firm has a widespread and influential connection not only in the Isle of Wight, but also on the mainland.


THE coast of England presents few more striking examples of maritime and mercantile activity than that which comes before the notice of the visitor to the “Three Towns,” as Plymouth, Devonport, and Stonehouse are collectively termed. Here is not only one of the greatest centres of Britain’s naval energy, but also an industrial and commercial community of far more than average importance, and a seat of foreign and coastwise trade, which is stimulated by the splendid shipping facilities of the port. The borough of Plymouth has a history dating back to a remote period, but was originally no more than a fishing village, which the Saxons called Tamarworth. Edward I. took advantage of the position of the place, and of its natural features, to make it a naval station; and when Edward III. was prosecuting his war with France, he was supplied with no less than twenty-five ships and several hundred fighting men by this rapidly advancing seaport. Henry VI. conferred a charter upon Plymouth, incorporating it as a borough, and giving it the right to return two members to Parliament, a privilege it has ever since retained.

At the present time Plymouth ranks as one of the chief commercial towns of the West Country, and is also the seat of a number of industries which exemplify in various ways the enterprise of its people. Possessing a splendid harbour, the shipping facilities are highly advantageous to the commerce of the town; and the anchorage available in Plymouth Sound has made this port second only to Portsmouth as a naval station. There is a break-water outside the harbour which is nearly a mile long, and which cost about £2,000,000 to construct; and fourteen miles out at sea is that triumph of constructional engineering the famous Eddystone Lighthouse. Plymouth also boasts its own lighthouse, sending forth a beacon ray which is visible at a distance of over eight miles. Thus it will be seen that everything is done to safeguard the maritime interests of the port. The naval activity prevailing at Plymouth is a most interesting feature, and to this must be added the constant influx and efflux of merchant shipping of all sorts and conditions, from the stately ocean “liner” to the smallest coasting vessel or fishing smack. These make up a marine panorama of great interest, which is displayed at all seasons of the year on the waters of the Sound and the Hamoaze. The frequent appearance of huge battleships adds a special element of dignity to the scene, and ever and anon we are brought into close contact with lands across the waste of ocean by the arrival at this port of one of the splendid steamships plying between England and South Africa, which always touch here first when homeward bound.

Plymouth has reason to be complimented upon its good buildings, well-kept streets, and other evidences of an ably governed and progressive community. The townsfolk are manifestly alive to every requirement of the day in sanitation and the general control of the borough, just as they have made every provision for the education of the young, for public amusement, and for dealing with all matters of local import. Of the public buildings we cannot speak in this necessarily brief sketch, but mention should be made of the Memorial on Plymouth Hoe, which stands as a visible reminder of Plymouth's glorious association with the defeat of the Spanish Armada. The Memorial is a handsome piece of work, appropriately designed and inscribed, and it was formally unveiled on October 21st, 1890, by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, on which occasion Plymouth was en fete.

The various trades and industries of Plymouth, covering a wide range of variety in the scope of their operations, are spoken of in the articles which here follow, and which will be found to treat of representative concerns in the principal departments of commerce and manufacture with which the borough is identified. The population of Plymouth has notably increased in recent times, and is given as 84,179 by the Census of 1891, these figures showing an increase of over 10,000 since 1881.

DEVONPORT was called Plymouth Dock prior to 1824, but is now a large and flourishing municipal and parliamentary borough, and a naval arsenal of the highest importance. Its situation is on the estuary of the Tamar, called the Hamoaze, about two miles from Plymouth proper, though the “Three Towns” may now be almost regarded as one, from a structural and topographical point of view. Devonport has well laid-out streets, and is a town possessing the advantage of excellent local government. Its pre-dominant feature is the great Dockyard and works, started in 1689 by William III., and now one of the chief arsenals of the British Navy. Along the left bank of the Hamoaze these stupendous works extend for several miles, and present a scene which the visitor is never likely to forget. The original Dockyard, enlarged from time to time, was much extended by the addition of the Keyham Steam Yard and Factory, in 1844. Farther up the river are barracks, magazines, powder works, an engineers’ college, and many other characteristic features of a place where the resources of Britain as a maritime power receive striking exemplification. At Mount Wise are the residences of the Governor and the Port Admiral, and the barracks of the soldiery comprising the garrison of the “Three Towns.” Devonport returns two members to Parliament. The borough has a number of noteworthy local trades, and its population at the last Census was 54,736, an increase of nearly 6,000 since 1881.

STONEHOUSE, or East Stonehouse, is the central member of the “Three Towns,” and is situated between Plymouth and Devonport, and wholly within the Parliamentary limits of the latter. Here are situated extensive barracks, a Royal Naval Hospital, and the Victualling Office. The population of Stonehouse is about 16,000. There are numerous local business establishments which favourably impress the visitor, and in which a variety of trades, productive and distributive, are carried on in a thoroughly capable and enterprising manner.



THE great commercial business which Mr. G. F. Treleaven successfully controls has been in existence for over half a century. For the last ten years it has been entirely in his hands, and to his exceptional commercial aptitude and well-directed spirit of enterprise are to be attributed the several successful new departures which have been made from time to time. The business is controlled from a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, in Dock Chambers, Great Western Docks, which are furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other requisites for the prompt despatch of business. A large and efficient staff of clerks is employed. In the magnitude of his operations as a coal merchant, Mr. Treleaven holds a very high position in the extreme Western Counties, importing in very large quantities from Newcastle, Sunderland, and the South Wales ports. His relations with many of the leading colliery proprietors throughout the country are so close and so extensive that he is able to offer specially advantageous terms to his large circle of customers. The heavy stocks of coal which Mr. Treleaven always holds are stored in a long range of depots, each description being kept in a store set apart for it. The depots are most conveniently situated on the edge of the Great Western Docks. A railway siding runs in front of the depots, so that the facilities for transport, both by sea and by rail, are complete.

Outside of his commercial transaction in coal, Mr. Treleaven has created a unique and important position for himself by the introduction into Plymouth of the briquette manufacturing industry. These briquettes are, practically, identical with the “patent fuel” of South Wales, and the “block fuel" of Sunderland, being produced by the compression of the best small coal. Mr. Treleaven’g factory, the only one of the class in the extreme Western Counties, adjoins his coal depots on the Great Western Docks. The machinery employed is of the most approved modern type, and is driven by a powerful steam-engine. This department of the business has increased so rapidly that the proprietor has recently been constrained to make a material addition to the premises. The establishment now constitutes a very important factor in the industrial economy of the district; the productions are in large and constant demand throughout the whole of Devonshire and Cornwall, and the Treleaven briquettes are, in particular, to be seen exposed for sale in every quarter of the Three Towns.

Mr. Treleaven's business is wholesale and retail in all its departments. He gives employment to a large number of experienced men, while his well-organised system of delivery throughout the Three Towns and the adjoining districts, involves the maintenance of many horses and waggons, all of which are in excellent condition. Mr. Treleaven also owns a very powerful steam-tug, named the ‘Deerhound,’ which renders excellent services to shipping entering or leaving the port, and also effecting reliefs to Eddystone and Breakwater Lighthouses, for which he has held the contract for the past ten years.
The telephone number of the firm, it should be added, is 15.


