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From whatever point of view we may choose to regard it — whether it be in the light of its rich and romantic associations, its vast natural resources, its splendid industrial and commercial achievements, its admirable municipal institutions, or the proverbial energy and progressive spirit of its people — Yorkshire presents features which interest and attract us in an almost pre-eminent degree. No quarter of the United Kingdom offers a richer reward to the student of our national history and antiquities; and at the same time anyone who elects to enquire into and review the progress of our principal industries will find in the "Premier County" a vast mine of material that calls for, and will undoubtedly well repay, the most minute and conscientious investigation. Such an investigation, it need hardly be said, is not possible under conditions of restricted space, and in the following pages we must content ourselves with considering a few of the chief factors that have contributed to the modern greatness and influence of this interesting county as one of Britain’s foremost seats of commercial and manufacturing activity. In doing this it has been thought best to deal individually with those busy towns and cities whose several characteristics combined are fairly representative of the county as a whole; but in the first place it may be expedient to dwell for a brief space upon the general history of this extensive northern district, and the part it has played in the affairs of the Kingdom of which it has long been such an important division.

Yorkshire, "the county of many acres, many industries, and many men," as it has been well termed, is the largest of English counties, and ranks also among the wealthiest, busiest, and most populous. Ages ago, before ever a Roman legionary set foot on the shores of Britain, this district was inhabited by a race of people in whom were strongly manifested many of those fine qualities which distinguish the Yorkshireman of the present day. Civilization and general advancement in all directions have done a great deal to throw those qualities into the highest possible relief, and to make them far more conspicuous in their good influences than they were in the ancient ante-Christian days of savagery and superstition. But rude and untutored as were the Brigantes (the primal inhabitants of Yorkshire), and lacking as they were in the refinement and culture which now find a place in the majority of Yorkshire homes, they were none the less a splendid people, and a great type of the sturdy and courageous North Britons of to-day. Long and gallantly they fought against the invading Romans, remaining the last of all the British tribes to yield to the might of the Caesars, and when at length they were forced to give way before the powerful legions that were so fiercely resolved upon their subjugation, their proud spirit still remained unsubdued and unconquerable.

The struggle of the Brigantes against the Romans was, to a large extent, the germ of the long fight for commercial supremacy which their successors have so successfully waged, and in both contests the same sterling attributes of "pluck" and resolute perseverance have been strikingly displayed. Though we may in a measure regret the ultimate downfall and physical conquest of the valorous Brigantes, we cannot help feeling that it was, on the whole, a fortunate day for the North Country when the victorious forces of ancient Rome made their way into the heart of this region, which they christened Maxima Caesariensis. They brought with them the traditions of good government, and sowed the seeds of a civilization, whose fruits are gathered even to this day. The fortifications they erected, the roads they made throughout the country, still remain to remind us of a very interesting chapter in our history; and though the great empire of the "City on the Seven Hills" has long since crumbled into dust, yet it lives in the influence it exerted, and that influence was powerful for good in the land of the Brigantes. Nor must we forget that in Yorkshire first began that mission of Christianity which Britons have since carried onward to the uttermost parts of the earth. It was in this part of our country that one of the earliest of the Christian churches in England was erected; and now the grand old Minster in the ancient city on the Ouse - a noble fane consecrated by the praise and prayer of centuries — remains as a mute yet eloquent memorial of the days when Paulinus and his zealous followers found converts to the new faith in the courts of the northern king himself.

After the departure of the Romans, the advent of the Saxons and the Danes brought troublous times upon Yorkshire, and later still the people fell under the displeasure of the Norman conqueror, who cruelly revenged himself upon them for their fidelity to their own King. The "storm and stress" of mediaeval warfare found an almost constant scene of action in the fields of Yorkshire; and. even before the fierce conflict of the Red and White Roses, which so often met in battle array in this historic region, the unfortunate King Richard II. was done to death in the old castle of Pontefract, and many another stirring event had transpired within the boundaries of the county. A history of the battlefields of Yorkshire would form a great record of stupendous conflicts in which the affairs of the state have many a time and oft been passed from hand to hand, as the victory of the moment rested with this faction or with that.

After the Wars of the Roses (a struggle for all time remarkable for its ferocity and for the terrific slaughter it engendered in the ranks of high and low alike), there came a lengthy interval during which events of great political import were somewhat rare in Yorkshire; and in this breathing space the county had time to look a little to its internal affairs, and to make some progress in the arts and industries of peace. Then came another civil war, the struggle between Charles I. and his Parliament. Several important scenes in the early part of this conflict transpired in Yorkshire. York was besieged by the Parliamentary forces under Fairfax, but was stubbornly defended by the Royalists. Two attempts were made by the king’s troops to capture Hull, but both were unsuccessful. Beverley, Tadcaster, and Wetherby were, however, taken by. the troops of Charles; and eventually Fairfax raised the siege of York and was followed to Marston Moor by the impetuous Prince Rupert. The battle there fought resulted in the utter defeat of Rupert, and forthwith the Parliamentarians renewed their attack on York, which now fell into their hands, together with the important castles of Pontefract, Sheffield, and Knaresborough. The Royalists gallantly defended Scarborough for a long time, but finally they were forced to surrender, and later triumphs left the Parliament masters of the entire situation, and brought the hapless and misguided Charles Stuart to his death on the scaffold at Whitehall.

The close of this struggle brought a further instalment of peace to Yorkshire, and from that time to this there has been little or no disturbance of the county’s progress. When Charles II. was restored to the throne, the characteristic loyalty of the people of Yorkshire accepted his sovereignty without demur, and though the Stuart cause found some influential adherents here in 1745, their action during that rebellious year was more than counter-balanced by the raising of several companies of Yorkshire foot soldiers for the defence of the House of Hanover. During the present century nearly all the events in the history of Yorkshire have related particularly to the industrial progress of the county, and in this connection it is worthy of mention that the British Association met at York for the first time in September, 1831. This was an occurrence of no small importance when looked at in the light of what has since been achieved by that great body of practical and earnest scientists. The old city, indeed, should feel proud of having been the birthplace and cradle of an organization which has made its influence felt in all parts of the world, and contributed in no small degree to the scientific education of mankind. That original meeting at York (of which Viscount Mellon was president), was a very small affair, and Sir Roderick Murchison could hardly have entertained very sanguine hopes of success for his ambitious project; but success has come in many ways. The Association has grown and prospered remarkably, and, when in 1841, it visited York for the second time it had fairly made good its claim to a high position among the great and useful institutions of the Kingdom. The Association has since then met several times in Yorkshire — at Hull in 1853, at Leeds in 1858, and at Bradford in 1873. The Social Science Association, another important travelling body, has had a number of meetings in this county, notably at Bradford in 1859, York in 1864, Sheffield in 1865, and Leeds in 1871. A Fine Arts and Industrial Exhibition was held at York in 1866, and was visited by the Prince and Princess of Wales. In 1875 a somewhat similar exhibition took place at Leeds, the Duke of Edinburgh representing Royalty on the occasion. Saltaire — that wondrous model industrial town which stands as a grand monument to the public spirit, energy and philanthropy of a great and distinguished Yorkshireman — was the scene of a successful Royal Jubilee Exhibition, opened by the Princess Beatrice in May, 1887. All these endeavours to publicly exemplify the vast manufacturing, mercantile, and artistic resources of the county have secured unqualified popular approval, and have materially assisted the progress of Yorkshire in the many departments of trade in which it holds such an eminent position.

As our readers are all well aware, the vast extent of the county of York - covering more ground than some kingdoms that might be named — has necessitated its division into three parts called ridings. This word is supposed to be a corruption of the Saxon term, trithing, signifying a third. The East Riding is bounded on the south by the Humber, on the north-east by the German Ocean, on the north by the North Riding, and on the West by the West Riding. It is 43 miles in length and 34 miles broad, having a circumference of 170 miles and an area of 1,201 square miles, its principal rivers being the Ouse, the Hull, and the Derwent. For Parliamentary purposes it is divided into three divisions: Buckrose, Holderness, and Howdenshire, and there are also two members for the borough of Kingston-upon-Hull. The latter, with the borough of Beverley, has its own police force, and the remainder of the Riding is under a force which costs about £8,000 per annum in a district which contains over 700,000 acres. Of the 750,828 acres which compose the Riding something like 80 per cent is devoted to agricultural purposes; and whilst there is a tolerably large brickmaking industry at Howden, several trades and manufactures, some connected with shipping, find a profitable home in Hull. The chief petty sessional divisions are Middle, North, and South Holderness, Buckrose, Dickering, Hunsley Beacon, Ouse, Derwent, and Baintore Beacon. The largest poor-law union is, in point of acres, Pocklington; but Hull, Sculcoats, and York are far ahead in the matter of population. The East Riding Volunteer force comprises two administrative brigades of artillery and two of infantry, numbering about 3,000 men in all. The East Yorkshire Regiment has its headquarters and depot at Beverley.

The North Riding is bounded on the north by the county of Durham, on the north-east and east by the German Ocean, on the south-east and, south by the Derwent and the Ouse, and on the west by Westmoreland. It is 88 miles in length, 46 miles broad, and 140 miles in circumference, the area being 2,109 square miles. The principal rivers are the Derwent; the Tees, the Ure, the Swale, and the Rye. The Vale of York covers an extent of about 400,000 acres, and is a pleasant and fertile tract, dividing the eastern from the western moorlands, the arable land being chiefly devoted to pasture. For Parliamentary purposes this Riding is divided into five divisions: Cleveland, Malton, Richmond, Thirsk, and Whitby; and there are borough representatives for York (2), Scarborough, and Middlesbrough. The chief industry of the North Riding is centred in the Cleveland district, where the remarkable progress of the steel and iron trade has led to the rapid growth of towns like Middlesbrough, to which reference is made in another page. In some of the other towns of the Riding linen and woollen manufactures have also gained importance. The area of the Riding is 1,561,664 acres. The three municipal boroughs in the Riding are Middlesbrough, Richmond, and Scarborough, the second named being considerably the smallest, although subsequent to 1885 sharing with Thirsk and Northallerton the honour of separate Parliamentary representation. There are seventeen other urban authorities, each of which is governed by a local board, and chief among these are Whitby, South Stockton, Malton, Skelton, Gainsborough, Loftus, Normanby, and Kirklington. The largest petty sessional divisions are Langborough East, Whitby, Strand, Bridforth, East Bulmer, West Bulmer and Ryedale. Middlesbrough heads the list of rural sanitary authorities, having an acreage of 22,099. The Volunteer force comprises one brigade of artillery and two battalions of rifles.

The West Riding of Yorkshire is from every point of view the most important of the three. It is 92 miles in length, 50 miles broad, and contains 2,669 square miles. It is watered by the rivers Ribble, Calder, Aire, Mid, Don, and Wharfe, and there are about 6,000 miles of public roadways. The communication with all parts of the kingdom by railway and canal is most complete and of the greatest commercial and general advantage. In this Riding we find the great central coal-fields of Yorkshire, which have brought so many notable manufactures to the district; and the mineral resources. also include stone, iron, lead, slate, etc. The Parliamentary divisions of the West Riding are nineteen in number, and include Barkston, Ash, Barnsley, Colne Valley, Doncaster, Elland, Hallamshire, Holmfirth, Keighley, Shipley, Skipton, Sowerby, and Spen Valley. There are borough representatives for Leeds, Bradford, Dewsbury, Huddersfield, Halifax, and Wakefield. As we shall see later on, the West Riding is famed for its pre-eminence in the matter of woollen and worsted goods, which are produced in vast quantities at Leeds, Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Saddleworth, Wakefield, Barnsley, Keighley, Settle, and Batley, all of which are in the West Riding; whilst Sheffield and Rotherham win renown in the cutlery and metal goods manufacture. Engine-making, pottery, glass-blowing, paper-making, and other industries also find representation in these and other towns. The total area of the Riding is 1,768,380 acres, and it had a population in 1881 of 2,175,134; whilst the returns of 1881 showed that, in spite of the prevailing industrial character of the Riding, it had no less than 1,188,949 acres out of the 1,768,380 under crops, bare, fallow, and grass.

The Riding includes fourteen municipal boroughs: Barnsley, Batley, Bradford, Dewsbury, Doncaster, Halifax, Huddersfield, Leeds, Pontefract, Ripon, Rotherham, Sheffield, Wakefield, and York, the remaining communities being under the care of local boards, with the exception of Harrogate, Bingley, and Knaresborough, which are still in the hands of improvement commissioners. Of the boroughs, Leeds, Sheffield, Bradford, Huddersfield, Halifax, and York stand at the head in the matter of population. Ripon has a "liberty" of its own, and levies its own money for the purposes of a county rate. Of the towns in this Riding other than those already mentioned, the more important are Wakefield, which has considerable historical interest, and Dewsbury, which, with Batley, is the headquarters of the "shoddy" trade. This great and unique industry disproves the apothegm, "ex nihilo nihil fit," [Nothing comes from nothing] seeing that from "nothing," or next to nothing, in the shape of waste rags, can be produced by ingenious processes a cheap and wearable class of cloth which has come as a boon and a blessing to many of the poorer classes. The West Riding is also rich in historical interest, and memories of the past are roused by a sight of the crumbling, moss-grown remains of the once extensive and still beautiful abbeys of Kirkstall, Roche, Fountains, and Bolton. The relics of the castles of Bolton, Cawood, Bawtrey, Conisbrough, Harewood, Knaresborough, Pontefract, Skipton, Spofforth, Sandal, Tickhill, and York, are also worthy of mention in this connection. Harrogate and Ilkley are famous watering-places (inland); and in general it may be said that the West Riding is, altogether, ground of the highest interest and value. From the census of 1891, we learn that Yorkshire stands among the fourteen counties of England and Wales which show an increase of population during the last ten years. The following figures will, doubtless, be of interest for purposes of comparison:- West Riding, population in 1881, 2,172,293; in 1891, 2,441,164. East Riding, population in 1881, 365,011; in 1891, 399,412. North Riding, population in 1881, 346,317; in 1891, 368,237.

It will now be necessary to undertake a brief review of the state of industrial activity in Yorkshire at the present time, and in doing this we need hardly offer any excuse for first considering the woollen and worsted trades which have become the greatest of this county’s industries during the last hundred years, and which still continue to advance and develop in a remarkable manner. From a very early period wool has been among the most important of commercial commodities in England, and a vastly interesting book might be written concerning the various drawbacks and difficulties that have attended the utilization of British wool from time to time; the conflicting interests involved; the many methods and opinions adopted and entertained by different parties with regard to the trade in this article; the legislation with respect to exportation and other matters; and the great interest that our wealthy merchants, leading statesmen, and even our sovereigns in the past, manifested in the immediate affairs of the growth and distribution of wool. Into these matters we must not enter here; our business is more particularly with the manufacturing of woollen fabrics, as carried on upon such an enormous scale in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Glancing through the history of this great industry, we find that it was introduced into this country by the Flemings, who were brought over to teach the craft to our fourteenth-century ancestors. For a long time, however, the appliances used in the trade continued to be of a somewhat primitive character, and it was not until towards the end of the seventeenth century that the manufacture began to assume really gigantic proportions. At that time the processes were many and complicated, and the arrangements between the capitalist and the worker varied considerably according to the district. On the authority of Clarendon, it is said that the West Riding of Yorkshire produced more woollens at the time of the Commonwealth than all the rest of England.

In 1875 the West Riding led the way in adopting the "factory system," the work having formerly been given out and done at their own houses by the operatives. When machinery was first introduced, the domestic workers were, of course, grievously alarmed, and though a parliamentary commission assured them that they and the mills could work amicably together, it was not long before the mills began to have the monopoly. Indeed, the laws of progress demanded this, and, with the growth of the trade and the increase of the capital embarked in it, it became absolutely necessary that the huge and ever-busy factories one now sees everywhere in the West Riding should come into existence. They have been the "making" of this part of Yorkshire, and their operations have conferred inestimable benefits upon countless thousands in every quarter of the globe, to whom a regular supply of useful and economical woollen fabrics has become a matter of the most vital importance. These great establishments, in which the many interesting processes of woollen manufacture (from the "carding" of the wool to the "finishing" of the woven-cloth) are carried out to perfection, afford splendid scope for the employment of capital and labour, and also for the exercise of those eminent business qualities which distinguish the Yorkshireman of to-day. In the manufacture of woollens there are now about 140,000 hands engaged, and in the worsted industry about the same number find employment. In both cases the increase in the number of hands employed has been very great during the last fifty years. Of power-looms the woollen trade now calls for about 58,000, while the worsted trade utilises between 80,000 and 90,000. The two branches of the trade produce every kind of cloth that can be made from wool, and each of the principal centres of operation has its distinctive feature. Thus, Leeds is noted for mixed and coloured woollens, Wakefield for white and undyed goods, Halifax for flannels, baizes and army cloths, Huddersfield for blankets and narrow cloths, Bradford for "stuffs," and Batley and Dewsbury for the wonderfully cheap and useful "shoddy" cloths that now have a recognized and most important place in the market. Foreign competition has been extremely keen in the various departments of Yorkshire’s great textile industry, but our manufacturers, freed now from the silly and vexatious trammels and prejudices of a hundred years ago, have proved well able to more than hold their own against all rivals, and their output is prodigious. It is a great pity that the protectionists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries cannot watch the vast quantity of woollen manufactures we now send out annually to foreign customers, and thus understand the wonderful development and present magnitude of the trade they once did their best to cripple, though probably without any evil intentions.

Although woollens and worsteds are distinctly the staple products of the West Riding of Yorkshire, yet Leeds has a considerable trade in flax, and several thousand persons are here engaged in the various processes by which flax is transformed into linen yarn; and there are also some large linen manufactories in various parts of the county, whose products vie with those of Dundee and Belfast in excellence of quality and finish. Somewhat akin to the staple industry of the Riding is the manufacture of Alpaca, with which the name of Sir Titus Salt will be for all time associated. The story of this great pioneer in the industry in which he has so truly distinguished himself, is one of the most interesting and instructive in the whole annals of Yorkshire enterprise.

But though the West Riding of Yorkshire has achieved world-wide fame in connection with woollen and worsted manufacture, the county in its entirety is renowned in more branches of industry than that of textiles. Its operations in the metallurgical trades are particularly extensive and important, and the progress made in the Yorkshire coal and iron industries has greatly assisted the general prosperity of the county. From a very early period coal has been worked here, and to the facilities afforded by its presence is due the great increase of manufacturing establishments which has taken place. There are some detached coal-fields in the northern part of Yorkshire, but the most important are in the southern district. The quality of the coal is akin to that of Northumberland and Durham, and is regarded by some authorities as a re- appearance of the same strata. The South Yorkshire coal-field extends from north to south about 65 miles, and its greatest width is 23 miles, reaching as far as Halifax in the west. In 1857 there were computed to be three hundred and forty-seven collieries in the county, producing about nine million tons of coal annually. The number of collieries is now between five hundred and six hundred, and the output has increased proportionately. A moderate amount of coal is exported from the ports of Hull and Goole, but the great demand for coal which exists in the county itself causes the exportation to be considerably less than is the case in other large coal-producing districts.

The natural affinity between coal and iron is exemplified in Yorkshire, where they are found in such juxtaposition that each derives an added value from the proximity of the other. The Cleveland district, of which Middlesbrough is the great business centre, is a region of tremendous activity, and in point of progress this wonderful town near the mouth of the Tees stands second to none in our country. Seventy years ago there was but a single house where now the busy streets, noble edifices, and teeming population of Middlesbrough are found

To the discovery by John Vaughan of the presence of ironstone veins (the existence of which seems to have been known to the Romans but forgotten for centuries afterwards), Middlesbrough owes its commencement as a centre of industry; and to-day the blast furnaces of Bolckow and Vaughan are the largest in the world. From six to seven thousand men are here employed day and night in converting the mineral ore into iron and steel, and thousands more are employed in the furnaces and forges which have been erected since. Hundreds of huge blast furnaces now stand conspicuously in the landscape and pour out their dense clouds of smoke and fume over the bleak and arid wastes of the Cleveland moors and marshes; and wherever one chooses to go in this neighbourhood, the busy hum of constant work marks the unceasing progress of Middlesbrough. Factories of other kinds abound in the town, together with great warehouses and shops innumerable; the docks and wharves present a stirring scene of bustle and business energy; and the volume of trade which yearly pours in and out of Middlesbrough is of an immensity which fifty years ago would have been scouted as impossible. There are also some famous blast furnaces and iron works at Low Moor, near Bradford, which have been in operation nearly a hundred years.

Passing onward in our survey of Yorkshire industries, we come now to the peculiar characteristics of Sheffield and its district. Of the history and other features of this remarkable town we need not here speak at length; but let us remark at once that it is pre-eminently a business place, as distinguished from anything approaching the frivolous or the ornamental. Situated in the centre of the South Yorkshire coal-field, Sheffield has had special advantages, and how well it has availed itself of these may be gathered from the fact that its population has increased more than six-fold in eighty years. The census of 1891 gives the number of inhabitants as 324,243, being an increase of 14 per cent, over the figures for 1881. Steel working in its many interesting branches is the speciality of this busy community, and it seems the height of superfluity to say that Sheffield cutlery is known all over the world. The manufacture of knives, files, cutlery of every description, tools, scissors, etc., engages the major portion of the time and energies of Sheffield’s men and boys, and the mark of their trade is generally upon them. The various processes of this great industry are of a highly interesting and ingenious character, and in them such perfection has been attained that the name of the town has become a synonym for strength and quality, too often an irresistible temptation for unscrupulous makers to copy on their worthless goods. Rotherham, near Sheffield, is distinguished for its productions in the heavier classes of steel goods, and a full catalogue of the various artificers in this populous and busy district would include brass-founders, button-makers, die-sinkers, makers of edge-tools; makers of grindery, files, forks, fenders, fire-irons; haft pressers, moulders, razor smiths, and razor-case makers, ring-makers, saw-smiths, silver-platers, turners, and white-metal smiths, besides a good many other minor workers in the metallurgical handicrafts. Having thus glanced at the principal industrial undertakings of Yorkshire, and noted their several centres, we may now proceed to briefly review some of the chief towns of the county, with their individual enterprises.

First in point of rank and dignity among the towns of Yorkshire stands, as a matter of course, the ancient and historic capital of the county, York, an archiepiscopal city of very great antiquity, which possessed a charter as far back as the time of Richard II., and which is the only city in England, outside London, entitled to a lord mayor. Most of the events which have marked the early history of the county have transpired in or near this time-honoured city, which was a place of consequence among the Brigantes, and which has had both good and ill fortune since it passed from under the sway of those aboriginal people. York was the Eboracum of the Romans, and the name is supposed to have been derived from the early British designation of Caer Ebrauch or Eureioic, which eventually became merged into the present monosyllabic form. Edwin, King of Northumbria, held his court here, and was baptized by Paulinus, who induced the monarch to embrace Christianity and erect at York the first Christian Church in this part of England. Several of Edwin’s warlike successors were crowned at York. Here they fretted their brief hour upon the stage of life. Here they lived and feasted, quarrelled, fought and died; here they were laid to their last long rest; and here, in many instances, their memory is still preserved. At York King Edgar held one of those ancient Saxon parliaments yclept Witanagemote, and in this city Siward the Dane erected the church of St. Olaf or Olave, and found rest for his bones beneath its vaulted roof. Feasting with his thanes at York, Harold, the last of the Saxon kings, received news of the landing of William of Normandy, and hastened southwards forthwith to die a soldier’s death, battle-axe in hand and face to foe, on the field of Hastings. At York it was that the friends of Harold’s son, Edgar Atheling, proclaimed him King of England, despite the Norman invader, and here did the latter wreak his vengeance upon "the only nest of sedition in the kingdom." Malcolm and William, monarchs of Scotland, did homage to Henry II. at York; and here, in the reign of Richard, did the blood of a thousand Jews cry out for vengeance upon those who had barbarously slain them. In 1230 Henry III. kept his Christmas feast at York, pledging in the wassail bowl his good friend Alexander of Scotland. Parliament met at York in 1298, and in the same year the worthy burghers saw the whole of the English forces gathered here under the banner of Edward I., prior to his grand assault upon Scotland. Edward II. and Edward III. both made York the starting-point of their unfortunate Scottish expeditions, and the last-named monarch was married to Philippa of Hainault under the roof of the venerable Minster church in the year 1328. To the connection of York with the Wars of the Roses and the great Civil War we have already referred.

Very few cities have a history so replete with incidents of national moment, and many a time has the course of English politics in the Middle Ages been completely changed by some occurrence brought to pass within the walls of this grey old city on the Ouse. York is the seat of an archbishop, and is assumed to be the most ancient metropolitan see in England. The see was in existence prior to the time of the Saxons, being then a bishopric. The early Saxons overturned the ecclesiastical power here, but it was re-established later on by Pope Gregory, and the celebrated Paulinus was consecrated first archbishop, A.D. 621. The Archbishop of York is Primate of England, his Grace of Canterbury being Primate of All-England, and this distinction is presumed to have fully settled all the differences which formerly used frequently to arise concerning the precedency of the two arch-prelates. The present Archbishop of York is the most reverend William Dalrymple Maclagan, D.D. According to Beatson, York has yielded to the Church of Rome eight saints and three cardinals, and to the English State twelve Lords Chancellors and four Lords Presidents. The famous Minster, which is the head-quarters of the see, and is dedicated to St. Peter, is presumed to stand on the site of a heathen temple which preceded the first Christian church erected here. It is one of the largest and grandest of English cathedral edifices, and possesses many features of almost incomparable beauty and majesty. In 1829 and again in 1832, the Minster was much damaged by fire, and the manner in which the necessary restorations were carried out reflects great credit upon the talents of Smirke, the architect. York has twenty-four other churches, many of which are of great interest, and few cities present so many features of attraction to visitors. The civic and general institutions of the place are excellent, and it is gratifying to note the admirable organization and high efficiency of the educational and benevolent establishments here existing. Unlike many of our old cathedral towns, York is an exceedingly busy place, and is the seat of a large number of important manufactures and general trades which are conducted with conspicuous ability and enterprise. The population, according to the census of 1891, is 66,984, representing an increase of 8.4 per cent, since 1881. The city possesses splendid facilities of communication, and has one of the largest and finest railway stations in England.

Having now given due regard to the capital, it behoves us to consider in the next place the largest, busiest, and most populous community in Yorkshire, to wit, the parliamentary and municipal borough of Leeds. This great industrial and mercantile town, situated on the banks of the Aire, presents an almost unparalleled illustration of the swift development of municipal and commercial resources brought about by an intelligent and progressive people, who have at all times evinced remarkable spirit and enterprise in upholding the prestige of their town as a manufacturing centre, and in maintaining its position in the front rank of the British textile trades. Leeds, like York, was in early times one of the "cities" of the Brigantes, and eventually fell into the hands of the Romans, who doubtless had a large camp here for some considerable time. Under the Saxons the first bridge across the Aire was built, and when Domesday Book was compiled the place was evidently a manor of some importance, being governed by seven thanes under the King. Nevertheless, the town in those days was quite in a primitive state, and it was not until the manor had been granted to the Lacys, and ruled by them for some time, that Leeds really began to grow and flourish. The charter granted to Ilbert de Lacy was the foundation of the liberties of the people of Leeds, and it continued in force until 1626. During the Civil War the town suffered considerably, but the Restoration brought peace, which was disturbed four years later by a calamity even greater than war — the plague. So rapid was the spread of this scourge, and so great was its virulence, that in less than eight months a very large proportion of the inhabitants died from it. Desolation then reigned supreme. Business was entirely suspended, grass overgrew the streets, all but the very poor deserted the town and sought safety in flight. The market was removed to Woodhouse, and even the churches were unopened. In time the plague ceased, and the sterling worth of the Yorkshire character was evinced in redoubled efforts to promote the progress of the town and make up for lost time. The purely historical traditions of Leeds come to an end after a visit from the Young Pretender in the "‘45," and since then the steady pursuit of business has been its main characteristic. In our remarks upon the industries of the county we have already pointed out those trades in which Leeds is particularly engaged, and we have only to add here that each year marks a steady increase in the wealth and prosperity of the place. Well governed, and possessing in full development the best of social and municipal institutions, Leeds embodies all the elements of a great and thriving nineteenth-century city and its large and industrious community of hard-working and energetic Yorkshiremen have made it undoubtedly the commercial capital of the county. Since 1881 the population has increased 18.9 per cent, the census of 1891 showing the number of inhabitants to be 367,506.

Next, perhaps, in importance to Leeds is the almost equally busy town of Bradford, whose "worsteds" are famous in every quarter of the modern world. Even to the least initiated student of commercial activity and progress this flourishing town presents a highly instructive and entertaining subject for reflection, and shows a record hardly surpassed in British industrial history. At the close of the eighteenth century Bradford was hardly more populous than are now some of the numerous villages that constitute its environs. Almost imperceptibly the worsted trade gravitated to the district, and this fact, aided by the great impetus given pretty generally by the introduction of machinery impelled by steam for manufacturing purposes, caused thousands of skilled operatives to migrate to this hive of industry. Capital, too, flowed in rapidly to the succour of the pioneer manufacturers, with the result that trade flourished to such a marvellous extent that, though in 1801 there was only 13,264 inhabitants, the number rose to 145,000 in 1871; while the population at the present time is 216,361. There is at all times considerable animation in the town, which is seen in its intensity at mid-day, when the factory gates are thrown open; when the innumerable multitude of women, girls, and men swarm forth, the feminine portion with shawls thrown over their heads, and all intent upon making the most of the limited leisure which is placed at their disposal. Bradford, undoubtedly, with its adjacent townships, comprises a mercantile community that for enterprise, magnitude, and commercial superiority is unsurpassed throughout England.

For the early history of Bradford, like most other towns, tradition is the only treasury from which scanty information indeed can be drawn. The interest however that is invariably evoked by history has lost none of its charms in relation to Bradford, which, albeit, is a town inseparably associated with the present; though here and there in the past stand out in bold relief historic incidents that connect its chronicles with those of the entire kingdom. Bradford Dale, a beauteous spot, reposed in peaceful quietude long before the stirring times of the Norman Conquest; and at several places in the neighbourhood are evidences of the once-chivalrous Romans, whilst it is conjectured that the manufacture of iron flourished during their occupation. In Saxon times Bradford formed part of the parish of Dewsbury, but was afterwards included in the barony of Pontefract, which was in the possession of the De Lacys, who had a castle at Bradford. The De Lacys held the manor until the close of the twelfth century, when it became vested in Richard Fitz-Eustace, otherwise Lord Halton, who assumed the name of De Lacy. The last of the original line of the De Lacys was interred in St. Paul’s Cathedral in 1310. After passing through various hands the manor became the property of the Marsden family, who retained it from the middle of the sixteenth century until the close of the seventeenth century, when Mr. John Marsden, of Hornby Castle, conveyed the fee simple of the manor to Mr. Benjamin Rawson, of Bolton-le-Moors, whose present representative and lady of the manor is Miss Elizabeth Rawson, of Nidd Hall, near Knaresborough. Under the regime of the De Lacys the town made rapid progress, and in 1251, through the exertions of Edmund De Lacy, a charter was obtained for the holding of a market every Thursday. Subsequently other charters were granted for holding fairs, and for the establishment of a manor court by the De Lacys and all future lords.

The town, and especially its mills, are generally referred to as of ancient origin, and antiquarian records state that in 1311, when the population was about 650, there was a fulling mill and a soke mill in existence, the former proving that cloth was manufactured here at that remote period, and the latter that oatmeal formed an important item in the diet of the inhabitants. With the dawn of the eighteenth century the annals of the modern town may be said to have commenced. In 1773 the time-honoured Piece Hall was erected, and the following year witnessed the commencement of the Bradford Canal. Contemporaneously with these improvements, a veritable flood of prosperity seems to have come to the town. In far less than a quarter of a century the population had almost doubled, and since that time the progress of Bradford has been sure, substantial, and well deserved, as must be admitted on all hands. The armorial bearings of the town are an escutcheon with several hunting-horns, surmounted by a boar’s head. The Latin motto is "Labor omnia vincit," {work wins everything] and what motto could be more appropriate to a town which has, by labour, won such a proud place among the great centres of trade and industry in England, and, by its achievements, added so greatly to our commercial fame and supremacy. Bradford now returns three members to Parliament. The charter of incorporation was granted in 1847, and the local government is of the most improved character. The town is most favourably situated, and within easy reach of it there are many places of much interest, such as Shipley, Shipley Glen, Saltaire, Haworth, Bowling, Low Moor, with its great ironworks, and others of considerable note.

As we have already said, the staple industry of Bradford consists in the manufacture of worsteds, and these fabrics bear the trade name of "Bradford goods." This class of textiles is very extensive, and a few words as to the various processes of manufacture may not be out of place. Worsteds are made from the long fibres of the wool, and such particular care to interlace them to a nicety is not taken as in the case of what are technically termed "woollens." In the preparation of the long fibres metallic combs are used in a "nipping machine," by which they are kept straight and in a proper condition for working. The "roving machine" is then called into requisition, and the yarn is reeled off in hanks of several hundred yards each, these being named in a manner to indicate that so many of them weigh a pound. The finer the yarn, of course, the larger the number required to make up a pound weight. After other initial stages the yarn passes to the loom, where the yards of textile fabrics are woven; then the "nap" or facing is given to the cloth, and it becomes an article of commerce. Conspicuous among these "worsted cloths" appear light sateens, heavy reps, merinos, paramattas, tweeds, cords, and damasks, and some manufacturers make artificial crape so good as almost to defy detection. Coburgs, too, and even the old fabric known as tammies, Delaines, Orleans, &c., are a class of goods in which the cotton and worsted warps are woven into the surface in regular order, and though highly finished, they are of course not equal in wear to the superior class goods. Perhaps no better illustration of the necessity for the utilisation of waste products can be given than the manufacture of "shoddy" and "mungo," which are made, the former from worsted and the latter from woollen rags, torn to shreds by machinery, and made up into cheap, serviceable cloths. Not many years since woollen rags were worthless, but this triumph of practical genius now uses up all that can be obtained at home, and 25,000 tons are annually imported for the same purpose. It is a fact that nearly 200,000,000 yards of worsted and woollen goods are annually exported from this country, independent of what is made for home use, which will convey a very faint idea of the colossal output, so to speak, that must come from the Bradford mills.

Having thus noted the rise and growth of Bradford and its staple trade we can only add that the advent of "great captains of industry," like Sir Titus Salt and Mr. Lister, further augmented the trade, and raised the town to its present eminence. When it is remembered that the total value of Bradford manufactures for several years past has exceeded £42,014,735, it is not beyond the mark to conjecture that it is daily improving its prospects of becoming a manufacturing town second to none in the British Isles. Bradford is now much less dependent on one trade than formerly. Not only is the worsted, silk, and velvet trade more divided, but other trades have secured a "locus standi" [foothold] in the district. The making of machinery now constitutes one of its great industries, which are chiefly carried on at the Low Moor and the famous Bowling Ironworks. A large number of power-looms and machines are turned out every week, more than half of which are exported. The traffic in stone is likewise considerable, many large quarries existing on the outskirts of the town, and not only do these provide the requisite amount of stone for the extensive building operations continually progressing in the town, but immense quantities are also supplied to all parts of the United Kingdom, and even sent abroad.

Continuing our survey of the great centres of business and population in the "Premier County," we come next to the large and important industrial town of Halifax, which occupies a position well adapted for the purposes of manufacture. It has an abundant supply of coal and water, excellent means of communication, and a commercial record which should nerve its inhabitants to renewed endeavours to add thereto. Like Leeds and Bradford, its chief fame has been acquired in connection with the woollen and worsted trade, which has been located in the town and its vicinity since the colony of Flemings settled here in the reign of Henry VII. The Vale of Ripponden is noted for its blue cloth, and it used to be said that the whole of the British navy was supplied therewith from this one little place. Be that as it may, there is no doubt that the twenty or more townships which comprise the parish of Halifax have been famous for very many years for their productions in the shape of narrow and broad cloths, merinos, kerseymeres, baizes, crapes, bombazines, and other fabrics of a similar class, successive years of practice and experience having taught the inhabitants of the locality to much improve upon the processes of the Flemings and those who came immediately after that band of pioneers. The old Piece Hall is greatly revered by the Halifax people, and justly too, for has it not watched over the growth of the town’s trade these many years? and is it not a link of connection between a great past and a still greater present? In the old days, before the introduction of power-looms, the cloth was all made in the people’s own houses on the neighbouring hillsides and in the valleys far and near, and it was for convenience in selling the fabrics thus produced that the industrious weavers had the Piece Hall built. Here to the weekly market on Saturdays came buyers from all parts, at home and abroad, but the original occupiers of the rooms appear to have done their best to keep the Germans (who had already settled numerously at Halifax, where they have done a great deal of good in helping on the prosperity of the town) at a distance by refusing to let them any of the rooms.

More liberal-minded methods prevail in these days, and any honest trader can ply his calling in modern Halifax, sure of a "fair field and no favour." The town presents a legs grimy appearance than do some of our large manufacturing centres. It has broad and pleasant thoroughfares, and long streets of well-built and handsome warehouses and business establishments, some of which would not suffer by comparison with the metropolis [London] itself. Early in the century an Act was obtained, making provision for the lighting, paving, and general improvement of Halifax, and the work has been well carried out, both by the Commissioners and by the Mayor and Corporation, who are now the inheritors of the municipal traditions of the town. Excellent water is supplied by water-works under the control and the management of the Corporation, and the general and sanitary. arrangements are all that can be desired. For the accommodation of the municipal authorities there is a handsome town hall of modern construction, and the market arrangements are admirable in every way. Among the public edifices, the noble and spacious parish church is conspicuous, and is a fine example of Pointed Gothic architecture. There are other churches of the Establishment also, and the requirements of the Nonconformist denominations represented in the population are amply provided for as regards places of worship. Education, as becomes a typical Yorkshire borough, is extremely well cared for, and from the ancient Elizabethan Grammar School to the newest Board school, efforts are constantly forthcoming to inculcate in the youthful mind the principles of sound and useful knowledge. Daniel Defoe lived in Halifax when he wrote the matchless history of "Robinson Crusoe," and it is interesting to note that the post of organist at the parish Church (which is noted still for its excellent music) was at one time held by Sir William Herschel. The population of the town in 1891 was 82,864, showing an increase of over twelve per cent, as compared with 1881.

The large market town and manufacturing centre of Huddersfield is situated about seven miles to the south-east of Halifax, and has been a parliamentary borough since the days of the first Reform Act. It is on the high road from Manchester to Leeds, and, like Halifax, has for a very long period enjoyed unexampled facilities for the prosecution of a large and yearly increasing trade in woollen stuffs. This staple trade furnishes employment for a very great number of residents in the town, and is supplemented to some extent by a small but well-conducted cotton manufacture. All that we have said concerning Halifax, as regards growth, progress, and general development, may apply with equal aptness to Huddersfield. The two are, to all intents and purposes, sister towns. Huddersfield manifested its commercial energy at an early period, and has displayed the same perseverance and enterprise which have been so successful in securing the advancement of other Yorkshire communities. In and around the town there are great numbers of large industrial establishments, the ceaseless activity of which places upon the market a vast supply of the various woollen textiles for which the place has made a name. All these factories are equipped with the most improved and valuable machinery that science and experience can suggest and practical skill bring to perfection, and it would be a pleasing study to compare the advanced appliances of to-day with those with which our forefathers had perforce to be content, but with which, nevertheless, they laid the foundations of the mighty trade, whose benefits are now enjoyed by their successors. It was the vast strides made by machinists early in the present century, coupled with the removal of old-time restrictions upon the trade in wool, that helped to send Huddersfield so far forward upon the road to prosperity; and everything that has since occurred has tended to further promote that notable advance, the volume of trade which now distinguishes the town being remarkable both for its magnitude and for its steady and continuous increase. The town is generally well built, with wide and handsome thoroughfares, and has some notable public buildings, to which extended reference need not here be made. Its means of locomotion, both in the town and in connection with all other parts of the kingdom, are ample, and it is well served both by railways, trams, and canals. The local government is carried on by a mayor and corporation, who have shown themselves in every way favourable to the progressive spirit of the age, and the many valuable local institutions attest the manner in which they have performed their duties. Both municipally and industrially Huddersfield is a town well worthy of the age in which it now finds itself. The population, according to the census of 1891, is 95,422, showing an increase of 10.3 per cent, since 1881.

Barnsley, a noted centre of industry on the road between Sheffield and Wakefield, stands in the middle of a rich mineral district and carries on a large and prosperous trade in the manufacture of linen, iron, steel, and glass, bleaching and dye-works, &c. Very early in its history Barnsley was under the protection of a religions community, who obtained for it many privileges and gave it a start in the race for prosperity. Its chief notoriety in the earlier times was for its wire works, which were in existence prior to the reign of James I. It was famed for supplying the best wire in the kingdom, but that reputation has given place to one which is founded on more substantial grounds, its teeming thousands being employed in a variety of industries which are of a most important character. "Black Barnsley" was the name given to it many years ago, and then supposed to be a corruption of "Bleak Barnsley," but the numerous collieries, iron and steel works, foundries, and other busy hives of industry in the town make the title somewhat more appropriate in its generally, received form. In linen cloth, damasks, diapers, &c., Barnsley has for many years enjoyed a pre-eminence, and although snowy linen and grimy coal are rather irreconcilable things, yet they are important aids to Barnsley industry. Fifty years ago the population was 10,330; it is now 35,427, and the larger proportion find employment in the numerous industrial establishments which abound, and which are among the most noteworthy in the Riding, by reason of their fitness and the amount of work which they annually produce, Barnsley was incorporated in 1869, and the Mayor and Corporation have done all that was possible for the comfort, convenience, and health of the residents, a park of twenty acres, presented to the town in 1861, being not the least welcome feature in a community where work is ever the order of the day and of the night. In the collieries, as in the foundries and the factories, Barnsley folk waste no time, and the energy they have shown in every direction has brought their town to the prominent position which it now occupies. The parish church is an ancient structure which was formerly a chapel-of-ease to Silkstone, and the public buildings of the town include dissenting chapels, mechanics’ institutes, a grammar school, town hall, and free library.

Beverley is the electoral capital of the East Riding, and the date of its origin, though somewhat obscure, is fixed as 700 A.D. In the early part of the eighth century St. John of Beverley, afterwards Archbishop of York, founded a church in the town which was converted into a monastery, in which he subsequently ended his days. In the reign of Athelstan that monarch visited Beverley on his way northward to fight the Scots and placed himself under the protection of St. John. On his return, flushed with victory, he was so pleased with the services the saint had rendered him, that he granted innumerable privileges to the monastery and church. He granted a charter to the people of Beverley, excepting them from certain tolls, and the circumstance is, or was, recorded in a distich to be seen in the old Minster:—

"Als free make I thee
As hert may thinke or eyh can see."

The good people of Beverley were exceedingly tenacious of their privileges, and had them renewed every time a new king came to the throne. At a very early period Beverley was a manufacturing town, and dyed cloths of Beverley make were known in the reign of Henry II. In 1299 a charter was granted to Hull, and the greater facilities possessed by this port somewhat eclipsed the pretensions of Beverley. Its principal industries at present are tanning and the manufacture of agricultural implements, with a considerable trade in corn and coal; and it has all the energetic characteristics of a Yorkshire town. Its crowning and principal attraction is the Minster church, which ranks for beauty of architecture next to that of York itself. It combines the Early, Decorated, and Perpendicular English, and is the work of several ages, which has combined in producing a splendid edifice. The two west towers are 200 feet high, and the length of the building is 334 feet by 61 feet wide. The church underwent the process of restoration in 1867 under the direction of Sir Gilbert Scott, by whom the cruciform church of St. Mary was also rebuilt. In the choir of the Minster is to be seen the celebrated Percy shrine, which is a splendid specimen of the Decorated style, and of most exquisite workmanship. In ancient times there was a monastery of Black Friars, and also one of Grey Friars, with an establishment of Knights Hospitallers. The Grammar School is of considerable antiquity, and provides a means of education for the sons of burgesses, which is much appreciated. As the capital of the Riding, Beverley has several public buildings which are devoted exclusively to county purposes. The census of 1891 shows its population to be 12,339, as compared with 11,425 in 1881.

The city and parliamentary and municipal borough of Wakefield is situated about nine miles from Leeds, and was at one period the centre of a manor or lordship extending as far as the borders of Lancashire and Cheshire, and comprising one-eighth of the whole population of the county. It has considerable claims to antiquity, and is mentioned in Domesday Book. Early in the twelfth century the manor was granted by Henry I. to the Earl De Warenne or Warron, reverting to the Crown in 1450, and remaining in its possession until Charles I. granted it to the Earl of Holland, whence it passed by purchase to the Dukes of Leeds, by whom it is still retained. Sandal Castle, now in ruins, and its environs, was the scene of a most sanguinary battle between the Yorkists and the Lancastrians, and Richard, Duke of York, father of Edward IV., was slain here, according to Shakespeare, by Queen Margaret and Earl Clifford. The old bridge over the Calder was built in the reign of Edward III., and what Leland calls the "right goodlye chapel of Our Ladye," on the east side of the bridge, was erected by Edward IV. as a memorial to his father. Wakefield is a busy and enterprising place, in which there are all the characteristics of a Yorkshire centre of industry. In the middle of the sixteenth century the whole trade of the town was in "coarse draperie," but the manufacture of light woollen cloth is, now largely carried on in a number of admirably appointed mills. There are also several collieries in the vicinity, which give employment to a large number of people, and iron and brass foundries, starch works, roperies, breweries, and other industrial establishments have a successful existence here. The town is also notable as being the centre of the corn trade of the West Riding. It is admirably situated for ready communication and quick transport, and at one time there was a very large traffic by means of the Aire and Calder, and Calder and Hebble Navigations, vessels up to 100 tons burthen being able to reach Wakefield via the Humber. The parish church was erected in 1492, but little of the original structure now remains. The Grammar School is a notable one, and dates from the time of Queen Elizabeth. Taken as a whole, the trade of Wakefield is very extensive, and with its well-kept streets and handsome. buildings, its busy factories on every side, and the ceaseless activity which distinguishes its inhabitants, the city (it was made the seat of a bishopric in 1888) is well worthy of being ranked among the leading communities of the West Riding. Its population, according to the census of 1891, is 33,146, an increase of 2,292 over the figures for 1881.

Among the many thriving and populous townships which contribute so largely to the industrial greatness of the West Riding of Yorkshire, that of Keighley is deserving of special mention. Situated in a valley at the junction of two small streams which are tributary to the Aire, Keighley has from a very early period been an important market town for the district, and ever since the woollen trade assumed extensive proportions in this locality it has been especially identified therewith. Like many other busy towns of rapid modern growth, Keighley has not much ancient history, and it is content to stand upon the solid successes of the present, rather than upon the traditions of the past. Its large and busy factories are so many veritable hives of industry, and its people are born workers, labour being their great heritage and the noble fruits of labour their sufficient reward. All around the industrial monuments of this place are to be found spots to which the romance of history has lent its glamour, but Keighley cares little for any of these things, and within itself it has nothing to do with them. Its industrious sons and daughters attach more importance to the huge mills and works, with their throbbing machinery and their world of practical interest, than to any number of crumbling castles and storied ruins; and one cannot survey these great establishments without paying a due tribute of respect and admiration to the enterprise and spirit of the men who have here built up from a small beginning a thriving and typical north-country town, full of business activity, and sending out its useful products to every quarter of the globe.

The town itself possesses the usual characteristics of a Yorkshire industrial centre, and is well lighted, well paved, and substantially built, many of the houses being of stone. The local government is excellent, and the educational requirements of the people are well provided for by the efforts of the School Board. There is also a Free Grammar School, founded in 1716, from which many a Keighley boy has graduated with success to pursue an extended course of study in the great university of the world. Free libraries, a mechanics’ institute, and other local institutions of a beneficial character contribute to the social and intellectual advancement of the inhabitants. Places of worship are numerous in the town, satisfying the needs of all resident denominations; and the parish church is a particularly handsome and spacious edifice. It was rebuilt in 1805, and has a fine octagonal tower, in which are a peal of excellent bells and a beautiful clock, the work of Prior, of Westfield; while the organ enjoys a reputation extending far beyond the confines of the town. Numerous general trades are ably and enterprisingly carried on in Keighley, in addition to the woollen industry with which it is specially identified. The population in 1841 was 13,378; in 1881, 25,247; in 1891, 30,811. For Parliamentary purposes Keighley gives its name to a new division formed out of the West Riding, and is represented at Westminster by Mr. Isaac Holden, of Oakworth House, Keighley, who is a Gladstonian-Liberal, and who was returned unopposed at the general election of 1886. Mr. Holden, we believe, enjoys the distinction of being the oldest member of the House of Commons, having been born in 1807.

Batley is another of the great manufacturing centres of the West Riding, and whatever may have been its characteristics in the past, it is certain that a very complete transformation has been wrought in the town during the century that is now approaching its close. Here and there, even now, it is possible for the diligent antiquarian to unearth in this bustling community some relic of a bygone age; but to all intents and purposes the Batley of to-day is very far removed from the Batley of a hundred years ago. The constant hum of machinery and the noise of commercial traffic have succeeded the quietude of a drowsy past, and in the things that are forgotten are the things that have been. Yet Batley has a record dating back to the Saxon Period, and its name is supposed to be derived from that of Batta, an early Saxon chieftain. Domesday Book tells us that "Bataleia has five carucates of land to be taxed, where there are two ploughs," and goes on to say that the place possessed "a presbyter, a church, and two acres of meadow." Doubtless on the site of the present parish church some of the earliest Christians in the land worshipped according to the tenets of the then new faith; and that the spirit of that sturdy race has been handed down in succeeding generations is evident from the record of some men of Batley. One of these was Adam Copley, the founder of a great Batley family, who went forth to do battle, with the people of York, against William of Normandy, and who, in the vanguard of that gallant little army of patriots, "foremost, fighting, fell."

It was another Copley who became Bishop of Lincoln in the time of Henry III., and who was one of the harbingers of the Reformation. Bishop Grossetete he was named, probably from the size of his head. He was a prominent figure in English history, and Batley may well be proud of his memory. Not a few other notable and distinguished Batleians might be mentioned, men who left their mark upon the affairs of their time, but with the exception of these personal reminiscences the history of Batley was of an uneventful character until the time when the woollen industry began to assume importance; and then began a transformation which is still going on. The agricultural character of the place almost disappeared, and when, some years since, a Batley townsman discovered the great virtues which were left in rags, the fortune of the town was made. In our notice of the neighbouring town of Dewsbury we have made mention of the shoddy trade, but it was in Batley that it first had a local habitation and a name. Over fifty mills and factories are now devoted to this branch of the woollen trade, and the amount of "shoddy" which Batley turns out is simply marvellous. In this short notice it is impossible to give anything like a history of the shoddy trade, but thirty years ago, according to the author of "A Month in Yorkshire," it was one of the latest of our national institutions, to leave Yorkshire ignorant of which would be a reproach. You may, says the same author, trace the shoddy from the hovel to the House of Peers; and in the interval which has elapsed since he wrote the trade has advanced with leaps and bounds. The machinery of thirty years ago struck the author with surprise and amazement; what, then, would he say of the machinery of to-day, the whirr of which is to be heard on every hand, and the products of which have made the name of Batley famous in every quarter of the civilised world?

Batley has an interesting and historic parish church, dating back as far as the reign of Henry I., and standing near Staincliffe Hall, an Elizabethan house, at one time the residence of the vicars of Batley. There are several other churches and chapels, excellent schools, a commodious town hall, good waterworks, a cottage hospital, chamber of commerce, mechanics’ institute, free library, and other useful and beneficial institutions.

The Charter of Incorporation was granted in 1868, and the town has proved worthy of the privilege of municipal rule. All the wants and comforts of the population have been well considered and provided for by the Corporation, and on every hand are to be seen the gratifying evidences of good and systematic local government. In 1851 the town had a population of a little over 9,000. In 1881 the number of inhabitants had increased to 27,505, and the census of 1891 shows that the population at the present time is 28,719.

The ancient history of what is now the thriving and prosperous borough of Dewsbury is connected more with ecclesiastical than with civil or military matters. Even in the days when rival monarchs strove to gain possession of the crown, and, later still, when the country all around was dyed with the blood of Puritan and Cavalier, the wave of battle would seem to have passed harmlessly over "the borough of God," and to have left its inhabitants securely in the possession of their homes and of the traditions which connect their town with one of the most interesting and important periods of early English history. What it may have been when the ancient Briton roamed at will on the banks of the Calder and, it may be, longed for the days when good woollen clothing would be placed within his reach, cannot with any certainty be outlined, but there is no doubt that in the time of the Saxons Dewsbury parish was one of the most extensive in England, having an area of 400 square miles, and including what are now the townships of Bradford, Huddersfield, Kirkheaton, Almondbury, Thornhill, Burton, Halifax, and Mirfield, a curious fact in connection with this being that, with the exception of the two last named, these parishes still pay "tithe and toll" to the Vicar of Dewsbury. There is no doubt that a church existed here in the time of the Saxon Edward, and it was in connection with this that Dewsbury earned its name — as the centre from which the light of Christianity was shed all over the northern part of the country. Here it was that the saintly Paulinus, first and greatest Bishop of York, made known the good tidings of Christianity to our Saxon forebears, It is a pretty tradition, and one that Dewsbury people can do no harm in accepting, that their town was named "Deusberia," or "Duisborough" — the borough of God — from the fact that Paulinus had his residence here. Other derivations, we know, are given, but this is the most taking to the fancy. At any rate, there is an interesting memento of the great Christian bishop in the Saxon Cross which is to be found at the east end of the parish church, and which bears a Latin inscription, to the effect that Paulinus preached there and administered the sacrament in A.D. 627. This is not, it need hardly be said, the original cross, but one bearing the same legend was noted by Camden when that old-time historian visited the town some three hundred years ago, and is also mentioned by the Rev. Thomas Tingle, who is said to have been a minister here about the beginning of the seventeenth century, whilst traditions speak of an effigy formerly in the church which may or may not have been that of the bishop in question.

Passing on to the time when William of Normandy came, saw, and conquered the Anglo-Saxons, we find that "Duesberia" is mentioned in the famous Domesday Book as containing " three carucates, to be taxed, which two ploughs will till." "It" (the manor) "now belongs to the king, and there are six villanes and two bordars, with four ploughs, a priest and a church," the annual value being ten shillings. William, as is well known, had a penchant for rewarding his favourites at the expense of Saxon carles, and the manor of Dewsbury passed in this way to one Earl Warren, a captain who had done service for the King in his conquest of England. After passing for a time into the possession of the monks of Lewes, the manor was surrendered to King Edward III., and in 1329 a portion of the revenue was devoted to the establishment of the present vicarage of Dewsbury. And here it would seem that the ancient history of Dewsbury must come to a close.

Later events in the annals of the place seem to have borne special reference to the growth of its local trade. Old records tell us that a fulling mill existed here in 1340, and makers of and traders in cloth were to be found in the town nearly three centuries ago. The cloth market dates back in its institution to the year 1720, and there is no doubt that Dewsbury was a pioneer of the industry which is now the life-blood of Yorkshire, and one of the greatest and most important in the civilised world. When, therefore, the towns of the West Riding began to make a stir in the manufacturing world, it is not to be wondered at that Dewsbury came well to the front, and has remained there ever since, forming an important and valuable link in the industrial chain which binds together the great manufactures of Yorkshire. As seen at the present day Dewsbury, with its adjoining townships, forms one of those wonderful hives of productive activity which are so characteristic of our "go-ahead" northern counties. It occupies a pleasant situation on the banks of the Calder, about equidistant from Leeds, Bradford, Halifax and Huddersfield, and has very superior facilities of transport by railway and canal. As far back as the beginning of the present century, the streets were lighted by gas, and the local enterprise thus shown has been well sustained in after years. All around are the, huge factories from which such vast quantities of woollens are annually sent forth to the outer world. Never stopping, never resting, gave on the one day in seven, these great works pour forth their contributions to the markets of all nations, and the thousands of men and women who earn their livelihood by these means are of that sturdy, downright stock who have made Yorkshire what it is. Healthy, contented, and as prosperous as working people can hope to be in this world of ups and downs, they go forth to their daily toil with a proud consciousness that they are worthy of their hire, and knowing that they are well cared for by those in authority over them, whether it be at their work or in their everyday life as a community.

The principal trade of Dewsbury lies in the manufacture of woollen cloths, blankets, and rugs, but by far the most important feature in connection with this is what is known as the "shoddy" trade. The word "shoddy" is, we know, used by some people as a term of reproach, a synonym for that which is not what it represents itself to be. But the English people, and indeed those of other countries as well, have much to thank the inventor of shoddy for. The man to whom this credit is due was a native of Dewsbury, Benjamin Law by name, and he deserves a niche in the temple of industrial fame as much as the Listers, the Salts, and the other great men who have contributed to the trade and prosperity of Yorkshire. Early in the present century he conceived the idea that there was much virtue in woollen rags and cast-off clothes, and so well did he carry this out that he created an industry which has given, and gives, employment to thousands, and has brought millions into the pockets of employer and employed. All over the world active agents are engaged in collecting food for the voracious monsters to be found in Dewsbury factories. The left-off habiliments, of the peer and the useless rags of the pauper, the red coat of the soldier and the black one of the parson — nothing in the shape of woollen fabrics is rejected by the maw of the "devils," as the peculiar machines for preparing the materials are called; and tons upon tons come day by day into the town, the annual freight upon such goods being estimated at £50,000. When converted into "shoddy wool," the stuff so prepared is mixed with a proportion of new wool, and is then woven into cloth, which, though not so fine as the genuine article, is durable in character, excellent in appearance, and, above all, saleable at a price which enables manufacturers to supply the public with some amazingly cheap lines. All is not "shoddy," however, even in Dewsbury. Vast quantities of wool are annually brought into the town to be woven into carpets, cloth, rugs, and blankets, and the product of the local factories is no inconsiderable item in the enormous textile output of the West Riding. Dewsbury has a fine town hall, an ancient parish church, a general infirmary which occupies an exceedingly handsome building, waterworks under the control of the Corporation, excellent educational institutions (including a large Technical School and School of Science and Art), and a system of municipal government, under which all the best interests of the place are fully protected and judiciously advanced. The town is a parliamentary and municipal borough, and has a population of 29,847, the se being the figures of the census of 1891.

Up to the present we have spoken only of the inland towns of Yorkshire, but this great county, with its extensive and picturesque coast-line, has several seaports deserving of mention. Among these the foremost is Kingston-upon-Hull, or, as it is now more generally termed, Hull. This large and exceedingly busy town is regarded as the third port in the kingdom, ranking next after London and Liverpool in the extent of its maritime and commercial transactions. Hull is, moreover, the chief town in the East Riding, and has a situation which has contributed very largely to its mercantile and industrial advancement. Standing upon the north side of the Humber, at the point where that broad stream is joined by the Hull, the town possesses natural advantages which have not been overlooked by its enterprising inhabitants; and successive improvements, conducted with great public spirit, have given it the command of splendid dock accommodation, meeting all the requirements of its ever-increasing trade. As to the ancient records of this port, it may be said that they show it to have been a place of importance at a very early date. Some historians are of opinion that the name of Kingstown or Kingston is due to the fact that the town was purchased by King Edward I. in the year 1256; but there is no doubt that it was a flourishing port long before then, for at the end of the thirteenth century the duties on exports at Hull amounted to one-seventh of the whole sum levied on exports throughout the kingdom, and a little later it was appointed one of the towns at which money might be minted. Its importance was early appreciated by both parties to the great Civil War, and the first act of hostility in the struggle occurred here when Sir John Hotham, the Governor of Hull, refused point blank to admit Charles I. and his attendants. It is painful to add that Sir John afterwards sought to betray his trust, and expiated the offence in the usual manner on Tower Hill. Hull was again besieged by the Royalists, but without result. Later on it was the scene of some excitement when the Stuart dynasty had given way to that of Orange, and for many years the local celebration of "Town-taking Day" commemorated the manner in which the adherents of the new King got over the supporters of the old, who were in charge of the citadel and fortifications.

Modern Hull is essentially a commercial town, and is quite a type of the prosperous British seaport, with its busy docks, crowded quays, "forest of masts," and general air of bustle and activity. The Humber at this point is very broad, and the docks of the town cover a great area and present a very animated and interesting aspect. Hull has a great and steadily growing import and export trade, being the chief port for the outlet of the commerce of an immense populative district, and the value of the merchandise passing in and out during the year may be reckoned at something like £45,000,000, while the number of vessels entered inwards and outwards is between 7,000 and 8,000 annually. Many passenger lines have their point of arrival and departure here, and steamers are constantly departing for Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Antwerp, Rotterdam, St. Petersburg, &c., the trade carried on with the Baltic and North German ports being especially large. Nor does the enterprise of the place stop here, for the energetic merchants of Hull are putting forth great efforts to induce shippers in foreign countries to favour this excellent northern port, and as they are backed by splendid facilities of landward communication with other parts of the kingdom, they are achieving no small degree of success in securing not only a goodly slice of the North European trade, but also a fair share of shipments from the South. As a seaport, therefore, Hull possesses very encouraging prospects, and has few superiors in point of activity and general progress. This happy condition of things is reflected in the local trades and industries of the place, which are numerous, varied, and conducted with great energy; and for a long time past Hull has been widely famous for its productions in chemicals, oils, paints and colours, ropes and sails, iron-foundings, machinery and engines, and oil-cake for feeding cattle, this last-named item having become a most important feature in the general output during recent years. The local government of Hull is excellent in application and effect, and the public spirit of the Corporation is to be credited in a large measure with the present prosperity of the port. The town returns three members to Parliament, and has a population (1891) of 199,991, being an increase of no less than 20.7 per cent, since 1881.

Whitby is another noteworthy Yorkshire seaport, and in this pleasantly situated town on the Esk we find the home of the ancient jet industry of England, which has earned for the place a well-merited renown in all parts of the world. The Whitby jet is found in a thick bed of lignite in the upper lias marls near the coast, and scientific authorities seem to have hardly made up their minds as to the real character of this very beautiful and ornamental material. They have had plenty of time, one would think, for jet ornaments were known to the ancient Britons and Romans. Camden, in a translation of a poem which was old in his time, says:—

"Jeat Stone almost a gemm the Libyans find,
But fruitful Britain sends a wondrous kind;
’Tis black and shining, smooth, and even light,
’Twill draw up straws if rubbed till hot and bright.
Oyl makes it cold, but water gives it heat."

The jet has been worked in Whitby since the days of Good Queen Bess, who, no doubt, wore some of the town’s handiwork among her bijouterie, and it has ever since been a distinguishing feature of the mineral product of Yorkshire. The industry of jet-working is both interesting and important, bringing in a considerable revenue to Whitby. This ancient port also has other trades which have been well developed. The population, according to the census of 1891, is 13,274.

Scarborough now claims a share of our attention, not so much as a seaport or as a centre of commerce, but as a place of recreation, whereat our busy workers may recuperate their energies for a renewal of the daily battle of life. The "Queen of English Watering Places," as Scarborough has been not unjustly termed, is well worthy of the high favour in which it is held to-day as a "city of pleasure and health," and the rare beauty of its situation, together with the salubrity of its air, and the picturesque and historical interest attaching to many places in the neighbourhood, render it one of the most delightful resorts of holiday-making society that can be found on the coasts of Britain. In the important matter of situation Scarborough is almost unique. North and south of a bold promontory, which is crowned by the ancient castle, extend two beautiful semi-circular bays, and the town lies between, some of its streets being carried up over the hill from side to side. Old Scarborough occupies the Southern slope, and has the charming South Bay and all its picturesque accessories to itself; but while most of the fashionable visitors congregate here in "the season," the north side of the cliff is not without its attractions for those who enjoy a quiet life in the midst of fine natural surroundings. In the town some marked contrasts are presented by the old and the new, and some of the smaller and less frequented streets are exceedingly quaint and picturesque in appearance. The newer thoroughfares, particularly Westborough, with its antique "Bar," are fine streets, lined with substantial buildings, and showing a great array of handsome shops, where plenty of business is done in those months when Scarborough keeps "open house," as it were, to the world of fashion. There are also many new residential streets of quite an ideal character, and the conspicuous neatness and cleanliness of the town show that the municipal authorities are resolved to maintain Scarborough’s high reputation in the matter of sanitary arrangements.

Among the public buildings there is much to interest and delight the visitor. The historic castle is always a centre of attraction, and there is hardly any limit to the general facilities for enjoyment and recreation afforded by the town and its immediate neighbourhood. In developing the resources and attraction of their town as a watering-place, the people of Scarborough have received their chief assistance, perhaps, from the valuable medicinal springs, chalybeate and saline, which form the Spa. These waters have obtained a great reputation, and their virtues in a therapeutic sense have been known, it is said, for over two hundred years. The Spa is to-day the great rendezvous of the fashionable world at Scarborough, and divides the honours of the place with the beautiful beach, where bathing is the order of the day, and where all the healthful pleasures of the seaside are sought and enjoyed by some hundreds of thousands of visitors during the holiday season. Those whose business is to find residential quarters for this vast army of seekers after rest and recreation have plenty to do between the months of June and October, but they accomplish their task very creditably, and the hotel and boarding-house accommodation offered to visitors is generally of a high standard of excellence. Scarborough has one of the finest promenade piers in England, and its park is a beautiful public pleasure ground, admirably laid out, and much frequented by visitors who seek to escape for a spell from the fashionable excitement of the promenades. The beach at Scarborough is a splendid one for bathing, and there is a cleverly contrived tramway to save visitors the trouble of walking up and down the cliff on their way to or from the shore. Altogether, after making our survey of the many attractions of the place, and summing up its resources for amusing and entertaining its host of summer guests, we are fain to admit that Scarborough is not surpassed by any of its numerous competitors, east, west, or south; and in those characteristics which go to complete the constitution of a watering-place, select though not exclusive, fashionable in the highest sense of the term, but replete with means of genuine enjoyment, there are few British or foreign resorts which approach it.

The town itself possesses in an excellent condition of development all the educational, benevolent, and social institutions which are potential factors in the prosperity of a large community and the happiness of its people. Scarborough has many useful charities which are doing a great work in many branches of benevolent activity; and the schools and literary and scientific institutes of the place are on a par with those of any town in the country as regards efficient organisation and capable management. Great advancement is apparent in all municipal affairs, and the enlightening influence of the press is strongly manifested, there being several newspapers published in the town. Scarborough now has a population of 83,776, having increased by over 3,200 inhabitants since the census of 1881, and it is steadily growing in commercial importance, for though the chief occupation of visitors is the pursuit of pleasure, the residents are actively engaged in a variety of business avocations. The harbour is a safe and commodious one, and a large number of vessels belong to the port. An extensive trade is done in fish, and during the winter months the fishing industry is plied by many of the hardy boatmen, who in summer find it more profitable to tender their services to visitors, "for a consideration." The general trade of the port is one of considerable magnitude, and several productive industries are also carried on, these including shipbuilding and boatbuilding, rope and sail making, and the manufacture of a well-known fabric called "Scarborough Tiled Floor-Cloth."

Along the remarkably picturesque coast of Yorkshire there are many other highly interesting spots, most of which have appeared prominently in the history of the county, and, though our limited space precludes a lengthened notice of these places, a few words must here be given to the ancient town and port of Bridlington, which is believed to stand on the site of an old Roman station - Gabrantovicorum by name. The near vicinity of Flamborough Head, the sheltered bay (the Sinus Portuosus of Ptolemy), and the direction of the Roman road from York and Aldborough, are all circumstances which give strength to this supposition; the generally received impression being that the tumuli, which abound throughout the district, belong to a period even anterior to the Roman invasion, there being a coffin and its contents in the Scarborough Museum which point to the place being inhabited at a period when chisels and hatchets were made of flint.

When William the Norman had completed his ravages in this part of the country, to which reference has already been made, he made a gift of the Manor of Bridlington to one Gilbert de Gant, his nephew, and also son of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders. To the son of this nobleman, Walter de Gant, Bridlington was indebted for its Priory, which was completed in or about 1114 and dedicated to St. Mary and St. Nicholas. It was richly endowed, and for something like four centuries it remained in a prominent position, its lands and hereditaments extending over a large portion of the surrounding county. The Bull of Pope Calixtus II., comprising all the grants hitherto made, is to be seen in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Henry I., Richard II., and subsequent monarchs granted favours and protections to the monks of the Priory, and when it was dismantled its annual income was reckoned at £550, a very large amount for the times. The splendid church of the Priory still remains, and is a notable link between the past and the present. It was restored by Sir G. Scott in 1857. At a later period in our history Bridlington was the scene of some lively proceedings. Here it was that Queen Henrietta Maria arrived with reinforcements from the Continent for Charles I., then at York, and brought upon the town a couple of days’ bombardment by Admiral Batten, who had been stationed in the bay to intercept the Queen and had somehow failed in his mission. Batten was, however, frustrated, for the shoals near the shore caused him to "sheer off" for fear of being stranded. A century later the redoubtable Paul Jones visited Bridlington, and a memorable conflict ensued between him and the Baltic fleet, which ended in his escape to Texel. At the present day no thoughts of warfare disturb the people of Bridlington and Bridlington Quay, who are largely composed of visitors. The latter place has fine sands, a parade, ornamental gardens, a chalybeate mineral spring, and other attractions. Bridlington is otherwise called Burlington, and gave the titles to the earls of that name.

Journeying inland again, we may glance rapidly at the old and interesting episcopal city of Ripon, which claims attention as a place of antiquity and of ecclesiastical prominence. Ripon is finely situated on the banks of the Ure, 23 miles north-west of York, 28 miles north of Leeds, and about 10 miles north of Harrogate. As far back as the year 660 a monastery originated here under the auspices of St. Cuthbert; and a few years later the spiritual charge of the place was assumed by St. Wilfrid, who rebuilt the church upon an enlarged and improved scale, and formally dedicated it to St. Peter. Eventually, in 678, a bishopric was founded at Ripon, but this did not endure for long, and the see was allowed to lapse until October 5th, 1836, when it was re-erected out of a part of the archdeaconry of York, the first of the new line of bishops being the Eight Rev. Charles Thomas Longley, who was translated to Durham about twenty years later. The present bishop of Ripon is the Eight Rev. William Boyd Carpenter, D.D. Ripon’s chief architectural feature is its noble and beautiful cathedral an illustration of which we give below, a fine cruciform minster, 265 feet long, with three towers, each 120 feet high. These towers lost their spires in 1660, a fact which accounts for their incomplete appearance. The period occupied in building the cathedral was between 1150 and 1525, and there are, consequently, several styles of architecture visible in the pile. Ripon suffered much from inroads of the Scots (1319 and 1323), and these misfortunes, coupled with various other adverse circumstances, brought the cathedral into a state of partial decay. It was, however, finely restored between 1860 and 1875, under the supervision of Sir Gilbert Scott, and the choir was re-opened on January 27, 1869, Upwards of £40,000 was expended on the work of restoration, and Ripon now possesses one of the most beautiful of our smaller cathedrals. In August, 1886, was celebrated the thousandth anniversary of the incorporation of this ancient town. For a very long period Ripon returned two members to Parliament, but in 1885 its representation was merged in that of the county, under the name of the Ripon Division of Yorkshire. The city has excellent local institutions, including a Free Grammar School which dates from 1545, and its population, in 1891 was 7,512. Formerly the place was famous for its manufacture of spurs, but at the present time the chief products of industry in Ripon are saddle-trees, varnishes, leather, and various kinds of machinery.

Finally, Yorkshire can boast the most fashionable and most delightful inland watering-place in the north of England, and our brief review of the county would be incomplete without some reference to this favourite health resort, the charming town of Harrogate. Beautifully situated in the West Riding, on a plateau near the River Nidd, Harrogate lies about eighteen miles west of York, and, being mid-way between the east and west coasts, it enjoys a remarkable mildness and salubrity of climate which render it especially beneficial as a place of residence for invalids. The town, which was incorporated in 1883, consists of two divisions, called Low Harrogate and High Harrogate. These were formerly some little distance apart, but they are now united by a continuous row of villas and dwelling-houses, many of which are of very handsome appearance. There are climatic distinctions between Low Harrogate and High Harrogate, and the mildness of the former is as greatly esteemed by certain visitors as is the clear and bracing atmosphere of the latter by others. Every endeavour has been made by the local authorities to preserve the valuable sanitary reputation of the place, and the fine common of over two hundred acres affords a noble expanse of pleasure ground, duly protected from the encroachments of the builder, and placed at the service of the public in perpetuity. Added to all this, Harrogate has become celebrated in a still greater degree for its excellent springs of medicinal waters which have gained a worthy reputation for their therapeutic virtues.

The districts of Knaresborough and Harrogate seem to be specially provided with waters of a peculiar character, and pretty nearly everybody has heard of the famous "Dropping Well" at Knaresborough, the water of which has such remarkable petrifying qualities. The mineral wells at Harrogate are chalybeate, sulphurous, and saline in character, and have been preserved and developed in a manner which has met with the highest approbation. The principal chalybeate springs are:— The Tewitt Well, which is the oldest of them all, having been discovered by Captain Slingsby, of Bilton Hall, as far back as 1570, and called the "English Spa" by Dr. Bright who wrote an elaborate account of this spring; "John’s Well," or the Royal Chalybeate Spa, discovered in 1630 by Dr. Stanhope; Muspratt’s Spring, discovered in 1819, but first analysed in 1865 by Dr. Sheridan Muspratt; and the Starbeck Springs, which are on the road to Knaresborough. The Old Sulphur Well, in Low Harrogate, is the principal sulphurous spring, and was discovered in 1655. We give an illustration of the building which has been erected at this well. In the grounds of the "Crown Hotel" are the Montpellier Sulphur Springs; and a little way out of Low Harrogate the visitor will find the Harlow Car Springs, situated in a delightful little glen. The chief saline spring is in Low Harrogate, and was discovered about 1783.

We should mention the fine observatory at Harlow Car, from the lofty tower of which may be obtained a glorious view, extending for miles over one of the most beautiful tracts of country in the north of England.

One of the greatest charms of Harrogate consists in the beauty of its rural surroundings. Despite its rapid modern growth the town has not sacrificed any of its special attractions in this respect, and no better place could be found in which to rest from the worries of the work-a-day world or build up a weakened constitution. No one who has ever visited this delightful little city of health and repose can wonder at the great favour it has obtained in the eyes of the fashionable world. It is one of the neatest, prettiest, and cleanest towns in England, and its steady and continuous growth is a proof of prosperity. In 1861 the population was 4,737; in 1881 it had risen to 9,482; and at the present time the number of inhabitants is considerably over 13,000. The town is well built throughout, and contains numerous handsome churches, large and commodious hotels, and fine residential structures. Among the principal public edifices are the Bath Hospital for the poor, erected by subscription in 1825; the theatre, dating from 1788; and the Victoria Baths, built in 1871 at a cost of over £20,000. The Rogers Almhouses, founded in 1869, are an excellent charitable institution, established and endowed for a benevolent purpose which they admirably fulfil. Harrogate has few rivals among England’s fashionable resorts, and its fame as a natural sanatorium increases year by year, while its visiting clientele is drawn from the highest circles of society. It goes without saying that few industries have been developed in a place so exclusively devoted to the purposes of a health resort and rendezvous of the social world. Nevertheless, there are numerous local trades to meet the requirements of domestic supply, and these are all in the hands of thoroughly capable and enterprising business men.

We might go on to mention a good many other towns of creditable standing among the communities of Yorkshire, and might speak of the ancient town of Richmond (population 4,216) famous for its grand old castle, its grammar school, and carrying on an important local trade; or of Doncaster (population 25,936), renowned in the world of sport, and also possessing many features of business interest. Space forbids further extension of this introductory review, but before bringing these few remarks to a conclusion it is incumbent upon us to pay some slight tribute to the splendid development of educational facilities in Yorkshire. Probably no part of England is better provided in this respect, and beyond all doubt the prosperity of the county has been greatly augmented by the ample means of elementary and secondary education that have been placed within the reach of its inhabitants. In every Yorkshire town voluntary effort is well backed up by the School Board system, the well-known buildings associated therewith being conspicuous objects in all directions. And in regard to secondary education there is a plentiful choice, a number of ancient scholastic foundations being well supplemented by admirably-organized modern institutions. The Almondbury Grammar School, near Huddersfield, was established in 1609, and scholarships are open to boys attending the elementary schools in Huddersfield. It has a liberal curriculum, and is managed by governors. Batley Grammar School was founded in 1613 and reorganized in 1873. Its endowment is nearly £500 per annum, and there are exhibitions at the universities and scholarships open to elementary scholars. Bingley Grammar School dates from 1529, but was reorganized in 1873. It appears to possess no scholarships nor exhibitions.

Bradford Grammar School was reorganized in 1873. It has an endowment of £800 per annum, and is one of the principal establishments of the kind in the county. It is situated in the Parade, and is supposed to have been founded in the time of Edward III. Ancient records prove its existence prior to 1553, and throughout the reigns of Elizabeth and Charles II. it figured conspicuously as a seat of learning. Gentlemen who rose to eminence in their day were educated at this school, amongst whom were Archbishop Sharpe, Dr. Richardson, and Abraham Sharpe. The present edifice was formally opened by the late Right Hon. W. E. Forster, M.P., on the 2nd July, 1873. It has three exhibitions, and there is a "Salt" scholarship (endowment £6,000). Bradford has also a girls’ grammar school, which dates from 1875, and has twenty-two scholarships, seven of which are to elementary schools, two in memory of Sir Titus Salt, and two known as "Brown" scholarships. Coatham Grammar School, at Redcar, was founded in 1675 and reorganized in 1875. It has exhibitions valued at £50 per annum, and eight scholarships tenable at the school. Doncaster Grammar School is an old foundation, dating from 1553, and was re- arranged in 1873. Its endowment is only £6 per annum, but there is a corporation grant of £250 a year. Diax Grammar School, near Selby, has an endowment of £924 per annum. Giggleswick School, near Settle, dates from 1553, and possesses ten exhibitions in the gift of the governors. Haworth Grammar School, near Keighley, dates from 1632; and Queen Elizabeth’s Grammar School at Halifax was founded 1585, scholars being eligible for a scholarship at Cambridge. Heptonstall has a grammar school which dates from 1642, and there is a similar institution at Hipperholme, near Halifax. Huddersfield College, founded in 1858, was affiliated to London University in 1864. The Grammar School at Hull dates from 1486. It has a small endowment. Drake and Tonson’s Girls’ School at Keighley was reorganized in 1871; and Richmond possesses a Free Grammar School at Kirkly Hall, which was founded in 1556. King James’s Grammar School was founded in 1616.