THE commercial history of Plymouth — a record of remarkable energy, crowned in many cases by conspicuous success — presents to our notice no more striking instance of the development of a great commercial concern than that afforded by the career of the immense business of Messrs. Popham, Radford & Co. This famous West of England firm, founded between fifty and sixty years ago, has attained a leading position here in several important branches of trade, such as the drapery, silk, furnishing, and outfitting trades, and has built up a business in these and other lines which has probably no rival in magnitude in this part of the country. Messrs. Popham, Radford & Co., occupy very extensive premises in Bedford Street, East Street, and Market Alley, and have also large and magnificent furniture show-rooms and admirably equipped cabinet and upholstery workshops at Victoria Buildings, Notte Street. The accommodation they thus possess affords them the most ample facilities for carrying on every branch of the comprehensive trade in which they are engaged.

Their Bedford Street and East Street premises remind one of the best London establishments of the kind. The block extends through from one street to the other, with splendid frontages in each, and there is an additional frontage to Market Alley. Such an emporium as this is not often met with, and visitors will find every one of the spacious and well-lighted floors, replete with the most interesting and attractive features. Enormous stocks are held, enormous both in bulk and in variety, and representing every conceivable production in dresses, costumes, mantles, jackets, and skirts, all manner of dress fabrics, silks, satins, velvets, velveteens, alpacas, merinos, umbrellas, sunshades, jerseys, Berlin wools, all requisites for needlework and embroidery, flowers, feathers, trimmings, haberdashery, hosiery, gloves, and, in fact, every class of goods comprised within the scope of the fancy drapery and fashion trades. These goods, all of a most attractive nature, are displayed with the highest effect in the fine show-rooms and sale-rooms set apart for them, and they embrace not only articles of superior quality, but also those which possess the special recommendation of novelty. All the newest goods from home and foreign sources are obtained by this firm with a promptitude proving their close intimacy with all the great centres of supply; and this is especially evident in the millinery, mantle, and costume departments, where the latest London and Paris models are on view, and where every fluctuation of fashion is immediately felt and recorded.

But beyond all this, there are many other departments of this great business which call for some notice. For instance, we might say much of the vast stock of blankets, flannels, table-linens, damasks, and Manchester goods, or of the fine assortment of new and stylish goods shown in the underclothing and baby-linen departments. Or we might speak of the completeness of the men's outfitting departments, where everything is up-to-date; or dwell upon the many interesting points to be met with in the show-rooms for ornamental china and glassware, Japanese and Oriental specialities, Indian brass ware, fine leather goods, &c. Then there are boots and shoes for ladies and children, ready-made clothing for boys and youths, books and stationery, travelling requisites, and fancy articles in inexhaustible variety. In fact, the place is a sort of permanent exposition of the arts and industries as applied to fashionable and domestic life, and exhibits every new and noteworthy product of the day connected with the drapery and furnishing trades, or appertaining to personal equipment.

Of such an establishment one might write pages in a vain attempt at description. Indeed, many of the departments are simply indescribable, and contain a volume, variety, and value of merchandise which can only be appreciated after personal inspection. It is the system of this firm to mark all goods in plain figures at the lowest cash prices, so that a visitor to the warehouse can readily ascertain for himself or herself all particulars of cost, and make his or her selection accordingly. An enormous counter trade is done, but in addition to this the firm receive and execute daily a multitude of orders by post. They cater not only for the great body of the public, but also for the wealthy and upper classes, and their stock contains goods adapted to the highest class of trade, as well as to more moderate requirements. Millinery, mantles, and dresses are made on the premises by skilled hands under the most competent supervision, all this work being carried on in spacious, well-ventilated work-rooms, with every convenience. The appointments, fittings, and general plan and arrangement of the many show-rooms and salerooms are all perfect and appropriate, and the order and organisation of the whole of this vast warehouse are exemplary. Over three hundred assistants and workers are employed in the various departments, and of these one hundred dine daily on the premises, while a majority of the assistants reside there altogether, the arrangements for their accommodation being excellent. The counting-house and private offices are on the ground floor, and it should be mentioned that the cash ball railway is in use in the sale-rooms, greatly facilitating transactions at the counters. It may be remarked that the premises at 40 and 41, Bedford Street, have been recently added, and these are fitted with the electric light, which also illuminates the whole Bedford Street frontage, and which will soon be applied throughout the establishment.

We have yet to speak of Messrs. Popham, Radford & Co.’s furniture show-rooms in Victoria Buildings. These have been well termed “one of the sights of Plymouth.” They occupy the building of the old South Devon and East Cornwall Hospital, and the large space thus afforded has been utilised to the utmost advantage, making these show-rooms (ten in number) the finest of the kind in this district. The stock is a vast one, and comprises every description of cabinet and upholstered furniture at prices to suit all requirements. One can purchase a bedroom suite here at any figure from £3 18s. 6d. to ninety-five guineas, and the range of choice in other goods is equally wide. Of high-class furniture in art designs, and reproductions of the antique styles, the firm show a choice assortment. They have their own well-equipped workshops, in which they manufacture largely, and are thus in a position to carry out every branch of house furnishing, in any style or upon any scale, at the most reasonable prices. Parties about to furnish appreciate the complete arrangements of this establishment and the facilities afforded by the large and varied stock of goods, always on hand to select from. Messrs. Popham, Radford & Co. stand in an unrivalled position to execute contracts of any magnitude on the shortest notice, and in every branch of business in which they engage they are recognised as a firm whose enterprise and resources are equal to the heaviest strain that can be laid upon them.

We have been unable to glance at many details of this firm’s operations which deserve attention, but which could not be adequately dealt with in the space at our disposal. Readers may be recommended to personally visit an establishment which is in many respects unique, and which brings within the reach of every resident in Plymouth the same advantages as are enjoyed by dwellers in the metropolis itself. Such a business as that of Messrs. Popham, Radford & Co. is equally a credit to the town and to its proprietors. It is most capably administered by the present principals — Mr. John H. Radford, Mr. Charles H. Radford, and Mr. John Popplestone — who personally supervise its operations, and carefully adhere to the excellent policy that has long been pursued with such satisfactory results in the case of this widely-known house.
Telegrams for the firm of Popham, Radford St Co. should be addressed “Pophams, Plymouth.” The telephone number is 126.


WITH extensive show-rooms and stores at Wyndham Place and in Devonshire Lane, and large fully stocked supplementary warehouses at 45, Vauxhall Street, Mr. J. Baron has for the past fifteen years carried on, under the distinctive title of the “Staffordshire China Stores,” at Plymouth, perhaps the best wholesale and retail glass, china, and earthenware business extant in the West of England. The premises in Wyndham Place comprise a magnificent double-fronted shop, which is rendered singularly attractive by reason of the vast and varied collection of useful and ornamental glass, china, and earthenware goods of every conceivable kind, both British and foreign, which is artistically displayed in its two large and lofty plate-glass show-windows, together with recherche curiosities from China, Japan, and elsewhere, on a grand centrally placed six-tiered stand, and numerous examples of fashionable dinner, breakfast, luncheon, dessert, and toilet sets conspicuously disposed in all parts of the roomy show-room. In the adjoining stores, at the right-hand side, the cheaper but none the less useful varieties of crockery, glass, stoneware, and earthenware are exhaustively en evidence, while at Devonshire Lane the stocks held are even heavier than at Wyndham Place, and the reserves maintained at Vauxhall Street provide for the execution of extensive and urgent wholesale orders. Mr. Baron employs an adequate staff of clerks, assistants, warehousemen, and errand boys in carrying on a very large and far-reaching local and country trade, and his methods and principles of management are of a nature which have won for him the esteem and confidence of all those who have hitherto been brought into business relationship with hi) important and most noteworthy undertaking.