The Leeds Grammar School was originally founded in 1552, and located on various sites, the foundation stone of the present edifice, in the Decorated style, having been laid by the Bishop of Ripon in 1858. It accommodates three hundred boys, and there are numerous scholarships and exhibitions. The Yorkshire College at Leeds was founded in 1874. The foundation stone of the present building was laid by the Archbishop of York in October, 1877, the College having commenced operations in temporary buildings. There is a large staff of highly qualified professors, and thirteen scholarships are attached to the college. The Leeds University Extension Union was formed in 1875, and meets during the summer at the Mechanics’ Institute. Longwood Grammar School, near Huddersfield, was founded in 1731; Mursham Grammar School in 1735; and that at Mirfield in 1667. Middlesbrough has high-class schools for boys and girls; and Northallerton Grammar School dates from the fourteenth century, an antiquity which is shared by the Grammar School at Penistone, founded 1397. Richmond and Ripon have Grammar Schools dating from the time of good Queen Bess, and that at Rotherham claims to have been founded in 1484. Sedburgh Sehool was founded in 1552; and Sheffield has a Royal Grammar School which dates from 1603. The Wesley College at Sheffield is affiliated to London University. Skipton, Tadcaster, Wakefield, and York, have Grammar Schools founded in the middle of the sixteenth century; and throughout the county there are a number of high schools for boys and girls conducted by a company.

Bradford has a fine Technical College which was established in 1878. There are life, nominated, and representative members, and there is accommodation for one thousand five hundred students. There are day and evening schools, divided into several departments. The technical departments have direct relation to the local industries. Examinations are held by the Science and Art Department, the City and Guilds of London Institute, and the Society of Arts. Huddersfield Technical School was established as a Mechanics’ Institute in 1841, and was opened as a technical training school in 1884; it is managed by a board of governors, and has accommodation for 2,500 students. The Technical and Science School is divided into separate departments, in which special classes are held for instruction in the various branches of the manufacturing industries of the district. There is also a School of Art, and a series of classes for pupil-teachers, and for the training of ex-pupil- teachers. There are two exhibitions value £25 each, and twelve scholarships value twelve guineas, that are annually competed for. There is a small endowment of about £400. Sheffield has a technical college in connection with Erith College, the curriculum of which includes instruction in metallurgy and mechanical engineering, machine, tools and workshop appliances. There are engineering workshops and other appliances. Keighley also comes to the fore in the matter of technical education, its Mechanics’ Institute having been founded in 1825. This is managed by a committee, elected by trustees and members, and accommodates about 1,600 students. The curriculum includes English subjects, languages, shorthand, sciences under South Kensington, art, 1st,
2nd, and 3rd grades, technical subjects under City and Guilds of London Institute, &c. There are local exhibitions and scholarships under the Science and Art Department, and Tonson’s scholarships, giving free admission to day schools. From this brief summary it will be seen that Yorkshire is indeed, well favoured in the matter of. educational institutions..

The Newspaper press of Yorkshire has long been a potent factor in promoting the general welfare of the county, and several of its leading organs play a very influential part in the public discussion of national and imperial, as well as local, affairs. We accordingly conclude with a brief enumeration of the principal newspapers published in the several towns glanced at in the foregoing review. In compiling this list we have te3n much assisted by Sell’s valuable "Dictionary of the World’s Press.". In the city of York there are five newspapers— the York Daily Herald (Liberal Unionist), the Evening Press (neutral), the York Weekly Herald, the Yorkshire Chronicle (Liberal), and the Yorkshire Gazette (Conservative). Besides these, there are the York History Journal (monthly), and the. York Diocesan Calendar and Church Almanac, a yearly publication. Leeds has a large and important array of journals, chief among which are the Leeds Mercury (Liberal), Leeds Daily News (Conservative), Leeds Evening Express (Independent Liberal), Leeds Mercury Weekly Supplement, the Leeds Saturday Journal, the Leeds Times, the Leeds Weekly Express, the Yorkshire Post, the Yorkshire Weekly Post, the Hunslet and Holbek News, the Magnet (neutral), the National Independent, and the Machinery Mart, a well-known monthly. The newspapers of Bradford include the Bradford Daily Telegraph, the Bradford Observer, the Bradford Citizen, the Bradford Observer Budget, the Bradford Illustrated Weekly Telegraph, the Yorkshireman (humorous), a quarterly called Machinery, and three monthlies, viz.— the Textile World, the Yorkshire Magazine, and the Photographers World. The Bradford Observer, founded in 1834, is a most influential Liberal organ; and the Daily Telegraph, published every evening, also advocates the polities of the Liberal party.

Halifax has four important newspapers— the Halifax Guardian (Conservative), the Halifax Courier (Liberal), the Halifax Times (Independent), and the Halifax and District Advertiser. In Huddersfield are published the Huddersfield Daily Chronicle (Independent), the Boro' Advertiser, the Huddersfield Examiner (Liberal); the Huddersfield Weekly News (Conservative), and the Textile Educator. The press of Barnsley comprises two newspapers, the Barnsley Chronicle (Liberal), and the Barnsley Independent. Beverley has four weeklies — the Beverley Guardian, the Beverley Echo (Conservative and Liberal, respectively), the Beverley Independent, and the Beverley Recorder (Liberal). In Wakefield journalistic enterprise is especially conspicuous, this busy town having no fewer than six newspapers, the Wakefield Evening Herald (Conservative daily), the Wakefield Saturday Night (Liberal), the Wakefield Free Press (Liberal), the Wakefield Express (Liberal), the Wakefield Echo, and the Wakefield and West Riding Herald (Conservative). Hull possesses a goodly number of ably edited and enterprising journals, prominent among which are the Eastern Morning News and Hull Advertiser (Independent), Hull Daily Mail, Hull Daily Nevis, Hull and East Riding Critic, Hull Express, Hull Weekly and Lincolnshire Express, Hull and Lincolnshire Times, and Hull News: The Mail and the Hull and Lincolnshire Times are Conservative journals; the Daily News and Weekly News are Liberal organs; the Hull Express and the Critic are Independent in polities.

Newspapers published in the other Yorkshire towns are as follows: Keighley, the Keighley Herald (Conservative), and the Keighley News (Liberal). Batley, the Batley News and Yorkshire Woollen District’ Advertiser, and the Batley Reporter and Guardian, both Liberal journals. Dewsbury, the-Dewsbury Chronicle (Conservative), and the Dewsbury Reporter (Liberal). Doncaster, the Doncaster Chronicle (Conservative), Doncaster Free Press (neutral), Doncaster Gazette, and Doncaster Reporter, both Liberal in polities. Whitby, the Whitby Gazette (neutral), and the Whitby Times (Constitutional). Scarborough, the Scarborough Evening News and Daily Mercury (Liberal), the Scarborough Gazette and, Weekly List of Visitors (neutral), Scarborough Mercury and North and East Riding Advertiser (Liberal), and the Scarborough Post and Weekly Review (Conservative). Ripon, the Ripon Gazette (Liberal), the Ripon Observer (Conservative), the Ripon and Richmond Chronicle (Liberal). Bridlington, the Bridlington Free Press (neutral), Bridlington and Quay Gazette (Independent), and Bridlington Quay Observer (Conservative). Harrogate, Harrogate Advertiser and Weekly List of Visitors (Conservative), Harrogate Herald (Liberal), and Harrogate News (Conservative). Richmond, the Richmond Observer, and the Richmond and Ripon Chronicle, the former Conservative, the latter Liberal.

Editorial ability and sound business* management have brought the above-mentioned newspapers into positions of great influence in their several localities.

Enough has been said to show how rich the county of Yorkshire is in communities which typify the wonderful commercial energy of the North Country, and illustrate the application of the most advanced forms of local government. Of the many instances of individual enterprise that have played their several parts in building up and maintaining the municipal and commercial vigour of these Yorkshire towns and cities we shall have more to say in the pages which here follow; and to these specially prepared reviews (which it is hoped and believed will prove both interesting and instructive, to all who have watched the development of the county’s resources) we now invite our readers’ attention.


THE great seat of the British worsted trade, and the home of some of the foremost manufacturing enterprises of Yorkshire, is one of the most notable and interesting towns in the kingdom. Socially, politically, and industrially it has become a community of the first rank in influence and importance, and, withal, it has a history that is both eventful and instructive. In reviewing its annals we are brought face to face with some of the most remarkable features of municipal growth and development that have characterised English towns and cities in modern times, and at the same time we are enabled to note the immense power of a wisely directed industrial system in raising a community which was once small and comparatively unimportant to a position of absolute pre-eminence in the sphere of business activity with which its name and its people are peculiarly associated. If we look back into days of remote antiquity we find Tradition, that faithful but still hardly trustworthy handmaiden of History, prepared as usual to supply us with a certain quantity of not altogether reliable information concerning the period and the manner of Bradford’s origin. From this dubious starting point we may, if we choose, speculate ad libitum, upon the early record of the place, and make various conjectures as to whether it owed its being in the first place to our respected ancestors, the Early Britons, or to their conquerors, the Romans, or to the adventurous Saxons who "annexed" our land at a time when nobody seemed to care whether Britannia existed or not. Undoubtedly, many traces of the Romans have been discovered here, and certain authorities surmise that they settled at this spot in some numbers, and even engaged in the manufacture of iron. Doubtless the Latin invaders found the wooded solitudes of Bradford Dale in possession of that powerful and warlike northern tribe of Britons, the Brigantes; and doubtless they had no small difficulty in ousting those primordial sons of the soil. At all events, whatever the Romans may have done here, their regime eventually lapsed, and we come down a little firmer ground in the Saxon period, when Bradford is found forming part of the parish of Dewsbury. Subsequently it was absorbed in the barony of Pontefract, under the De Lacys, and that powerful family, having a castle at Bradford, did much to promote the prosperity of the town, Edmund De Lacy obtaining for the place in 1251 a charter for holding a weekly market. Other charters were afterwards granted, and various privileges bestowed, showing that even as far back as the thirteenth century Bradford was regarded as a community deserving of some consideration.

In those days, too, we are given to understand that it was not by any means devoid of industrial activity. It is recorded that in 1311, when the place was a mere village, with a population of less than 700, it boasted a fulling-mill and a soke-mill, the former attesting the existence of cloth manufactures, and the latter denoting a partiality for oatmeal on the part of the inhabitants. These early details are, however, not very much to the point. Bradford doubtless made very fair progress during the Middle Ages, and we know that it played its part in the stirring times of the Civil War, as most other Yorkshire towns of that period had. to do. But for the modern history of Bradford, and the dawn of its real greatness as a flourishing seat of commerce and manufacture, we need not go farther back than the eighteenth century; and when, in 1773, the time-honoured Piece Hall was erected, followed immediately by the projection of the Bradford Canal, the tide of prosperity that has ever since borne the town onward and upward may be said to have fairly set in. What Bradford has accomplished since then is familiar to everyone who has kept in any degree au courant with British industrial progress during the last hundred and twenty years. In far less than a quarter of a Century the population of the place was more than doubled, and thenceforward, from year to year, was steadily developed that mighty textile industry which has been the making, of the town, and which still remains the source of livelihood to a very large majority of its people. It is related that the less intelligent section of the community offered a stout resistance to the erection of the first large factory in Bradford in 1798, on the ground that the smoke from its chimneys would suffocate them! The factory was built, nevertheless, its promoters being men of that indomitable Yorkshire stock that brooks no opposition, and since then the great manufacturing establishments of Bradford have increased and multiplied at an amazing rate. Who will undertake the task of counting the multitude of chimney-stacks that now pour out the "incense of industry" over the lofty roofs and spires of this busy town? And yet, as we walk the bustling crowded streets of modem Bradford we find nobody in imminent danger of suffocation, and nobody complaining against the huge hives of industry whose ceaseless energy has brought into being all this wondrous, complex life of a great and ever-growing municipality! Verily, tempora mutantur, nos et mutamar in illis [Times change, and we change with them].

Bradford, as it now exists, though still maintaining its universal renown as the headquarters of worsted manufacture, and giving to the commerce of the world one of its best-known technical terms, "Bradford goods," is much less dependent upon that one trade than formerly. Not only is the worsted, silk, and velvet trade more divided in operation, but other industries have secured a firm footing in the local market. Machine-making is now very largely carried on here, and there are numerous Bradford ironworks and engineering establishments of wide repute, concerning some of which we shall have something to say in the following pages. Various other trades of a productive character have been developed by the energetic people of this typical Yorkshire town, and in every respect the municipal motto, Labor omnia vincit {work wins all], has been amply justified. Modern Bradford, with its miles of busy streets, its noble public buildings, its fine municipal organisation, its newspapers, its excellent social and benevolent, artistic and educational institutions, its works and factories, its fine railway and other transport facilities, and its more than two hundred thousand industrious and intelligent inhabitants, is eminently a town of the times. Its characteristics are thoroughly consistent with those of the progressive age in which we live, and its business enterprises command and deserve the respect and admiration of all who can properly appreciate their value and usefulness to the nation and to the world at large.



This eminent Bradford firm ranks at the present day among the leaders of manufacturing enterprise in the West Riding, and its magnitude and influence entitle it to a prominent place in any work designed to illustrate the advancement of this great industrial district. The business had its origin as far back as the year 1839, and for fully half a century it remained in the sole possession of Mr. Samuel Cunliffe Lister, who was raised to the peerage in 1891, as Lord Masham. In 1889, a limited liability company was formed to acquire and work the mills of Messrs. Lister & Co., and this company was inaugurated with a share capital of £1,550,000, and four per cent, debenture stock to the amount of £400,000, the share capital being divided into sixty thousand 5 per cent preference shares of £10 each, and ninety-five thousand ordinary shares of £10 each. By the formation of the company Mr. S. Cunliffe Lister was enabled to obtain that relief from the heavy pressure of business cares and duties which is so acceptable in advancing years. As chairman of the company, however, Lord Masham still retains his place at the head of the concern, which undoubtedly owes its extraordinary growth and prosperity to his practical skill and special inventive capacity; and he has as his colleagues in the administration a Board of Directors comprising the following well-known gentlemen:— The Honourable S. Cunliffe Lister, J.P., Swinton Park, Masham; Mr. Jose Reixach, Clifton Lodge, Manningham; Mr. William Watson, Spring Bank, Manningham; Mr. Henry Greenwood Tetley, Heaton; and Mr. Benjamin Thomas Gibbins, of Ilkley. Mr. Reixach, it may be mentioned, manages the pile fabric department at Manningham Mills, while Mr. Watson and Mr. Tetley have charge of the spinning and the fancy weaving departments respectively, and Mr. Gibbins is assistant manager of the pile fabric department.

The company have under their control the very extensive and famous Manningham Mills, besides other mills at Addingham and elsewhere, and the business carried on embraces various dealings with waste silk, converting the same into silk yarn, sewing thread, fancy woven materials, plushes, seals, and pile fabrics generally, for all of which productions the name of Lister & Co. is universally celebrated, the various goods produced under its auspices being known and esteemed in all parts of the civilised world. This silk-working business originated in 1860, and has been developed and brought up to its present state of magnitude and perfect organisation by the rare ability and inventive talent of the company’s distinguished chairman. One great evidence of the growth of the business during the last fourteen years is found in the steady increase of the firm’s working staff. In 1878, the number of people employed in the mills was eighteen hundred and forty-eight; to-day, the company have not less than five thousand hands in their service, thus ranking among the very largest employers of labour in any manufacturing trade in the kingdom.

The buildings in which the industrial operations are carried on are of recent erection, and cover an area of about eighteen acres, with a floor area of twenty-seven acres. They are among the largest, handsomest and most imposing manufacturing premises in Yorkshire, and are most carefully adapted in all respects to the requirements of the trade to which they are devoted. Being constructed of stone, iron and concrete, they are as nearly as possible fire-proof, and the two enormous six-storey edifices, known as the mill and the warehouse, present a remarkable example of massive and substantial building, the frontage in Heaton Road being one of the finest pieces of solid masonry in the country. The warehouse, among other things, contains a great stock of the company’s products in manufactured goods, besides supplies of silk and other materials essential to the industry. The mill block is, of course, devoted to manufacturing purposes, and its several departments are equipped with a most valuable and extensive plant, including many implements and machines specially invented and improved by Mr. Lister, and those now associated with him in the management. Motive power for the great amount of machinery here in use is supplied by various engines, giving an aggregate of 4,750 indicated horsepower, and fed from no fewer than thirty-four boilers. In their entirety the Manningham Mills form an unsurpassed piece of industrial architecture, and special praise is due to the loftiness and perfect lighting and ventilation of all the rooms, and to the many conveniences and well-considered sanitary arrangements which contribute to the health and comfort of the army of workpeople here employed. The lofty chimney of these famous mills, built in the style of an Italian campanile, is perhaps the handsomest and most majestic erection of its kind in England. Rising to an altitude of two hundred and forty-nine feet, it is perfectly proportioned throughout, and forms a most conspicuous and noteworthy landmark in this vicinity. The architects of Manningham Mills were Messrs. Andrews & Pepper, and the style employed is Italian, very boldly treated. There is a well upon the premises, but most of the large quantity of water so essential in the various processes of Messrs. Lister’s industry is derived from the Corporation Water Works. In addition to this, three large dams have been provided in the immediate vicinity of the works, and the firm are thus assured of an abundance of water at all seasons.

The industry of Manningham Mills possesses an organisation which may well be termed perfect, and as the splendid quality and high character of the products are fully maintained, the trade of the company continues to be influential in the home and export markets, and its connections, as in former times, extend to every quarter of the globe in which the benefits of British commercial enterprise have been felt. Lord Masham, of Swinton Hall, the esteemed founder of the business, and the talented inventor of so many useful appliances for the purposes of the textile industries, stands among the best known and most prominent Yorkshiremen of the present day. He was born at Calverley Hall, in the memorable year of Waterloo, and was the fourth son of Mr. Ellis Cunliffe Lister, one of the representatives of an old county family, the Cunliffe Listers of Manningham Hall. The best years of a long and earnest life have been devoted by Lord Masham to the devising of new machinery and the improving of old, in connection with his own and other branches of textile trade. Fifty years ago he invented a swivel shuttle, now in common use, but this he did not patent. His first actual patent was an apparatus for fringing shawls, the usefulness of which may be understood when we say that in those remote days Manningham Mills produced thousands of alpaca shawls for the American markets, and these could not possibly be fringed fast enough by hand. Since then, as Mr. Lister, he has associated his name with no less than one hundred and seven patents, some unproductive, some profitable enough, but all bearing witness to his remarkable powers of research and invention. He has spent several fortunes in carrying out various improvements in machinery, and probably no man in England has registered so many useful mechanical ideas and discoveries.

During the later years of his business life Lord Masham has amassed a great fortune, part of which he has employed in the purchase of several valuable estates in Yorkshire, costing in the aggregate over a million sterling. His present residence, Swinton Hall, Masham, is one of the finest and most historic of the "stately homes of England," in a country famous for its interesting family seats. Personal prosperity has not made Lord Masham oblivious to the needs of others less gifted or less fortunate than himself, and his liberality has always been free from any taint of ostentation. Lord Masham’s public life has been one of much distinction, and his political career has been marked by great activity and energetic advocacy of those principles to which, he has declared his adherence. On two occasions he has contested (unsuccessfully, yet vigorously and straightforwardly), important parliamentary constituencies; and he has actively supported the Fair Trade programme, in upholding which he has always proved himself possessed of the courage of his convictions, even when they have entailed heavy sacrifices. In all things Lord Masham has shown the characteristic independence of thought and action that has distinguished so many of Yorkshire’s sons; and while he has been a recognised leader in many movements of political, social, and industrial importance he has never been a mere partisan in anything. His integrity of purpose and his sterling personal abilities have won for him unqualified respect and esteem among those who have watched his career, and to-day he looks back over a long, laborious and honourable life, the good influences of which are not for this day and age alone, but for many a year that is yet to come. A most valuable and instructive account of Manningham Mills and their founder appeared in the "Bradford Observer" of February 6th, 1889. A neat reprint of that article has since been issued, with illustrations and an excellent portrait of Lord Masham; and those who can obtain a copy will undoubtedly find it interesting reading, from the large amount of historical, industrial and biographical information it contains.


Incorporated as a limited liability concern, with a directorate composed of well-known wealthy and influential gentlemen, this famous company, with head offices and warehouse at 100 to 106, Cannon Street, London, E.C., and large works at Silvertown, Essex, and at Persan Beaumont, France, have a very large and admirably regulated business at Bradford, at the above-named address, under the supervision of their trusted district agent, Mr. P. M. S. Brodie. The premises occupied are in every point of character and situation excellently adapted for the transaction of a very brisk business. They consist of a large and substantial three- storied building, the spacious ground floor of which is capitally appointed to hold and display a complete selection of the numerous wares for which the company has become celebrated throughout the world, and a fairly accurate notion of which may be gathered from the following departments, all of which are fully represented:- 1. Vulcanised indiarubber in sheet valves, buffer springs, and mechanical articles of every description; hose, tubing, &c.; belting, deckle straps, &c. 2. Elastic steam packing. 3. Guttapercha in sheet, tubing, pump buckets, belting, &c.; vessels for acids and other chemicals. 4. Ebonite in sheet, tubing, &c.; articles for surgical, photographic and electrical purposes. 5. Waterproof clothing, ground sheets, aprons, wagon covers, &c.; hot water cushions, beds, &c. 6. Telegraph requisites, such as submarine, subterranean and aerial cables; telegraph instruments, batteries, insulators, &c.; telegraph stores and apparatus of every description; and electric light installation requisites. The trade controlled is one of vast volume in all parts of the United Kingdom, and under Mr. Brodie’s vigorous policy of management, the Bradford branch is rapidly realising results which augur well for the future prosperity of the company, and reflects the highest credit upon all those who are in any way concerned with the administration of its affairs.


The enormous demand for packing-cases of all descriptions, employed in the home and export tirade of Bradford, is largely supplied by the eminent firm of Messrs. James Rhodes & Co., of Canal Road and Wharf Street. This important and prosperous business was founded so long ago as 1821, under the above style; it has been successfully carried on ever since by the family. The premises, which corer a large area with frontages to Canal Road and to Wharf Street, comprise an extensive timber-yard, saw-mills, and workshops. The plant, which is excellent and of modern construction, includes circular saws, timber-frames, and deal-frames, together with planing and moulding machines of every description, driven by two powerful steam-engines — a third one being kept to fall back upon in case of a breakdown, so as to be able at all times to execute important contracts. The yards are always well stocked with English and foreign timber in great variety, which is from the chief timber-growing countries in all parts of the world. The speciality with this house is the manufacture of packing-cases and rolling boards, which form a leading feature in the business. Cases of various sizes are made for all sorts of different trades, but chiefly for home and shipping merchants in Bradford and the surrounding districts. The suite of general and private offices are situated in Wharf Street. They are well appointed, and are fitted up with all the appliances of modern invention for saving time and labour in the discharge of a large amount of commercial business. The firm are well known throughout a wide area, and their reputation for honourable dealing in all their transactions stands high in the commercial community of Bradford.

Telephone No. 527; telegraphic address: "Beverley, Bradford."

A representative and thoroughly reliable house in an important branch of the staple trade of Bradford is to be found in the well-known firm of Messrs. C. Beverley, Junior, Co., of the Albion Works, Manchester Road, commission wool-combers. This notable business was established in 1881, and the present premises were first occupied in 1888. The undertaking was developed with. considerable ability, energy, and perseverance, and a name was soon obtained for the superior character of all the work turned out, and the honourable treatment all customers received. Every year has seen a decided advance and improvement in the resources of this establishment, and now it occupies a position of prominence which entitles it to rank as, a leading house in its special branch of industry. The premises occupied are spacious in their extent, and in their completeness and convenience of arrangement they are the outcome of the firm’s long experience and liberal policy. They cover a large area of ground, and are approached by a large entrance guarded by a lodge. Passing through the gate and along the yard we come upon the offices, an extensive suite comprising private and general offices of a superior character. Close to the offices are the wool warehouses. The main mill is an extensive stone structure, four storeys high. The warehouses are thoroughly well fitted up with every requirement for the successful control of the business, and the mills are equipped with plant and machinery of the latest and most improved description and all appliances to save labour and improve the produce. The machinery is operated by a powerful steam-engine. About one hundred hands are employed, and it is pleasant to note the many indications of the proprietors’ care and forethought for their comfort and safety. An efficient system of discipline is maintained, and the efficiency of every department is of the highest kind.

An immense business is here controlled as commission wool-combers. The wool is received in the raw state, and is washed, carded and combed. The ample resources of the firm place them in a position to do this class of work in a prompt and satisfactory manner, regard being had to the quality of the work turned out. All orders are executed with promptness, and the high-class finish of every article emanating from this responsible house is thoroughly guaranteed. A splendid connection has been developed in Bradford and the surrounding districts, extending throughout the whole of Yorkshire and Lancashire. The proprietors are men thoroughly conversant with their business, and of high commercial status. They are straightforward and honourable in all their transactions, and command the confidence of all their patrons. They are well known in private life, and respected by all the many that know them for their personal worth and ability.


The house of Messrs. Daniel Illingworth & Sons has a history in connection with the Yorkshire worsted industries dating back early in the century, and was founded by Messrs. Miles and Daniel Illingworth at Prospect Mill, Wakefield Road. Subsequently Mr. Murgatroyd was admitted into partnership, and in 1825 the firm built and occupied the mill at the bottom of Hope Street, which has since been pulled down for improvements by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company. At the same time Messrs. Illingworth tenanted the Union Street Mill, previously worked by Mr. William Fawcett, and which afterwards served for some years as the headquarters of the business carried on by the late Sir (then Mr.) Titus Salt. Mr. Murgatroyd withdrew from the firm in 1834, and the partnership between Messrs. Miles and Daniel Illingworth was dissolved three years later. After this, Mr. Daniel Illingworth continued on his own account, and built the mills at the foot of Tetley Street, which became known as "Providence Mills," and in which the first "Cornish" boilers ever seen in Bradford were laid down. These mills were put in operation in 1838, and from that date until his death in 1854 Mr. Illingworth conducted them with marked success. Prior to his decease he had admitted into partnership his sons, Mr. Alfred Illingworth (now M.P.), and Mr. Henry Illingworth, and these two gentlemen continued the business, to which they have rendered very great services by their complete practical knowledge of the trade, down to the minutest details of the mill work.

Mr. Henry Illingworth devoted his attention to the internal management of the mills, while Mr. Alfred applied himself to the important duties of wool buying and yarn selling. Thus rapid progress was made, and the business soon began to outgrow the accommodation at Providence Mills. Accordingly, the firm acquired the Whetley Farm Estate, on a portion of which they erected their present works, the engines being first set in motion in July, 1865. The mills were equipped with the newest and best machinery, and during the next ten years Messrs. Illingworth felt the benefit of their enterprise to a very appreciable extent. From time to time they have added to their premises and increased and improved their plant, and the Whetley Mills, as they now stand, are among the largest and most perfectly organised establishments in the Bradford spinning industry. Their general arrangement is most convenient in all respects, affording the special facilities required in so large a business, and the plant throughout remains a model of efficiency. Solidly built of stone, and possessing all modern improvements in contraction, these huge buildings are a very notable feature of the district, and reflect credit upon the architects (Messrs. Milnes & France), as well as upon their enterprising proprietors.

Messrs. Daniel Illingworth & Sons make all their own soap for the purposes of their industry, and have five reservoirs to supply the necessary water for cooling and condensing. The town’s water is used for wool-washing, on account of its superior softness. Upwards of eight acres of ground are occupied by the Whetley Mill buildings, and. there is a floorage area of about five acres. The spinning machinery is driven by a mammoth "Corliss" engine of one thousand I.H.P., and there is also a smaller "Corliss" engine acting as an independent motor, while a third engine of the same type drives the preparing machinery. Steam is generated by a set of six 8 feet by 30 feet "Beeley’s" Boilers, fitted with Proctor’s Patent Stoker. In the spinning industry, which they so extensively carry on, Messrs. Illingworth have always been in the van of progress, and they were among the very first to appreciate the botany wools at their proper value. Their yarns are held in the highest esteem among manufacturers, and the magnitude of their business at the present day may be inferred from the fact that upwards of one thousand hands are employed at the Whetley Mills.

Mr. Alfred Illingworth, the senior partner in this eminent firm, was Member of Parliament for the Borough of Knaresbro’ from 1868 to 1874; member for Bradford from 1880 to 1885 along with the Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster, and was the first Member of Parliament for the Western Division of Bradford, and was for some time previously an active and useful member of the Town Council, representing the Ward of Little Horton. He was also a member of the Bradford Chamber of Commerce, and has always shown a readiness to support any movement tending to the advantage of the district, and to the development of its trades. Mr. Henry Illingworth is a Justice of the Peace for the borough. He has been Chairman of the Executive of the Bradford liberal Association for many years, President of the Chamber of Commerce for two years, and was also for some time a Governor of the Bradford Infirmary and a Governor of the Grammar School. Mr. Henry Illingworth fills several other public offices, and, like his brother, is much respected in the district.
The firm’s telegraphic address is "Illingworth, Bradford;" telephone No. 232.


The world-renowned house named at the head of this sketch holds a leading position in connection with the production and supply of weaving machinery for the great textile industries of Yorkshire. Indeed, Mr. George Hodgson claims the distinction of being the most extensive maker of looms in the United Kingdom, and his specialities enjoy a reputation unsurpassed by those of any other firm in the trade. Mr. Hodgson’s business is an old-established one, and has attained its present large dimensions solely by virtue of its superior productions in looms for all branches of textile manufacture. The premises occupied at Bradford comprise extensive and commodious works admirably arranged, and equipped throughout with the best modern machinery driven by steam-power. Here Mr. Hodgson employs upwards of three hundred highly skilled workmen, and carries on his important industry under conditions favourable to the attainment of the best results in the machinery turned out. Everything made at these works is in the nature of a speciality, being the outcome of years of careful study and experiment, and it would be difficult indeed to over-estimate the value of the benefits that have been conferred upon our textile industries by the many improvements in looms with which the name of this noted house is associated.

Mr. Hodgson’s leading productions may be briefly indicated as follows (1) The plain "Bradford" loom, admirably adapted for weaving either silk, mohair, alpaca, merino, or cotton, and capable of being fitted up with as many as ten treadles; jacquards for weaving figures, or patent shedding motions from ten to forty shafts, can also be applied with ease to this excellent high-speed loom. (2) The circular box loom, a patent contrivance for weaving checks, plaids, or stripes, and which will produce any pattern of even picks up to six colours without stopping the loom to make the change, and revolve or remain stationary at pleasure while the loom is weaving. (3) The lasting loom, specially invented for weaving lastings and serge de Berries. (4) A very effective worsted coating loom, solidly constructed for weaving cloths with one shuttle, and capable of working at the rate of one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred and thirty picks per minute. (5) A circular box pick-and-pick loom, for weaving with large shuttles to produce fancy cloths which require a number of single picks to form the pattern. (6) A rising box cloth loom, embodying many new and improved features which have met with the high approval of manufacturers. The above-mentioned specialities have fairly won the splendid reputation they enjoy for great practical efficiency, and are regarded as standard apparatus throughout the trade.

Mr. Hodgson’s manufactures have been eminently successful at most of the great international exhibitions, and the following is a list of the awards they have obtained up to the present time:— Prize medal, London, 1862; gold medal, Paris, 1867; prize medal, Vienna, 1873; prize medal, Leeds, 1875; gold medal, Paris, 1878; Crystal Palace, gold medal, London, 1881; Cloth Workers’ Company gold medal, 1882; gold and silver medals, Huddersfield, 1883; gold medal, International, London, 1885; diploma of honour and gold medal, Antwerp, 1885; silver medal (specially awarded to Mr. G. H. Hodgson), Antwerp, 1885; gold medal, Academie Francaise and diploma of honour; Brussels diploma of honour and Order of Leopold; Barcelona gold medal; and Paris grand prize and Legion of Honour; diploma of honour, Bradford, 1882, upon which occasion the jury’s report contained these words:— "The jury express their high appreciation of the exhibits of Mr. George Hodgson, but, since they are precluded, they are sorry they cannot make the award due to the marked excellence of his machinery. The jury however, suggest that a diploma of honour upon vellum be presented to him." Finally, this long array of notable awards speaks volumes for the high character of his productions, and few houses in the trade can show such a series of distinguished honours won in open competition with the world.

Mr. Hodgson not only Controls an immense and widespread home trade, but he also exports to all quarters of the globe, and wherever his looms are known they stand in the highest possible favour. Besides the machine works Mr. Hodgson has a large worsted spinning mill, where about five hundred hands are employed. The specialities produced are demi and lustre mohair, alpaca, and botany, and mixture yarns, as well as coating and lasting warps. These are supplied both to home and export merchants, as well as manufacturers in the neighbourhood. This firm has gained two gold medals for its productions, one at the Bradford Exhibition and one at Antwerp. All the affairs of this business are personally administered by the esteemed head of the house, who is a county magistrate of the West Riding of Yorkshire and county of Lincoln, and a gentleman greatly respected for his business capacity and straightforward principles.


Established more than a century and a half ago by the Brothers Stansfeld, this well-known firm enjoys a high reputation amongst Bradford merchants, and as one of the representative houses in the lasting and general export trade, their trade-mark — three gold goats — being well known all over the world. In the year 1831 Mr. William Brown was admitted into partnership, when the firm became known by its present style. The business was at that time carried on in Union Street, Bradford, but was subsequently removed to more commodious premises in Leeds Road, and in the year 1872 they took possession of the present substantially built and commanding warehouse in East Parade. The building is four storeys high, comprising on the ground floor the grey-room and yarn and packing shops; on the first floor, a very handsome and conveniently arranged suite of offices, including general and private offices, manager’s room, &c. The two upper floors are used as making-up and cloth department. The principal commodities dealt with are lastings for boots and shoes, woollen cloths, and yarns. The trade done is very extensive and almost exclusively export, and an enormous business is done with Continental firms, many of which have had business relations with the firm of very long standing.

The present members of the firm are Mr. Edward Stansfeld, Mr. Alfred Wolryche Stansfeld, and Mr. Horace Wolryche Stansfeld, Mr. Brown having retired in 1886. As showing the esteem and respect in which the firm is held by its employes may be instanced the unusually long terms of service rendered by two members of the staff, viz., Mr. W. Teale Kirk (now pensioned off), who served the firm for forty-six years, and Mr. James Mitchell (now pensioned), who has been for upwards of sixty-four years in their employ. A large and efficient staff of clerks and warehousemen is employed, and all the business of the firm is most ably conducted under the management of the above-mentioned partners, who are highly esteemed and respected by all with whom they have business relations.

Telegraphic Address: "Anderton, Bradford."

This eminent firm of spinners rank among the leaders of their industry in Bradford, and conduct a business the history of which dates back as far as the year 1844. The founder of the house was Mr. Swithin Anderton, who commenced operations at the Pitt Lane Mills, Barkerend Road, and removed in 1844 to the present premises. These are known as East Brook Mills, and cover an area of about five acres, with mill buildings, warehouses, sheds, and various other structures devoted to the different preparatory operations to which wool is subjected. At this extensive establishment the wool is received in bulk, in a perfectly "raw" state, and is first of all carefully sorted, a large staff of experienced wool-sorters being engaged for this work. Next the wool is washed and combed, the mills possessing a complete wool-washing plant and a full outfit of carding and combing machinery. Eventually the prepared wool is spun into yarns of various kinds, and for these the firm have an eminent reputation in the trade. Upwards of twenty-one thousand spindles are kept constantly in operation, and the whole industry is conducted upon a most extensive scale. Messrs. Anderton & Sons are also large producers of coloured and melange yarns for the Bradford trade, and the melange yarns they print on the premises at East Brook Mills.

In every department of these great works the machinery and plant is of the most improved description, and in the matter of melange yarns the firm are in a position to print for the general trade, besides supplying their own requirements. Messrs. Anderton also make all their own soap, and have the largest cellars in Bradford for this purpose. Moreover, they make soap for other spinners also, and have a large demand for this important product. The yarns produced by Messrs. S. Anderton & Sons are known all over the world as being of very superior quality, and consequently an immense export trade has been built up, this being the principle feature of the business done. At the same time there is a home connection of considerable importance, though this is chiefly of local development among yarn merchants in the Bradford district. No firm of spinners in this part of the country is held in higher esteem than that of Messrs. S. Anderton & Sons, and none enjoys in a fuller degree the respect of its employes. Messrs. Anderton have upwards of eight hundred hands in their service. The East Brook Mills (erected by the late founder of the firm in 1844) are undoubtedly among the largest and best equipped in Yorkshire, and the extensive business with which they are associated continues to maintain its high and honourable place in the Bradford trade under the able administration of Messrs. Herbert and F. W. Anderton, the present principals of the house.


Founded originally by Mr. Thos. Priestley, this extensive and important business was acquired, in 1876, by the present senior partner, Mr. Thos. Priestley, who was joined by his son, Mr. Tom Priestley, junior, in 1887. The title of Thos. Priestley & Son was then adopted, and under the able and energetic management of this firm the house has become one of the largest and most successful manufacturing concerns in the district. The Bank Top Mills, conspicuous with their fine turret clock, are three storeys high, and form a very handsome and imposing block of buildings, with a frontage of fully four hundred feet. The weaving sheds run the whole length of the block and contain nine hundred looms. The upper floors of the mill building are used as slashing, beaming, and winding rooms. All the machinery in use at this large establishment is of the most improved modern description, and is driven by two powerful steam-engines. Messrs. Thos. Priestley & Son are very largely engaged in the manufacture of Bradford goods generally, including stuffs, mohairs, cashmeres, Italians, linings, &c., and their productions are widely and favourably known for excellence of quality and texture. An immense trade is controlled, and the firm maintain an influential and well-established connection among home and export merchants. The works at Great Horton are lighted almost in all parts by the electric tight, and are equipped and organised in a manner reflecting great credit upon the enterprise and progressive spirit of the firm. Messrs. Priestley have a town office at 40, Booth Street, Bradford, which is in telephonic communication with the works, and about five hundred and fifty hands are employed in the operations of this large and thoroughly representative business. The senior partner, Thomas Priestley, Esq., J.P., has filled the office of Mayor of Bradford, and is an alderman of the borough, representing the Exchange Ward. He stands among the most prominent business men of the town, and enjoys general esteem and respect in commercial, public, and social life. Alderman Priestley has done much to promote the interests of Bradford, and has rendered valuable public services since he first became associated with municipal affairs in this busy and populous community.


Modern decorative art, in those higher and more elegant branches which relate to the application of embroideries, tapestries and textile fabrics generally, has a most notable and distinguished exponent in the house of Messrs. R. N. Havers & Co., of Bradford, whose advancement has been very remarkable during the last eleven years. This important and now widely-known firm commenced business in the year 1881, but the rapid increase in the business made it necessary to provide larger premises. They consequently erected their present works in 1889, and they have already gained great renown in connection with the designing and manufacturing of all manner of artistic fabrics for decorative purposes. The premises occupied in Bertram Road, having been specially planned and erected for this important industry, afford very superior facilities, and place Messrs. Havers in a position to meet all competition with many advantages on their side.

A substantial three-storey block of buildings accommodates the several departments of the business, and has been conveniently subdivided into different working sections. Thus, the basement is devoted to the making of cabinets and screens, photo-stands, work-tables, and other decorative furniture, to which class of work the firm have given considerable attention, with highly satisfactory results. Fancy baskets, waste-paper baskets, fancy flower-pots, wall brackets, photo easels, &c., &c., are also among the varied products of this part of the factory. All these articles are prepared from the wood, and enamelled, ready for the trimming-rooms, and each item displays not only elegant finish and workmanship but also the highest artistic taste in design.

The ground floor of the premises forms the stock-room - a fine apartment, fifty feet long by thirty feet wide — and here may be seen a vast and most interesting display of the firm’s beautiful specialities in silk plushes, embroideries, &c., for trimming purposes. These goods are of the richest and most exquisite character, and the stock in its entirety is an exceedingly valuable one. The "Arrasene" department also forms a prominent feature on the ground floor, adjoining the stock-room, and it may be mentioned at this point that Messrs. R. N. Havers & Co. are the inventors of "Arrasene," under which term are comprised beautiful embroidery yarns in every conceivable shade, both in silk and in wool. These yarns are a very special product of the house under notice, and rank among the most elegant and effective decorative materials in the market. Messrs. Havers also manufacture a "Jewel Arrasene" yarn, about half the size of the above-mentioned, for finer embroidery, and they have just brought out a new yarn called "Repristry," for use in darning embroidery. The latter yarns are also a very notable speciality, and will henceforth form an important item in Messrs. Havers’s output.

On the first floor are two large and well-lighted departments (each sixty feet long by thirty feet broad), one of which is a trimming-room, where all articles made by the firm are trimmed by a numerous staff of deft-fingered girls, while the other is called the frame-room, where the many styles of frames are received preparatory to being sent into the trimming-room. Lamp shades are trimmed in a small room adjoining, and very charming work is done here in all respects. The second floor is devoted entirely to art needlework, and the large variety of goods produced in this department is very remarkable. This firm design every article they manufacture, the spacious designing-room being situated in another part of the premises; and they also manufacture all their own trimmings and embroideries, thus obtaining perfect uniformity and harmony of colour, which would otherwise be impossible. Old English Embroidery Silk is another charming speciality with which Messrs. Havers have associated their name; this embroidery effectually withstands the sun’s rays, and is not injured by washing. Yet another elegant production is Genappe cord, and among the many articles made by this firm a word must be bestowed upon their excellent fringes for embroidery purposes, which are quite distinct from ordinary fringes, the foundations being plush and Kaga silk. Great enterprise has been displayed by Messrs. R. N. Havers & Co. in the introduction of novelties, and several new designs which they have brought out this season are particularly attractive. Chief among these are the "Tulip" silk and "Rose Cascade," which are sure to meet with favour. The designs are executed on tracing-paper, and Messrs. Havers have all the designs in stock from the commencement of their business, numbering several thousands.

This is the only firm in the world which exemplifies every process in the production of decorative specialities. The numerous designs of a highly artistic and ornamental character introduced by this house in such goods as silk, satin and plush novelties, portieres, mantel valances, sofa blankets, cushions, table-covers, table centres, chair-backs, head-rests, workbags, cosies, sashes, &c., and in screens, photo-screens, photo-frames, easels, fancy flower-pots, &c., in a variety of new and attractive styles, are well-nigh unlimited, in every instance being singularly pretty and tasteful. The materials used are of a rich and highly decorative character, and no common or inferior fabrics are employed in any department. In the one matter of photo-frames Messrs. Havers display an amount of taste and invention that cannot fail to meet with hearty recognition. Their new styles in photo easels are delightful conceptions, made to hold three, six, and twelve portraits each, and having two wings, which, when expanded, form a pretty little cabinet with shelves for ornaments and fancy china.

The latest novelty brought out by Messrs. Havers is the "Boselle Work" (patent applied for), being an entirely new departure in the decoration of wood, producing the effect of very elaborate carving, but at the same time possessing a distinct novelty of effect. It adapts itself to all articles in which wood forms a component part, from small table nicknacks and photo frames, to screens, work-tables, cabinets, and wall decorations. The firm’s works are splendidly equipped to ensure rapid and uninterrupted production, and are heated entirely by steam pipes, there being no fires or smoke to spoil the goods. All the designs are executed under the personal supervision of Mr. R. N. Havers, who is a practical designer by profession, and whose talent in that direction is here strikingly manifested. It is worthy of note that all the silks and foundation materials used by the firm are of Bradford manufacture.

The excellent working facilities at the establishment in Bertram Road are supplemented by another compact and well-appointed factory in Thurscoe Street, Manningham Lane; and employment is given to a very large staff of workpeople, mostly females of the highest practical skill and experience. The whole business is administered with conspicuous ability and judgment by its enterprising principal, Mr. Havers, a gentleman of high artistic culture and sound commercial qualifications. From the very first the trade of the house has undergone a great and continuous development, and it is still increasing rapidly in all the home and export markets. Valuable connections are being built up throughout the United Kingdom and abroad, and it should be especilly remarked that the most eminent houses in the West End of London are eagerly taking up the beautiful and thoroughly artistic goods produced by this firm — a fact which speaks volumes for the high-class character of the various articles. We commend to the notice of our readers Messrs. R. N. Havers & Co.’s illustrated sheets of design for the present season. These portray in photogravure a large number of the firm’s most pleasing and attractive novelties, and it is not difficult to predict for such goods a commercial success commensurate with their high artistic merit. Messrs. R. N. Havers & Co. have spacious London show-rooms at 65A, Holborn Viaduct, E.C., where a large and varied stock of their manufactures may be seen.


Among the high-class cabinet and upholstering establishments in Bradford a leading position is occupied by the well-known and old-established house of Mr. James Marvell, late J. Poole & Son, of 17, Westgate. This business is probably the oldest of the kind in Yorkshire, and it is certainly one of the best conducted and most important. Its inception dates back to the year 1840, when operations were commenced by Mr. Joseph Poole, who continued to control the establishment till his death in 1883. He had been previously joined by his son, Mr. F. Poole, who on his father’s death became the sole proprietor, and carried on the business until his death, when it was purchased from the executors by Mr. James Marvell, in February, 1892. The house early acquired a reputation for the thoroughly reliable character of everything it turned out, and this has been maintained and enhanced down to the present time. Enlargements of the premises have been called for at various times, and they have recently been rebuilt and specially arranged to meet the requirements of the ever-increasing business that is carried on. They now comprise a handsome and commodious double-fronted shop, having a frontage of forty feet, and situated in one of the most prominent business thoroughfares in Bradford. The premises extend seventy feet to the rear. The show-rooms, which are on the first, second, and third floors, are ample in size and thorough in their appointments and convenience of accommodation for the large stocks held. The basement is specially reserved for the display of cottage and kitchen furniture of every description.

Too much praise cannot be given to the management for the admirable and effective manner in which all the goods have been arranged, and for the regard that has been had to the comforts of patrons. A valuable and extensive trade is controlled in the manufacture of every description of household furniture. The goods turned out are well known to buyers in the district, and are deservedly regarded as standards of excellence in their respective lines. Material, workmanship, and finish are of the best class, and the immense variety the house offers, together with the moderate prices asked, cannot fail to meet the requirements and give every satisfaction to all grades of customers. In dining, drawing, and bedroom suites in the newest and most fashionable material and styles, and upholstered in the perfection of art, the house stands unrivalled. Extensive stocks of these magnificent goods are kept on hand, as well as ample selections of superior library furniture, sideboards, couches, ottomans, loo, work, and other tables, chairs of every kind, brass and iron bedsteads, bedding in great variety, carpets, &c. The connection of this responsible house extends to every part of Yorkshire, and its patrons are found in every rank of society.

An efficient staff of hands is employed, and orders of any size and volume, whether it be to furnish a cottage, public building, or high-class hotel, are filled promptly, and completely, and with entire satisfaction as to quality, style and price. The proprietor is a thoroughly practical man, conversant with every branch of his business, to which he gives his valuable personal attention. He occupies a position of eminence in the trade circles of the district, having for some years been associated with the wholesale manufacturing trade, and is respected for his straightforward and honourable methods of business. In private life he is well known and much esteemed for his ability, public services, and personal rectitude.


The reputation which has been gained by Bradford throughout the country as an important and highly cultured musical centre, renders the town an appropriate habitat for the labours of a high-class Organ-builder. It is much more, however, than a merely local reputation which has been gained in this line of industrial art by Mr. Frederick W. Nicholson, of Leeds Road, and also of Hanover House, Manningham Lane. Mr. Nicholson’s reputation as a constructor of excellent Organs, which he produces at remarkably moderate prices, extends not only throughout the musical profession in the United Kingdom, but, in some notable cases, to the ends of the civilised earth. The premises of the firm at Hanover House comprise the spacious and well-appointed show-rooms. The ample stock includes a large and very representative selection of pianofortes by some of the most eminent English and foreign makers. There is also a large choice of harmoniums and Estey organs, together with various appliances for the use of professional and amateur musicians. In the purchase of pianos and other musical instruments many of Mr. Nicholson’s patrons have learned that they are thoroughly justified in reposing much confidence in his technical knowledge, which is the outcome of his mature experience.

Mr. Nicholson has a valuable connection among many of the leading county families and others, within a very wide radius, for the purposes of piano-tuning, in which department he employs a staff of thoroughly capable experts. Repairs of all descriptions to Organs, harmoniums, and pianos are executed with the utmost despatch and in the most satisfactory manner possible. But it is as an Organ-builder that Mr. Nicholson has won and worthily maintained his high reputation. The excellent record of the firm extends back to 1830, when the business was in the first instance established. The active career of Mr. F. W. Nicholson himself, as an organ-builder, has lasted long enough to afford him the satisfaction of being asked to replace organs which he erected forty years ago or more, and which, throughout the long interval of years, have proved perfectly satisfactory to their owners, by new ones embodying improvements of modern introduction. The organ-building works of the firm are situated in Leeds Road, Bradford, and are provided with all the latest appliances for the economy of time and labour in the constructive processes.

Mr. Nicholson is able to appeal to a vast body of unimpeachable testimony in proof of the value of his guarantee that, in the building of organs of every description, he invariably uses the best materials, together with well-executed mechanism, and careful voicing and finish. He has constructed organs of different classes and dimensions for churches and chapels of all denominations in various parts of England, as well as in the Colonies. There is a universal consensus of opinion, as is evidenced by the mass of testimonials which Mr. Nicholson has received, as to the excellence of his work, and the moderation of his charges as compared with those of other leading houses in the trade. Many eminent musicians particularise certain specialities in the organs supplied by Mr. Nicholson as deserving of particular commendation. Thus the late Dr. Ions, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, speaking of one of the firm’s organs, remarks that the quality of tone is exceedingly good, particularly the Open diapason, Viol-di-Gamba, Cremona, and Hautboy, also the pedal pipes. Dr. J. Y. Roberts, of Oxford (formerly of Halifax), in describing his inspection of an instrument which Mr. Nicholson built at Stanningley, says that the Diapasons in the Swell and Great Organ were rich and full in tone, while the reeds possessed much strength, without harshness. Mr. James Broughton, the Conductor of the Bradford Festival Choral Society, also describes the "general tone throughout as full and round, without the harshness so apparent in many modern organs." These and many other testimonies, from experts of the highest position, justify the boast of Bradford that it possesses a resident organ-builder of high professional rank.


The important trades of jewellery, watchmaking, and electro-plating are well represented in this district by the above firm, which was established by its present proprietors in 1887 at Queensgate Chambers, and was a couple of years later transferred to the present address. The premises are capitally adapted to the business, and comprise a large and well-lighted workshop on the ground floor. Both partners having a thorough practical! acquaintance with every detail of their occupation in all its branches, and having further the advantage of great experience, it goes without saying that the work produced by the staff of skilled workmen employed in their establishment affords unfailing satisfaction to all with whom they do business. One of their specialities is adapting and modelling antique jewellery to the present fashion, which they do with great taste. Their stock of loose diamonds, real and imitation stones, for manufacturing purposes, is large, and by tasteful arrangement are laid out to great advantage. Brooches, earrings, rings, and pins suitable for wedding and birthday presents can be mounted on the premises from stones in stock which may be selected by the purchaser. For these goods the firm find a large and growing demand. In the practical department, prominence is given to electro-plating and gilding, in which work Messrs. Moxon & Reams have an enviable trade connection, as well as a large amount of private business. The workmanship of the firm is of high artistic merit, and no effort is spared to secure punctuality. In all their transactions the proprietors are noted for enterprise and intelligence.


Probably very few general readers have any idea of the magnitude to which insurance business has attained of recent years, and still fewer are aware of the many directions in which it branches. To such, a glance at the attractive circular of Messrs. Durant would be a revelation. From it we gather they are prepared to negotiate every kind of insurance, and in nearly all the departments of their formidable list a very extensive connection has been formed by the firm, who claim to transact the largest business of the kind in Bradford, with widespread ramifications through the entire kingdom. In these days, when every prudent man of business has not merely his life but his vested interests of all kinds insured against the possibility of loss, many people find an insurance agency an extra means of adding to their income. But Messrs. Durant make a business of insurance, and not a mere adjunct. Hence, probably, in great measure, arises the extraordinary success that has attended their efforts. Having intimate dealings with more than one hundred different insurance offices, the firm are in a position to offer sound advice to their clients in many particulars upon which information is not available to the general public, especially with regard to fire and life insurance, and in many other ways they can be of service to intending insurers. They do a considerable business in negotiating mortgages on first-class security.

For fifteen years the business has been established in the present premises, on the ground floor of a fine corner building, adjoining the Exchange Station, L. & Y. and G. N. R., Leeds Road entrance. An efficient staff of clerks is employed by the firm, and the office is in communication with the telephonic system. By their smart business qualifications, and readiness to afford information to all inquiries, Messrs. Durant have gained great popularity. We cannot do better than quote a paragraph from the recent publication entitled, "Leading Insurance Men of the British Empire," which runs thus:— "Durant, A. C. & F. W. H., of Bradford, are the partners of one of the most important firms of insurance brokers in Yorkshire, their business being very large and far reaching. They have now been established fifteen years, and transact every description of insurance, having every facility for placing lines to any amount. They have worked up the system of their firm to a high pitch of thoroughness and completeness, even in the minutest details, and the plans and specifications prepared by them are famous throughout the profession for their accuracy. Messrs. Durant make a specialty of large lines and the handling of the entire insurance of large establishments, and count some of the most important firms in Yorkshire among their clients."


The establishment with which the name of Mr. Capon is associated is one of considerable industrial importance. It has been in existence since 1888, and the enterprising manner in which it has been conducted has resulted in the popular proprietor scoring a very decided success. The well-situated premises comprise an exceedingly fine double shop, with extensive frontage, and handsome show-room and work-rooms on the first floor. The interior of the shop is remarkably commodious, and elegant fittings characterise the entire establishment. The stock is of great variety and extent, and comprises a fine selection of mantles, jackets, dolmans, ulsters, and sealskins, velvet, plush, and all the newest styles of cloth. These garments are fashionably cut, after the latest London and Parisian designs, are beautifully trimmed, and very substantially made. As they are kept in a great variety of qualities they will be found suitable to all purses. There is also a comprehensive assortment of ladies’ waterproofs, umbrellas, shawls, fur capes, &c. Mr. Capon has a large stock of furs of every description in long Victoria boas, princess collarettes, fur capes, and real seal jackets, which he has purchased at a large discount for ready cash. Any jacket or mantle is made in the work-rooms on the premises, and as only first-class tailor cutters are kept a perfect fit is guaranteed.

The manufacture of mantles, jackets, and furs being made a speciality of this business, Mr. Capon devotes his entire attention to the manufacture of the different designs, and all goods being supplied on the ready-money system, he is enabled to offer his customers exceptionally low terms. Maids’ and children’s jackets and mantles in all the newest shapes are held in great variety. In consequence of the great development of the children’s department, the proprietor has been compelled to arrange a new show-room for its accommodation in one of the upper floors. Every size is kept in stock in mantles, jackets, dolmans, paletots, ulsters, furs, waterproofs, and umbrellas. Mr. Capon wishes it to be understood that his establishment has no connection with any other firm in the country. The "bespoke" department is under the charge of an experienced lady, assisted by a considerable number of skilled workers. The garments turned out here have a high reputation for elegance and gracefulness, and for accuracy of fit. Mr. Capon’s active superintendence of all departments is productive of the most happy results, and has been the means of securing a large and developing patronage from all classes of the community.


The Allerton Mills, near Bradford, were founded considerably over half a century ago, and have just recently come into the possession of their present proprietor, Mr. Isaac Smith. Covering a ground area of about twelve thousand square yards, these fine mills have been organised and equipped upon a very complete and extensive scale, and have large productive facilities, upwards of fifteen thousand spindles being in operation. The whole establishment presents evidences of sound practical management, and since Mr. Smith’s advent a new shed has been erected for spinning and twisting, finding employment for about one hundred additional hands. The total staff now numbers between four hundred and five hundred workers, and the various processes of the industry are carried out with the aid of the most improved and effective modern machinery. Every convenience and due economy of time and labour are ensured by the commodious plan of the works and the well-considered system upon which the several departments are arranged. Not the least noteworthy or satisfactory features of the Allerton Mills are found in the careful provision made by the proprietor to secure the health, comfort, and personal safety of his employes, every department being thoroughly ventilated and fitted with every sanitary requirement, while the precautions against fire are most complete. At this busy establishment the most amicable relations exist between employer and employed, the just and considerate dealings of the one having won the respect and confidence of the other. Mohair is the great speciality at Allerton Mills, and the firm’s large and excellent product in this important class of goods is distributed by the Bradford merchants throughout many markets, a great deal going to the Continent.

Mr. Alderman Isaac Smith, the sole proprietor of this flourishing business, brings to bear upon its general administration a practical ability, which is the fruit of long experience, and which has had the happiest results in developing and improving the trade of the concern. Allerton Mills are now more famous than ever for goods of first-class quality and thorough reliability, and their products enjoy a standard reputation at home and abroad. Alderman Smith is one of Bradford’s leading citizens, and is equally esteemed in business and municipal life. Alderman Smith is also managing director of the old and well-known firm of Messrs. John Smith & Sons, Limited.


Prominent among the leaders of the brewing trade in Yorkshire stands the well-known firm of Messrs. Waller & Son, Limited, who control the Trafalgar Brewery, and also conduct a large and important wine and spirit business in Ivegate and Millergate. This notable concern was founded in the year 1847 under the title of Charles Waller, and was converted into a limited liability company in June, 1887. It has had a highly successful career, which bids fair to continue, for its energetic founder and principal proprietor, Mr. T. W. Waller, retains the post of managing director, and gives his personal attention to the administration of the business. The Trafalgar Brewery is situated in Trafalgar Street, and is a large and admirably planned establishment, fitted with the most improved modern plant and appliances, and possessing very extensive productive facilities. Here Messrs. Waller & Son, Limited, carry on the brewing of their celebrated mild and bitter ales, stout, and porter, which are the product of the best English malt and hops, and which have a splendid reputation for uniform purity and fine quality. The water supply at the brewery is particularly good, and all conditions are favourable to the continuance of the industry in a manner ensuring the highest results in the beers turned out. The following extract from the Anti-Adulteration Review speaks for the excellence of this firm’s "brew":— "In Bradford the beers of Messrs. Waller & Son are spoken of by our analyst as possessing not only the proper gravity, alcoholic strength, and a freedom from acidity, but also having a flavour most pleasing to the palate, and a brilliant sparkling appearance to please the eye of the consumer." These high-class beers are supplied in both small and large casks, and are in widespread and increasing demand.

Messrs. Waller & Son’s wine and spirit business is one of very considerable magnitude and importance, and is conducted in spacious premises in Ivegate, Millergate, and Sunbridge Road. Here the firm have offices, sale-rooms, well-appointed bottling departments, and large stores in which they hold an immense stock. Their new cigar-room at Millergate contains a large stock of choice Havanas, made up of selections from all the leading brands, and the most exacting smoker could not fail to satisfy his requirements from their stock. All the leading growths and most esteemed vintages of port, sherry, champagne, and other wines are fully represented, including the choice shipments of such noted firms as Graham, Dow, and Sandeman (for ports), and Gonzalez, Byass & Co., and Wisdom & Warter (for sherry). Martell’s, Hennessy’s, and Otard, Dupuy & Co.’s famous brandies find a prominent place in the stock, as also do the various "grand brands" of champagne now enjoying popularity in this country. The whisky department is replete with the finest products of the great Scotch and Irish distilleries; and there are rare old rums and gins of a character calculated to please the most exacting connoisseur of these standard spirits. In liqueurs and cordials Messrs. Waller & Son hold a full assortment, and they also engage largely in the manufacture of aerated waters, having an admirably equipped factory for this important and growing industry. In the bottling department Bass’s Ales and Guinness’s Stout are extensively bottled, and are sent out in prime condition.

Altogether, this is one of the most notable businesses of its kind in the West Riding, and it continues to increase rapidly in all departments under the able and vigorous management it enjoys. The Company own a large number of valuable public-houses, which they supply; and they also have the support of a very extensive and important local and district connection in the trade, and among private families. Several commercial travellers represent the Company, and a large staff is employed at the brewery and wine and spirit stores. We may add that, in addition to numerous hotels, taverns, and public-houses in Bradford, Messrs. Waller & Son, Limited, own the Royal Hotel, Low Moor; the Holme Lane Hotel, Dudley Hill; the "Fox and Hounds," Shipley; and the "Scotsman Stores," in Kirkgate, Leeds. T. W. Waller, Esq., the managing director of this flourishing concern, is a thoroughly capable and experienced business man, and is highly esteemed in Bradford for his liberality and constant interest in the welfare of the town and its people. Recently, hearing that some Bradford families who had emigrated to Brazil were in a State of destitution in that country, Mr. Waller promptly stepped forward and made the handsome offer of £500 to defray the expense of bringing them back home again. We believe the necessary steps have been taken to use the money in the manner intended by its donor. This kindly act (all the more admirable in that it was entirely voluntary and unsolicited) is but one of many deeds of generosity which have made Mr. Waller a popular man in busy Bradford.


This firm’s extensive business was founded as far back as the year 1837, and the present sole principal is Mr. A. G. Barrett, who trades under the original title of Perkins, Son, & Barrett. The premises at Bradford, known as "The Forge," are of very considerable size, covering an area of more than six acres of ground, and comprising forges, engineering sheds, foundry, and general workshops, besides general and private offices. At these works the firm employ between two hundred and fifty and three hundred skilled hands, whose labours are assisted by a large and valuable plant of the most powerful and effective iron and steel working machinery. With these excellent facilities at their command Messrs. Perkins, Son, & Barrett are enabled to carry on their industrial operations upon a scale of more than ordinary magnitude, and they accomplish an immense output in the following registered brands:— " Bradford" — general smith’ s work, tire bars, loom cranks,&c.; "Bradford, Yorks" — best shafting, best scrap loom cranks, turning iron, girder iron, rivet iron, shoe and nut iron, &c.; "Bradford special" — scutcher-beater arms, feed rollers, temples, ring iron, pinions, &c.; "Bradford refined" — best Yorkshire rivet iron, marine and locomotive engine work, colliery and quarry chains, &c. Besides the above the firm make large quantities of both hard and mild steel for turning or welding. A particularly important speciality consists in the making of patent wrought-iron pulleys, and the house is also noted for all kinds of bevelled, morticed, and helical wheels of the best quality, rope pulleys, and forgings and foundry castings of every description. All Messrs. Perkins, Son, & Barrett’s productions hold a high place in the market, and are esteemed for their uniform good quality and reliability. This firm rank with the leaders of the trade in Yorkshire, and enjoy the support and confidence of a most extensive and influential connection. They have branches at 248, High Street, Borough, London, S.E., and 194, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. Mr. A. G. Barrett, the sole principal, takes an active part in administering the affairs of the house, and is widely known as an energetic and capable business man, whose methods are sound, and whose knowledge of the iron and steel trade is as practical as it is comprehensive.


The above house was founded by Messrs. Charles Semon and John Siltzer under the title of Semon, Siltzer & Co., but Mr. Semon subsequently retired, and, going to London, became a banker. In 1858 he returned to Bradford, and entering once more into commercial pursuits, he inaugurated the present vast business. Soon afterwards Mr. Semon was joined by Mr. Cohen, and in 1872 the firm was augmented by the accession of Mr. Sonnenthal. Mr. Semon died in 1877, and since that date the business has been continued by Mr. Cohen and Mr. Sonnenthal, who trade in co-partnership under the old title of Charles Semon & Co. In Bolton Road this eminent firm occupy a very handsome and spacious warehouse, all the departments of which are admirably organised to admit of the expeditious transaction of business. The whole of this fine establishment is lighted by electricity. The firm deals in yarns, general Bradford goods, dress fabrics, cashmeres, linings, Italians, figured cloths, worsted coatings, and woollens in great variety. It will be seen that their trade embraces three great departments, viz., yarns, stuffs, and woollens. In these three branches combined Messrs. Charles Semon & Co. control the most extensive and influential business in Bradford, supplying yarns and stuffs and worsted to all the principal markets in this country and abroad. The trade carried on is of immense magnitude in the London and the export markets, and few northern firms maintain such extended and important connections in London, the Continental countries, and the United States of America. The house gives employment to about two hundred hands, including clerks, warehousemen, packers, &c., and is ably represented by agents abroad and in London. All the affairs of this thoroughly representative mercantile house are administered with conspicuous ability and sound judgment, under the supervision of the present principals, who are both gentlemen of the highest standing in the trade with which they are associated. We should add that the late Mr. Charles Semon was, in his time, one of Bradford’s most esteemed and respected citizens. He twice filled the office of Mayor, was a Deputy-Lieutenant of the county, and a county and borough magistrate; and he will long be gratefully remembered for his munificent benefactions to the district and its inhabitants, one of the chief of these being the Semon Convalescent Home at Ilkley, which he built and handed over to the Corporation of Bradford as a gift.


The house of Messrs. James Mollin & Son was originally founded in Manchester, where the firm still control an active agency, and is now conducted in Bradford, to which the business was transferred in 1870. Messrs. Mollin’s trade in dye specialties and extracts has extended to all parts of the United Kingdom, the United States of America, the East Indies, Australia, New Zealand, &c. Their dry-salteries have everywhere attained the demand to be expected from a class of merchandise thoroughly adapted to the requirements of the several silk, cotton, wool, jute, and leather industries to which the firm’s specialities are applied, and a sound and unimpeachable evidence of the merits and excellences of the widely-sought productions is afforded by the fact that in the manufacture of a very large quantity of the better classes of carpets, emanating from Kidderminster, the noted durability and permanency of colouring characteristic of those celebrated fabrics is due to the application of Messrs. James Mollin & Son’s dyes. The very extensive character of the trade controlled by this firm, and the yearly increases it denotes tend to indicate the popularity of their unrivalled products, and in preserving connections of a valuable and long established order, not only among the industrial concerns above referred to, but also among printers and dyers, for extracts, carmines, &c., they maintain and scrupulously adhere to a standard of excellence which is its own recommendation.

They are represented by commercial travellers all over the country, and, with an accounting staff of eight clerks and warehouse assistants, they anticipate all the probable exigencies of the trade in a manner satisfactory to their clients. The establishment in Bentley Street is, with the exception of the offices towards the front, almost entirely devoted to the storage of a dry-saltery collection to which the term enormous may be accurately applied. The basement literally teems with specialities, and the warehouse at the rear, which extends into Booth Street, is replete with an exhaustive range of alizarines, extracts, and sundries, while the whole premises are in every respect most comprehensively stocked by the firm with some five hundred varieties. There are nowhere to be found chemical products which more genuinely satisfy the demand among manufacturers for lasting dyes than those of Messrs. Mollin. That fact is adequately attested by the extensive disposal of the firm’s goods over a wide commercial area, and it only remains to be said that so gratifying a result of successful trading bespeaks the sustained enterprise of the principals and their constant consideration for the needs of the various industries and trades to which their much-appreciated dyes have already rendered eminently valuable service.


No more striking example of enterprise has been given to the inhabitants of Bradford of recent years than the one presented by Mr. James Tindell. The business of which this gentleman is now the sole proprietor, although only established in 1889, has become known near and far, and for excellence has attained to a position second to none in the town. When originally founded the business was owned by Messrs. Charlton & Tindell, the latter gentleman becoming sole proprietor in 1891. The premises, built in the most modern style, are very extensive, and consist of two large shops. One is used for the ready-made department and the other for the bespoke. The stock is selected with great care and judgment, and embraces gents’ and youths’, fashionably cut, well made, and of the best material. There is a superior selection of hats, in silk, felt, tweed, &c., in all the newest styles, from the best English and Parisian manufacturers. Above the shops we find two large rooms for the display of juvenile clothing; in this branch a large trade is done. Ladies’ tailor-made garments also receive the attention of the proprietor. A great improvement has also recently been made by the introduction of the electric light throughout the premises, thus showing that Mr. Tindell does not mean to be behind the times.

All parts of the establishment are most attractively fitted and furnished, and the two commodious plate-glass windows arranged in a masterly manner. The bespoke department is replete with one of the largest and choicest stocks of woollens in Bradford, comprising Scotch and English tweeds, in all the newest designs, Yorkshire and West of England cloths, serges, angolas, meltons, beavers, &c., &c. Among the many specialities may be mentioned the registered rain-proof overcoat, made to measure at 28s. 6d., a marvel of cheapness. This is the only establishment in Bradford who sell this article at the above price. The cutting department is under the personal supervision of Mr. Tindell, who has had long practical experience in the art of scientific cutting. The features of this business are best goods, perfect fit, lowest prices. The spirited enterprise of the proprietor has lately been further demonstrated by the issuing of a capital portrait album of the nineteenth-century celebrities, which forms an effective and lasting advertisement. The connection extends throughout the West Riding of Yorkshire generally. In the well-appointed workshop, at the rear of the shop, a large number of skilled hands are employed, and as the proprietor pays good wages he is able to command the services of picked men in the trade. Polite and obliging in all his transactions, Mr. Tindell is deservedly respected by the whole of his huge clientele. No OUTSIDE WORKERS ARE EMPLOYED, ALL GARMENTS BEING MADE ON HIS OWN PREMISES.


Established in 1886 by Mr. E. Bush, who is the sole proprietor, the business has rapidly developed and now occupies a leading position in this line in Yorkshire. The premises at 26, Sunbridge Road are situated nearly opposite the Y.M.C.A. They comprise well-appointed show-rooms on the ground floor. At the back and on the first and second floors are large and well-equipped work-rooms, also consulting-rooms for ladies and gentlemen. The premises, in fact, are eminently suited to the business, having been specially fitted up and arranged in the most careful and complete manner to ensure the effective and economical working of the various departments. Messrs. Bush & Co. have on view a very large and thoroughly representative stock, which embraces opticians’ goods of every description, mathematical and surgical instruments, spectacles to suit all sights, artificial eyes, magic lanterns, barometers, thermometers, electrical batteries, and other appliances; electric bells, ladies’ and gentlemen’s abdominal belts, trusses of every size, elastic stockings, knee-caps and anklets, crutches, and special appliances for spinal curvatures, &c. Messrs. Bush & Co. keep a staff of skilled and experienced hands constantly employed, and turn out work of the best quality only. The firm have a splendid connection. Mr. E. Bush possesses the advantage of long practical experience, and with a thorough knowledge of optics and the allied sciences bearing upon the manufacture of his several specialities. He is ably assisted by Mrs. Bush, who superintends the ladies’ department. The business is rapidly developing, and is conducted in that true spirit of commercial enterprise which makes the interests of clients a consideration of the very first importance.

Telephone No. 425.

The history of the Bradford Laundry Works dates back to l844, when this now flourishing and energetically conducted enterprise was initiated, in a humble way, by the late Mr. E. J. Mitchell, in small premises at the bottom of School Street, where the work was done by hand machines. In 1865 this novel business had, under persevering management, become so successful that in order to cope with the enormous influx of business Mr. Mitchell removed to more extensive premises in Harris Street, and after a short period it became necessary to again extend these premises in order to meet the growing demands of his constantly increasing circle of customers. Since then the area of the establishment has, for similar reasons, been enlarged from time to time. The ground floor is occupied partly by the well-appointed office, which is situated at the main entrance. At the rear of the office on the ground floor is an extensive cart-shed for the loading and unloading of linen, and immediately adjoining is situated the marking room, starch-room, wash-house (for new work), drying-room, and general wash-house. In the drying-room are a series of drying cylinders in which articles brought direct from the hydro are dried in the small space of five minutes. On the first floor are two vast apartments — the larger one (three hundred by thirty feet) being exclusively used for ironing and the getting-up of linen, and is fitted up with the latest and most improved machinery for ironing purposes. The other apartment is used solely for the packing up of linen, &c. The whole of this elaborate machinery has been erected under the special care of eminent mechanical engineers, and is driven by a powerful steam-engine.

Everything which experience could suggest, and that a wise expenditure of capital could command, has been supplied to the Bradford Laundry Works. All the work done on the premises is executed under the best possible conditions, and the firm are thus enabled to charge very moderate terms to their customers. A speciality in the business of the firm is the large amount of "new work" which they execute for shirt, collar, and front manufacturers. These goods are taken direct from the manufactory to the laundry, and are there washed, starched, and "got up" ready for the use of the purchaser. The laundry works have also a large and valuable connection among public institutions, clubs, hotels, schools, and private families. Goods are collected and delivered daily by the aid of horses and vans, which are the property of the firm. The complete organisation of the establishment is illustrated by the fact that a fully equipped mechanics’ shop is attached to the works, where upwards of sixty experienced hands are employed in the laundry works. Messrs. Mitchell & Co. are also large manufacturers of Elastic Cloth-covered Rollers — used extensively for wool-washing machines by the wool-combers of the United Kingdom and of various other parts of the world. The late Mr. E. J. Mitchell was the original inventor and patentee of these rollers, and the firm have received two medals (the highest award in each case), for the excellency of these rollers — one (a silver medal) from the Bradford Technical College Exhibition of 1882, and the other from the Huddersfield Art Exhibition of l883. The whole business is under the personal management of Miss Mitchell, the daughter of the founder.

Telephone No. 347.

It was in the year 1879 that Messrs. Fortune & Bentham, two young engineers, who had already won their laurels as experts, entered into association to form the nucleus of the present prosperous undertaking. With but a very modest capital, backed by indomitable perseverance and undoubted skill, they soon gained the liberal support of local manufacturers for the high excellence and finished workmanship of all their productions, and found it necessary to repeatedly enlarge their plant to keep pace with the rapidly increased demand which had accrued, wholly and solely in virtue of the intrinsic merits of their manufactures. Pari passu with the growth of their business the inventive ingenuity of the partners manifested itself by the construction of special machinery to facilitate speedy production and the out-turn of superior goods; so that their plant, in addition to all the ordinary tools of a first-class engineering concern in the shape of power-driven lathes, milling, drilling, and planing machines, &c., is very largely supplemented by ingenious devices peculiar to the establishment; amongst which special mention must be made of an automatic contrivance for the making and drilling of fallers and circles for wool-combing machines.

In 1887 Messrs. Fortune & Bentham acquired the business of Mr. John Feather, of Keighley, and have ever since continued to develop it side by side with their Bradford house. They operate on a very large scale as manufacturers of wool-combing machinery of the most modern and improved description; of circles for Noble’s combing-machines, circles made from rolled brass, and steel fallers and gills. They are the only makers of circles on the Ratus system, for the production of which they have gained a worldwide renown, and were successful in carrying off the gold medal, the highest award, at the Royal Yorkshire Jubilee Exhibition, Saltaire. The trade controlled is one of very considerable volume, extending not only throughout the United Kingdom, but very largely to France, Germany, and the United States of America, and the entire business is conducted with rare ability, tact, and judgment, upon principles which have won for the firm the esteem and confidence of an exceptionally large and valuable clientele.

Telephone No. 598.

Since 1874, when the business was first established, the firm of Messrs. Adam Robinson & Son, of the Albion Dye Works, Bradford, have gradually, but surely, established a reputation as dyers and sizers which is second to none in the district. The commodious premises consist of a large two- storeyed building, with a fine frontage of over one hundred and twenty feet. On the ground floor are situated the well-appointed offices of the firm. The several work-rooms are fitted up with special machinery of modern construction and mechanical appliances of the most approved type for the dyeing and sizing of cotton warps and hanks. They are driven by powerful steam-engines, recently erected. The firm have numerous and substantial business connections among many of the leading Bradford district merchants and manufacturers. The output of the Albion Works is so considerable as to require the constant employment of from forty to fifty hands. Mr. G. H. Robinson is the sole proprietor of the business, and is thoroughly familiar with all the requirements of the trade, and personally supervises all the industrial processes in the works. He is well known and much respected throughout a large commercial circle in the Bradford district.

Carlo Fara, Proprietor.

Occupying the enviable position of being the largest and best patronised hotel in Bradford, the Alexandra is unquestionably deserving of a prominent place upon these records of progress. The hotel was erected in the year 1879, and run under the auspices of a limited liability company for a period of ten years, with Mr. Carlo Fara as manager, and was, in 1889, acquired by that gentleman from the company, and continued by him under his sole proprietary control. The premises consist of a large and substantial stone building, in the modern Italian style, and, as such, form one of the architectural features of the borough, in which it is centrally and pleasantly situated on a salubrious site. The main entrance of the establishment in Horton Road leads directly into a grand central hall of noble proportions, covering an area of close upon two thousand square yards, and being most sumptuously decorated. From this hall access is gained to the several public apartments, all of which are beautifully fitted and furnished in the most modern style, and include a capital commercial-room, dining-room, ladies’ coffee-room, smoking-saloon, billiard-room, and private sitting-rooms. A complement of one hundred and forty large, clean, and comfortable bedrooms, bath-rooms, domestic offices, and sanitary arrangements of the most perfect kind constitute the remainder of the accommodation.

To the rear of the hotel is a large yard, and a covered space with an extensive range of stables and coach-houses, which are available not only for the use of guests, but for the public in general. Both as regards extent and excellence of contents the Alexandra cellars are noted far and wide, and its cuisine is proverbially perfect. Several languages are spoken by the proprietor and staff; the attendance is thorough and efficient in every detail; moderate charges characterise the tariff of the house in all respects, and the sound judgment and practical knowledge of Mr. Carlo Fara, the genial and courteous proprietor of the establishment, are strongly manifested in every effort that is made to sustain the Alexandra Hotel in its unrivalled position of favour and high repute, as the best managed as well as the largest caravansary in the busy borough of Bradford.