AMONG the many interesting industries that attract our attention in the busy and historic town of Plymouth there are few more noteworthy than that conducted in Southside Street by Mr. J. E. Monk, who has identified his name with the manufacture of waterproof clothing of very excellent quality. Mr. Monk's business is one of about forty years’ standing, having been founded about the year 1853, and since its commencement it has enjoyed a career of steady progress and development, which has now brought it to a very prominent place among similar concerns in the west country. The premises occupied in Plymouth are spacious and well adapted to the requirements of the trade. They comprise a building of five storeys, which has been arranged to serve as warehouse and manufactory, and which affords excellent accommodation in both instances, the stock-rooms being extensive and well ordered, while the work-rooms are equipped with all requisite machinery and appliances.

The class of goods dealt in and manufactured by the firm is especially designed to meet the requirements of the seafaring and fishing community, and does not include waterproof garments in which indiarubber is an ingredient. Thus Mr. Monk's specialities are confined to what are known as “oilskins,” and embrace oiled coats of all kinds and sizes, oiled jackets, oiled frocks, oiled trousers, oiled leggings, and that very “familiar object of the seashore,” the “sou'wester,” without which no seaman's or fisherman's outfit can be deemed complete. For all these very necessary and useful articles Mr. Monk has long enjoyed a high reputation, and the well-known quality and reliability of his goods are carefully maintained. He also makes cart and waggon covers, tarpaulins, and other waterproof cloths and coverings of a like nature, and for these, as well as for his oilskin garments, he has a large and steady demand. The trade controlled is wholesale only, and the connection at home is a most extensive one, covering the whole of the United Kingdom. Mr. Monk’s staff at the works is composed of thoroughly skilful hands, experienced in every branch of the industry carried on, and he also employs outside workers. Every department of the business comes under the personal supervision of the principal, and, an Mr. Monk is himself a thoroughly practical man, this fact accounts very largely for the sustained excellence of the work turned out, and for the continued prosperity and growth of the business.


The admirably organised business which is conducted by Messrs. T. Denniford & Son, was founded in 1832 by Messrs. Mackey & Co., chemists, and on their retirement transferred to their manager, Mr. T. Denniford, in 1870, and the subsequent record of the establishment is one of substantial and uninterrupted progress. Some idea of the magnitude of the firm's operations may be obtained from the extent and complete equipment of their premises. These occupy a commanding position in Russell Street and Frankfort Square. In the front is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of business. The registered telegraphic address is: “Denniford, Plymouth.” Adjoining is a commodious show-room with an ample plate-glass window, the tastefully arranged exhibits in which constitute points of never-failing interest. These exhibits include samples of the various descriptions of mineral and aerated waters manufactured by the firm. A unique attraction in this show-window consists of framed certificates, diplomas, and medals, which have been awarded to the firm at various important exhibitions, officially endorsing the favourable opinion of Messrs. Denniford's productions which is held by the trade and the public. In 1885 the firm gained a gold medal at the International Exhibition, London, and another in 1887. at the International Exhibition, Adelaide. They were also awarded two medals and certificates — one at the International Exhibition, Melbourne, and the other at the Centenary Universal Exhibition, Sydney. In 1892 the firm were specially appointed soda-water manufacturers to H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh. They are also honoured with the patronage of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, and several members of the royal family.

The industrial departments are in Frankfort Square, and comprise syrup- bottling, bottle-washing, and other rooms. The equipment of these is so complete as to represent all the most approved modern appliances of mechanical science to the perfecting of results in the manufacture of all kinds of aerated waters. The machinery is driven by a powerful “Otto” gas-engine. The characteristic of the house consists, so to speak, in the absence of any speciality, all the beverages produced being of the highest possible quality. The firm supply their goods to leading hotels throughout the country, and their connection is, naturally, specially valuable in the Three Towns. The business of daily delivery throughout the district is performed by an excellently organised waggon service. The establishment, throughout, is a model of immaculate cleanliness and propriety, and the high reputation which the firm have gained is maintained by the assiduous supervision of all details by the principal.


PRACTICAL horology in the highest phases of its modern development, coupled with the kindred crafts of the modern goldsmith and jeweller, finds an able exponent at the port of Plymouth in the person of Mr. C. H. Cornish, who four years ago succeeded to the business which had previously been conducted by Mr. W. A. Jeffery, and had been organised about thirty years since. The premises occupied by Mr. Cornish are, in every point of character and situation, precisely adapted to the requirements of a superior class of trade; Mr. Cornish, like his predecessor, being employed by Her Majesty’s service in the adjustment and repairing of chronometers and other complex mechanisms: and also enjoying an unsurpassed reputation as a maker and repairer of church, turret, house, and musical clocks, which he keeps wound and in good order by yearly contract. The double-fronted shop in St. Andrew's Place, with its glass show-cases, etc., is well-appointed throughout in good style, and is most methodically yet artistically arranged to hold and to effectively display a varied stock of goods, composed of gold and silver watches, chains, and jewellery of the best English and foreign manufacture, clocks, chronometers, and time-keepers of every description. As a horological mechanician and practical goldsmith and jeweller, Mr. Cornish deservedly enjoys the full confidence and liberal support of a large clientele of old standing and high influence; and his methods and principles of management are identical in nature with those which have in times past influenced and brought about a continuous increase and development in the resources and undertakings of his now most noteworthy business.


THE reputation of Plymouth as a leading centre for the importation, the partial or entire manufacture, and the wholesale distribution of timber, has for many years been largely dependent upon the magnitude of the operations conducted by several old-established firms. As the proprietor of one of these, Mr. Edred Marshall, possessed of a thorough technical knowledge of the trade, and by the well-directed display of his enlightened spirit of enterprise, has, during the long period he has conducted his business, very materially extended his valuable connection. Through the kindness of the manager (Mr. Best), we recently had the pleasure of inspecting Mr. Marshall's works, which enables us to give the following detailed description. These premises comprise extensive timber yards, saw mills, and a series of large timber sheds, with a wharf in the Cattewater and goods stations of both the services of railway, viz., the London and South-Western, and the Great Western, within easy distance. He has during many years broken up a very large number (being over 200) of Her Majesty's ships, thus giving employment to many in the town; and the speciality of his timber trade is that arising from the breaking up of these ships, the timber when converted being invaluable to builders and contractors for building and other purposes. He also does an extensive business in English grown timber, always having in stock a large quantity of thoroughly well-seasoned oak, elm, beech, ash, and other timber; and has also a reputation known throughout the United Kingdom for field and other gates, hurdles, &c., a large quantity of which is being continually manufactured by him.