This thriving house was originally established over thirty years ago by the father of the present principal, who commenced operations in the year 1861, and carried on the business with very satisfactory results until his demise in 1871, when he was succeeded by his son, Mr. James Ingham, who has since continued to increase and develop the scope and extent of his operations with great success. The premises comprise capitally arranged offices at the entrance, with extensive workshops at the rear, and all kinds of cloth, leather, and paper washers are manufactured upon an extensive scale for spinning, roving, drawing, and reeling, as well as rolling and lifter cloth, lubricating wads for spinning and roving machinery, tacks, cleaning cloths, &c. Mr. Ingham bears a very high reputation in this particular trade, and he is supported by an influential and widespread connection among manufacturers and spinners, his orders coming from as far away as America, Russia, and all parts of the Continent, in addition to the flourishing trade done all over the manufacturing districts of the United Kingdom. About a dozen skilled and competent hands are employed, under the direct superintendence of Mr. James Ingham, who is a thoroughly practical man of much energy and business capacity, and is greatly esteemed and respected in commercial circles.


Mr. Ullathorne established the above business in 1889, and brought to bear upon its development a sound knowledge of the business and good executive ability. A beginning was soon made and a name acquired for reliable work and thorough finish. In 1891, he was joined by Mr. Edmondson, and under their united control, the progress of the house has been of a very marked character. The premises occupied consist of the basement of an extensive block of buildings situate as above, comprising a suite of offices and show-room with workshops at the rear. The arrangement of the interior has been carried out with a full knowledge of the requirements of the trade, and the equipment includes apparatus, plant, and machinery of the most improved and scientific description. Special mention must be made of the show-room, which is replete with all the latest appliances in electrical fittings, suitable either for the drawing room of a mansion or the largest manufacturer’s mill. Here several styles are shown of the firm’s ideas of lighting and the workman’s skill, the show-room being neatly fitted up with numbers of brackets, table standards and electroliers of various modern designs, all controlled by separate switches, giving a brilliant display of light. The wires are cased in polished mahogany, oak, and walnut, which at once gives the observer the conviction that the firm’s idea is to do really first-class work that will speak for itself.

Employment is found for a large force of skilled hands, and the whole establishment is in a good state of efficiency. Under very favourable circumstances, a large and rapidly increasing business is controlled in the manufacture of machinery and apparatus for electric lighting and the transmission of power, dynamos, motors, arc lamps, switches, fuses, carbons and every accessory. The articles turned out are thoroughly well made. Only the best material is used, the workmanship is sound and substantial, and their productions embody all the latest improvements and inventions. A high finish is guaranteed in all the machinery they make. Their dynamos possess many first-class points, such as slow speed, no sparking, solidity of construction and simplicity of design. Telephones are fitted up with microphone transmitters and bell receivers, and are warranted loud speaking. The business done in this direction is giving entire satisfaction. The firm also manufacture and fix electric bells, speaking tubes, front door electric pulls, burglar alarms and lightning conductors. Estimates are given free of charge for complete electric light installations, including engine (gas or steam), dynamo and every requisite.

The reputation of the firm has now been thoroughly established, the services of the firm having been called into requisition for every kind of installation. Many highly satisfactory testimonial are in their possession. The following are a few that may be mentioned. Mills and works:— Joseph Benn & Sons, Beckside Mills, Clayton; Armitage & Ibbetson, Bradford; Brownhill & Co., Denby Dale; W. & E. Armitage, Huddersfield; J. J. Flitch & Sons, Leeds. Business premises:- Brown, Muff, & Co., Bradford; W. Roberts & Son, Doncaster; Co-operative Society, Lincoln; Barraclough & Son, Leeds; Illingworth, Newboult & Co., Limited, Bradford; Leeds Joint-stock Bank, Leeds; Craven & Craven, Keighley. Private residences:— H. Benn, Esq., Clayton; J. Fawell, Esq., Bradford; J. E. Flitch, Esq., Moor Allerton, Leeds; A. Benn, Esq., Clayton; — Ibbetson, Esq., Manningham, and many others, to whom application can always be made for reference.

The new patent arc lamp supplied and used by the firm is in great demand, and requires special notice, its principal features being, simplicity of construction, thereby seldom getting out of order; gives an absolutely steady and perfect light; and - the main consideration — it is only half the cost of most of the advertised makes, at the same time giving equal if not better light. All work undertaken by Messrs. Ullathorne & Edmondson is executed promptly and satisfactorily, and at the lowest prices consistent with good workmanship. The connection extends throughout the whole of Yorkshire. The proprietors of this important concern are men of great practical skill and experience, and their close personal attention is bestowed upon the business in all its branches. They are just and honourable in all their dealings, and they command the respect and confidence of all who come into business connection with them.


In connection with the textile interest of Bradford the general dealer and warehouseman necessarily plays a most important and responsible part in the distribution of its several productions, and prominent among the most notable houses so engaged stands the above, whose rise and progress furnishes the theme of the present brief historical review. Commencing in a comparatively humble way in 1863 at the Old Market, subsequently Rawson Place (whose rent at that time was sixpence per week), Mr. Henry Lingard for a period of fourteen years continued to carry on a prosperous business. At the end of that period he removed to the New Market, and here the tide seemed to take a very rapid turn in his favour, for by the year 1877 he found it necessary to enter upon a portion of his present vast premises, and to conduct a business which became so phenomenal in its development that enlargements were imperative upon no fewer than ten successive occasions, until finally he purchased the whole of the great building, which extends from Godwin Street right through Baldwin Lane to Westgate, and includes in the Westgate section 6,132 feet, in the Baldwin Lane portion 12,362 feet, and in the Godwin Street premises 9,524 feet, the whole of the huge premises covering a floorage of over 28,018 feet.

The stock is perhaps one of the largest and most varied and comprehensive of its kind in the kingdom; and includes Bradford and Manchester goods of every conceivable kind, in the way of stuffs, cashmeres, dress goods, job stuffs, fents, table linens, diapers, ladies’ and children’s underclothing, lace curtains, bedding materials, and every kind of goods incidental to the trade of the drygoods merchants and general warehousemen. It may be here mentioned that the Westgate portion of the premises are devoted to the sale and storage of Bradford goods exclusively; and that in addition to these great warehouses, Mr. Lingard runs three shops in the New Market for the sale of Bradford and Manchester goods and general merchandise. The business has indeed undergone a prodigious development, and is still rapidly increasing under the enterprising management of Mr. Lingard, who was formerly an operative weaver of both woollens and calicoes, and thus is possessed of an intimate practical knowledge of the value of the goods he deals in, and it is to this that he personally attributes his phenomenal success.

The house is so firmly established as to be independent of any travelling representatives or advertising, the trade is conducted in buying and selling for cash only, extending in great part to country shopkeepers and private families throughout the length and breadth of the United Kingdom, and calling into active requisition the services of a staff of over seventy clerks, salesmen, assistants, and warehousemen, and not having hitherto resorted to any kind of check, he prides himself in their individual integrity and personal honesty. Mr. Lingard personally superintends the entire concern with characteristic ability and energy; and he is especially noted for his benevolent disposition of charity in deserving cases, and is an ardent supporter of the various philanthropic institutions of the town; and in spite of his very arduous and manifold duties yet finds time to devote to the welfare of the community in which he dwells, he being a member of the Bradford Infirmary Board.


Mr. Arthur Illingworth is extensively engaged as an insurance broker, representing, as he does, several leading companies, but the one with which he is most directly and most prominently connected is the Transatlantic Marine Insurance Company, Limited, Berlin. For that company he acts as Yorkshire manager and underwriter. Though the Transatlantic Marine Insurance Company, Limited, is a German corporation, having its headquarters in Berlin, its enterprise is international, and it has very important interests in this country. As the products of Yorkshire industry are exported to all parts of the world, and as there are numerous extensive shippers in the leading manufacturing centres, local facilities for the insurance of maritime risks are very desirable. Such facilities are afforded by Mr. Arthur Illingworth on behalf of the Transatlantic Marine Insurance Company, Limited, of Berlin. As he is the general representative of that company for the whole of Yorkshire, the position he occupies is a responsible one. That position he fills, however, with conspicuous ability and success; and the firm foothold which the company has gained throughout the extensive district he covers is largely due to his well-directed efforts. The company, it must be admitted, offers the most advantageous terms consistent with satisfactory security and soundness. It is, therefore, held in the highest esteem by the industrial and mercantile interests of Yorkshire.

As a general insurance broker, Mr. Illingworth represents all the first-class companies for fire and life as well as marine insurance; as also the Employers’ Liability, Accident Guarantee, and every other class of insurance. Indeed, in all that relates to insurance Mr. Illingworth is an expert. His important connections, his experience, his skill, and his local standing peculiarly qualify him to give the best advice to all who consult him, and to ensure to his clients the most satisfactory conditions. Occupying the position he does in relation to a number of the most staple and respected companies in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, it follows that he is carrying on an extensive business. He has, therefore, a commodious and handsome suite of offices, both general and private, and he is assisted by an efficient staff. Mr. Illingworth is widely known in Yorkshire, enjoys the confidence of the commercial community, and is generally held in high esteem. The progress he has made, the popularity he has secured, and the extent to which he has developed the business prove him to be possessed of the very highest capacity.

Mr. Arthur Illingworth is the manager for Bradford, Huddersfield, Halifax, and Hull of the Mutual Reserve Fund Life Association of New York, chief office for Great Britain, Broad Street House, Old Broad Street, London, E.C. This association is an American institution based upon the natural premium system, but the executive of the association make it a rule only to charge the members for the actual cost of their insurance, and it is surprising when life insurance is brought to its first cost how low these premiums are in comparison with other companies. As an illustration we quote the figures for an insurance of £1,000 at the age of thirty:—

First Year.
First payment . . . . . . . .. £9 10s 0d.
General Expense Fund .. £4 0s 0d
4 bi-monthly premiums, £2 11s. 1d. each ....£10 4s 4d.
Total Cost . . . . . . . . . . . £23 14s 4d.

Second Year.
6 bi-monthly premiums, £2 11s. 1d. each ....£15 6s 6d.
Total Cost . . . . . . . . . . . £15 6s 6d.

This association has assurances in force amounting to £44,000,000, and has about one hundred thousand members, and Mr. Illingworth has had a great deal to do with the making of the large figures above stated. We trust that Mr. Arthur Illingworth will still go on succeeding as he has hitherto done, and we have no doubt that on application to his offices at 33, Charles Street, Bradford, he will only be too pleased and ready to supply any desired information relative to this company.


The above business was established by Mr. Virr as far back as 1863 at his present address, 30, Church Bank, previous to which date he had enjoyed the advantages of a thorough commercial training in the establishment of the eminent firm of Messrs. Thomas Renton & Co., of Bradford, supplemented afterwards by some years’ experience with the noted firm of Messrs. Helmuth, Schwartze, & Co., the well-known London wool brokers. Commencing operations as a wool broker and agent on a somewhat modest scale, Mr. Virr at that time occupied a small office and sample room only, on the site of his present premises, which were from time to time extended until he acquired the entire building. The stocks embrace large quantities of foreign wools of all kinds, and tops and noils in demand in the local markets. In connection with the foreign wool trade it is noteworthy that Mr. Virr was one of the chief pioneers in introducing colonial and foreign grown wools to be sold by sample in Bradford, and was also amongst the first to adopt the manufacture of camels’ hair into tops and noils. An extensive trade has been established by Mr. Virr, whose connection is of the most influential character, including the leading buyers for the home and foreign markets as well as those of the United States. Mr. Virr is widely known in commercial and social circles, having for some years occupied a seat in the Town Council as representative for the East Ward, and as a member of several managing committees of his native town; and has helped to render efficient service in assisting the necessities of his less fortunate business contemporaries in their need.


This eminent firm — a firm thoroughly representative of the industrial enterprise of Yorkshire, a firm whose fabrics are widely noted — was founded in 1878. It is, therefore, a well-established one, but it is important as well as stable. In one particular line, of which it has made a speciality, it is pre-eminent. The line referred to is the manufacture of cashmeres, a class of goods which have come greatly into favour of late years owing to their superiority in various respects to other dress materials. To the popularity of these goods the excellence, durability, and finish of Messrs. A. W. Brailsford & Co.’s manufactures have largely contributed. In the course of manufacture no effort is spared to ensure the most satisfactory results. Only the best materials procurable are used, and at every stage of the manufacture the utmost care is exercised. For the firm have a high reputation to maintain, and they recognise that it would never do for them to place upon the market fabrics which were not up to their usual standard of quality. Messrs. Brailsford & Co.’s clients, therefore, have the best possible guarantees of invariable reliability. Those clients are, for the most part, local merchants and shippers by whom the distribution of the firm’s manufactures both at home and abroad is undertaken. The goods are submitted for the inspection of buyers at the firm’s warehouse, or "market room" as it is called, at 21, Charles Street, Bradford. Here stocks are held the quality of which cannot fail to command attention. As a matter of fact, Messrs. Brailsford & Co.’s fabrics are in eager demand by the Wholesale trade, for they have a ready sale in the markets of the world.

The home distribution is considerable; but the firm’s cashmeres are also extensively exported to various foreign countries, where they are as much appreciated for their superiority as they are here. With so great a demand upon the firm’s productive capacity, the production is, of course, large, but they have so far succeeded in coping with the requirements of the markets, and are doubtless prepared to do so in the future — by extensions if necessary — should the existing demand increase as it has steadily done in the past. To a manufacture so important and far-reaching a prominent position must be assigned amongst the great industrial undertakings of Yorkshire. Its development has been very noteworthy, and there can be little doubt that it is destined to be attended with still more signal results in the future. The control of a concern such as this implies the possession of high administrative capacity as well as technical skill, intelligence and resource. All of these essentials are combined by the firm under notice, whose management has been distinguished by exceptional ability and progressive tendencies.


The above enterprise was founded in 1885 by Mr. C. H. Holdsworth, trading under the above title, and that gentleman continues to be sole principal. To all the details of the business Mr. Holdsworth devotes his close personal attention, and, with a view to the satisfactory development of his trade, travels a good deal. His assiduity, energy, and enterprise have, however, been rewarded, for within seven years he has built up a trade of considerable dimensions, and has secured connections which are at once extensive and important. He has, moreover, gained the approval and respect of all with whom he has dealings, and there is every reason to anticipate that his already substantial trade will become more and more prosperous as time goes on.

Mr. Holdsworth’s premises are commodious, well arranged, and well adapted to the business carried on. They comprise offices and a warehouse in the basement at the above address, which is an extensive range of buildings. The warehouse is heavily stocked with the products of Yorkshire industry and enterprise, a class of goods which is noted throughout the markets of the world, and the superiority of which in quality and finish is unassailable by foreign competition. The stock, therefore, includes what are known in the trade as stuffs, dress and woollen goods for ladies’ and gentlemen’s wear. To facilitate the receipt, storage, and despatch for home or export requirements of such goods, every convenience will be found at Mr. Holdsworth’s warehouse. All orders, therefore, are promptly and satisfactorily complied with. Possessing as he does a wide and excellent connection amongst the textile manufacturers of Yorkshire, Mr. Holdsworth is able to supply the most reliable qualities on the most advantageous terms to his clients. In addition, therefore, to a considerable local and district trade, he sends large consignments to all the principal distributive centres in the United Kingdom, and does a particularly extensive business with Manchester shipping houses. By the latter, the goods he supplies are consigned to the various foreign countries where a demand for them exists. The success which Mr. Holdsworth has gained in so comparatively short a time, and the importance which his business has assumed, afford undoubted proof of the high commercial capacity which he possesses. He has worked hard for that success, and has demonstrated that business advancement is only to be won by intelligent and sustained effort.


The dyeing of a great variety of textile fabrics, each upon a very large scale, may be studied to advantage at the three great dye-works which are the property of Messrs. W. Grandage & Co., of Bradford. Their enormous and successful business was founded about thirty years ago, and its commercial connection has ever since gradually and steadily expanded. While their huge industrial premises are situated in localities where the necessarily large areas of ground required may be conveniently obtained, the firm keep touch with the great mercantile and manufacturing houses with which they have business relations through their town office at 12, Bentley Street, Bradford. Here the well-appointed general and private offices are fitted up with all the appliances which economise time and labour in the conduct of an immense business correspondence.
The Bradford Telephone Exchange numbers of the firm are 701A for Brown Royd Works, 17 for Low Royd Works, and 17B for Brighouse. The telegraphic addresses are "Grandage," followed, respectively, by "Bradford," and "Brighouse."

The industrial premises consist of three separate and distinct dye-works, each of which occupies a very large ground space, and is fitted up, in all its numerous work-rooms, with mechanical appliances of the newest and most approved type for the several processes carried on. A large amount of capital has been wisely invested with all the ripe experience which is possessed by the members of the firm, in so completely equipping the whole of their works with dyeing plant of the highest class that all their work is performed at the lowest rate of cost consistent with the best workmanship and the most careful finish. At their several establishments Messrs. Grandage & Co. do a very extensive business, not only as cotton, wool, and silk dyers, but as bleachers, stovers, sizers and melangers, and also as piece dyers and finishers. Their works are known respectively as the Low Royd Dye Works, the Brown Royd Dye Works, and the Calder Dye Works, which latter are situated at Brighouse.

The Brown Royd Works are devoted, exclusively, to the dyeing and finishing of piece goods. At the other two establishments are conducted the processes of dyeing slubbings, silk, cotton, and other textile fabrics. The members of the firm are Messrs. Abraham and William Grandage, with their sons, Messrs. Frederick, Henry, and George Grandage. The output of their three works, jointly, requires the constant employment of about a thousand hands. All these gentlemen are thoroughly familiar with all the requirements, industrial and commercial, of their great business, and each of them takes an active share in the supervision of its details. To this may be attributed, in a large measure, the increasing connection which the firm have throughout the Yorkshire and Lancashire manufacturing districts.

Telephone No. 650; telegrams: "Jasill," Bradford."

Mr. Hill only commenced business at the above address two years ago; but he is already doing an extensive trade. Unlike most local wool-merchants, however, he combines industrial with commercial enterprise, and has a mill of his own at which woolcombing is carried on. This is situated at Allerton, Bradford, and is known as the "Top" Mill. The mill is an important one, of considerable range and capacity, and in connection with it a large number of hands are employed. It is finely equipped with steam machinery of the most modern construction, and in all respects admirably appointed. Mr. Hill’s Bradford premises comprise an imposing four-storeyed stone building. On the ground floor there is a handsome and commodious suite of general and private offices. These are attractively fitted up and furnished. Mr. Hill has a thorough practical knowledge of the trade in all its details, and devotes his whole attention to the supervision of the business. He gets his supplies from the best sources, and, as he operates on an important scale, he can secure the most advantageous terms. His clients, therefore, can depend on obtaining from him thoroughly reliable quality at the lowest quotations.


(There is no description accompanying this listing.)


This notable firm was founded in or about the year 1825 by the present senior partner’s grandfather and his sons John and Miles, the present head of the concern being admitted into the firm in 1852, On the death of the founder, he became sole proprietor, but in 1874 he was joined in partnership by his two sons, Messrs. Angus and Rufus Moulson, who continue to share with him the duties and responsibilities of managing and further developing this large and increasing business. Messrs. Moulson & Son have their headquarters at their building works in Bower Street and Henry Street, which cover a large area of ground, and include mortar mills, stone-sawing and polishing works, joiners’ shops, sawmills, &c., all fully equipped with the best and most powerful modern machinery for their several purposes. The joinery and saw-milling departments are approached via Henry Street, while the stone-sawing works are in Bower Street. Steam is the motive power used for driving the machinery, and the whole establishment is admirably organised for the work in which it is engaged. Messrs. John Moulson & Son also have brick and sanitary tube works in Birch Lane; and quarries at Thornton near Bradford, and at Ringby near Halifax; and stone wharves at Thornton Station and North Bridge Station, both on the Great Northern Railway.

A large business is done by this old and well-known firm as stone merchants, manufacturers of bricks and sanitary tubes, and general building contractors. All the partners are well-known and much esteemed in the Bradford district, and they all take an active part in the management of the business. William Moulson, Esq., the senior partner, filled the high office of Mayor of Bradford, with great credit, in 1889. He is at the present time an alderman and a Justice of the Peace for the borough.


This business, which was founded in 1882 by the present proprietors, has acquired a reputation which extends more or less throughout the county. Devoting themselves exclusively to the manufacturing of stuff hearth-rugs, the firm have been successful in producing a succession of the most novel and pleasing designs, which have met with a ready sale. During the first year of their establishment they exhibited at the Technical Exhibition, held in Bradford, in 1882. The beauty of design and the durability of the rugs caused much attention at the time. One noteworthy fact about the productions of this respected firm is that every article turned out by them may be absolutely relied upon. At great cost special machinery has been put down, and each stage of manufacture is carefully attended to by a staff of skilled and experienced hands. The factory, a large two-storeyed building, is aptly named, perseverance and enterprise being conspicuous on every side. The rugs are made on frames, and are composed of stripes of cloth and woollen stuffs. The patterns and designs vary very much, and considerable ingenuity is displayed in the blending of the colours and stuffs. They are also made in various sizes — special sizes being supplied to order. A very large and valuable business is in operation, a great part of the connection being wholesale with public institutions, schools, &c., as well as libraries, offices, and private residences. The proprietors bear an honoured name for their integrity, and for their enterprise in conducting their transactions.

Telegraphic Address: "Sewing, Bradford."

Projected in the year 1877 by Mr. Joseph Appleyard, who still continues to vigorously direct the doings of the concorn, the original premises were located in Earl Street, but in consequence of the extraordinary development of the business larger premises in Portland Road were entered upon in 1885. These in turn proving insufficient for the accommodation of the business, the present extensive premises were acquired at the beginning of the present year. The accommodation here afforded comprises a large and elaborately equipped workshop, fully fitted with a magnificent plant of special machinery, driven by steam power, and calling into active requisition the services of an extensive staff of skilled engineers and mechanics for the production of the machinery and machine tools for which Mr. Appleyard’s name has become so famous. All kinds of machinery are made, but the staple productions of the house consist of the following machines — Appleyard’s patent ironing and, glossing machine for hand or steam power; circular knife cutting machine, for machine belting; splicing and levelling machine for machine belting; Appleyard’s patent wire belt sewing-machine; Appleyard’s patent combined lathe, planing, shaping and fluting machine, drilling machines, slotting machines, and the like. He has also recently invented a side planing machine for planing long lathe beds and similar articles. All these commodities are chefs-d’oeuvre of the technical engineer’s skilled workmanship, and were awarded silver medals at the International Royal Yorkshire Jubilee Exhibition, Saltaire, 1887, and the Industrial Exhibition, Glasgow, 1891.

The trade controlled is one of very considerable volume, and extends not only throughout the United Kingdom, but to every quarter of the globe, principally through the agency of export merchants. The business in all its branches receives the personal supervision of Mr. Appleyard, and is most capably and energetically conducted upon principles winch have won for him the esteem and confidence of a very large, valuable, and still rapidly increasing clientele.


The origin of this business dates back to 1840, when operations were commenced by Mr. John Feather, the father of the present proprietor, who developed the concern with notable energy and ability until his death in 1887, since which date the business has been carried on solely by his son, Mr. Smith Feather, under the original title. Extensive and commodious premises are occupied, comprising offices, warehouses, store-rooms and workshops, the whole being well arranged for the successful discharge of the business, and equipped with apparatus, plant and machinery of the latest and most suitable description. A large number of hands is employed, and the systematic discipline maintained is highly creditable to the management. Here is controlled a large and valuable business whose constant increase is a gratifying proof of the satisfaction patrons are receiving. The wools handled are the best that can be procured, and every process of preparation is carried out with the greatest care by expert workpeople. The complete resources at the command of the firm give them many advantages in their business and place them in a position to quote prices which are not surpassed anywhere in the trade. One distinguishing feature in the business is that no English or colonial wools are handled, their materials being obtained from Russia, India, Thibet, the Levant, the Ural Mountains, Shanghai, Persia, China, North Africa and South America. For collecting these wools agents are employed who attend the markets and fairs of Asiatic Russia as well as those on the western side of the Ural Mountains. A leading feature in the business is camel’s hair, which the firm import largely from Shanghai, and in the preparation and manufacture of which they have introduced many important processes. The connection of the house extends to every part of the United Kingdom, and an extensive export trade is controlled as well.

Mr. Smith Feather is a gentleman of large experience in his business, and in visiting the sources of his supplies he has travelled over great part of the world. He is strictly fair and honourable in all his transactions, and is much respected by all who come into business connection with him. He has for many years been a prominent figure in the municipal and social life of the town and has filled many important offices with credit and distinction. He was Mayor of Bradford in 1889, and is now an Alderman of the borough. He is closely connected with many of the public companies of the town. He is chairman of the Bradford and Shelf Tramways Company, Limited, and is a director of the Bradford Banking Company, Theatre Royal and Opera House Company, Limited, Waller & Son, Limited, Brewers; the Northern Counties Trust, S. Bottomley & Brothers, Limited; the Bradford Manufacturing Company, and of the Model Lodging-House Company. His residence is the "Rookery," Baildon.


This business was established about thirty years ago by Mr. G. A. Schott, who was the first inventor of fancy yarns, and gradually introduced this new article into the trade. The present senior partner was brought up in the business, admitted a partner in 1879, and has ever since taken an active part in the management of the concern. On the retirement of the elder Mr. Schott, Mr. Gaulke joined the firm in 1890, and having been engaged in the foreign shipping trade for a great number of years, brought very valuable foreign connections; and the special feature of the firm is now that they do all their export business direct with the consumers abroad, thus saving all intermediate profits, and having the advantage of being in direct communication with the consumers at home and abroad. The firm not only sell their own productions, but supply their customers also with every class of yarn required in the manufacture of textile fabrics. The works are laid out on an extensive scale, and spinning sheds, together with extensive warehouse accommodation, sale-room, offices, and all the accessories of a thoroughly organised establishment.

The various departments are replete with all the best and most improved machinery and appliances that skill, experience, and mechanical science have devised to effect economy in working, and to secure perfect and uniform production. The firm give employment to upwards of eighty hands at West End Mills, in the spinning of worsted, mohair, cotton and silk yarns, and in the manufacture of various kinds of fancy yarns, besides employing many thousands of spindles outside their own works in the spinning of plain mohair, worsted, and woollen yarns. These beautifully made yarns have acquired a well-established reputation in the trade; they are unsurpassed for uniform quality and excellence of finish, which may be justly attributed to the great care and sound judgment exercised in the selection of the materials, the skill and experience brought to bear upon every branch of the manufacture, and the splendid machinery the firm have at command. The trade is of a widespread, influential, and steadily growing character, and in addition to the extensive home connection, the firm do a large and continually increasing export business to all parts of the world. Messrs. Schott, Gaulke, & Co. are well known and highly respected in commercial circles. Both the partners take an active part in the business, and that commendable spirit of enterprise and energy which has always so strongly animated the members of this firm is conspicuous in the management of every department.


The birthplace and home of the famous "Yorkshire Stingo," a fine full-bodied strong ale of most seductive qualifies, assuredly deserves to figure prominently in any record of the notable industries of the North of England. Dating back in its foundation to the good old days of 1757, the celebrated Old Brewery of Bradford was organised by one Master William Whitaker, who achieved considerable distinction as a brewer of fine ales in his day, and was succeeded by a Mr. Benjamin Thompson, who in his turn not only sustained but very materially enhanced the high reputation of the house, retiring to his well-earned otium cum dignitate, to be followed by his nephew, Mr. M.W. Thompson. This gentleman represented the borough in Parliament for some time, and was elected three times Mayor of Bradford. Mr. Thompson was also chairman of the Midland Railway, and after the opening by the Prince of Wales of that company’s famous Forth Bridge in March, 1889, was created a baronet. The present personnel of the firm are:— Mr. Reginald Thompson, son of Sir Matthew, Mr. W. Brown, and Mr. W. G. Barker, trading under the original style and title, as designated above.

The brewery buildings are very extensive, and self-contained; that is to say, they produce everything required for the operations carried on, such as the preparation of the malt, and the ordinary repairs to machinery, the manufacture of casks, &c. The premises consist of a series of four- storeyed stone buildings forming three sides of a square; the modus operandi being conducted on what is known as the "Yorkshire stone square system;" and a magnificent modern plant of the best and most improved machinery being driven by two powerful steam-engines. The ales produced comprise the noted "Yorkshire Stingo" aforesaid, and a series of fine light bitter beers, mild and strong ales, and porter and stouts, all of which are held in the highest esteem by all who have "sampled" them. A staff of about eighty hands is employed in the various departments, and a very large trade is done, not only through the agency of travellers, but by the medium of a number of local "tied" houses belonging to the concern. Each individual member of this progressive firm takes an active part in the management of the business, and the marked success that has characterised its latter-day development is unquestionably due to the personal ability and energy, system, and regularity which have all along marked their administration of its affairs.


This prosperous house was established in 1863 by Mr. James Barrow, whose enterprising spirit early laid the foundation of future success. At the time of his death in 1878, he was succeeded by his son, also of the same name, who wisely followed in his father’s footsteps until his demise seven years later, since which time the business has been conducted by his executors. The works are situated on the ground floor of an extensive block of buildings, and are fitted with massive grindstones, and all the most approved modern steam machinery adapted to the processes of the manufacture. A large staff of workmen are here employed in turning out the speciality of the firm, which is known as dry soap. This product is put up loose in casks for transit to Messrs. S. Hemingway & Co., the well-known dry soap packers and merchants, Bradford, who derive their entire supplies of dry soap from these works. On the first floor of the building are situated the capacious works of the firm and the convenient general and private offices, all of which are handsomely appointed. The warehouse on the opposite side of the Street is utilised as a store-room. The high reputation of the firm is well maintained under the present excellent management.


Founded in 1887 by Mr. Boldy, the present owner, from the outset a favourable impression was created by the peculiarly solid and reliable nature of the work turned out. The premises occupied are extensive and well adapted for the purposes to which they are applied. There is a smiths’ shop and mechanics’ shop at the rear, liberally fitted with turning lathes, boring and drilling machines, worked by steam power, and driven by an engine and boiler. All branches connected with that of a whitesmith and an engineer and millwright are taken, great practical experience being brought to bear upon each by the principal. Very special attention is given to the making of scale beams, designed chiefly for the use of woolstaplers, merchants, and general trades. In the repairing department an excellent connection is owned. Mr. Boldy is a noted maker of large screw machines for soap-makers used in compressing grease. The millwrights’ department is in connection with all kinds of mill work, shafting, gearing, &c. There is a good connection in Ireland, and the local and district one is constantly increasing. There are twelve hands employed. The candid and honourable course pursued by Mr. Boldy has earned for him the cordial respect and confidence of all doing business with him. His residence is at 13. Upper Pollard Street.


The widespread popularity of carbonated waters has invested their manufacture with an importance that cannot be too highly estimated in catering for the wants of the public so far as pleasant, refreshing, and wholesome beverages are concerned; and in this connection Bradford is most admirably provided for by the notable firm whose rise and progress furnishes the theme of the present brief historical review. Founded in the year 1879 at Great Horton, the commercial development of the concern became so pronounced as to necessitate a considerable extension both in the magnitude of its operations and its scope and aims, and accordingly in 1885 the present eligible premises were projected; and equipped with a most magnificent plant of all the latest and best power-driven machinery and appliances, constituting the attractively built factory known as the Ashfield Works, in the Horton Road. Everything about Messrs. Ryder’s establishment is of the most perfect description, calculated to prevent the possibility of poisonous metallic or other contamination, and kept by the staff in a state of scrupulous cleanliness. Only the purest and best of ingredients is used, with the result that Ryder’s mineral waters have won a well- merited renown for their agreeable, refreshing properties and distinct superiority; and this is true of each and every one of the drinks they produce, which, besides the general run of lemonade, soda water, and ginger beer, includes a large series of excellent table tonics and mineral waters, such as those known as potash, seltzer, lithia, hop ale, and a particularly delicious drink called orange champagne, which, while possessing all the toothsome qualities and fragrant aroma of the "golden apple of the Hesperides," can yet boast of the exhilarating virtues of its alcoholic namesake. Ryder’s beverages are put up in the orthodox bottles and in syphons, and in both these forms are in very large demand for a radius of fully eight miles around Bradford as a centre; being chiefly distributed by hotel-keepers, licensed victuallers, restaurants, grocers, and others. The trade controlled is one of very considerable volume, entailing the employment of a large staff of skilled and experienced hands, whose labours are most carefully supervised by the principals, with credit to themselves and decided benefit to the community at large.


This very extensive and important business is one of the oldest concerns in the Bradford trade, and originated as far back as the year 1740 in what are now known as the "Old Mills." The founder of the house was Mr. William Rouse, grandfather of the present proprietors, and the business has been handed down from father to son in the same family throughout the century and a half that it has been in existence. The premises now occupied comprise the "Old Mills" (four storeys high), and the "New Mills," which latter are situated in North Brook Street, opposite the "Old Mills," and were acquired by the firm about half a century ago. Both establishments are well-organised and admirably equipped throughout, and have between them a very large plant of the best modern machinery, driven by steam power. The extent of the firm’s spinning resources will be understood when we say that there are no less than forty thousand spindles in operation, upwards of nine hundred hands being regularly employed.

Messrs. William Rouse & Co. carry on an immense business as worsted spinners, and do a vast home and export trade. The connection H maintained is a most influential one, extending widely among yard merchants and manufacturers of worsted coatings, stuffs, dress-goods, mohairs, &c., both at home and abroad. Messrs. Rouse & Co. also produce fabrics of a high order of merit in mohairs, worsted coatings, linings, Italians, cashmeres, and dress goods. These cloths have met with great favour, and their reputation is well maintained. All the affairs of this old-established and eminently representative house are administered in person by the principals, Messrs. John, Frank, and Herbert Rouse, three gentlemen of Sound practical ability and experience, who worthily bear a name that has been an honoured one for many years in the annals of Bradford’s industries.


The business carried on by this firm was only founded in 1889, yet it is already important, and indirectly the trade may be said to extend all over the world. The fabrics manufactured by the firm are of superior excellence, and for quality and price they compare favourably with those supplied by any pre-existing house. The cloths of which Messrs. R. H. Jubb & Co. are manufacturers include serges, vicunas, worsted coatings, &c. Such is the commercial demand for these that Messrs. Jubb & Co. supply them only wholesale. By this means, the firm’s manufactures are not only widely distributed throughout the United Kingdom, but are largely consigned to the Continent, to America, and to Australia. At the firm’s mills the latest and most improved mechanical appliances are utilised, and the staff of employes consists only of skilled and carefully selected hands. The most reliable materials are used, and in the processes of manufacture every precaution is exercised to ensure the most satisfactory results. The supply of goods to the firm’s clients is undertaken from Messra. R. H. Jubb & Co.’s town establishment at 4, Collier Gate, Bradford. The premises there comprise a suite of offices, general and private, and a warehouse. At the latter adequate stocks are kept for the prompt and efficient execution of orders. That the enterprise of Messrs. Jubb & Co. is appreciated is shown, not only by the extent of their trade and the importance of their connections, but by the esteem in which they are held by the mercantile community of Bradford. To Mr. R. H. Jubb, the principal, the credit for having secured these most gratifying results is due, for he personally manages the concern which he founded. Mr. Jubb is a gentleman of high capacity, thoroughly versed in all the details of the trade, and as a representative manufacturer is greatly respected.


It was in the year 1815 that this famous house was founded by the late Mr. Parkinson, who was succeeded by the present able and energetic proprietor some years ago. Mr. Wroe is not only a thorough connoisseur of tobacco in all its forms, but a perfect master of the details of its manufacture, and an experienced dealer into the bargain. His compact factory is located at the Midland Mills, Trafalgar Street, where he produces a very varied series of choice tobaccos, cigars, and cigarettes. The premises in Market Street comprise a very handsomely appointed retail shop and office, most methodically arranged to hold and display a complete selection of his own goods, viz., the "Stingo Navy Plug," the "Rose Leaves," "Evening Cloud," "Bradford Mixture," and other brands, also Roll, Target, Nailrod, and every description of hard and cut tobaccos, as well as those of other leading houses, boxes, and loose cigars of all the best crops and brands from Havana, Mexico, Central America, the Philippines, India, &c.; and cigarettes from the United States and the Ottoman Empire are, of course, very much en evidence, and so too are pipes and fancy goods almost ad infinitum. A very large wholesale and retail trade is in active operation, and the business is now in a particularly prosperous condition; indeed, all the achievements of the concern up to the present time afford the best possible reasons for predicting that its present prosperity is not so much to be taken as evidence of past activity, as an earnest of augmented effort and success in days to come.


As one of the oldest-established and most prosperous houses in the trade it so thoroughly represents in the busy borough of Bradford, a place of prominence is unquestionably deserved by the notable firm above referred to. Organised in the year 1850 by Mr. Jesper and the late Mr. Holt, the business was carried on for many years by those gentlemen. Mr. Jesper withdrew from the concern about twelve years ago. The style and title of the concern, however, remained unchanged as above, and upon the decease of Mr. Holt, some three years since, the sole proprietary control devolved upon his son, Mr. George Holt, who entered upon his duties under peculiarly favourable auspices, having been born and bred, so to speak, to the business. Mr. Holt operates on a very large scale in every branch of his important craft, and is now maintaining his reputation most worthily, by employing none but skilled and experienced hands, and using the best and most fashionable fabrics and materials exclusively for the production of every garment that emanates from his establishment.

His business is of a twofold character, and will readily be understood by a general bird’s-eye view of his premises, which may be described as follows:— A large and. substantial three-storeyed corner building, with attractively dressed windows overlooking Kirkgate and Cheapside, on either side of the convenient corner entrance. Within doors a spacious well-appointed shop, most methodically arranged to hold and display to the best advantage a vast and varied selection of all the most fashionable fabrics for wear, selected with great care and judgment from all the leading merchants and manufacturers of the day; general and outfitting items of every conceivable kind; and, what forms a most important variety of the business, ready-made clothing for boys, youths, and men, of guaranteed quality, the latest and best styles, and perfect finish, available at prices to suit the pockets of all classes of the community. The show and sale department thus briefly depicted extends to the first floor; while, ascending to the third storey, the perfectly equipped work-rooms are reached, and are constantly under the strict superintendence of Mr. Holt in propria persona, for here it is that another department is in force, viz., the bespoke section of the business, in which Mr. Holt prides himself upon giving to each garment made an individuality of style and perfection of fit and finish which cannot be surpassed, even in the best houses of London. The business is very ably conducted in every detail; its lengthy career, first-class reputation, and leading position all bearing ample testimony to the efficiency and energy of Mr. Holt’s system of administration.

Telegraphic Address: "Fattorini, Bradford;" 99 telephone No. 493, National.

Projected in the year 1831 by the father of the present able and energetic proprietors, Messrs. John and Edward Fattorini, the commercial development of this prosperous concern has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement; and doubtless the most effectual way in which to indicate its character, scope, and aims would be to give a concise descriptive account of the establishment as it now obtains, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. The premises occupied comprise two large and exceedingly handsome depots, one in Kirkgate, and the other, to all intents and purposes a replica of the headquarters named, in Westgate at the corner of Godwin Street, where their extensive country and export trade in all its branches is conducted. Hence it will only be necessary to give particulars of the Kirkgate premises, to serve for both.