Notwithstanding the large amount of business done in the timber trade, Mr. Marshall has in connection with the same conducted on a very extensive scale for many years past a barrel and packing case manufactory. For the manufacture of these goods he is known throughout the trade as an importer of deals, and is also a large importer of Baltic firewood. The saw mills are equipped with machinery and appliances of the most modern type for this class of business, as will be seen from the following description of machinery, which consists in the following 10 circular saw benches; rack bench, band saw, planing, hand hole cutting, grooving, surface planing and jointing, dovetailing, printing, branding; barrel-making, box-trimming, piercing, hoop-iron shearing and punching machines, guillotine knife, screw-cutter lathe; a complete set of emery grinding machinery for saw sharpening, &c.; and other sundry machinery. The motive power is supplied by one pair complex compound engines, of 200 I.H.P.; the steam is supplied to the engine by a Lancashire boiler 28 ft. x 7 ft. 6 in., worked at a pressure of 125 lbs., both of which were supplied by the well-known firm of Thos, Robinson, Sons, & Co., Limited, Railway Works, Rochdale. There is also a duplicate, a 50 I.H.P. gas engine.

Mr. Marshall is the sole agent for the two counties of Devon and Cornwall of the Guelph Patent Machine Barrels, the manufacturing process of which is most interesting, and the lightness, combined with much strength, make the demand for these barrels very large; for fish, fruit, and all kinds of fancy goods, they are not to be equalled. In addition to the barrels, there is manufactured here all kinds of boxes and packing cases for every conceivable trade where such package is required, such as soap, candles, starch, confectionery, and fish boxes; all kinds of cases for wines and spirits, ale, stout, and mineral waters; also large cases for heavy goods, &c., &c., and for which there is a large and steady demand. He holds contracts from the Government for the supply of packing cases at Her Majesty’s Dockyards.

It may be mentioned, with the appliances mentioned above all kinds of cases can be printed, varnished, and made quite ready for immediate use, without further trouble to the purchaser. There are employed in the different departments of his business a numerous and competent staff, and several horses and wagons are constantly engaged in the delivery of goods, a large local trade being done both wholesale and retail; and he also controls a large export trade. The office is supplied with telephonic communication, the Telephone No. being 66, and proves a very great convenience. Mr. Marshall is endowed with a large measure of administrative ability, and thus, notwithstanding the large amount of his attention which is absorbed by his own extensive business, he is able to devote much of his valuable time and energies to the service of the public. He is a Justice of the Peace, and connected in various ways with other governing bodies of the town, being a Director of Sutton Harbour, also of the Cattewater Harbour Commissioners.


THE professional position of the herbalist is now pretty clearly defined. He has emerged from comparative obscurity, and safely practises the art of combating and overcoming many of the “ills that flesh is heir to,” by the simple means which Nature offers to man. Mr. W. H. Box, the subject of this notice, founded his business at Delabole, twenty years ago, he operating not only as a grower, gatherer, and importer of select herbs, but also as a herbal medicine manufacturer. The business early became famous, und eventually so extensive, that Mr. Box resolved to transfer his labours to a larger sphere, and consequently migrated to his present eligible quarters in Plymouth about five years ago. “Box's Herbal Stores,” as they are familiarly called, are conspicuously situated at the corner of King Street and Tracey Street, with windows facing both of these busy thoroughfares. The spacious double-fronted shop extends over eighty feet rearwards; its imposing plate-glass windows being heavily stocked with a singularly striking collection of herbs, barks, berries, essences, extracts, flowers, gums, powders, roots, seeds, syrups, tinctures, drugs, and oils, together with numerous special herbal remedies, such as the “Giant Pill,” “Golden Fire,” “Nerve and Brain Essence,” for which Mr. Box has won a world-wide celebrity.

The whole of the large house is devoted to the storage of stock and the manipulation of herbal remedies of every known kind, of which Mr. Box issues a closely, printed catalogue of over thirty pages. This does not, however, by a long way, include all the remedies which Mr. Box’s untiring life-long labours have brought together from all parts of the world; yet, nevertheless, those who desire speedy relief from general disorders, would do well to apply to Mr. Box for a free copy of his important catalogue. Every case or packet of medicine sent out by Mr. Box, moreover, is made up by himself, and his export trade now extends to America, Africa, India and the Australasian colonies, while the home business being both wholesale and retail, Mr. Box supplies many leading chemists, as well as hospitals and private medical practitioners, with herbs and herbal remedies. Everything considered, it is no exaggeration to assume that Mr. Box has the largest herbal connection, as both importer and exporter in the West of England. The interior of his establishment is appropriately fitted and carefully arranged, and a picked staff of capable assistants is fully employed to expedite the delivery of the hundreds of orders received every day, under the constant personal direction of their estimable chief.


THIS responsible business was founded half a century ago by the present proprietor, and has been carried on by him in the premises now occupied for the last twenty years. A splendid name has been secured for the superior and reliable character of everything emanating from this establishment. The accommodation at the above address consists of a double-fronted shop, spacious in extent, and admirably fitted up to meet the requirements of this special class of trade. The establishment throughout is well organised, and every department is kept in the highest state of efficiency. His stocks are always of a superior character, being no less noteworthy for their extent than for their kind. Buying in the best markets, in large quantities, and exercising care and knowledge in all his transactions, he secures every advantage in price, and is in a position to offer his customers such inducements in this direction as cannot be duplicated elsewhere. Every description of oil is kept in stock, both for domestic and manufacturing purposes, the finest quality only of each kind being handled. There are also extensive and select supplies of varnishes, paints, and colours. Mr. Ivey is the manufacturer of the well-known “Gilterine,” a liquid gold paint, which is superior in brilliancy and permanency to anything of the kind that has yet been introduced. The business is both wholesale and retail, and extensive additional stores are held at Station Road, from which orders of any magnitude can be promptly and completely filled. Mr. Ivey is a thoroughly practical man, and gives the business in its every detail the full benefit of his close personal attention. All his transactions are marked by methods of fairness and liberality, and the success he is enjoying has been honestly earned by diligent application and strict business integrity.


IN a large shipping town like Plymouth, the business of the ship chandler is one of great importance, and we naturally find many large and responsible houses occupied in this line. Among these, mention should be made of the old-established and thoroughly trustworthy establishment conducted by Mr. E. Vahland, at 13, Barbican. Established upwards of thirty years ago on the site still occupied, the business from the first has been developed with energy and enterprise. A first-class name has been secured for the thoroughly reliable character of everything handled, and no less so for the prompt and efficient manner in which orders of whatever magnitude are filled. The premises occupied as above, comprise a full-fronted shop of moderate size but giving little or no indication of the spacious accommodation to be found in the interior. The shop is capitally fitted up with everything necessary to the proper control of the business, and at the rear is a well-appointed suite of offices. A numerous staff is kept, and the business throughout is organised on the most efficient lines. Mr. Vahland’s long connection with the trade in all its various branches has familiarized him with all the best sources of supply, and he invariably has on hand a selection of goods which in variety, quality, and value cannot readily be matched. He buys largely and judiciously, taking every advantage offered by the state of the market. He is, consequently, always in a position to quote the lowest prices and to offer the best value for money in the trade.