Elegantly appointed in the most modern style, the double-fronted sale-shop forms one of the most attractive emporiums of the kind in the town. The stock of goods held and displayed is one of great volume, variety, and value, forming one of the finest aggregates of similar goods to be found in the North of England, and including an exclusively superior selection of gold and silver watches and chains; English and foreign clocks and bronzes, gold and gem jewellery, silver plate and table appointments, electro-plated wares of every description, articles de vertu et de luxe, and so on and so forth. In the elaborately equipped workshops at the rear, Messrs. Fattorini, with a staff of expert craftsmen, operate on a very large scale in every branch of repairs to watches, clocks, and jewellery, and the setting of diamonds and precious stones. They are engravers and medallists to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales; and as designers and makers of challenge cups, and recherche silver goods for wedding gifts, presentations, chalices and artistic church plate, &c., they stand unsurpassed, and have executed work of the highest merit for a very large number of clubs and societies in England, and also on the Continent. Both partners are gentlemen of the highest practical ability, and display untiring energy and exemplary judgment in the management of their extensive business relations, which are well founded upon the eminent reputation so long enjoyed, the high commercial standing of the house, and the well-known sterling merits of all their manufactures.


Probably no business premises in Bradford present a better example of combined ability and enterprise than those named above. These traits are seen on every hand, the place being thoroughly fitted with the best obtainable machinery and appliances. By the agency of these, and with the aid of a staff of skilled men, working under his own practical supervision, the proprietor is enabled to turn out the work which has gained for him such an excellent reputation in many parts of the district. This prosperous business was founded by the present owner in 1875. The premises have an imposing appearance, and are of great extent. They stand back some distance, and are fronted by a commodious yard. This contains a very valuable stock of timber, much of it finely seasoned, and adapted to the highest class of work. The miscellaneous stock, also found in the yard, is made up of stone, bricks and sundry builder’s requisites. The main building is of three-storey elevation, and is fitted with hauling gear, and every appliance calculated to facilitate the work. The saw-mills are driven by a powerful steam- engine. There are neat offices and commodious stores, also stabling and wagon houses at the rear. Mr. Johnson undertakes all kinds of contract work in connection with the building of house property, public buildings, mansions, churches, chapels, and private residences. He also is extensively engaged in completely fitting shops and offices. There are a quantity of hands employed, including masons, joiners, and other tradesmen. Mr. Johnson, as a conscientious and able gentleman, bears the cordial respect of all whose relations cause them to come into contact with him.


During the last decade the energetically managed business of Messrs. J. L. Stewart & Co., of the Valley Mills, has assumed a position of notable importance in the staple trade of the Bradford district. The firm was established in 1880, as manufacturers of worsted coatings, serges, &c., and the connection which the partners created at an early period in their record has been consistently extended. The premises of the Valley Mills consist of a large block of commodious warehouses, and of work-rooms which have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade. These latter are fitted throughout with machinery and appliances of the most improved modern type, so that the utmost economy of time and labour is effected in the industrial processes. The result is that the firm are enabled to quote prices which compare very favourably with those of any other houses in the trade. The well-appointed general and private offices of the firm are supplied with all the adjuncts, including telephonic communication, for facilitating the conduct of the extensive commercial correspondence necessitated by the widespread relations of the business. The telegraphic address of the house is "Stewart, Bradford," and its telephone No. 463.

The productions of the Valley Mills include worsted coatings, &c., in great variety, as well as serges of various descriptions. The output of the mills is so great as to require the constant employment of a large staff of hands. The high reputation which the goods manufactured by the firm have made for themselves in foreign as well as in home markets has rendered advisable the opening of a town office and depot at 13, Swaine Street, by which the firm effectually keep touch with the great Bradford mercantile houses. Large stocks of worsted coatings and serges are always held in the warehouses at the Valley Mills, so that the largest orders can be executed without delay. Much of the marked success which has attended the trading of this firm is unquestionably due to the close personal supervision exercised by the principals over the details of the business, in its industrial as well as its commercial departments.

Address for telegrams: "Wade, Bradford."

An old and established association with the Bradford spinning industry is preserved by the firm of Messrs. Joseph Wade & Sons, whose operations in this connection have extended over nearly a century, and whose name is creditably identified with a range of productions that sustain the reputed high standard and merit of Bradford spinning and manufacturing work. From first to last the house has been conducted under the proprietary of the same family, and the present principal continues to direct its influential interests with the enterprise characteristic of his esteemed predecessor, to whom the development of the same is due. The careful methods of operation, and the skill employed with the view of maintaining those features of sound quality and finish with which their house has been long accredited, are notably manifested in the well-conducted and busy industry comprised within their extensive six-storey structure in Mill Street. With the exception of the offices on the ground floor the whole space of the building is devoted to the purposes of sale-rooms and spinning-rooms. Some idea of the capacities of the latter section may be estimated from the fact that a series of four hundred looms are brought into daily operation and that the working staff in this department is about two hundred and fifty. In the spinning department mohair and alpacas are the principal goods made; here about a hundred frames are at work, employing some three hundred and fifty hands, and the various departments require the services of from six hundred to seven hundred workpeople.

The mechanical equipment of the factory is of a very efficient and well-organised character, and the firm are enabled to maintain at all seasons of the year the considerable output necessitated by a trade of equivalent extent. Messrs. Wade have long been noted for the especial excellence and worth of their worsted goods and dress stuffs, and these command at all times a ready market as exemplifying a range of products thoroughly representative of the superior standard which all first-class Bradford goods are expected to embody. It is extremely creditable to the firm that nothing has detracted from the principle of high-class production on which all their manufactures are based, and notwithstanding the aspects of modern competition, Messrs. Wade continue to manufacture and send out fabrics of unchallenged excellence and which depend merely upon their absolute worth for the appreciation they have elicited in all markets where genuine textiles are required. The position of the house in the local trade is alike evident in the favour which their goods command as well as the estimation in which the principal is held in mercantile and industrial circles, and it only remains to be added that the business of Messrs. Joseph Wade & Sons has, by reason of its long and eminent identification with the commerce of Bradford, formed no inconsiderable factor in the advancement of the branch of work it contributes to sustain and illustrate.


The above concern is an old-established one, for it was founded early in the century. Indeed, owing to the growth of the trade during late years, the increased demand which has arisen for the high-class goods manufactured by Mr. Field, and the need which exists for greater distributive facilities, he now contemplates transferring his factory from Skelmanthorpe, near Huddersfield, to Bradford, where he already has offices and piece-rooms. The present factory, nevertheless, is an extensive one, and in connection with it a large number of hands are employed. It comprises a spacious weaving shed fully equipped with looms of the most improved description worked by steam power. The manufacture carried on includes plain and fancy worsteds, tropical tweeds, serges, and linings. The quality and pattern of these goods are such that a widespread demand for them exists as the materials for gentlemen’s attire. That demand is not limited even to the United Kingdom, but exists also in foreign countries, where the superiority of the fabrics mentioned is well understood and appreciated. Of course, as a large manufacturer, Mr. Field’s distributive arrangements are exclusively wholesale, his clients being Bradford merchants and shippers, who dispose of the goods in bulk. It is for the convenience of local traders that Mr. Field has offices and piece-rooms in Bradford, where samples are submitted for the inspection of buyers. The stocks held here are extensive and varied, being thoroughly representative of the productive capabilities of the factory. When, however, the latter is transferred to Bradford as Mr. Field proposes, it will be a manifest advantage.

Since he succeeded to the son of the founder, Mr. Field has displayed high capacity in the management of the business. Well versed in all the details of the trade, he has strenuously endeavoured to occupy a leading position in it by producing fabrics of acknowledged excellence and supplying them at the lowest market quotations. In this endeavour he has been signally successful, for he is one of the most prominent manufacturers in his own department of industry. It is not enough to say merely that he has been assiduous and enterprising, for in all respects he has followed a consistently judicious policy — a policy which was well conceived and has been most satisfactorily carried out.


As in other English towns and cities of the first rank, there have been developed in Bradford numerous large and important drapery and furnishing businesses, and among the most notable of these stands the immense concern carried on by the firm of Messrs. George Thorpe & Co. founded upwards of half a century ago. This prominent house has had a highly successful career, and has built up a trade of a far more than ordinary magnitude. Capable management and judicious enterprise have conduced to steady development and expansion of the business in all its departments, and at the present time Messrs. George Thorpe & Co. take a leading position in their trade in Bradford, and occupy one of the finest and most imposing commercial edifices in the town. This notable warehouse, rising to a height of five storeys, stands at the corner of Ivegate and New Tyrrel Street, where in each of the thoroughfares named we find an entrance to the retail drapery. The block extends to Hustlergate, where the Wholesale entrance is, and a little further round in Hustlergate, closely adjoining the workers’ entrance, is a large and convenient goods entrance and parcels despatch department. Admirably organised and most conveniently planned throughout, Messrs. Thorpe’s huge establishment possesses every facility and accommodation desirable in a business of this kind. The retail departments have their attractive frontages on Ivegate and New Tyrrel Street, while the extensive Wholesale branch is at the Tyrrel Street and Hustlergate end of the premises, and occupies the whole of the upper storeys.

Complete as the premises appear to us, Messrs. Thorpe have detected certain possibilities of improvement, considered necessary for the further development and requirements of their increasing business, and with characteristic enterprise have rebuilt that part of their property devoted exclusively to the house-furnishing business, and have also effected extensive alterations in the retail drapery section, notably the erection of a powerful passenger elevator, built on the most approved principles, to convey their customers to all floors, and save the fatigue of stair-climbing. Messrs. Thorpe have always been in the van of enterprise in adapting the most modern inventions, not only for the benefit of their customers but also for the comfort of their assistants, as may be well illustrated by the fact that here the American cash railway system has been now in full operation for several years, taking cash to and from all parts of the house (even two floors up) to one large central office on the ground floor. This firm was also among the first (now ten or twelve years ago) to recognise the superiority of the electric light, and adopt it throughout their premises; this they did by manufacturing it themselves, until the Corporation undertook it on a large scale for the town’s supply. The installation required by Messrs. Thorpe numbers sixty or so large arc lamps, and a few incandescent for office use.

The departments on the ground floor are British and foreign dress goods, British and foreign silks, furs of the best quality, gloves and umbrellas, ribbons and laces, English and French flowers, trimmings and small wares, ladies’ and gentlemen’s hosiery, travelling bags and trunks, and a comprehensive household linen department. On the first floor or show-room we find on the left a splendidly appointed mantle and costume department, making a fine display of the latest creations of everything handsome and fashionable. Adjoining is the millinery department, showily dressed out with many stylish and becoming novelties manufactured on the premises, and which we consider displayed much taste and ability on the part of the firm’s accomplished modistes; next comes the ladies’ underclothing and children’s outfitting department, and opposite is the ladies’ and gentlemen’s boot and shoe salon, with separate apartments.

Proceeding to the second floor we find a large and commodious gentlemen’s ready-made and bespoke clothing department, splendidly arranged and fitted with every convenience and privacy for cutting out, fitting on, and the transaction of a large and prosperous business. This is one of Messrs. Thorpe’s latest additions, having only lately been opened, but from the style with which this large room is fitted up, and the magnificent selection of high-class goods placed at the disposal of the public — very noticeable being many smart patterns which we admired in fancy worsteds, West of England, Scotch and Cheviot tweeds, together with a complete range of ready-mades in all sizes — we have little hesitation in predicting it soon to be one of Messrs. Thorpe’s largest departments.

The floor immediately above is devoted essentially to the Wholesale, and contains several departments. Immediately above, on the top floor of all, of this portion of the building, we discover a large suite of work-rooms splendidly lighted and ventilated. These are used respectively for the manufacture of costumes, mantles, millinery, underclothing, carpets, and upholstery, each being presided over by a capable and experienced manageress. Retracing our steps, we return to the ground floor by the passenger elevator, which accomplishes the eighty feet or more journey in a few seconds. Next we proceed by underground passage — for we are now on the basement, to the newly erected furnishing branch, with frontage to Ivegate, and in close proximity to retail drapery, being connected on each floor by large doors. The basement is mainly set apart for reserve stock, but we notice a specially convenient arrangement for the packing and unpacking of furniture, beside another powerful elevator by which means the furniture can be quickly transported to or from any portion of the large building, at a minimum of trouble.

On the ground floor is the main entrance from Ivegate. Messrs. Thorpe have certainly spared no expense in fitting up an imposing array of windows round this fine new building, showing many handsome suites and cabinets to good advantage. This floor is stocked with a multitudinous variety of smallware furnishings for useful and ornamental purposes, the prominent departments being ironmongery, with a complete range of culinary and domestic utensils, pottery both useful and highly artistic; dinner sets and tea sets at what seem to us exceedingly moderate prices; and a large variety of more ornamental wares from the far distant potteries of China and Japan, and many other artistic specimens of the gifted Japanese craftsmen. Ascending to the next floor we here find the carpet department, in which the firm show choice products of the British and foreign looms in Brussels, Wiltons, royal Axminsters, Kidderminstera, and tapestry carpets, Scotch and Kensington art squares, hearthrugs, linoleums and oilcloths from six to eight yards wide. Here also is the curtain department, with a fine selection of Nottingham, Swiss, guipure, tapestry, and other makes, blankets and eiderdown-quilts of the best makes, blinds, &c. The second floor is exclusively furniture, dining-room and drawing-room suites, beautifully upholstered, and many cabinets of a high-class order.

Still higher, on the third floor, we find devoted exclusively to complete bedroom furnishing, bedroom suites in many designs and in all woods, mattresses and bedding of every possible kind and quality, and bedsteads and children’s cots in all sizes, from the plain to the highly finished, all brass. This is one of the most complete departments for complete bedroom furnishing we have yet seen. On the, top floor of all we find another fine set of rooms, occupied by busy cabinet-makers and French polishers, in close touch with the elevator, by which means finished goods are easily removed to any portion of the building. The whole of the furniture stock is kept in the six storeys of these Ivegate premises, and is in its entirety a splendid collection of cabinet ware and upholstery, the variety of which is sufficiently large to satisfy every requirement as to price and quality. It would be difficult to name any article of furniture for castle or for cottage that is not creditably represented in this vast stock. And even in the cheapest lines of goods we note that Messrs. George Thorpe & Co. carefully, adhere to their well-tried policy of supplying only reliable articles of sound workmanship and excellent finish. Equally high praise is due to Messrs. Thorpe’s stocks in every other department to which we have referred. The goods in each case have been selected with conspicuous skill and judgment in the best markets of the world, and a more exhaustive variety or a better range suitable for all classes of customers could not be found in London itself.

The Wholesale branch (the firm trades under the style of Thorpe Brothers & Co.) does a very important trade, and is specially appointed for its purpose, and has a number of spacious show-rooms splendidly lighted, one of these for fancy goods being no less than sixty-eight feet square. Both in the wholesale and retail divisions the various departments are managed by experienced buyers, and the stocks are kept in a state of perfect order and completeness, every novelty being added with the utmost promptitude. The firm employ a large and efficient staff of assistants, and have also in their service a number of skilled and experienced dressmakers, modistes, mantle-makers, &c., &c., who are accommodated in comfortable work-rooms on the premises as already mentioned, and whose productions have a reputation for artistic design, good taste, and excellent finish. Altogether this firm’s business must be classed as one of the leading concerns of its kind in the Bradford district, and under the able management of the sole proprietor, Mr. George Thorpe (a gentleman widely known and much respected in the neighbourhood), it bids fair to continue in the full enjoyment of that progressive prosperity which has characterised it from the first.


A very important and ever-developing branch of industry is well represented in Bradford and district at the extensive establishment of Messrs. Milnes & Son, Undercliffe. The business was established in 1874 by Mr. William Milnes and his son Edwin, but the latter is now sole proprietor. The works were originally located in Cliffe Lane, near Peel Park, and in consequence of the rapid development of the business and the necessity for increased accommodation the most extensive and commodious premises were afterwards acquired. These have been specially fitted up in the most careful and complete manner to ensure the effective and economical working of the several departments. New and improved machinery of the best type by Bratby & Hinchliffe, of Manchester, has been put down, capable of turning out upwards of five thousand dozen bottles per day. The efficiency of this machinery is very striking, and the results almost magical, so well and quickly are the operations performed. The power for turning the machinery is derived from a powerful Otto gas-engine of the latest invention. The water used in the manufacture is all double filtered, and all their water-pipes are of pure English block tin, thus ensuring their goods against lead or other metallic contamination, which is a very important matter in the mineral water business. The greatest care is exercised in the selection of all the ingredients. The firm turn out in large and increasing quantities all kinds of mineral and aerated waters, cordials, and have gained a high reputation for their brewed ginger beer, hop bitter ale, &c. Mineral waters for medicinal purposes are also manufactured by them, and syphons and corked bottles. A leading speciality is their celebrated new drink, "Hot-Tom," which, taken alone, or with wine or spirits, makes an excellent stimulating beverage of a rich and pleasing flavour. Their trade is of a widespread, influential, and steadily growing character. The firm have an excellent connection with the leading hotels, restaurants, and private families; upwards of a dozen men are employed in the factory, and eight to ten horses and drays are constantly delivering goods in all parts of the town and district. The proprietor takes an active part in the business, and that commendable spirit of enterprise and energy which has always so strongly animated the owner of this firm is conspicuous in the management of every department.

Telephone No. 244.

The above business was established by Mr. Bell in 1875 in the premises now occupied, which have from time to time been enlarged to meet the increasing requirements of the trade. They now comprise two large and well-constructed buildings situated opposite each other. The one containing the engineering works is of two storeys. On the ground floor is the fully-equipped fitting-shop; the offices are located on the first floor of this building, and to the rear is another large workshop similarly equipped with mechanical appliances. The smiths’ shop is in the building opposite, and is fitted with furnaces, hearths, &c., and above this is the pattern-shop, containing an immense number of patterns, all carefully numbered and kept ready for reference. Mr. Bell gives regular employment to many hands, and undertakes all kinds of engineering and millwright work. The construction of engines for light work is a leading feature, also shafting, pulleys, hydraulic pumps and presses, cranes and hoists to work by hand or power, and improved machines for rolling and measuring cloth for merchants, warehousemen and manufacturers. All the machinery turned out of this establishment is constructed on the most improved principles, and displays in every detail of its manufacture that excellence of material and workmanship which has always characterised the productions of this firm.

Mr. Bell is also the sole agent for Bradford and the district for the Exhaust Steam and Automatic Re-starting Injectors (Davies & Metcalfe’s patents), which possess all the advantages of the best lifting injectors, while in addition they require the least manipulation in starting. In consequence of its peculiar feature of perfect automaticity, Davies & Metcalfe’s Patent Re-starting Injector is specially applicable for locomotive, agricultural, portable, and marine boilers, where the continuity of the jet is liable to be interrupted by sudden shock or violent vibration; under these circumstances the injector at once re-starts itself without any manipulation whatever. This injector, it is interesting to note, received the highest award (silver medal) at the Inventions Exhibition, London, 1885. In these injectors Mr. Charles Bell does a very extensive trade. In other departments of his business he is well employed, and with the exceptional facilities at command he is in a position to fulfil orders on the shortest notice, and can compete on favourable terms with any firm in the trade. Mr. Charles Bell brings to bear upon the business the advantage of many years’ professional and practical experience as an engineer, and has always aimed at the attainment and maintenance of a high standard of excellence as characteristic of all the work turned out.


The collection, importation, and first distribution of the fruits of the earth may well be regarded as forming a branch of commerce of the highest importance, and in this department of trade the busy town of Bradford has a very notable firm in that of Messrs. Anson Brothers, who are widely known for their extensive operations as potato and fruit salesmen. Projected in the year 1859 by Mr. Charles Mackew, the business of this representative house was after a time acquired by its present proprietors, Mr. Harris Anson and his brother Mr. Andrew Anson, trading under the style and title of Anson Brothers. The advent of these gentlemen brought about a remarkable development in the business, which, under their vigorous and judicious administration has now grown into one of the largest and most prominent concerns of the kind in the north of England.

Messrs. Anson Brothers are particularly noted as potato salesmen. In this department of the trade they have taken up and maintained a leading position, and the magnitude of their dealings in potatoes alone may be understood when we say that their monthly sales average from one thousand to one thousand two hundred tons. Few northern firms can point to larger figures than these in connection with one single class of produce. Messrs. Anson Brothers’ premises at St. James’s Market are in all respects admirably suited to the purposes of their large and far-reaching business, and are so arranged as to afford the utmost convenience in the active routine of the trade. They comprise two spacious open compartments, the one for fruit and the other for potatoes, onions, and other vegetables; and midway is situated the office. The stock held is as comprehensive as it is large, and comprises all varieties of American apples; oranges and lemons, from all the chief sources of supply, such as Jaffa, Sicily, Florida, &c.; potatoes from Jersey, &c., &c. These products are all derived direct from the growers, who export to Liverpool and Hull, and Messrs. Anson Brothers are certainly among the most active and energetic firms engaged in the distribution of fruit and potatoes to dealers in the West Riding of Yorkshire and the northern counties generally.

As already indicated, the indispensable potato receives a very large and special share of attention, and above the firm’s warehouse and sale-rooms we find a well-equipped cooperage, where Messrs. Anson Brothers make their own casks to be sent to Jersey and returned to them filled with potatoes of the earliest growth and finest varieties, for table use. Another upper compartment in the premises is fitted up specially as a receiving department for the truck-loads of potatoes, which are here delivered into stock direct from the Great Northern Railway. Messrs. Anson are represented by their agent at the fruit sales at Liverpool on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, personally attend the Hull sales, and operate very largely as buyers on commission, consigning the goods so purchased direct from the grower to the buyer. In every respect their trade is one of great magnitude and constantly increasing importance, and is, of course, exclusively wholesale, the connection being developed among merchants, greengrocers and retail fruiterers in all parts of the Bradford district and surrounding country. In the management of their growing business Messrs. Anson Brothers display a thorough practical knowledge of the trade and a complete acquaintance with all sources of production and supply for the produce in which they deal; while their untiring energy and straightforward methods have won the unreserved confidence and increasing support of an exceptionally large and valuable clientele.
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed, "Anson, Bradford."

Telephone No. 728.

The above business was founded by Mr. Law in 1884. The premises occupied comprise the third and fourth floors of a portion of the extensive mills known as the Valley Mills. Here ingenious machinery is provided for the intricacies of the trade, and, as has been previously mentioned, the various processes carried on are of a most interesting nature, being that of yarn finishing. The yarn as received from the spinner is put through a process of singeing, followed by what is termed "gassing," the latter process being to singe the superfluous hair from the yarn. It is next scoured, stretched, and hanked, frames being used for the purpose, and is then ready for return to the merchants, principally those carrying on their business in Bradford. The connection is heaviest with worsted and mohair yarns. There are some fifty to sixty hands employed, and the whole of the arrangements are carried out under the accomplished management of the principal, a gentleman whose conspicuous merits make him one of the most respected of Bradford’s enterprising men.


We have much pleasure in calling attention to the success that has attended a new Yorkshire industry, established and developed by that well-known and enterprising firm of fruit and vegetable merchants, Messrs. Anson Brothers, of Bradford and Hambleton. As is doubtless well known, this country has been for many years past dependent upon the French people for our supplies of preserved green peas for use during the winter season, and the method of their preparation has long been a secret which our friends across the Channel have kept to themselves. Messrs. Anson Brothers have, however, discovered a new method of preserving and bottling green peas, and for the last two years they have been producing a class of goods, which for quality and flavour are far and away superior to the imported article. The principal reason of this may be found in the fact that Messrs. Anson Brothers are themselves very large growers of peas of the very best class for preserving purposes, and these, being gathered at the proper period of maturity and prepared near to the growing grounds, retain a fullness of flavour and a freshness more or less unknown in the French peas. Moreover, it is possible under Messrs. Anson Brothers’ system to use the larger sizes of peas at a time when they possess all their delicacy of flavour, and the advantage of this is readily apparent.

Only the finest "sweet marrows" are used by the firm, and these are prepared in vast quantities with the greatest care and skill. After being shelled, sorted into sizes, and thoroughly washed, the peas are subjected to a special steaming process which is the secret of Messrs. Anson Brothers’ method, and which is the outcome of much thought and many experiments. This steaming process accomplished, the vegetable is ready to be placed in the receptacle in which it is to find its way into the market and eventually into the household. Messrs. Anson Brothers have quite discarded tins for packing purposes, glass bottles only being used, and these are of a new patented design, specially made for the firm by Messrs. Rylands, of Barnsley. It is thus obvious that all risk of lead poisoning from the use of tins is completely avoided, glass being the purest and cleanest material in which it is possible to place a preserved fruit or vegetable of any kind. The peas bottled by this firm have been subjected to the severest practical and analytical tests, all with the most gratifying results, and few persons using them would have any idea that they were not newly gathered, so fresh and full of flavour are they when the bottle is opened.

Yorkshire peas have no equal for preserving purposes, and Messrs. Anson’s extensive growing grounds at Hambleton, near Selby, produce this unrivalled vegetable in its highest state of perfection. Close at hand is the large and specially equipped factory for carrying on the preserving industry under the most favourable conditions, and to this interesting establishment the peas are brought direct from the growing ground, without the delay in transit that is usually so detrimental to their quality under other circumstances. A very large number of hands are employed in the routine of the factory, and it would be impossible to speak too highly of the care displayed in every department, or of the cleanliness prevailing throughout the works. A well one hundred and fifty feet deep has been sunk on the premises in order to obtain the purest water for the purposes of this important and unique industry. Messrs. Anson Brothers’ establishment at Hambleton is the only one of its kind in Great Britain, and in all respects it reflects the highest credit upon the enterprise and skill of its proprietors.

The firm have extended the scope of their operations to embrace the bottling of fruits also, and in this department they prepare apricots, bilberries, blackberries, black currants, cherries, cherry rhubarb, cranberries, damsons, gooseberries, greengages, all kinds of plums, raspberries, red currants, &c., &c. These are all of the finest quality and are bottled in glass with the same care and success that characterises the preparation of the preserved peas already referred to. Other specialities of this enterprising firm include bottled Yorkshire kidney beans, Macedoines, English tomatoes and asparagus, also all kinds of jams, jellies, lemon curd, tomato chutney, pickles, &c. Since its inauguration this notable business has developed with great rapidity, and last season Messrs. Anson Brothers dealt with the product of between two hundred and three hundred acres of peas. Their goods have achieved remarkable success in the markets, and the demand for them increases in a manner which is the strongest testimony to their excellent quality. It is most gratifying to note the success of this new departure in English industrial enterprise, and consumers who desire to consult their own interests without detriment to their patriotism cannot do better than add their quota to the growing demand for Messrs. Anson Brothers’ specialities. These goods are English, prepared in English soil and by English workpeople, their quality is unsurpassable, and their price is very reasonable. With these characteristics to recommend them they ought to find their way into every household on the land, and this they certainly bid fair to do.


This immense industry was founded fully half a century ago by the father of the present proprietors. The founder remained at the head of the business until 1874, but ten years prior to that the firm had assumed the title of Jeremiah Ambler & Sons, and that designation has been retained without change down to the present day. There are few industrial establishments in Yorkshire of greater magnitude than the Midland Mills, which cover a large area of ground, and comprise several continuous blocks of lofty and spacious buildings, four and five storeys high, and having a main frontage of about five hundred feet. The situation is an excellent one, being close to the Midland Railway, and the entire plan and arrangement of the works is most convenient. Machinery of the very best modern type is in use in these mills, each department of which presents an example of perfect organisation and equipment. Messrs. Jeremiah Ambler & Sons are large spinners of mohair, worsted yarns, and worsted bagging, for which they have an unsurpassed reputation in the trade, and they are particularly noted for their mohair yarns, which have for many years been a speciality of this firm. A widespread and influential connection is maintained among merchants of Bradford, and the house stands high in the confidence of all its customers. Its affairs are administered with marked ability and practical judgment by the present principals, Messrs. John and George Ambler, both of whom are well known and much respected in connection with the staple industry of the Bradford district. John Ambler, Esq., the senior partner, is a Justice of the Peace for the borough.


Modern dentistry is a science which invites at once our admiration and our gratitude to those who have developed it from its crude past; and among its exponents in Bradford must be named with special prominence Messrs. Forshaw & Ellison, the conductors of the Bradford Dental Hospital, an establishment that has indeed been a "boon and a blessing" to the people of this town and district. The hospital was founded by Dr. Charles F. Forshaw, in 1882, and was started with the idea of meeting in the fullest manner the requirements of all classes of society. This idea has been steadily acted up to ever since, and the institution has prospered greatly under the guidance and personal supervision of its talented and skilful founder. So great was the success of the enterprise that in 1883 Dr. Forshaw admitted into partnership Mr. A. E. Ellison, a dentist of well-known practical skill, judgment, and long experience. Assuming the firm name of Forshaw & Ellison, these two eminent practitioners have for the past ten years continued to direct the Dental Hospital with increasing satisfaction to their patrons and credit to themselves, and have made its name a household word in Bradford and the surrounding country. The whole institution and all its methods of operation have been graphically and eulogistically described in the Yorkshire press during recent years, the Leeds Times only a short time ago giving it first place among a series of articles on the charitable institutions of the town, and the articles have doubtless already met the eyes of many of our readers.

For our present purpose it may suffice to say that the Bradford Dental Hospital, occupying splendidly-appointed and commodious premises at 140, Westgate, affords every desirable accommodation and comfort for all classes of patients, and while meeting the requirements of the most fastidious of clients in the upper circles of society, it provides equally well for the proper treatment of tradesmen and the working classes. Everything is done upon the most advanced and perfect modern principles, and it is worth while to have a tooth drawn here, if only for the satisfaction of noting how easily and effectually the operation is performed. These wonderful new appliances and improved instruments, designed by Dr. Forshaw and recommended by over a hundred medical men, can persuade the most obstinate old molar or incisor to vacate his position in the twinkling of an eye, and generally the process is all over before the patient is quite sure that it has begun. Artificial teeth are made on the premises, a most perfectly equipped laboratory and mechanical-rooms being devoted to this surgery work. Mr. Ellison, who is a master of dental surgery, personally supervises this highly important department, and the results achieved under his skilful management are astonishing, for nothing could exceed the beauty of appearance and finish possessed by some of this firm’s improved sets of teeth.

Altogether, the Bradford Dental Hospital is an institution immensely interesting and of great public usefulness, and it must be mentioned that poor patients may here receive advice and treatment entirely gratuituously, at any hour of the day, by a recommendation signed by a magistrate, a clergyman, or a medical man.

Doctor Charles F. Forshaw, LL.D. D.D.S. &c., is now in private practice, having recently taken over the dental practice so long and successfully conducted by Mr. G. K, Kirk, at 11, Manningham Lane, Bradford. Dr. Forshaw has had fifteen years’ experience in every department of his profession, and besides being regularly qualified under the Dental Act of Parliament, he is a doctor of dental medicine and surgery of the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, the oldest and largest Dental College in the world. He can show testimonial from the highest sources as to his skill and knowledge of dentistry, and in recognition of his improvements in dental instruments he was awarded, in 1890, the gold medal of the Society of Science, of London. As an author and inventor he has received spontaneous expressions of approval from Sir Edwin Saunders, F.R.C.S., dental surgeon to the Queen, and from Lawson Tait, Esq., F.R.C.S. and other distinguished metropolitan and provincial surgeons. On more than a dozen occasions he has been the recipient of Royal favour, and was once awarded the special thanks of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. Dr. Forshaw has delivered more than a hundred lectures before different local societies on "The Teeth and How to Save Them," and he is the author of a valuable work on dentistry, and another entitled "Hints to Parents on the Management of their Children’s Teeth." He is a Fellow of many Royal and learned societies, both in England and abroad, and three years ago he was invited by the secretary of the Society of Arts (Sir H. Trueman Wood, M.A.) to join that ancient and distinguished body. He is also the honorary dental surgeon to the Bradford Tradesmen’s Homes, the Nutter Orphanage for Boys, the Bradford Gordon Boys’ Brigade, and the Ilkley College; he has also held appointments at the Bradford Children’s Hospital; and the Bradford Eye and Ear Hospital. Despite his arduous and exacting professional labours, Dr, Forshaw has found time to woo the poetic muse, with no small success; in fact, he has published no less than twenty-five volumes in prose and verse. Many charming fragments have appeared from his pen from time to time, which, as his contributions have appeared in over a thousand journals, we doubt not many of our readers have had the pleasure of perusing.


In the production of a high-class photograph something more than mere manipulative skill and dexterity are necessary. To the higher branches of the art evident attention is devoted at the high-class establishment of Mr. Clifford, as a glance round the splendid specimen-room on the ground floor of his premises will show. The collection of photographs here exhibited includes many fine samples of the art, in all sizes, from the ordinary "carte-de-visite" to "grand panels" measuring 24 inches by 18 inches. On the first floor are situated the studios, which have the one great advantage of clear and uninterrupted light. The appointments and accessories are very elaborate and complete, offering every facility for the effective arrangement of large and small groups, while the lenses and cameras are of the most perfect and recent types that can be procured. In the treatment of children Mr. Clifford is singularly successful. By means of rapid instruments and the knack of amusing the little ones, very pleasing and life-like expressions are obtained. Outdoor photography in all branches forms an especial feature of the business, appointments being made for taking groups of schools, clubs, or families, also for photographing buildings, machinery, animals, &c. Enlargements to any size in crayons, oil or water colours are produced. Mr. Clifford has an extensive clientele among the members of the theatrical profession, and a very widespread connection throughout Bradford and the surrounding district. He employs four assistants, and personally superintends the entire establishment. Mr. Clifford is eminently endowed with that true artistic instinct which alone can lead to success in the higher walks of the photographic art.

9, 11, 13,15 & 17, CHEAPSIDE, BRADFORD.

This leading business was founded by the present senior partner in 1851, who initiated the business in a thoroughly able and successful manner. He was joined in 1868 by his son, Mr. William C. Lupton, and under their joint control the concern has grown year by year in extent and importance until it ranks now as one of the most reliable and responsible houses in the provinces engaged in the wine and spirit trade. The premises are large and commodious, comprising three blocks of building, two being six storeys high, and one four. They include a handsome suite of offices, general and private, sale-room, sample-room, and warehouses. The warehouses are fitted up with every requisite and convenience, and the offices are in telephonic communication (No. 199). The firm also have extensive cellars and duty-paid stores at 6, 8, and 10, Dale Street; 38, 40, 42, and 44, Simes Street; the latter being their freehold property, especially adapted for their business, with hoists to each floor. The bonded stores are at Valley Road, Bradford; 13, Quality Street, Leith, N.B., for Scotch whiskies; and Tours-sur-Marne, Marne, France, for the storage, treatment, and maturing of their extensive purchases of champagne and other French wines.

The firm do an immense trade in wines, spirits, liqueurs, Havana and Continental cigars. They are also extensive whisky bonders and blenders and Wholesale bottlers. The proprietors are men of wide experience in every department of their business, and thoroughly conversant with the best sources of supply, as well as with the wants of critical buyers. From the extent of their transactions, and the judicious care with which all articles are bought, they are able to offer prices which cannot be duplicated elsewhere, while the splendid reputation the house has borne for upwards of forty years is ample guarantee that nothing will be sold but what is of sterling and superior character. The stocks held are the most extensive and valuable of the kind in the north of England, and include wines of the most rare and choice vintages, the stock of port wines ranging from the Jubilee vintage of 1887 to some remarkable specimens of 1827 and 1820, with examples of every intermediate vintage of repute, spirits to suit all tastes, an ample selection of liqueurs and cordials, ales and stout, aerated and mineral waters, and cigars and cigarettes.

The firm are the sole proprietors of the celebrated "Northern Isles" Scotch Whisky, which is daily increasing in demand among high-class connoisseurs. The house also holds some of the best agencies in the country, among which are those of Pol Roger & Co., George Goulet, Dupuy & Fils, Jules Verreau, and Paul Lenoble & Co., for champagne; P. B. Burgoyne & Co. for Australians; J. Palugyuy & Sons for Hungarians; R. Gancia & Co. and Fratelli Gancia for Italians; Kinahan & Co. for Irish whisky; Hiram Walker & Sons for Canadian whisky; Montserrat Co., Vichy Liqueur, and Amargo Aromatico for cordials, &c.; and the Johannis Springs, Ltd., and Cantrell & Cochrane for mineral waters.

A widespread and influential connection has been secured, both at home and abroad. A number of commercial travellers is kept constantly on the road representing the interests of the house, and something like half a hundred warehousemen and assistants are employed in executing orders. The proprietors are men of sound experience and sterling business habits. They occupy a position of eminence in commercial circles, and are regarded as thorough representatives of the important trade in which they are so largely engaged. All their transactions are characterised by methods of fairness and honesty, and they command the confidence and respect of all who come into contact with them, whether in the way of business or as private citizens.


The high-class studio of which Mr. Coe is proprietor was opened in 1885. It is already recognised as one of the most popular and extensively patronised establishments of the kind in the district, and Mr. Coe has come into local prominence as an artistic photographer. The establishment referred to is in an excellent position for business and occupies a commanding site at the corner of Barkerend Road and Pockover Street at the top of Church Bank. It is exceedingly attractive and handsomely appointed as well as conveniently situated. It comprises a three-storeyed building with an elegant specimen-room on the ground floor, reception and waiting rooms on the floor above, and a well-lighted studio fitted up with all the latest improvements on the uppermost floor. The specimen-room contains a large assortment of exquisitely executed photographs, cartes de visite, cabinets, groups, &c., oil paintings, water-colours, and crayon drawings. We have described Mr. Coe as an artistic photographer, and the description is a correct one in his case, for he is an artist of considerable talent as well as a photographer of the highest standing and proficiency. He is also a picture framer and gilder to the trade, for he undertakes everything connected with art, and in the capacity mentioned he has gained an extensive connection by the efficient style in which he executes the work. But though Mr. Coe’s enterprise is comprehensive, the great feature of the business is a superior class of portraiture at strictly moderate charges. It is safe to assert that, for ability to give satisfaction in this respect, Mr. Coe is not excelled by the leading practitioners in London or the provinces. He has an artistic eye to effective pose, he is an expert in the mechanical part of the business, possesses the very best facilities, and is master of the art of touching up. His work, therefore, is distinguished by its fidelity, finish, and general excellence. The photographs of sitters are all taken by the instantaneous process in order to ensure the best results as well as to avoid trouble and delay. Mr. Coe has given perfect satisfaction to the public of Bradford by the admirable lines on which he conducts his business, and the popular esteem he has secured is steadily growing. He has certainly been exceedingly successful, but his success has been well won and, as he continues to spare no effort in order to secure approval, he is adding to his reputation and extending his connection.