The house bears a special repute for the well-known good qualities of the oils it sends out. These have been procured from the best-known distillers, and can be guaranteed for their purity and freedom from acid, dirt, and all impurities. Very large supplies of oils are kept on hand, as well as of goods of every description, deck stores, manilla rope, wire rope, canvas, paints, varnishes, and similar goods; while flags, lamps, and every description of ships' ironmongery are fully represented. Mr. Vahland is the sole local agent for Messrs. Peacock and Buchan, Southampton, the celebrated paint and composition makers, and also for Messrs. Holzapfel & Co., Limited, Newcastle, who have no successful rivals. Mr. Vahland is also the sole agent for Carl Krauthammer, Berlin, for “Krauthammer's Anti-Rust Colour,” and “Krauthammer’s Anti-Rust Grease,” both excellent manufactures, being used for coating iron bridges, halls, ships, tin constructions, cooling vats, gratings, gas and water tanks, steam machinery, lavatories, doors, lantern stanchions and posts, agricultural implements, iron conveyances, &c., &c. Materials painted with Krauthammer's Anti-Rust Colour are protected against rust, as the paint itself is impervious to atmosphere, water and other outside influences, and is lasting and sure. The colour covers a larger space than red lead and is consequently considerably cheaper than the latter. A first-class trade is in operation among ship owners and seafaring men, and being based upon the secure foundation of superior goods at moderate prices, its continued increase seems a foregone conclusion. Mr. Vahland thoroughly understands the business, and devotes his whole energies to it. All his dealings are marked by methods of straightforwardness and liberality, and he is widely known and respected by the large and influential circle of customers which he supplies.
The house is connected with the telephone system, the call number being 205.


MR. FOOT is a native of Horrabridge, where his father, Mr. James Foot, was a carpenter, builder, and undertaker, who brought up his large family of ten children and gave them all the educational advantages that could be obtained in a country village. Isaac was the youngest son and ninth child; like his three brothers he was put to the business, with the routine of which he had been familiar almost from infancy. He commenced work at the early (but not then unusual) age of twelve years; painting, glazing, felling and sawing trees, &c., to commence with. Machinery being then a very rare thing in the country everything had to be done by manual labour, from the first chop at the tree to the last brush of paint. It was a rough school but a good one, in that it made him thoroughly acquainted with the details of every department of the business which he now has to superintend. The work was arduous and at times the distances to and from work long, ten miles and sometimes sixteen miles a day, and occasionally, when work had to be done at too great a distance from home to be traversed daily, he would have to be away from home for some months. At the age of fifteen his father died, and the business was taken on by an elder brother, with whom Isaac continued to work until he was nineteen, when he came to Plymouth and worked with his eldest brother for about nine years. He then started business on his own responsibility by establishing a workshop at the corner of Hoe Gate Street. This soon became too small, and he thon purchased the premises 10, Notte Street, and built on them a residence and workshops. In two years, however, these shops also proved too small, and the roof being raised two additional floors were made, where he has carried on business for the last twenty years, such business including contracts, speculative building, packing case making, undertaking, and the numerous smaller details which such a business is required to supply.

Mr. Foot purchased the land and built the Salvation Army Barracks in Martin Street, and also the Christian Mission Hall, Notte Street, where he has conducted services and carried on meetings for the past ten years. Mr. Foot’s thorough technical knowledge of the different branches of the business in which he is engaged, combined with the zealous assiduity he endeavours to display in meeting the various requirements of his customers, has resulted in the creation of a very valuable trade connection.

His present premises in Notte Street are conveniently situated and are very extensive. The several buildings devoted to the industrial departments and even the spacious yards at the rear are all excellently adapted to the purposes of the trade, and have the unique advantage of being entirely roofed in with glass. The offices are furnished with telephonic communication and other requisites for the prompt despatch of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous and important transactions in which Mr. Foot is interested. Large stocks of valuable timber and other building materials and appliances are kept in the different stores and yards. The equipment of the industrial departments, including the carpenters' and joiners’ shops, is representative of the most approved modern applications of mechanical engineering science to the operations of wood-working. The mechanical appliances are all driven by a Crossley Brothers' Gas Engine of eight-horse power. The working plant in the several shops includes everything that is requisite for the saving of labour and the perfecting of results in the processes of manufacturing all kinds of joinery, and other carpentering appliances required in building operations. In this department a number of skilled workmen are constantly employed.

Mr. Foot is also an extensive manufacturer of packing and bin cases, and in this class of business he enjoys the unreserved confidence of many of the leading commercial and industrial houses throughout a wide district. The principal item, however, in Mr. Foot's business is the undertaking department, in which he has had a wide experience, having one of the largest undertaking businesses in the town, having recently made in less than one month over thirty coffins. In conducting funerals he is assisted by a specially trained staff, and has every facility for the decorous performance of such ceremonies, and at a cost which is altogether in accordance with modern ideas of funeral economy and reform. Mr. Foot, to meet the requirements of his business, has an extensive store for stock purposes on the opposite side of the street to his headquarters, and stables and yard in Hoe Street; also an establishment at 27, Queen Street. Mr. Foot has good organising and executive powers, which enable him to supervise all the details of his large business. He also endeavours to devote some of his time and energies to the service of the public. He is personally well known and respected in Plymouth.

Mr. Foot is also the owner of a large number of houses and shops in and around Plymouth, a list of which can be obtained on application for selling or letting. Rents ranging from £12 to £80 a year. Freeholds of same from £200 to £2,000.


It is considerably over half-a-century since Mr. J. F. Ruse began operations in Plymouth as a cabinet maker, upholsterer, and undertaker, and as the result of his thorough technical knowledge of the trade, his strongly developed commercial aptitude, and his enlightened and well-directed enterprise, the record of his business career has, throughout the long interval, been one of substantial and uninterrupted success. At the present time the venerable proprietor — eighty years of age — continues vigorously to supervise the working details of the business, in which he has the assistance of his son, Mr. Mark Ruse. Mr. Ruse is now the oldest tradesman of position in Plymouth, and he enjoys the respect of his fellow townsmen of all social classes. His premises, which occupy a commanding position in Buckwell Street, comprise an extensive building of five storeys, which runs back to a distance of about a hundred feet, affording ample space for the effective display and storage of the stocks held. To the rear is a large cabinet-making and upholstering factory, equipped with every requisite for the perfecting of results in the several industrial operations.

A highly skilled staff, including several expert specialists, is employed, to which his son gives special personal supervision, its normal strength being from sixteen to eighteen, and this number is indefinitely increased, in accordance with the requirements of special contracts such as the firm are constantly in the habit of undertaking. The ground floor is utilized as a showroom. Its ample show-windows, with their tastefully-arranged displays of artistic furnishing appliances, form points of never-failing interest; while the spacious interior exhibits a seemingly endless array of household furniture of every description. The invariable excellence of all articles of furniture supplied by Mr. Ruse is guaranteed by the fact that they are, without exception, manufactured on the premises, where the most assiduous care is taken to maintain the high reputation which the house has achieved. In Mr. Ruse’s showrooms, therefore, the cheap and inferior classes of furniture are absolutely unrepresented. A speciality has been made, with signal success, of the production of Venetian, spring roller, and wire blinds, and spring, hair, and wool mattresses, together with feather beds and palliasses.

A very considerable amount of business is controlled in the fitting up of banks, shops, and other places of business, and the firm have recently completed a contract of this class in one of the best appointed chemists' shops in Plymouth, and for which they lay themselves out to give special designs and estimates for. They command a very extensive connection amongst distinguished private customers who are connoisseurs in artistic furniture, all over the United Kingdom, and this connection is maintained and constantly extended without the necessity of having recourse to any of the ordinary methods of advertising. For such customers the firm are accustomed to produce, to special order, articles of very high artistic merit — such, for example, as the fine mantel and overmantel which they recently produced for the mansion of a gentleman of high social position residing at St. Ives. The material was oak, the dimension of the overmantel were ten feet high and eight feet wide, and the cost was a hundred guineas. The firm, it should be added, have had an ample experience in the conduct of funerals, and have every facility for carrying out such ceremonies with the utmost decorum, and without extravagant charges. Mr. Ruse has, in his time, served as a guardian of the poor, and even in his advanced age takes a lively interest in all questions affecting the welfare of the community.


THE business carried on so successfully by Mr. G. B. Turpin, is one of the most varied and important of its kind in the town of Plymouth. Besides being a builder and contractor, Mr. Turpin is in a position to fix all the internal woodwork and general fittings of houses, shops, offices, or warehouses. The business is by no means new; sixty years ago it was established by Mr. Penhall, who was succeeded by Messrs. Wise and Johnson, from whom it passed to Mr. Turpin in the year 1883. The frontage comprises a dwelling house and office, while at the back are situated an extensive range of well-equipped workshops and stores, in which no fewer than thirty hands are constantly employed; but very frequently the numerical strength of this staff has to be largely augmented. It includes expert carpenters, joiners, masons, plasterers, labourers, carters, and others, enabling Mr. Turpin to contract for general house building of all kinds. A speciality which has gained for him a more than local reputation, is the manufacture of air-tight cases, which show the best of skilled workmanship in this particularly difficult craft. Besides the larger contracts, a considerable amount of useful jobbing work is done by the staff in and out of doors. The undertaking branch of the business, moreover, has been carried on for many years, and funerals are completely furnished and economically conducted with decorum and despatch, both in town and country. Sanitary work, also, of all descriptions connected with houses and public buildings is carried out with general success. For the rest, Mr. Turpin is a highly respectable townsman, having a very large circle of friends and patrons in this populous neighbourhood, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained but steadily enhanced in time to come.


THE well-ordered business which Mr. George Clark conducts, as a job master and coach proprietor, dates back for thirty years, when he founded it in Athenaeum Street. It has ever since formed an important factor in the social life of the higher classes resident in the Three Towns and the surrounding districts. Mr. Clark’s thorough knowledge of horses, and of all the other requirements of his business, combined with his enlightened enterprise and his well-directed energy, soon enabled him to create a very valuable connection, which so steadily and substantially extended that, seven years ago, he was constrained —whilst retaining the original quarters in Athenaeum Street as a branch establishment — to erect, in accordance with his own designs, the splendid premises which are known as the Hoe Mews and Livery Stables. Those have been so admirably adapted to the exigencies of the business that they are, unquestionably, the most roomy and well-ventilated stables in the West of England. They include a well-appointed office which, to facilitate the giving of orders, is furnished with telephonic communication, the number being 164. In addition to the splendid stabling, there are many conveniently arranged lofts for fodder and forage, workshops for the building and repairing of vehicles, together with ample accommodation for a splendidly comprehensive stock of same, including light carts, breaks, wagonettes, dog-carts, and carriages of all descriptions, which are always at the disposal of the public for hiring. Mr. Clark has always on hand fifty or more horses — hacks, hunters, and chargers — all in good condition. There is, in his establishment, every facility for posting in all its branches; horses are taken in at livery; and carriages are “jobbed” by the day, week, month, or year. Riding and driving lessons are given by skilled experts. Mr. Clark has always on sale a variety of horses of all descriptions. He also controls a considerable amount of business in buying and selling horses on commission, having gained the unreserved confidence of a large circle of influential clients. He employs a large staff of experienced drivers, stablemen, and others. Wagonettes and breaks are always ready for picnics and other parties, for long or short drives. Mr. Clark possesses excellent administrative abilities, and personally supervises all the details of his extensive business. During the stay of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh in Plymouth, he largely patronised Mr. Clark’s establishment, and bestowed upon him the right to display the Royal Arms in connection with his business


AMONG the many notable industrial concerns of the "Three Towns” there are few more deserving of prominent mention here than the Millbay Engineering Company, who conduct at their works, Millbay Pier, one of the most important engineering, boat-building, boiler-making, and machine-making enterprises in the West of England. The business has been established about ten years, and was formerly under the control of Messrs. S. S. Welch & Co. About twelve months ago it came into the hands of the present principal, whose enterprising and energetic methods have given a great impetus to the progress of the trade, and who, by adopting the newest appliances, has much increased the facilities of the works, both in extent and quality of output. The Company’s industry is a comprehensive one, and embraces the building of small screw passenger steamers, steam yachts, launches, and swift despatch boats, and also the execution of marine and general engineering work, and all classes of repairs. They, likewise, give special attention to the manufacture of steam boilers, tanks, and riveted girders, and to the production of iron and brass castings and all kinds of forgings. For these several departments they possess very complete resources, having a large plant of the most modern machinery in operation at the works, and it is in the development and improvement of these productive capabilities that the Company have shown such spirited enterprise.

In order to comply with the requirements of the Admiralty, from whom they have received important orders for engines and boilers, the Millbay Engineering Company have put down in their establishment a special hydraulic riveting plant, which is, we understand, the only one of its kind in the neighbourhood outside Her Majesty’s Dockyard at Devonport. With the aid of this plant the Company are in a position to turn out the highest class of riveted work of all kinds with the utmost speed and economy, and to secure the greatest possible efficiency therein. In other respects, also, their works are well equipped, and enjoy the obvious advantages of a situation just within the entrance of the outer basin of the Great Western Docks. This position affords a capital rail and water frontage, and enables the Company to obtain the direct delivery of materials into their own yards from the best markets at the cheapest possible rates. Owing to the fact that they work largely for the Government the Company retain the services of a staff of the most highly skilled and experienced workmen, and this fact, coupled with the manifest excellence of their mechanical arrangements and other facilities, stands as an assurance of superior merit and reliability in their various productions.