This superior business was founded in 1858 by Mr. R. Wadsworth, who for some years has had the valuable assistance of his two sons, Mr. Mark and Mr. George Edwin Wadsworth. The premises occupied, and known as the Sedgwick Ironworks, consist of an extensive two-storeyed building with large yard at the rear. It is almost impossible within the confines of a limited space to do justice to the various useful branches pursued by this firm. Their fame as whitesmiths, mill-wrights, crank and electric- bell hangers, and hot-water engineers, as far as Bradford and the surrounding neighbourhood is concerned, stands in no need of commendation. Their competent treatment of each has been sufficiently demonstrated as to bring them the most cordial support and confidence. They are makers of all kinds of ornamental iron work, which includes gates, &c. In the repairing department they carefully adjust cooking ranges, stores, grates, &c., using the best and latest principles in regard to the same. They also repair all kinds of knife-machines, mowing-machines, &c. They have lately put down a complete new plant of machinery which will enable them to compete with any other firm and execute the work with despatch. Messrs. Wadsworth & Sons employ a highly competent staff, and personally superintend the business. They are genial, able, and straightforward gentlemen, and as such have long held the cordial respect of their large and superior connection.


During recent years great improvements have been effected in the manufacture of waterproof cloths. The endeavour has been to produce a fabric which, while being quite impervious to rain and damp, shall at the same time be porous, and allowing as free a passage of air through the texture of the garment as is the case with ordinary materials. Mr. T.
F. Wiley has succeeded in attaining these desiderata, and the Company whose name appears above has acquired the rights to his invention, and are the sole workers of the process. Such an important discovery as this, when taken up and developed by experienced and energetic men, could hardly fail to be a source of commercial profit, and our readers will not be surprised to learn that conspicuous success has attended the operations of the Cravenette Company, limited from the date of its foundation to the present time. "Cravenette" (the registered trade-mark of the Company, and the familiar name for all goods treated by the process) has attained a world-wide reputation, and is already becoming as universally popular throughout the United States of America as it is in this country. The "Dry Goods Economist," which is the leading journal in America of its kind, has in a recent issue published an interesting article on "Cravenette," and from which we give the following extract:—

The Cravenette process of waterproofing has made immense strides in popular favour during the last year, and has by its success proved its claim to be regarded as the only perfect known system of waterproofing. In an issue of the "Economist" two years ago we said: "The great advantage about the Cravenette process is that, while it makes the cloth so that rain runs off the surface, a free ventilation is left which makes it healthier than the old rubber goods, which do not permit of free ventilation. The progress of the ‘Cravenette’ goods will be watched with interest, and is one of the good things of the day."

This forecast has been fully borne out by the subsequent success of the Company, for since then the output of the Cravenette Company has been increased many hundredfold, and its superiority over any other system of waterproofing has been confirmed by all the leading journals of the day. The great success of the process is due solely to its original methods of rendering the goods waterproof. All previous efforts in this direction had commenced on a basis of coating the fabric with substances which not only rendered it waterproof, but at the same time air-proof. This had the serious disadvantage of enveloping the wearer in a proof-sheet that rendered perspiration very difficult, and even more dangerous to health than would have been if no garment had been worn. Wearers of all rubber goods are familiar with the exhausted feeling so common after walking or riding some distance in a garment rendered waterproof by rubber, and of unaccountable colds which often followed. Eminent physicians had emphatically declared that it was "better to go wet than to be coated with rubber." Scientists had experimented upon animals to show the harmful effects which resulted from an interference with the free use of the functions of the pores of the skin. Animals had been varnished so as to exclude the air, and in every case had speedily died. This had been explained as "due to fever, possibly caused by the retention within, or reabsorption into the blood, of some of the constituents of the sweat." Outer garments were kept dry with rubber goods, and the inner garments were soaked, and the skin covered with its own poisonous excretion.

Experiments had been made to bring about a better state of things in waterproof garments, and alum and sugar of lead had been employed to render garments waterproof without the use of rubber. None of these were successful, and it was not till nature’s laws had been studied that T. F. Wiley, after persevering efforts, overcame the obstacles attending the waterproofing of goods, and original patents were obtained in 1885 for a process of porous waterproofing. This was put into practical operation, and although an excellent proof was obtained the business was not a commercial success, for the reasons that only a limited quantity of goods could be treated; the cost was prohibitive, the handle and lustre of the goods were impaired, and in some cases the colour was affected, the goods retained an objectionable odour, and the process was not only unhealthy to the workmen, but was so dangerous that no insurance of the premises could be effected, and was condemned by the municipal authorities. Numerous and expensive experiments undertaken to surmount these difficulties led to ultimate success, and in 1888 elaborate machinery had been constructed, and trained workmen were set to work on the process.

The Cravenette Company, Limited, acquired from Mr. Wiley, by purchase, some time afterwards, all his rights in the patents, process, and trademarks, and have since transacted an increasing business. The value of the Company has largely increased, and by the popular demand for Cravenette goods has become one of the most valuable possessed by any trading company. The, success of Cravenette has been so marked that other proofing firms now send their goods in large numbers to be proofed by the better process. The Cravenette Company grant no licences to any other firm or corporation to use their process, and to guard against any imposition by unscrupulous dealers against the sale of goods that are not genuine Cravenettes, each piece is not only thoroughly tested as to its waterproof and porous properties, but is stamped with the word, "Cravenette," so that the absence of this stamp may be taken as sure evidence that the goods are not genuine.

The Cravenette process of waterproofing is unlike any other. No film is spread on the cloth, or among the fibres of the cloth to render it air-resisting, but every individual and separate fibre composing the fabric is subjected to a treatment which imparts to it those features peculiar to the waterfowl, and which enable it to resist the action of water. The fabric is therefore porous, and is not in the least injured as to its wearing qualities. The process is permanent so long as a fibre of the fabric exists, is accompanied by no disagreeable odour, and the cloth is as beautiful to handle as though it had not been proofed. By this method of proofing there are obviously no weak places caused by wear that can admit the damp, and every part of the garment will retain its defiance to moisture. In short, it is "a Duck-back process." The process is so perfect in its application as to admit of the proofing of any description of textile goods. The sale of the goods at both sides of the Atlantic is increasing at a very rapid rate, and the mackintosh is fast becoming a thing of the past. Like all goods of merit, Cravenette has its imitations which are unsatisfactory. Wideawake buyers will see to it that every garment bears the stamp |‘ Cravenette."


The work of worsted spinning and, connected with it, the manufacture of fancy yarns may be said to have received, during the past twenty years, a valuable impetus from the enterprise and successful operations of several noted concerns, of which that under the above name is a creditable and representative example. As a maker of all kinds of fancy yarns Mr. John Henry Willey has introduced many improved and much appreciated features in the production of loop, knot, spiral, gimp, chenille, and other fancy effects, and for the manufacture of these makes available a variety of materials, including not only worsted and botany yarns, but also mohair, silk, cotton, tinsel, &c. These effect yarns are now of almost indispensable service in the production of dress goods, woollen cloths, tweeds, shawls, skirts, tapestry, hosiery, &c., and being of an exceptionally superior quality and finish, tend to sustain the old-established character for excellence and durability which all goods emanating from this great centre of textile industry have earned. The popularity these yarns command, not only among local manufacturers but also among the principal dress and woollen cloth makers in other manufacturing districts, is clearly evident from the ever-increasing demand both for home consumption and export.


The exceptionally important and widely-known concern of which Mr. William Shields is now sole proprietor was established in 1876. Its founders were Messrs. Walker & Shields, by whom the business was carried on conjointly till 1885. In that year Mr. Walker retired from the partnership, and the entire control of the business was assumed by Mr. Shields. Mr. Shields’ extensive premises are situated in a lofty and imposing block of buildings. The stock-rooms, show and sale rooms, offices, &c., are on the first and second floors. The stock, which is extensive and diversified, comprises ladies’, gentlemen’s, and children’s boots, shoes, and slippers. Each class of goods is kept in a separate department and nicely arranged for the inspection of buyers. The trade, it should be explained, is entirely wholesale, and so widespread is the connection that it extends all over the North of England and part of Scotland, to Staffordshire. Within that area Mr. Shields is represented by three commercial travellers.

Mr. Shields obtains his supplies of boots and shoes from the leading manufacturers of England. The goods, therefore, are of the best and most reliable quality; they are noted for the excellence and durability of the materials from which they are made, and the superior finish by which they are distinguished. Hence their popularity and the approval with which they are regarded by the trade. Mr. Shields’ stock is as comprehensive as it is considerable, for it includes all sorts and sizes of boots and shoes. The styles are, of course, correspondingly varied, ranging from the most fashionable makes in kid or patent leather, to the strongest lace-up boots. There are probably few establishments in the United Kingdom at which there is an equally extensive stock, suited to all requirements, to choose from.

Another most important matter to be noted is that, whilst the quality cannot be surpassed, the prices at which Mr. Shields is prepared to supply the trade are so low as to be almost unique. It is easy to understand, therefore, why his establishment is so extensively supported, why his enterprise is so widely approved, and his already immense trade still goes on increasing. Mr. Shields is certainly well qualified to direct successfully so important an undertaking of the kind. He has a thoroughly practical knowledge of the trade, is possessed of long experience and sound judgment, and is scrupulously just in his dealings. He takes an active part in the direction of the concern, is zealous in the interests of his clients, and does everything in his power to maintain the high reputation he has won. His success has been exceptional, but so, also, have been his exertions, and no one can say that that success is not due to his ability, intelligence, integrity and enterprise.


A well-known house in the above branches of industry is that of Messrs. B. Dixon & Co. Originally established on the site now occupied by the Town Hall by Messrs. Smith & Dixon in 1852, the business was subsequently removed to Granby Yard, and finally to the present address, it having in the meantime passed into the hands of Mr. B. Dixon. In 1889 the last-named gentleman retired in favour of the present partners, Messrs. W. and H. W. Dixon. The premises consist of a large yard, with a commodious moulding shop, thirty feet long by twenty feet wide at the rear. Here are an endless collection of plaster mouldings in great variety of design. Messrs. B. Dixon & Co. do a good business as plain and ornamental plasterers, whitewashers, tile and concrete floor layers, and have fulfilled many important contracts in the city and vicinity. They have a splendid name for the excellence of their work and the promptness with which it is executed. The resources of the firm are such that they are enabled to commence operations at the shortest notice, and the hands employed are amongst the most skilled workmen in the trade. The entire operations of the firm are conducted under the personal management of the principals, who have had long practical experience in all the various branches and who spare no pains in maintaining the high standard of their work.


This superior business was founded by the present proprietor, Mr. A. P. Kaberry, at No. 92, Upper Kirkgate, who transferred it to the much more commodious premises opposite in 1889. These consist of a handsome stone-built edifice of four-storey elevation, and, both from an exterior and interior point of view, it has a remarkably pleasing and business-like appearance. The basement, first floor, and second floor are all fifty feet long by twenty-two feet wide; the third floor is divided into six chambers, where complete suites are arranged for inspection, as is also a large room on the fourth floor. The commodious interior extends to the rear a distance of forty feet. The stock is very extensive, and embraces dining, drawing, and bedroom suites in all the newest designs. There are elegant and massive couches, cabinets, sideboards, and every description of general household furniture. Attention is attracted by the display of brass and iron bedsteads, which include all the latest improvements. On the first floor there are two extensive show rooms, containing a fine assortment of furniture, nicely arranged and judiciously placed for the inspection of customers. Houses of any dimensions can be furnished throughout — from the mansion to the cottage — including linoleum, carpets, and floor coverings of every kind of material.

All goods are home manufactured, and made from thoroughly seasoned wood, by hand labour, are of substantial make and beautifully finished in the very best style. Mr. Kaberry is patronised by a large number of the principal families of Bradford and the district, manufacturers, merchants, and others, and the most satisfactory evidence which could be desired as to the superiority of his goods, and the confidence which he has secured, is found in the fact that when once he is favoured with an order it invariably leads to further orders. It may, furthermore, be stated that whilst Mr. Kaberry’s goods are of the most thoroughly genuine and reliable description, and also in the best style, his prices are exceedingly moderate, which fact is a great consideration to house-furnishers. The business is conducted with energy and ability, and all orders are executed with care and promptitude under Mr. Kaberry’s personal superintendence, and it is not saying too much to assert that at the present moment Mr. Kaberry deservedly occupies a position among the leading tradesmen in Bradford.


The well-known business controlled by Mr. George Crow was originally carried on in Commercial Street, where it was established in 1867. In 1871 the premises were acquired by the Midland Railway Company, and pulled down for the purpose of making a goods yard, when the business was transferred to Thornton Road. The premises occupied comprise offices and rooms for sampling and warehousing purposes on the first floor of an extensive range of buildings—the ground floor being occupied by retail shopkeepers. These premises stand adjacent to the Town Hall, and within a few minutes’ walk of the Exchange, railway station, and bus and tram centres. Mr. George Crow deals extensively in the various descriptions of wools and yarns, tops, noils, wastes, and silks. In these commodities a trade is done both at home and abroad. The yarn department is principally confined to the export trade, and is a thriving and important one. The firm command a considerable trade, and have a good old-established connection in the worsted and woollen districts of the North of England, and a clientele in foreign countries. Much of the success achieved is due to the personal management by the principal, whose varied experience and long-tried business capacity make his firm a satisfactory medium to his home and foreign patrons for the supply or disposal of the commodities already named. Within a short period piece goods will be added to the other goods dealt in by the firm.


Upwards of half a century has elapsed since the nucleus of this mammoth mill was formed, in quite a modest way, by the late Mr. John Smith, who entered upon his career of industry as a wool-comber in Market Street, occupying premises, now swept away, which were located on the site of the present Seebohm’s Buildings. The business at that time was entirely carried on by hand labour, and Mr. Smith entered into partnership with two other gentlemen in carrying on a spinning concern, in the upper room at the Old Cannon Mill, Great Horton, their six hundred spindles producing five hundred pounds of yarn per week. Upon a dissolution of partnership Mr. Smith continued both businesses with the assistance of his quondam manager, Mr. Booth, as a partner, trading under the style of Smith & Booth, and the continuously expanding business was transferred to Marshall’s Mill, where the trade literally progressed by leaps and bounds, so much so, indeed, that a second speedy removal was made to the far more commodious and convenient Southgate Mill. The partnership terminating in 1851, Mr. Smith admitted his eldest son, who then came of age, into the business, operating as Smith & Son; and in 1853 the present head of the concern, Mr. Alderman Isaac Smith, ex-Mayor of Bradford, joined the firm, his two younger brothers being subsequently admitted as they respectively came of age. In 1858 a final mutation as to locale was made, and the present eligible Field Head Mills, then comparatively large, as far as the Bradford trade was concerned, were acquired from the late Mr. Robert Ackroyd. The decease of the founder in 1870 left the business in the hands of his three sons, Isaac, Benjamin, and Henry, and about this time considerable extensions were completed. Shortly after Messrs. Benjamin and Henry Smith retired, leaving the vast concern in the hands of Mr. Isaac Smith, who subsequently admitted his sons, Mr. J. W. and Mr. Albert Smith as partners, and in 1878 made perhaps the most important extension to the already huge establishment. Recently the business has been converted into a limited liability concern, with Messrs. Isaac and J. W. Smith as joint managing directors.

By way of indicating the magnitude and importance of the concern as it at present stands, a few facts and figures may be quoted. It is scarcely necessary to observe that the mills are equipped with all the most modern and improved machinery extant, every new invention of note being adopted by the firm, who are constantly on the qui vive for improvements in either plant or methods, and are determined to maintain their pre-eminent positions at all hazards. The machinery alone occupies some 21,283 square yards superficial, requiring a pair of engines of one thousand indicated horse-power, and three smaller ones, as motors. Over forty thousand spindles are kept in constant use to manipulate forty-eight thousand pounds of tops per week, in contrast to the five hundred pounds they produced only fifty years ago, and it has been estimated that fully one million five hundred thousand sheep are required to produce the wool annually used by the company, and for the manipulation of which they call into active requisition the services of some twelve hundred skilled operatives. Smith’s worsted yarns are known all over the world, enormous supplies being shipped to the Continent and the United States of America, in addition to the enormous consumption by home manufacturers.

Personally Mr. Alderman Smith has always taken a deep and beneficial interest in public affairs and philanthropic measures, having twice filled the mayoral chair of Bradford with credit to himself and undoubted benefits to the borough, whilst his large-heartedness is well known to all those in distress and necessity, and led him to personally take in hand the collection of the handsome sum of £18,000 for the erection of the much-needed new wing to the Bradford Infirmary, which he opened to the public in 1885.


It was in the year 1842 that this, now the oldest-established and largest business of the kind in Bradford, was founded by the father of the present senior partner of the concern. Upon the decease of the founder, Mr. George Hetherington continued to promote the business with characteristic vigour and success, and was, in January, 1892, joined by Mr. Walter Blakey, when the style and title above designated was adopted. The premises occupied consist of a large and substantial four-storeyed stone building, with capitally appointed offices, sale-room, and warehouses on the ground floor, the upper portion of the building being elaborately equipped for milling work. The firm import their own grain, and in their capacity of corn factors attend Leeds and other corn-markets. Buying also direct from the farmers, they are in a position to sell on the very best terms. The stock always comprises the finest brands of Hungarian and American flours, grain of every description in the way of oats, beans, peas, wheat, maize, poultry seed, &c., cakes, dog biscuits, and special foods for cattle. Their patent "HB" pure flour is noted over a large area, and orders are executed daily from all parts of Yorkshire and neighbouring counties. Admirable system and order prevail in every part of the premises, and there is every facility at command for the rapid transaction of business, which entails the regular employment of a competent staff of clerks and warehousemen. The trade controlled is one of great magnitude and importance, and extends for many miles around amongst the gentry, railway companies, carriers, livery stable and cab proprietors, and all employer s of horse labour, as well as among cattle dealers, breeders, farmers, and others. The business is most capably and energetically conducted upon principles which have won for them the well-merited esteem and confidence of an exceptionally valuable and still rapidly growing connection.


It is about a century since this successful business, which has always strengthened its long-established reputation by the adoption of the best modern mechanical and commercial improvements, was founded by Mr. Richard Robinson, the grandfather of the present members of the firm. It was originally carried on near Keighley, and it was not until 1858, when its commercial connections had become numerous and important, that the business was removed to Bradford. The principal at that time was Mr. Solomon Arnold, who continued at the head of affairs until 1873, when he was succeeded by the existing partners, Messrs. John, William, and George Richard Arnold. The premises comprise a spacious factory, four storeys in height, with extensive warehouse accommodation. The premises are fully furnished with spinning machinery and other mechanical apppliances of the best modern type, driven by adequate steam power. There are ten thousand spindles constantly running, and about two hundred hands, many of them experts of a high class, are regularly employed. In this connection it may be mentioned that the firm now have in their employ a workman who has been with them upwards of fifty-seven years, The firm confine their production to yarns of the best descriptions, which have a recognised high value throughout the trade. A speciality of the firm is their botany yarns for Italians. The business relations of the Messrs. Arnold Brothers extend all over the United Kingdom. The increasing prosperity of the old firm is chiefly due to the energetic management of the partners, who are all familiar with every detail of the business, both in its manufacturing and in its commercial aspects. The Messrs. Arnold are well known in all the commercial circles of the district, and are held in much esteem for their excellent business qualities.


This extensive business was founded in 1872, by Captain Street, now deceased, who was succeeded by his brother, the present proprietor, Mr. John Street. The premises occupy a good central position, and are near St. James’s Market. They consist of large worksheds, on the first floor of a two-storied building. The most liberal provision has been made in the way of machinery, all specially adapted to the requirements of the trade. The whole is driven by a fine steam engine. The class of work turned out is of the highest possible description, and consists of the manufacture of all kinds of revolving shutters, made on the latest improved principle. Added to a handsome appearance, they combine great strength, and are so constructed as to do away with the liability of getting out of order, most careful attention being devoted to the springs. The designs produced are most novel and effective. They comprise sun blinds, Venetian blinds, Holland blinds, and some singularly pleasing art blinds. These are made in all sizes, from the blind for the ordinary house window, to those for the front of a large shop or warehouse. A considerable amount of attention is devoted to repairing and renewing. All the operations are carried out by skilled labour, under competent supervision.

The proprietor has been the recipient on numerous occasions of most gratifying testimonials, copies of which - together with a catalogue of designs and prices — he will forward on application. Much attention was drawn to the goods when they were exhibited at the Bradford Fine Art and Industrial Exhibition of 1882, and the blinds have been supplied extensively, not only in the borough, but in all parts of the district, and amongst others to the following:- One hundred and sixty sets of revolving shutters can be seen working in the Bradford New Markets, Godwin Street and Kirkgate — inquiries may be made of Mr. Bradbury, market inspector, or Messrs. Lockwood & Mawson, architects, Exchange Buildings, Bradford; fifteen sets at the Talbot Hotel, Kirkgate, Bradford — references permitted to Mr. Williamson, bacon and produce merchant, Piece Hall Yard, Bradford; the Bradford Co-Operative Society’s branches, seven sets at Undercliffe Store; seven sets at Bowling Old Lane Store, four sets at Manningham Store, three sets at Wibsey Store; twenty-four sets for Mr. Bewick, Scar Street, Lindale, near Saltburn; nine sets for Mr. Coates, Builder, Saltburn. The energy and enterprise of Mr. Street will not allow him to stand still. He is constantly introducing some fresh novelty, which is readily appreciated and adopted by the discriminating section of the community.


This old-established business was founded in 1862 by Mr. Hill, and was taken over this year by the present proprietor, who has had another concern for some years at 69, Little Horton Lane. The Great Horton Road premises are in an excellent position, and occupy a commanding corner site. They are double fronted, with an attractive exterior, while the interior is well appointed and fitted up with glass showcases. The extensive stock comprises baths, sanitary appliances of every description, hot-water fittings, taps, gas fittings and globes. The workshops, in which a staff of skilful and experienced hands is employed, are at the rear of the show-room. The business was an exceedingly thriving one when Mr. Perry succeeded to it, and, under his able management, it seems likely to develop in a most satisfactory manner. He has a thorough knowledge of the trade in all its branches, and can execute every class of work in the most satisfactory style, on the shortest notice and most reasonable terms. He has devoted special attention to sanitary plumbing, steam and hot-water fitting. Now that the importance of sanitary engineering is generally recognised, an acknowledged expert like Mr. Perry, who has been registered under the Worshipful Company of Plumbers, London, thus testifying to his full capabilities, is bound to come into prominence, and we find that throughout the district of which Bradford is the centre he is held in high esteem for the intelligent and conscientious manner in which he carries out the sanitary work entrusted to him. The appliances he fits up are of the latest and most reliable description, whilst the workmanship is perfect of its kind. In short, the most improved principles of sanitary engineering are applied in all respects.

As a general plumber, glazier, and fitter Mr. Perry gives equal satisfaction. All orders receive prompt and careful attention, and the charges are as moderate as is consistent with sound, substantial workmanship. He has, therefore, secured an excellent local and district connection amongst property owners, agents, and householders. The steady success which for years rewarded his efforts while he was proprietor only of the Little Horton Lane establishment proved that his enterprise and ability as a tradesman were appreciated, and now that he has taken over the control of another well-established concern, he is certain to make still more noteworthy progress. He is strictly attentive to business, shrewd and pushing as well as practical, so he possesses all the qualifications which tend to success.


The above business was founded in 1865, under the style of A. Flather & Co., and at an early stage in its history the excellence of the workmanship and the durability of the materials used in all the goods sent out of the factory created a widespread and valuable reputation. Since 1875 the business has been successfully carried on by the present sole proprietor under his own name solely, but now changed to A. Flather & Sons. The works are fitted up with erecting, harness tying-up, and mechanics’ shops. These are equipped with machinery and mechanical "tools" of the best modern type, suitable for the several industrial processes carried on by the firm. A considerable amount of capital has been judiciously expended in this direction, with the result that, under the experienced management of the principal, its productions, after being manufactured under the best possible conditions, are quoted at most moderate prices. The firm are now doing a thriving business as manufacturers of Jacquard machines, both single and double lifts, for which they have obtained a special reputation. They are also makers on a large scale, of improved stamping-machines, repeaters, dressing gear, yarn reels, &c. The Jacquards are used in the processes of manufacturing dress goods for raising the figures on the surface of mantles, dresses, and other articles of ladies’ wear.

The substantial connection of the firm extends not only throughout the manufacturing districts of Yorkshire, but all over the continent of Europe, wherever dress goods, coatings, or woollens are manufactured. A speciality is the patent of Messrs. Hahlo, Liebreich, & Hanson’s patent cross-border Jacquard machine, of which Messrs. A. Flather & Sons are the sole makers. The patent cross-border Jacquard machine has one cylinder for two different designs, and automatic motion for changing from one design to the other can be made with cards to fall either to back and front, or to the side of the loom, with Lancashire turning-back motion. The above machine, which is made either single lift or double lift, in coarse or fine pitch, offers a very important improvement and saving for goods with cross-borders, or such in which the design is changed, as the two different designs are stamped on one set of cards, and by a simple mechanism can be changed from one design to the other without stopping the loom, for which operation up to now two sets of cards were required, and the loom had to be stopped while changing the design. To this they use their patent changing motion, as shown on above sketch, which makes it possible to work one of the two designs stamped on the cards, and let it be changed automatically to the other design whenever required, which is done by a chain formed by smaller and larger links put together according to the design required. By this arrangement much time and expense is saved, and the goods woven in more equal lengths.

Also another speciality is Messrs. Hancock, Rennie, & Hudson's Patent Loops and Links, of which Messrs. A. Flather & Sons are the sole makers. This improvement consists of being able to work with one neck band, where two hitherto have been used, enabling a much smaller knot to be made at the heads, thus leaving room in the harness for the heads to pass each other, also working with a tight band. With this system of one neck band the weaver cannot possibly weave if a neck band should come down. In the old style of two neck bands one had always to be slack, and with the changing from slack to tight band caused sudden jerking and friction, which was continually wearing the bands down. This improvement does away with all jerking and friction, enabling the weaver to turn out more work at considerably less cost in mending.

The house conducts a very considerable export business. The marked success which has attended all the enterprises of the firm is chiefly due to the thorough knowledge of the principal, and to the assiduity with which he supervises all the details of the business, industrial as well as commercial. Mr. Flather is personally well known throughout the Bradford district, and is much esteemed for the high integrity which characterises all the commercial transactions of his firm.
The telegraphic address of the firm is "Beehive, Bradford;" its telephone No. 402.


In a review of the most noteworthy and representative industrial undertakings in the Bradford district prominent and appreciative mention should be accorded to the important and prosperous organ-building works of Messrs. Driver & Haigh, which have for many years been carried on with conspicuous success. This busy and flourishing concern was originally established in premises in Nesfield Street by Mr. Spencer in the year 1875, and was taken over by Messrs. Driver & Haigh in 1882, and carried on by them with most highly satisfactory results until 1888, when the business was transferred to the present commodious premises. The works comprise a roomy and commodious workshop of about sixty feet by thirty feet, which is termed the "erecting shop," and this sufficiently indicates the nature of the operations carried on there. On the floor above, the carving of the woodwork and other incidental work is executed. All stages of the manufacture are done on the premises, from the first rough-hewing of the green wood to the last finishing touches. The firm build organs for churches, chapels, and private families, and they, have a very influential and widespread connection extending throughout the county of York, where they have a very high reputation for the superior workmanship and beautiful tone and touch which invariably characterise their instruments.

Among the many high-class instruments built by this firm may be mentioned the following:— Newsholm Church, Keighley Parish; Baptist Chapel and Wesleyan Chapel, Earby, via Leeds; Wesleyan Chapel, Oxenhope; Baptist Chapel, Horkinstone, Oxenhope; Primitive Methodist Chapel, Dudley Hill, Bradford; Trinity Baptist Chapel, Bradford; Parish Church, Clowne, Derbyshire; Wesleyan Chapel, Southowram, Halifax; Congregational Chapel, Wibsey, Bradford; Congregational Chapel, Queensbury; for Thomas Hill, Esq. and G. R. Mossman, Esq., Bradford; Oakenshaw Wesleyan Chapel, St. Bartholomew’s Church, Bradford.

They employ some dozen or fifteen skilled and specially selected workmen, and every detail of the work executed receives the close and attentive supervision of the principals, Messrs. Driver & Haigh, who are both active and energetic business gentlemen, possessing a thorough practical knowledge of all branches of the art of organ-building, and are personally much esteemed and respected by all who enjoy the privilege of their private and personal acquaintance.


The Bradford Art Needlework Society well represents a very important and no less interesting branch of industry. The business was established in the year 1878, and the Society during its long and prosperous career has contributed in an eminent degree to the knowledge and popularisation of this particular branch of art industry. The premises occupy an excellent position in Darley Street (No. 67). The sale and show rooms are spacious and handsome apartments, the fixtures are of a very superior character, and the appointments are in good taste and in excellent keeping with the high tone of the establishment. The Society have on view an extensive assortment of high-class goods, which for excellence of quality and rich variety is not surpassed by similar display in the town. Among the many dainty and attractive items in their large and well-ordered stocks are to be found superb selections of silk and satin art needlework, plushes and velvets, many elegant and artistic designs and devices for book-marks, alms-bags, pulpit hangings, altarcloths, &c. These beautiful articles are most tastefuliy displayed and admirably arranged for inspection. The Society was awarded the gold medal at the Bradford Art Exhibition, 1882, and also enjoys the distinction of the patronage of the Prince of Wales, as well as of the elite of society in Bradford and many parts of the United Kingdom. The business is under the able and energetic management of Miss E. Miles, who spares no effort to render this notable establishment thoroughly deserving of the gratifying commercial prosperity which bids fair to continuously attend its career.


This large and interesting business has attained its present prominent position, in the comparatively short space of eight years through the ability and energy of its sole principal, Mr. Joseph W. Stow. When the business was founded in 1884, its operations were commenced at the present premises in Manchester Road, and these have been so conveniently arranged and so admirably equipped in all departments as to afford every accommodation for an active and increasing trade. The establishment comprises a three-storey double-fronted warehouse, on the ground floor of which we find the firm’s well-appointed offices and a spacious sale-room. The stock of leather seen here is a most comprehensive one, embracing all the leading varieties from the best reputed tanneries, and all requirements of the leather-using trade can be promptly satisfied. Mr. Stow also holds a very remarkable stock of boot uppers of every kind and size, besides shoe mercery, grindery, and shoemakers’ requisites in general. On the first floor is situated the commodious and well- organised factory, provided with every improved appliance for the manufacture of men’s, women’s, and youths’ boot uppers. Employment is given to a numerous staff of hands, and the various processes of the industry are systematically carried out under the most favourable conditions.

Mr. Stow is the maker and proprietor of a very celebrated Oil Blacking, which forms the speciality of his business at the present time. This excellent preparation, unlike some that find their way into the market, does not produce its fine appearance at the expense of the leather to which it is applied. On the contrary, it preserves the leather, and prevents cracking. Stow’s oil blacking is easy to polish, never dries up, and is in constant demand in nearly all parts of the kingdom, its immense sale speaking volumes for its efficiency. Another important speciality of this house is Stow’s Glycerine Kid Reviver, an admirable preparation for dressing ladies’ and children’s kid boots and shoes. It makes them soft and pliable, and restores the colour and gloss to all leather goods. Equally noteworthy is Stow’s Waterproof Dubbin, which is so skilfully prepared that it may justly be called nature’s own remedy for softening, waterproofing, and preserving boots, leggings, harness, &c. It does not prevent boots being polished, but renders them thoroughly waterproof, making them like new and adding greatly to the wear. There is no more effectual preventive of colds arising from wet feet, and for sporting boots this dubbin will be found invaluable. An immense trade is done in the above-mentioned specialities, and Mr. Stow has also a remarkably large business in mohair and leather laces for boots and shoes. He has wholesale agents in all the principal towns, and is actively represented by an energetic staff of travellers. As indicating the great popularity of the goods of this house, they are largely and regularly purchased by all the principal grocers and bootmakers in England, and no less than thirty of the principal co-operative societies in Yorkshire and Lancashire alone. Mr. Stow personally manages all the affairs of this very successful and constantly growing concern. He is an enterprising and straightforward business man, possessed of a large fund of sound, practical skill and experience, and enjoying the respect and confidence of all who have commercial dealings with him.

Telegrams: “Peel, Bradford;” telephone No. 327.

Any record of the textile industries of Bradford would indeed lack completeness without due reference to the important and responsible part taken therein by its manufacturers of Bradford stuffs and worsteds; and in this connection it would indeed be difficult to indicate a more thoroughly typical or representative institution than the one here referred to. Projected about a quarter of a century ago under the style and title above designated, the commercial development of the concern has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement; and doubtless the most effectual wav in which to indicate its character, scope, and aims would be to give a brief resume condensed from notes of a special survey taken upon the spot.

The premises occupied in Peel Place, off the Leeds Road, are the central offices of the firm, their elaborately equipped works being known as the Thornton Mills at Thornton; and the Globe Mills in Bradford, and calling into active requisition the services of a very large staff of skilled operatives, whose labours are assisted by a large and magnificent plant of the most modern machinery and appliances, in the production of all classes and grades of Bradford stuffs and worsted manufactures. The warehouses in Peel Place consist of a three-storeyed block of buildings, the ground floor of which is appropriated for a handsome suite of offices, while the two floors above are used for the warehousing of the goods manufactured. The trade controlled is one of very considerable volume, extending practically to the principal merchants and warehousemen throughout the kingdom, wholly and solely in virtue of the intrinsic merits of the firm’s productions; and the entire business is managed by the sole proprietor, Mr. Theophilus Peel, with an energy and ability which reflect nothing but the highest credit upon his business integrity, acumen, and admirable policy of administration.


This superior and well-known business holds the great distinction of being the oldest of its kind in the town, it having flourished for about a century. The founders were Messrs. Robert Waud & Son, who successfully carried on the business for a great number of years, and were succeeded by Messrs. Pickard & Moulden, the first-named gentleman being uncle to the present proprietor, who took over the business in 1878, at which date the firm assumed the present title of Messrs. Pickard & Co. The premises were entirely rebuilt and very considerably enlarged in 1871, and now comprise a most handsome and commodious double- fronted stone building of four-storey elevation, which forms one of the architectural features of Bradford. The sale-room, show-room, and office are on the ground floor, and are in every respect splendidly appointed. The stock is of great extent, and embraces household, toilet, and brushes of every description. There are all kinds of woodware, fancy goods, and toilet ware, also combs, hair-brushes, glasses, wash leathers, sponges, enamel ware, purses, ladies’ bags, and a miscellaneous stock of fancy goods in almost every shape and form. The goods are very attractively displayed in all parts of the shop, and the two plate-glass windows are always beautifully and artistically set out. The branch factory is situate at 19, Piccadilly, another commodious place, where mill and machinery and household brushes of every description are made. A most substantial wholesale and retail connection has long been attached, which partakes of a local and district character. The services of several salesmen are required in the shop, and in the factory upwards of twenty competent hands are employed. The whole of the operations are carried out under the able management of the principal, who is known near and far for his energy, enterprise, and courtesy.

Telegrams: “Sharpe, Printer, Bradford telephone, No. 479.

The extensive business carried on by W. N. Sharpe (Trustees), Manufacturing Commercial Stationer, &c., presents many features of more than ordinary interest, and well merits a prominent mention here. Mr. Sharpe commenced business in 1874 in a very small way at 6, Piccadilly, and his growing business necessitated the opening out of 39, Kirkgate as a stationery store, with manufacturing works in Thornton Road. The premises at 39, Kirkgate, comprise a spacious and handsome shop fitted up and appointed in a very superior style, also extensive warehouse accommodation, and every convenience for the successful working of the business. The large and comprehensive stock embraces a most extensive assortment of general, commercial, and family stationery, all the most recent and fashionable novelties in notepaper, envelopes, and correspondence cards, diaries, notebooks, and a choice selection of leather goods, &c. The works in Thornton Road extend from 151 to 157, and are fitted with presses, machinery, and appliances embodying all the latest improvements. The motive power is supplied by two large improved gas-engines. Employment is here found for upwards of sixty hands, carrying out every branch of manufacturing stationery, printing, lithographing, machine ruling, and book manufacturing, &c. All the work is turned out in the very best style, and, with the superior facilities at command, all orders are fulfilled with promptness. The business receives the strict attention of efficient managers in each department, and there is a very extensive wholesale and retail connection. Mr. W. N. Sharpe was well known and highly esteemed in Bradford, and took a keen and active interest in all matters that affected the prosperity of the commerce and industries of the town and district.


The reputation gained by this firm over half a century ago for really reliable goods is fully maintained, and an ever-increasing business is in operation. The goods regularly turned out have become well known for their exactness, strength, and compactness. This fine business was founded by Mr. Henry Richardson, who successfully carried it on up to the year 1883, when it was taken over by his grandson, the present proprietor, Mr. Richardson Furness, the old title still being retained. The premises at the above address are very extensive, and consist of two shops, having a total frontage ©f forty-five feet. The interior is very well appointed, and extends to the rear a distance of twenty feet. There is always on hand a most extensive stock of scales and weights of every description, many specially made to suit the requirements of the trades and occupations carried on in the district. The basement is used for workshops. All work is done by hand, and by skilled and experienced workmen, there being from six to twelve employed. As a scale beam maker, and maker of weighing machines, Mr. Furness is without an equal in the neighbourhood, his long and practical experience enabling him to guarantee first-class work; while the material used is the best obtainable. There is also a large business carried on as a whitesmith, in all its many branches. The connection’ extends all over the district, and is among wool staplers and merchants, Wholesale grocers, fruit merchants, and general shopkeepers. Mr. Furness is an industrious and conscientious gentleman, who holds a high place in the respect of his fellow townsmen, and is at the head of a thoroughly useful and prosperous business.

Telephone No.934.

Messrs. Cordingley & Harrison, who occupy very roomy and extensive premises, first laid the foundation of their considerable and prosperous operations in the year 1889, and they have since built up with conspicuous success a very thriving and substantial trade. On the ground floor of their capacious establishment they have an excellently fitted saw-mill, with circular and band saws, &c., driven by a powerful gas-engine. The joiners’ shop is on the first floor, and contains capital planing and morticing machines, &c. A brisk and busy trader is in operation in all kinds of joinery and building work, shop and office fitting, mill and warehouse work of every description, and repairs and alterations to property generally, as well as masons’ work, draining, paving, flagging, the re-setting, &c., of ovens and boilers, and similar work in all branches. The firm undertake large contracts for public buildings as well as for mills, factories, and private residences. They have a very valuable and influential connection in the town and throughout a wide area of the surrounding country, and their extensive orders give constant and regular employment to about a dozen workpeople. Messrs. Cordingley & Harrison are themselves thoroughly practical men in all matters connected with the trades in which they are engaged, and they take an active part in the supervision and management of all the details of their multifarious transactions. They are well known in commercial circles as a Sound and substantial firm of the highest standing, and the partners individually are alike respected and highly esteemed by all who have the advantage of their private and personal acquaintance.