There is nothing which has reflected greater credit upon this Company than the marked efficiency and excellence of their work in high-speed marine machinery for special purposes. Their patent triple-expansion marine engines are very noteworthy in this connection. They have been specially designed for steam yachts and launches, small passenger and cargo steamers, steam fishing boats and screw tugs, for all of which they are particularly adapted, and among their many points of superiority — as compared with good ordinary two-crank compound engines — may be mentioned the following (1) A decreased consumption of fuel and water of from 20 to 30 per cent. (2) Smaller boiler and less bunker space, or a larger steaming capacity with the same space. (3) Much less wear and tear. (4) The capacity of being worked at fewer revolutions, and of being absolutely to be depended upon to start or reverse instantly — a great advantage in fishing boats and in navigating crowded harbours and rivers. (6) Reduced noise and vibration. This last-named feature is a strong recommendation for the use of these engines in yachts, passenger steamers, and other powerfully-engined boats, where it is often found that the engines cannot be driven full speed on account of the great vibration and strain set up. Such difficulties are overcome in the Millbay three-crank triple-expansion engines, by which are obtained ease and regularity in turning, uniform strains and better balance, and a more equable motion — all points conducive to satisfactory working at a higher number of revolutions and increased piston speed, whereby increased efficiency is obtained for the team in the engine, as well as lighter machinery in proportion to the power adopted.

A special feature in the design is their Patent Slide Valve Gear and Reversing Eccentric, which gives a perfect motion to the slide valves, and uniform leads for all grades of expansion. It will be seen that one eccentric only works the three slide valves and reverses and starts the engine, and the gear being placed on the after end of the crank shaft (which must extend to and be connected with the screw shafting in any case) no additional length is required to the fore and aft space at the engine — thus the cylinders are brought as close together as the length of the crank shaft bearings admit. These engines possess other merits which cannot be detailed here for want of space, but our readers will find descriptive particulars in the Company’s printed catalogue which is well worthy of attention, as treating of a subject of great importance with regard to the engine equipment of the smaller classes of boats; steam yachts and passenger steamers in particular. The splendid engines placed by this Company in Mr. Lorenzo Henry’s steam yacht, “Ida,” are fine examples of their work in “triple-expansion” machinery. The “Ida” was both built and engined by the Millbay Engineering Company, and received a very flattering notice in the ‘Yachtsman’ of November 9th, 1893. Referring to her performances her owner writes: “I cannot speak too highly of her, and the amount of work she has done has been truly wonderful. She has certainly averaged 40 miles a day almost daily for nine months, and I have never seen such a sea boat for her size, and this coast (West of Ireland) is certainly the place to try a boat in this respect.” The “Ida,” we may add, is 60 feet long, 12 feet beam, and 7 feet deep amidships, with 6 feet 6 inches draught of water. She is capable of steaming ten knots per hour.

Special attention must be paid to their New Patent Oil Fuel Apparatus, for burning oil as fuel in steam boilers instead of coal. This invention claims to achieve the above object more successfully and completely than any other before the public. It combines the essentials of perfect combustion, economy of oil, safety, simplicity, automatic regulation, and efficient distribution of heat; and no other fuel in combination is required. Altogether the Millbay Engineering Company control a very important trade, and have a valuable and extensive general connection apart from their Government work. Their being entrusted with the supply of machinery, from their own designs, for the Admiralty, is an ample testimony as to the confidence in which they are held by the highest authorities. The whole business presents an example of good organisation and practical management, and its operations are facilitated by London Offices, at 32, Queen Victoria Street, E.C.


ONE of the most notable instances of rapid development in industrial and commercial enterprise in the Plymouth district is afforded by the record of Mr. James Churchward’s operations during the twelve years which have elapsed since he established his business. Mr. Churchward brought to his enterprise a thorough technical knowledge of the trade in which he is engaged, and such an exceptional degree of well-directed commercial aptitude that his establishment has already taken rank as one of the principal houses of its class in the district. The premises in which Mr. Churchward began his business were situated close to his present premises, but owing to the rapid growth of his transactions it became desirable to obtain a much more commodious building. These were built about six years ago, and comprise a spacious structure in the form of a rectangle, and three storeys in height. It has been built in accordance with designs specially made to suit the particular requirements of the business. The premises comprise large stores and warehouses, together with machine, cleaning, drying, and dressing rooms. The skins and hides in which Mr. Churchward deals are purchased from the principal butchers in Devon and Cornwall, and an extensive trade is done, also, in importing bullocks’ hides from abroad and from the Channel Islands. The firm’s chief transactions, however, are in sheepskins, the wool being taken off, cleaned, and sent to the cloth manufacturing districts of Yorkshire. A special department is devoted to dealing with horses’ hides, which are exported to various foreign countries. The magnitude of Mr. Churchward’s operations is indicated by the fact that in his establishment about two thousand sheepskins and five hundred hides are disposed of weekly all the year round. The roomy stores and warehouses are always packed with wool and with salted hides. The machinery, including a wringer and cleaner, is driven by a Crossley’s “Otto” gas engine of 10 h.p. In the premises is included, also, a suite of well-appointed offices, the registered telegraphic address being - “Churchward, Plymouth.” In addition to his prosperous business as a fellmonger, Mr. Churchward controls an extensive trade, wholesale and retail, in agricultural feeds of all descriptions. He personally supervises all the details in the conduct of his business.


FKOM an industrial and commercial point of view, Mr. Giovanni Trafani occupies quite a unique position in Plymouth. He is a sculptor of much note, and conducts the only business of its kind in the West of England. For this reason alone, leaving the matter of the value of his work entirely out of the question, he claims special mention in any work professing to point out the chief commercial centres of the town, and a few remarks as to his business cannot but be of interest to those who have any concern for the internal welfare of the great business centre of this part of the country. Italian art has always maintained its supremacy in every part of the world. Children are born in the land of Sun and lovely scenery with an artistic instinct, and they grow up with a natural love for everything appertaining to art. Music, painting and sculpture are all eminently represented by Italians, and as an Italian sculptor, Mr. Trafani has for many years maintained a premier position in this country. He established his business about thirty years ago, and from its inception it has enjoyed a prosperous career, gradually developing until it has become recognised as the largest and most important of its kind out of London. The premises are extensive, comprising storehouses, show-rooms, and workshops, at 89, King Street — where, also, is Mr. Trafani’s private dwelling-house. The exterior of the three-storey building is rendered attractive by well-carved figures and heads in various designs, and the interior of the place has been carefully arranged throughout so as to facilitate and expedite the transaction of business. This building has a good frontage, and extends to a depth of 80 feet, terminating in Stonehouse Lane, and in the show-rooms, which are on the ground floor, may be seen several samples of high-class work, nearly all of which have been executed under Mr. Trafani's personal supervision.

On the opposite side of King Street, there are premises also occupied by him as workshops, store-houses, &c., while additional show-rooms are retained in the immediate neighbourhood in Manor Street. The productions of the establishment are many, and the finished works, which include figures of all kinds, vases for gardens or for the interior of houses — they are being extensively used now for the decoration of halls, drawing-rooms, etc. — centre pieces, friezes, bed moulds, ceiling lines, cove ornaments, cement and plaster trusses, &c., are all of a high standard of excellence, artistic in conception and admirably finished in execution. Mr. Trafani has a widespread and influential connection, and besides catering for a high class home patronage, he exports his productions in considerable quantities. His works are to be found in many private houses and gardens throughout the country, but more particularly in Devonshire, and Cornwall, and Somerset. He is the decorator from time to time for St. James’s Hall, the Catholic Cathedral, the Albert Hall, and the Jersey Theatre, as well as other places of public note in various parts of the country. The ornamental parts of the banks at Dawlish, Truro, and Penzance emanated from his establishment, and Mr. Trafani supplies all the castings for the principal builders and contractors in the West.

As an evidence of the high-class character of the work executed here, it may be mentioned that the proprietor was awarded a gold medal for excellence of workmanship, at the Architectural Builders’ Exhibition, in 1889, and a bronze medal seven years previously at the Architectural Exhibition. Among his permanent patrons Mr. Trafani numbers such influential personages as the Earls of Morley and Mount Edgcumbe, and is just now engaged in a very important work for Anthony House. He produces over 200 different designs in all classes of centre flowers, with diameters varying from ten inches to six feet, while his figures are made up to eight feet in height. Some idea of the more modern development of the business may be gained from the fact that Mr. Trafani has produced more work in cement during the past seven months than during any previous three years, and in each of the departments there is a steady and consistent increase. The business is conducted in the wholesale and retail interest of trade, and has the advantage of the constant personal supervision of the proprietor, who spares no effort to render the establishment worthy of a continuance of the strong and influential support that has always attended its career. He employs none but skilled workmen in each department, and the close attention he pays to all orders has gained for him the confidence and respect of his numerous patrons.


THE neighbourhood of Plymouth presents some of the most varied and lovely scenery to be found in the beautiful South-west of England. Delightful drives in the locality form one of its chief attractions. Strangers, as well as residents, who desire a cheerful and invigorating outing, cannot do better than make an arrangement with Mr. H. R. Wills, the well-known jobmaster, of Octagon Street, Plymouth, and Mutton Cove, at Devonport. Mr. Wills has been in business since 1860, but it is only within recent years that the business has expanded to its present large dimensions. Usually, Mr. Wills has about fifty horses in his stables, but, in busy seasons, the numbers are mush increased. The stables are splendidly kept, the ventilation and general hygienic appointments being perfect. Various extensive sheds protect a large number of wagonettes, omnibuses, brakes, dog-carts, carriages, and other vehicles. Mr. Wills owns ten omnibuses and six four-in-hand coaches, the total number of his conveyances being over forty. Horses can be hired by the day or week. The funeral department of the business is very complete, numerous glass cars, hearses, and mourning carriages being kept. Posting is done in all its branches; and, in connection with the stables, the well-known branch at Mutton Cove is specially convenient and accessible. The business is in a splendid condition of progressive development, and Mr. Wills's house stands high in the estimation of a very large and valuable clientele of old-standing and high influence, by reason of the sound methods and honourable principles which have always characterised his business transactions.


FOR a long series of years Chubb’s Hotel has been a favourite temporary residence for many occasional visitors of distinguished social standing. The record of the establishment, as a house of public entertainment, goes back to a very remote date, but the modern history of the hotel begins about thirty-eight years ago, when it was rebuilt. It derives its name from that of the proprietor of the period indicated. During the last six years the house has been under the control of Mrs. E. Stanbury, whose excellent system of management, and well-directed spirit of enterprise, have materially added to the attractiveness of the hotel, while, at the same time, all its excellent and pleasant traditions have been carefully retained. Chubb's Hotel has an exceedingly eligible situation, right in the centre of the town. It occupies a commanding position in Old Town Street, and forms an excellent pied-a-terre for visitors to Plymouth, whether on business or on pleasure bent. The premises comprise a spacious block of four storeys, and the establishment is throughout admirably appointed. There are fine suites of apartments — some for the use of families, with forty lofty and well-ventilated bedrooms, private sitting rooms, drawing, billiard, and smoke rooms, with coffee and dining rooms, &c. All the apartments are furnished with every comfort. The whole establishment is replete with appliances and contrivances for added comfort, and the hotel, amongst its other special attractions, is noted for the excellence of its cuisine. The cellars are famous for their generous liquors, and a large stock of cigars of the finest brands is always on hand. Omnibuses from the hotel meet all trains. The proprietress makes the comfort of her guests her sole care, and her energetic enterprise is manifested in the constant addition of every attraction which matured experience can suggest, and which a liberal and judicious expenditure of capital can command. The pleasure of a visit to Plymouth is distinctly enhanced by a residence and Chubb’s Hotel.


IN many respects Plymouth has a cosmopolitan appearance, for it is, as a resort, and a residence, a great favourite with the families of military officers, and others who have spent much of their time abroad in various parts of the world. Indeed, it might be taken as granted that of the many fashionable ladies and gentlemen who may be seen on the walks and promenades, they are comparatively few who have not spent some years in remote foreign lands, or who have not some members of their family in the civil, military, or diplomatic service abroad. This it is that gives some parts of Plymouth their almost unique air of life and fashion, and in some way accounts for the arrivals from, and departure to, distant parts of the globe, which are of everyday occurrence. When a town is flourishing the business places accurately reflect the tastes and occupations of the residents in the district; and so it is in Plymouth, for the commercial houses, and especially the leading ones, connected with ladies' and gentlemen’s tailoring and outfitting, exhibit not only the best specimens of English styles and materials, but also every variety of outfit for those about to travel, or for those whose prolonged residence abroad has accustomed them to particular modes of dress. These remarks — albeit a lengthy introduction to a brief business article — apply in a special manner to the well-known establishment of Mr. J. Hockley, a recognised house for fashionable outfitting and every variety of garb that is worn by English gentlemen at home or abroad.

The foundation of the business dates back for upwards of a quarter of a century, and it was acquired by its present proprietor about seven years ago, who introduced into its management a fund of ability, energy, and enterprise, that could not but result in the achievement of success, and the still further development of a business that has already taken a strong hold on an influential patronage. The premises are situated at 15 and 16, Union Street, and from time to time, as the business has increased, branches have been opened at 33 and 34, Union Street, and 37, Fore Street, Devonport. Among other first-class places of business, the head establishment of Mr. Hockley arrests attention by its substantial appearance and its handsome frontage, well set off by an effective display in the large plate-glass windows. From the general external appearance of the building, the casual observer will see that it is devoted to a high-class trade, and seeks its customers from the ranks of society. Mr. Hockley is scrupulously careful to exclude from his business everything that might detract from this character, whether in the general arrangements of the shops and show-rooms, the quality of his stuck, the skill of his workpeople, or the style and finish of the goods supplied. The internal arrangements conduce to the despatch of business and the comfort and convenience of customers. The show-rooms are well furnished and perfectly ventilated, while the lighting is such that visitors have the utmost facility for selecting their purchases. Every detail of the shop indicates the care and thoughtfulness with which the proprietor consults the wishes of his clientele, and he is constant in the personal supervision of the various departments, sparing neither time nor trouble in meeting the requirements of his patrons in every branch of the business. A valuable selection of materials is always on hand, and new patterns and styles are added as quickly as they are placed on the market by the leading wholesale houses. Thus the stock is always maintained at a high standard of excellence, and among the extensive and valuable display of goods nothing will be found that has not been selected for its genuine quality and reliability.

Special mention should be made of the very large stock of tweeds of every make, including cheviots from Galashiels, Hawick, Bannockburn, Inverness, and the well-known Harris tweeds, all of which are of unsurpassed quality. Besides these goods there are Irish and English tweeds, West of England broad-cloths, meltons, serges, worsteds, vicunas, &c., in coatings, suitings, and trouserings; also a large selection of novelties in cashmere coatings, many o