Gentlemen in Bradford are admirably catered for in the matter of general outfitting by the well-known house above named. It was in the year 1869 that Mr. James Lazenby entered upon his present prosperous career as a practical shirt-maker, hosier, and hatter, confining his attention to the production and supply of the very best qualities of goods. His premises are admirably adapted to the requirements of a first-class business, being fortunately located at the prominent corner of Swan Arcade and Charles Street, and having entrances from both of those busy thoroughfares. The spacious shop is very handsomely appointed, and arranged to hold and display a very carefully selected stock of superior goods, of which an accurate notion may be formed from the following list of leading lines represented. These include the celebrated silk and felt hats of Messrs. Tress, Lincoln & Bennett, Pritchard, and Ellwoods, hats and caps of every description for tourists, athletes, outdoor pastimes, sporting, &c., gloves by all the leading manufacturers of the day, scarves, ties, and handkerchiefs, collars and cuffs, umbrellas, vests, pants, hose, half-hose, and every conceivable kind of hosiery. Mr. Lazenby, moreover, has won a widespread fame for the high excellence in fit and finish of his shirts, all of which are made under his personal supervision by a staff of skilled and experienced shirt tailors. The general organisation of the business is most thorough, the principal bestowing the utmost attention to its various branches, and thereby ensuring the execution of all orders to the entire satisfaction of his large and influential circle of customers; and all the characteristics of the undertaking are those of a house whose nature has been influenced and whose methods have been formed by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of trade.


This business has been established some fourteen years, and the emporium is one of the most noted of its kind in Bradford. It stands at the corner of Bank Street, in Kirkgate, and forms a portion of the ground floor of the handsome block known as the Talbot Hotel. The establishment is of attractive appearance, and is furnished with fine show-windows facing each of the thoroughfares named. The interior is fitted up in excellent style, and the general stock, which is both large and varied, includes woollen, cashmere, and merino hosiery for gentlemen’s wear; gloves of all descriptions, silk and felt hats, silk scarfs and neck-wear of the newest designs, woollen and linen shirts in every variety, travelling-rugs, umbrellas, Gladstone and other bags, leather hat-cases, &c., &c. Shirts of all kinds and for all requirements are made to order, and the establishment is largely patronised by cricketers and athletes of all classes, as athletic clothing and appliances are a speciality of the business. It is a popular emporium also for supplying boys’ school outfits, &c. Taking into consideration the superiority of the goods, the scale of prices for all articles is exceedingly moderate, and this circumstance adds to the popularity of the establishment, and accounts for the large trade done by this firm. The business is admirably managed, and orders are executed with care and promptitude.


Among the most promising and noteworthy of the newer commercial and industrial undertakings that have been launched in Bradford within the last few years, one of the most prominent and representative is the extensive and flourishing umbrella and walking-stick manufacturing business which Mr. George Pickering recently established at 37, Tyrrel Street, Bradford. In a very short period of time this extensive concern has assumed a position of considerable and thriving prosperity, and Mr. Pickering is rapidly increasing and developing the scope and extent of operations with the most highly satisfactory results. The premises consist of a substantial building of three storeys, having a roomy and commodious shop on the ground floor, and containing a valuable and comprehensive stock of umbrellas with silver and ivory mounted handles, &c., and also a choice selection of sticks in ebony and other woods, mounted with horn, ivory, and other handles. Umbrellas are recovered in the best style, and sticks of all kinds dressed and suitably mounted with the greatest promptitude and efficiency. A considerable business is also done in covers, sticks, and fittings for the trade. Mr. Pickering is a thoroughly practical man, having wide and valuable experience, and an intimate acquaintance with every branch of the trade, and he bears a very high reputation for the thoroughly reliable character of all the work executed in his excellent establishment and the superior quality of all the materials employed. He is a smart, active, and enterprising business man, of sound and substantial standing, and he is locally very well known and universally esteemed and respected.


This business was founded over a century ago by Messrs. Thwaites, and it continued in the founders’ possession till 1857, when they were succeeded by Mr. Robert Hill, who was joined by the present proprietor, the concern being then carried on under the style of Hill & Harland. Mr. Hill retired in 1889, and Mr. James Edward Harland has since been sole proprietor. The premises comprise a commodious front show-room and office on the ground floor, with workshops at the rear. The show-room is very neatly and effectively appointed, being fitted up with glass showcases in which there is an elegant display of articles connected with domestic lighting. The stock further includes gas-fittings, coloured hall- lamps, plumbing requisites, and sanitary appliances. Mr. Harland, who is a thoroughly practical tradesman, is a registered member of the Worshipful Company of Plumbers, and employs none but trained, experienced, and registered workmen. While he undertakes every branch of the trade, and executes all classes of work in the most efficient style, he has made a special study of sanitary engineering, in which he is an acknowledged expert, and is familiar with the very latest improvements which science has suggested. He has gained a more than local reputation, and he is frequently consulted as adviser, and he is always ready to place his skilled services at the disposal of those who seek to avail themselves of his ability and experience. Drains suspected of being faulty are examined and reported on; baths and water-closets are fitted up on the most recent and improved systems. Mr. Harland undertakes all kinds of domestic fittings connected with lighting, heating, and sanitation, and has successfully executed still more important work of this description for public buildings. He has an excellent local and district connection, but his connection is by no means strictly local, for it extends throughout most parts of the North of England, where the combination he offers of high-class work at moderate charges has commanded wide approval, and gained for him satisfactory support. Thanks to his ability, intelligence, enterprise, and resources his trade is steadily growing, and, long established as is the business he controls, it was never more prosperous or more certain to develop than it is now.

Telephone No. 889.

Although this business was established as recently as the year 1889, such has been the energy and enterprise exhibited by the proprietors that it is now known to a large portion of the manufacturing and trading portion of the community in and around Bradford. The splendid premises, named the Sunbridge Iron Works, are among the most complete and extensive of the kind in the locality, and they are fitted throughout with every modern contrivance and appliance. The ground measurement of the works is eighty feet by sixty feet, and the main building is three storeys high, the offices and works being on the ground floor. There are turning-lathes, drilling and boring machines, &c., all of which are driven by a powerful steam-engine. The upper two floors are used as general store-rooms. The whole of the material used is specially selected and prepared, so that it can be thoroughly relied upon. The firm make all kinds of girders, roofs, and palisadings, the latter in a variety of ornamental and decidedly artistic designs. They can be made to any size, and to any pattern required. A high reputation is held for the skill exhibited as heating and ventilating engineers, the services of the firm being in great request for heating churches, chapels, and other public buildings. They have also a good connection among mill-owners for all kinds of mill work, and among builders for girders and roofs. They also supply smiths with a large number of requisites. At the present time there are about thirty hands employed, the business being entirely under the personal supervision of the partners.


The above house, although inaugurated as lately as the year 1891, already enjoys a trade which extends among furniture dealers in every part of the United Kingdom. This notable institution was organised, and is now being vigorously developed, by Mr. John Edwards, a gentleman who was for many years the principal manager of the well-known firm of Messrs. Watson & Whiteley, the extensive furniture manufacturers of Keighley. Mr. Edwards operates on a definite system, and his method of procedure is as follows. He imports particular kinds of woods from Honduras and Mexico, which after thorough seasoning, is manufactured into chairs, sofas, couches, and dining and drawing room suites, of which a very fine selection is always en evidence at his show-rooms. To the rear of his show-rooms are the elaborately equipped sawmills and upholstery departments, extending for a distance of some one hundred and twenty feet, into Richard Street, and being well provided with circular and band saws, lathes, boring and planing machines, &c., driven by steam-power. All the goods produced are guaranteed to be sound and of finished workmanship, and the facilities for production at his command being so great, he is enabled to fill orders, however large they may be, with efficiency, economy, and despatch. For the rest the entire business is most capably and energetically conducted in a manner which has gained for him the esteem, unreserved confidence, and liberal support of a very large and valuable trade connection.


This business was established in 1879 by Messrs. Fehrenbach & Howry, and was taken over by the present proprietor in 1881. The premises are situated in one of the most improving business positions in Bradford, opposite the Boys’ Grammar School. They comprise a handsome sale-shop attractively fitted up and conveniently arranged. The stock is very comprehensive as well as large, including gold and silver watches in various styles for ladies and gentlemen, timepieces and clocks, gem and other rings, wedding rings, bangles, bracelets, brooches, pins and trinkets of every description; also opticians’ goods. All are of thoroughly reliable quality, and are offered at exceptionally moderate prices. The establishment has a reputation throughout the district for the excellent value procurable there, and it has become a popular emporium for the purchase of articles suitable for presents. Watches are a speciality, for the proprietor is a practical watchmaker, and is in a position to supply highly finished timekeepers of guaranteed accuracy, made on the most improved principles and highly finished at prices which are bound to attract attention. Mr. Kreutz also undertakes repairs of every description and executes them in the most satisfactory manner on the shortest notice. He also has a good connection as regards repairing and regulating clocks amongst private families in the best neighbourhoods of Bradford. Mr. Kreutz employs efficient assistants; but personally manages both the practical and the sale departments, and, thanks to the popular lines upon which it has been conducted by Mr. Kreutz, it has steadily developed and is still thriving at a satisfactory rate. He has from the first displayed conspicuous ability, enterprise, and integrity, and the esteem in which he is held is shown by the patronage he enjoys.


This notable concern was founded in the year 1882, under the title of J. & W. Roper, and continued in the hands of that firm until 1891, when it was incorporated as a limited liability company, the managing directors being Mr. F. J. A. Matthews, Mr. A. W. Hine, and Mr. Percy Rosling. An exceedingly large and important business has been built up during the ten years that have elapsed since Messrs. J. & W. Roper first commenced their operations, and at the present time the Trafalgar Works at Bradford are widely known for their excellent productions in several much-used classes of electrical appliances, such as dynamos and motors, electric mining machinery, electric pumping machinery, electric haulage plant, and specialities in short arc lamps, ship lighting and general electric lighting plant. In all these branches the Company maintain a high reputation, and their manufactures are greatly esteemed for sound workmanship, excellent finish, and practical efficiency. Small dynamos are a special feature, and in these the Company show some very high-class machines, which, though compact and requiring little space, are nevertheless a really efficient apparatus, and not mere toys like a good many small dynamos in the market. Roper’s short arc lamp for Street lighting, carriage drives, parks, &c., is unsurpassed by anything of the kind we have seen; and our readers may be strongly recommended to examine two other notable specialities of the Company, viz., the “Yorkshire” dynamo, which is remarkable for simplicity of design, compactness, absence of sparking, low speed, high efficiency, safety, and small cost; and the “Yorkshire” electric motor, a highly effective and carefully constructed apparatus for the transmission of electrical power for all purposes, and specially adapted for coal-mines where there is danger from gas.

Roper’s Electrical Engineering Company, Limited, are prepared to manufacture to order any class of electrical machinery and instruments, and also to undertake the erection of electric lighting plant and mining machinery in all parts of the world. Their productions gained a silver medal at Glasgow (1885) a gold medal at Saltaire (1887), and a bronze medal at the Crystal Palace (1892). It should also be mentioned that telephones are included among the specialities of this concern, and telephonic communications are fitted up in mills, and between private houses and offices, &c. Altogether the Company’s trade is one of much more than ordinary magnitude, and the connections maintained in all parts of the kingdom speak for its substantial character. The Company guarantee all their productions to be of the highest class in material and workmanship, and only the most skilful and experienced workmen are employed at their large and admirably equipped works in Trafalgar Street. Under the personal supervision of the managing directors the entire business is conducted with marked ability and judgment.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Magneto, Bradford.” The telephone No. is 844.


No review of the great commercial concerns of Bradford and district would be complete without some special reference to the widely-known firm of Messrs. Henry Leggott & Co., who hold a leading position in connection with the trade in artistic and furnishing ironmongery, domestic machinery, and other productions of a nature akin to these. As far back as the year 1830 this notable house came into existence, under the auspices of Messrs. Dixon & Byrne, and for nearly twenty years past it has been continued by the present sole principal, Mr. Henry Leggott, trading under the style of Henry Leggott & Co. The headquarters of the firm are at the above address in Market Street, where a very extensive block of buildings affords every convenience for the conduct of this immense business. Large as the establishment is, however, it is fully occupied by the remarkably extensive and varied stock that has been gathered together within its walls, and in this stock Messrs. Henry Leggott & Co. display an almost unlimited array of domestic and general hardware for house furnishing, and for the use of builders, decorators, millwrights, &c.

Among the chief specialities the artistic and architectural goods are prominent, and these include many new and beautiful productions in wood and marble chimney-pieces, stoves, tiled grates, &c., all of the highest class in quality and design. The “Abbotsford” Stove, and “Abbotsford” Deflector Register Grate, attract attention here; and there is a particularly fine show of kitchen ranges, among which appear Marsh’s Patent Smoke-Consuming and Fuel-Economising Ranges. These will burn day and night, obtaining excellent results from the commonest smudge; and besides effecting an enormous saving in fuel, they quite dispense with those allied nuisances — smoke, soot, and chimney sweeping. All our readers should inspect these wonderful ranges, and note the testimonials that have been received by Messrs. Leggott from those who have tried them and found them all they are represented to be. “The Lancet,” the leading organ of the medical profession, devoted a large amount of space in its issue of March 5th, 1892, to a careful and exhaustive consideration of these ranges. Indeed, the journal in question sent a special commissioner to Bradford to see the range in actual operation, and to conduct a series of experimental observations with regard to its practical usefulness and sanitary advantages. His report is too lengthy and elaborate to admit of introduction here, but its substance is strongly in favour of the Marsh Range, especially as regards its great economy of fuel. “The Lancet” commissioner also made it his business while in Bradford to inspect one of these ranges which had been at work for some time in the kitchen of a coffee tavern, where a large amount of cooking is done. On this point his report contains the following:— “This range is lighted at 4.30 A.M. every morning, and is kept going till 11 o’clock at night, and, in spite of constant work, it is declared to cost not more than 2s. 6d. per week — that is, with fuel costing, say, 5s. a ton. At the time of our {The Lancet’s) commissioner’s visit, all manner of cooking was going on, the fire was working perfectly, and no smoke could be seen issuing from the chimney, even when the severe experiment of charging with fresh small coal was tried. In the same establishment a steam boiler for heating purposes is worked on this principle and with similarly satisfactory results, both fires, it is declared, costing only 7s. 6d. per week for fuel, whereas before, the boiler alone cost 15s.” From the concluding lines of this very interesting and important report of our greatest medical journal we quote the following:— “A thermometer placed within six inches of the louvres showed a temperature of 320 degrees F. (160 degrees C.). Yet the rate of combustion can be so regulated that on putting a shovelful of coal on the last thing at night, the louvres and dampers being adjusted for slow combustion, a bright fire may be obtained in the morning in a few minutes by simply readjusting them. The trouble of lighting a fire is thus avoided, and the risk of a preliminary, though small and insignificant, escape of smoke reduced to a minimum.”

Backed by such high commendation as the above, as well as by many other valuable testimonials, the Marsh and Leggott patent ranges undoubtedly have a great future ahead of them, and deserve the careful attention of every thoughtful householder. In their furnishing department Messrs. Henry Leggott & Co. are equally prominent, and exhibit an unsurpassed stock of silver and electro-plated goods, fine cutlery, new designs in brass kerb fenders, fire brasses, coal vases, fire screens, gas and oil lamps, brackets, and chandeliers. The requirements of those seeking for articles suitable for wedding and other presents have been fully considered, and are provided for by a large and most interesting array of goods the quality, design and workmanship of which are unexceptionable. Kitchen utensils are stocked in complete variety, and all kinds of domestic machinery rank among those specialities for which the house is noted. Messrs. Henry Leggott & Co. have laid both the home and foreign markets under tribute to complete the contents of their various show-rooms, and the result of their skilful and judicious choosing is one of the most magnificent stocks of artistic and utilitarian metal wares in the North of England.

The firm also hold a full stock of mill furnishings of all kinds in a separate warehouse at the rear of the Market Street establishment. This department is one of much importance, and is conducted with such care and ability as to command the confidence of mill-owners and millwrights in all parts of the surrounding country. We ought to mention the fact that Messrs. Henry Leggott & Co. are sole agents in Bradford and district for Leggott’s patents for opening and closing fanlights and lifting skylights. These clever and very useful inventions have gained great popularity and are coming into widespread use, their notable successes at the Health Exhibition of 1884, and at other great shows, having brought them prominently before the notice of the public. Yet another speciality of this firm consists in a patent safety extension ladder, which is distinctly the best idea of the kind we have seen, and may well be called the ladder for the times. It will be found invaluable in every warehouse, shop and home, and has only to be seen to be approved of.

In its entirety Messrs. Leggott’s business is one of the largest and best-organised concerns in the hardware trade in Yorkshire, and the extent of its resources may be gathered from a glance through the many pages of the firm’s handsomely illustrated catalogue. An immense and widespread trade is controlled, the connection extending over a radius of sixty miles round Bradford. The firm employ a very numerous staff, and execute a vast amount of practical work in all departments of the business, having a good many skilled hands engaged in their well-equipped workshops. No house in the trade has been more successful at exhibitions, for Messrs. Leggott hold medals won at Leeds, York, Bradford, Peterborough, Wakefield, Saltaire, and South Kensington; and all their exhibits have attracted a great amount of public attention and admiration. Every department of this great business receives the personal attention of the principal, Mr. Henry Leggott, who is well known and much respected in Bradford, alike as a merchant and as a citizen. His practical ability and sound commercial judgment enable him to fully maintain the high position his house has so long and so worthily held in the important trade it exemplifies.


The business carried on by Mr. Eeles Is a well-established and extensive one. It was originally founded in Queensgate, and was subsequently removed to a more central position in Market Street, and has retained since then its pre-eminence as an umbrella depot. Facing the Exchange, it is admirably situated for business purposes. The shop contains a very extensive and choice stock of umbrellas and en-tout-cas in all styles and at all prices. Of walking sticks there is a similarly comprehensive stock. Mr. Eeles is the sole maker of the “Veritable” umbrella. All materials used in the manufacture of Mr. Eeles’s umbrellas are most carefully selected with the view of securing the utmost durability combined with neatness and strength. It is his aim to supply nothing but really reliable goods and at the lowest possible prices; and as a manufacturer he is well able to accomplish this. Repairs of every description, as well as the manufacture of umbrellas, are undertaken on the premises. In fact, the re-covering and repair of umbrellas receives especial attention, and it is his constant aim to turn out all re-covered work as nearly equal to new in appearance as circumstances will permit. A large assortment of sticks is kept in stock for the manufacture of umbrellas, and this is done to order at one hour’s notice. Mr. Eeles guarantees that his umbrellas are made as strong as skill and experience and good materials can make them. A very choice assortment is kept of elaborately mounted walking-sticks and umbrellas suitable for presentation purposes.


The high-class and important business carried on by the above firm has been established since 1834. Messrs. Oddy & Son’s workshops are in Manor Street, in connection with which an experienced staff of thoroughly competent men is employed. These workshops are spacious and well provided with all requisites. The show-room is at 55, Market Street. It comprises a large single shop on the ground floor of a five-storeyed building, and a portion of the basement is also occupied. The stock here includes paints and colours, varnishes, brushes and all other requisites, also a large stock of wall-papers of the latest patterns — Lincrusta Walton and Anaglypta. Messrs. Oddy & Son have a high reputation throughout the district for the general excellence of their work. As painters they undertake and execute in the most satisfactory style every description of work, including graining, marbling, gilding and bronzing. Every branch of the decorative art is executed by the firm in a manner which cannot be surpassed. Having regard to quality their charges compare favourably with those of any other house in the trade, and they are always prepared to furnish estimates when required. In addition to domestic decoration, the firm have from time to time been entrusted with important contracts in respect of churches and public buildings. These they have invariably executed to the entire approbation of their clients. Not only, therefore, do the firm occupy a leading position in the trade, but they are greatly esteemed throughout the district.


This business was established in 1883 by the father of the present owner, and successfully carried on by him up to the time of his decease, which took place in 1888, since which date the present Mr. Sykes has vigorously managed it. The premises stand in one of the very best trading thoroughfares in the borough, and consist of a very handsome and commodious single-fronted show-room on the ground floor of a commanding block of stone buildings four storeys high. The place is splendidly appointed, both externally and internally, the fittings and furnishings being in high-class taste, massive plate-glass mirrors, judiciously placed, greatly adding to the effect. The cutting and fitting rooms are at the rear. The stock embraces a choice and well-selected display of Scotch and English tweeds, West of England and Yorkshire cloths, in all the novelties of the season, also special materials for dress suits. A splendid business is in operation. A special line is made of ladies’ riding habits, which are made in the most graceful and approved shapes. Servants’ liveries form another leading line. The cutting is under the superintendence of a skilled artist, and the style, fit and workmanship met with here are not excelled in Bradford. In the workshops none but the best workmen are employed, the number ranging from ten to twenty. The special features are high-class work, best material, and guaranteed style and fit at strictly moderate prices.


The above firm, who have been established for fifty-seven years in Halifax, carry on an important business as tea dealers and blenders, and also as coffee merchants. The “Orient” Cafe, situated at the rear of their premises on the ground floor, is elegantly fitted up as an Eastern apartment. Here teas and coffees are tasted by intending customers. This novel expedient bas proved a highly successful one, and it is much appreciated by the public, as it enables them to sample, before purchasing, the qualities sold by the firm. Messrs. T. Collinson & Sons, who occupy a leading position in the trade, are noted for the excellence of their teas and coffees, which, as import merchants, they are able to supply directly to the public at exceptionally favourable rates. The perfection of quality is ensured, whether as regards purity, flavour, or aroma, by the exceptional facilities they possess for the buying, manipulating, and blending of the extensive and comprehensive stock of tea and coffee held at their central warehouses in Halifax, their headquarters. Their retail stock includes both packet and blended teas of the choicest growths, all packed by the firm. They are also coffee roasters on a large scale, being one of the largest coffee buyers in the north of England; so that the coffee they sell can always be relied on for quality, freshness, and fragrance. They trade, moreover, in cocoas and chocolates, and are the manufacturers of the well-known “Orient” baking powder.

While Messrs. Collinson & Sons thus deal directly as retailers with the public in Bradford, they have an extensive wholesale warehouse in Trinity Road, Halifax, where a very large trade is done. This property, which was built by the firm, is one of the most compact and complete warehouses for a business of this description to be found in Yorkshire. It is a three- storey building, having with the basement a floorage area of 12,000 square feet. Every convenience for the rapid conduct of business is provided, and each room or rooms is devoted to the special department for which it is intended. The machinery (driven by a 4-horae gas-engine) is of the latest and most approved type, whilst system and order are the prevailing features of the whole. Adjoining the warehouses are the stables, a handsome building with accommodation for six horses, drays, light carts, and gigs, and also a comfortable and convenient house, for the horsekeeper. The whole staff employed numbers forty-one.

One of the retail businesses of the firm is carried on at 13, Crown Place, Halifax. This is the old original business, removed from 7, Corn Market, in consequence of a street improvement which swept away the old premises, first occupied by the founder, Mr. T. Collinson, in 1835, and another branch business is firmly established in Brighouse. The reputation of the firm has extended over the lengthened period from 1835 to the present date, and is known not only as an enterprising, reliable local business, but over a wide and comprehensive area. Regarded from every point of view, the firm’s enterprise is an interesting as well as an important one, and inasmuch as they have brought very superior articles within the reach of the masses at popular prices, they well deserve the extensive support they have secured.


After many years’ practical experience in the metropolis, Mrs. Elise Holmes opened her large and beautifully appointed millinery establishment, No. 89, Kirkgate, in 1889, and at once took a leading position in the town. The spacious and handsome double shop is fitted up in a very superior style, the fixtures are at once elegant and substantial, and the appointments are in good taste and in excellent keeping with the high tone of the establishment. The work-rooms on the first floor are replete with every comfort and convenience for the numerous staff of milliners and assistants employed. The large and comprehensive stock is replete with items of interest and novelty, and embraces a choice selection of hats and bonnets in all the newest styles, caps, feathers, flowers and trimmings, millinery requisites, &c. These beautifully made goods are elegant in style, correct in taste, and bear the impress of the highest fashion. Mrs. Holmes aims at the attainment and maintenance of a high standard of excellence as a characteristic of all her work, good quality, correct style and moderate prices are studiously insured, and which are fully reciprocated and highly spoken of by the large and daily increasing number of patrons, amongst which are many of the local aristocracy and members of the highest circles of society in the town and district.


This business was established by Mr. J. K. Waddilove, who is the sole’ proprietor, and trading under the above title, in. 1880. The premises at the above address comprise a well-appointed and commodious suite of offices on the first floor. The club was formed for the purpose of supplying the public with ladies’ and gentlemen’s wearing apparel of every description, also jewellery, and every kind of household furniture and requirements at first cost. The system upon which the business is worked is by small weekly payments, from sixpence upwards. New members obtain checks when eight payments out of twenty are made, or after four instalments on payment of a small additional charge. Old members obtain checks on the first payment, if their payments on previous shares have been regular. On receiving their checks members are at liberty to spend them, at cash prices, at any of the numerous shops which are upon the club’s list. The business has undergone a rapid development since its formation, and still goes on increasing. The club has at the present time twenty-four branches in the principal towns of England, and also at Glasgow, and is principally among the industrial classes. All arrangements are conducted under the management of the proprietor, who employs about forty-five clerks, twenty-eight superintendents and about seven hundred canvassers and collectors. Mr. Waddilove, by his efforts to thoroughly benefit his numerous customers, has won their hearty respect and esteem. All transactions are conducted in a perfectly honourable and straightforward manner, and the people greatly appreciate the easy means within their reach of obtaining useful goods of first-rate quality.


The importance of dress is recognised by all sections of the community, and the far-reaching effect of well-cut garments cannot be well overestimated. In this connection the firm above mentioned has for long represented the highest class in this important branch of commerce. The business was established more than thirty years ago. The premises comprise a three-storeyed building having on the ground floor a handsomely fitted shop, with workrooms on the upper floor. The stock held is a large one, and embraces all the newest patterns in worsteds, woollens, West of England and Scotch tweeds, meltons, vicunas, &c, and a very carefully selected assortment of special cloths for trousers and overcoats — in short, he has now such a variety of patterns as cannot be surpassed by any house in the trade. The trade done is exclusively “bespoke” of the highest class, and special attention is given to the prompt and careful execution of orders for wedding and mourning outfits. Mr. Burton makes a speciality of clerical garments, liveries, and cyclists’ suits, which are completed on the shortest notice. Everything is made on the premises by the most skilful workmen. Mr. Burton is himself a practical cutter, and personally superintends the business. He has a very large and influential clientele, and is highly esteemed for his courtesy and business ability.

Telegrams: “Parke, Bradford.”

Among the representative houses whose names have become closely and creditably identified with the growth and development of the produce- distributing trade in the busy borough of Bradford, there are perhaps few that are as well known as the notable institution whose rise and progress is here noted. Organised at Leeds in the year 1864 by the father of its present able and energetic proprietor, the commercial development of the concern has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement. In 1881 the business was taken over by Mr. Fred Parker, and its headquarters transferred to St. James’s Market, Bradford. Its subsequent progress has been simply phenomenal, for in addition to the Bradford depot, Mr. Parker has opened a branch office at 11, Victoria Street, Liverpool, and a potato store at 2, Conway Street, Jersey; the latter being chiefly devoted to the consigning of early potatoes to Bradford, and the trade generally in other large centres, while similar operations, on a very large scale, are in force with regard to fruit from foreign ports in Liverpool and Hull. Mr. Parker operates as a buyer in the London, Liverpool, and Hull markets for his own supply, and also, on a very large scale, as a commission agent for home and foreign growers. He employs an efficient staff of clerks and salesmen for his Bradford business, which extends for many miles around, amongst merchants and retail dealers; and the entire business under his vigorous policy of administration has made his house one of the largest, best conducted, and most successful undertakings of the kind in the North of England.


This business, which holds a recognised leading position in Bradford, was established in 1870. Its success has been remarkable, and a connection of the highest order has been built up. The premises comprise the first floor of a commodious block of warehouses, of five-storey elevation. There is an ample and well-furnished office, a yarn-room, sample-room, a wool warehouse, and there are store-rooms. The quality of the stock held is seldom exceeded, shrewd practical buyers setting great value upon the commodities dealt in by this firm. There are English yarns in profusion, also foreign varieties, imported from Belgium, Germany, &c. A considerable trade is done in wool, noils, tops, &c. The yarns are both plain and fancy, all the latest shades being stocked. Large lots of llama, imitation worsteds, &c., further increase the extent and value of the stock. The above command a valuable home and export trade among manufacturers of the worsted and woollen goods, also spinners, hosiery manufacturers, &c. The business was originally founded in Nelson Street, from which a move was made to Canal Road, and again to Forster Square in 1886. But the business developed to such an extent that the present commodious premises had to be taken in July, 1892. The firm’s head office is at No. 113, Virginia Place, Glasgow. There is also an office at No. 134, Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A., where the firm are represented by agents. The general business is conducted under the able management of Mr. Auchinvole, the sole proprietor, trading under the title of Johnston & Farie. This gentleman has rendered himself conspicuous by the competent manner in which he conducts all his large transactions. He likewise hold s a respected name for strict integrity and marked courtesy. He is assisted by a competent staff of clerks, and the Bradford branch is under the control of Mr. W. H. Platt.

Telephone No. 288; Telegraphic address: “Cooper, Bradford.”

This prosperous concern was organised by its present proprietor in the year 1876, when he commenced business in Union Street as a maker of tops. In 1880 Mr. Cooper augmented his rapidly-growing business by the addition of the Albert Mills, and seven years later he transferred his business to its present locale, where he purchased mills, which, destroyed by fire, were rebuilt in 1891, and now constitute the splendid four-storeyed pile of buildings known as the Exchange Mills. A magnificent plant of the most modern machinery and appliances, worked by a steam-engine of one hundred horse-power, is here in active operation, and calls into requisition the services of a numerous staff of-skilled and experienced hands, in the washing and combing and carding of wool, and the production of tops, noils, and yarns of every description for the use of manufacturers. Among the specialities for which the firm has become famous, mention must be made of their real cashmere yarns, which are vastly superior to what are ordinarily called cashmere; and to their camelhair yarns. They import the raw cashmere and camelhair principally from China, Russia, and Bombay, and manufacture it in its entirety upon the premises. In this form the goods produced exhibit a soft silky texture of incomparable beauty for ladies’ dress goods, which cannot be attained without this judicious introduction of cashmere and camelhair. The whole of the belting, moreover, used for their machinery is woven from camelhair, and is said to be far more economical, effective, and durable than leather belting; and the firm have accordingly taken up thin kind of manufacture in yarns, and belting is produced ranging from one to thirty-six inches in width. Wherever the productions of the firm find their way they are received with the favour that is only accorded to goods of standard worth and excellence. The entire administration of the business lies in the hands of the principal and his son, Mr. Louis Cooper, and is conspicuous in the matter of practical ability and judicious enterprise; and all the dealings of the house with its far-reaching clientele, are conducted upon the most honourable and straightforward lines.


Established in 1889, the firm of Messrs. James Mortimer & Co. have already taken up a recognised and prominent position in the Bradford trade as manufacturers of fancy dress stuffs, Their premises include the commodious Brunswick Mills at Dudley Hill, and a warehouse at Midland Buildings, 6, Canal Road, Bradford. The premises of the Brunswick Mills comprise a large four-storeyed building, admirably adapted to the purposes of the trade. The general and private offices of the firm are fitted up with all the requisites for the rapid transaction of its commercial business, A spacious warehouse is largely stocked with the productions of the firm, which are in constant demand throughout the market, in which they have made a special reputation. To the rear of the main building are the weaving-sheds, which are fitted up throughout with mechanical appliances of the latest and most approved type. They include one hundred and twenty-six looms, which, on account of the large demands made upon the producing powers of the firm, are constantly employed. They are attended by an adequate staff of experienced workpeople, most of whom are girls. The driving power is supplied by a steam-engine of modern construction.

Throughout the trade the firm have rapidly earned a high reputation, for the excellence of their material and the high finish of their productions. They include a large variety of fancy dress stuffs, and Messrs. James Mortimer & Co. are specially noted for the rapidity with which they introduce a succession of novelties suitable for the different markets which they supply. They have created for themselves a substantial and increasing business connection throughout the United Kingdom. Their relations with the great shipping firms are facilitated through their Bradford house, which is situated in Midland Buildings, 6, Canal Road. In the warehouse there they always hold large stocks of such of their manufactured goods as are most constantly in demand throughout the markets where, their specialities are in general request. A large proportion of their productions are shipped to the Colonies, and other parts of the world. Mr. James Mortimer is the sole proprietor of the business; and to his personal energy and experienced judgment is due the notable success which has attended the trading of the firm. He is fully conversant with all the requirements of the trade, and carefully supervises all the details of the industrial and commercial affairs of the firm.


This extensive business was established in 1879 as Messrs. Bently & Leach in the Sunbridge Road; a dissolution of partnership took place in 1882, Mr. Leach retiring. He then commenced on his own account in Sackville Street, and removed to the more commodious premises now occupied in 1886. These comprise a large building of three storey. On the ground floor are the machinery, warehouse, show-rooms, and offices, and on the first and second floors are spacious and well-equipped workshops, fitted with machinery and appliances of the most improved description worked by steam power. Mr. Leach has always on hand a very extensive stock, which embraces worsted spinning and weaving machinery, carding and combing machines, &c.; he is also largely engaged in the manufacture of patent Turkish towel looms, patent fancy Terry looms, and patent shedding motions for weaving fancy dress and coating goods. These machines are specially noted for economy in production and the superior finish given to the fabrics. There is a very large and steadily increasing demand for them both at home and abroad. Mr. Leach has an excellent connection amongst spinners and manufacturers for the sale of his patent machinery, and his well-known practical knowledge of machinery of all kinds has secured for him a very extensive connection as a valuer. Mr. Leach personally superintends the various departments, and is widely recognised as a courteous and enterprising man with whom it is pleasant and profitable to have business transactions. Mr. Leach is a deacon of the Heaton Baptist Chapel.
Telegrams should be addressed, “Leach, Bradford;” telephone, No. 252.


This extensive business was established in 1887 at Thorncliffe Works, the premises occupied comprising large two-storeyed warehouse and works in Thorncliffe Road, from which thoroughfare they derive their title, fitted throughout with special machinery and plant for the manufacturing processes of the trade, motive force being supplied by a gas engine. The specialities of Messrs. Smith’s make include every description of waterproof, oilcloths, and macintosh, railway wagon, cart, and machine covers, canvas and linen sheets, waterproof and woollen horse-sheets, driving aprons, stack covers, lime sheets, jute sheets, linings in flax, hemp, and cotton, wagonette and landau covers, tents, tarpaulins, nose-bags, wagon ropes, waterproof coats, capes, and all kinds of sleeping sheets and fawn rugs, repairing canvas, roofing felt, twines, wool sheets, all kinds of cord for tying hay and thatching, coal and corn and flour bags, stable brushes, spoke, dandy, and body brushes, leather head-collars and halters, curry-combs, plough-lines, &c., &c. Tents and marquees in all sizes, and for all purposes, are turned out by this firm. This is rapidly becoming an important industry, the prices and workmanship comparing favourably with any other houses. A large and steadily extending trade has been established by the firm, whose widespread connection includes many of the largest railway companies in the kingdom. Messrs. Smith also undertake all kinds of repairs and re-oiling, which are executed in first-rate workmanlike style on the shortest notice. The London works are situated at London Road, Isleworth, and are arranged on a similarly efficient scale of completeness to the establishment in Bradford, the entire management of the concern, in the capable hands of the proprietors, being conducted with marked ability.


The noted house here under consideration dates its history back as far as the year 1848, when it was founded by Messrs. William Ibbetson and Joshua Armitage at premises in Leeds Road. In consequence of the very rapid development of the business, the firm were soon obliged to enlarge their establishment, and this process of extension having been carried out several times in succession, they at length (in 1885) transferred the business to its present address in Stott Hill, where there is ample scope for its continuous development. These works are of great extent, comprising a huge block of stone buildings, seven storeys high, containing about 8,000 square yards of flooring. In this building the firm have surrounded themselves with new and improved machinery and appliances. On the ground floor are the busy packing-rooms. The first floor accommodates the spacious general and private offices, sample-rooms, &c.; the second floor is occupied by the paper, &c., store-rooms, embossing, stone polishing, and stone storage, mechanics’ shop, and the steam-engines, the third floor having the machine-room and the lithographic-printing department. Letterpress printing is carried on upon the fourth floor, where there is also a large dining-room for the workpeople, fitted up for their general convenience and comfort; also a spacious artists’ studio, and a proving-room. The fifth floor forms the pattern-card making, bookbinding, and folding departments. The sixth floor is occupied by photographic-rooms, for photo process work, &c.; also an extensive varnishing and framing department.

The splendid plant in use in these immense works is driven by steam power, and the premises are lighted throughout by electricity. Messrs. Armitage & Ibbetson have worthily gained a national reputation in all departments of their trade, and are widely known throughout the kingdom for the excellence of their work in chromo-lithography, all kinds of letterpress printing, designing, and engraving, embossing, photo-lithography, zincography, bookbinding, machine-varnishing, and the mounting and framing of show-cards. Among these various branches, chromo-lithographing, artistic and commercial printing and designing and engraving, stand out as leading specialities, and in these lines the firm under notice produce work that is second to none for beauty of finish and general merit in execution.

By able management and the maintenance of a very high standard of excellence in production, this firm’s business has been immensely developed during recent years, and it increases continuously. The home connection extends to all parts of the United Kingdom, and there is an export trade to almost every quarter of the globe, the firm having many customers in the Colonies and foreign countries. Commercial travellers represent the house in various districts of the home trade, and there are branches at 103, Newgate Street, London, E.C.; 78, Mosley Street, Manchester; and 30, Queen Street, Belfast. Over four hundred workpeople are employed at the Stott Hill Works, and the entire organisation of the business calls for unreserved commendation, every arrangement for the prompt execution of orders being most complete. Mr. Joshua Armitage retired from the business many years ago, and the present personnel of the firm comprises the three sons of the late Mr. William Ibbetson — Messrs. W. H, T., and J. Ibbetson, who are thoroughly practical masters of the trade in all its details. Telegrams should be addressed, “Ibbetson, Bradford.”

Telephone No. 816.

This important business was founded by the above-named gentleman in 1884. The Albert Mills are laid out on a very extensive scale, admirably constructed and well arranged, both with respect to economy in working and the health and comfort of the numerous employes. The machinery and appliances in the various departments are of the most improved description, and a number of hands being regularly employed, the mills at all times present a busy and animated scene of industrial activity. The firm confine their attention principally to the production of worsted yarns of a very superior quality; their goods have a thoroughly established reputation in the market, which may be justly attributed to the great care and sound judgment exercised in the selection of the wool, the skill and experience brought to bear upon every detail of the manufacture, and the splendid machinery the firm have at command. Messrs. Baldwin, junior, & Co. have a first-class connection with the leading worsted coating and hosiery manufacturers in the various industrial centres of the United Kingdom, and also do a large export trade in yarns. The business is conducted under the immediate supervision of the proprietor, and with his well-known ability, energy, and enterprise. Mr. Richard Baldwin, junior, has been for many years most intimately associated with the progress and development of the worsted spinning industry in Bradford, and takes a keen and active interest in all matters that affect the prosperity of the commerce and manufactures of the twon and district.


The very extensive business carried on by Mr. Pepper was established in 1870 by the present proprietor, who has carried it on with marked success up to the present time. The premises consist of spacious offices on the ground floor. Mr. Pepper is the agent in Bradford for the celebrated “White Star” line of steamers, known universally as the finest, fastest, and best found vessels traversing the Atlantic between Liverpool and New York. The arrangements of these steamers, both for the comfort and convenience of all classes of passengers and for the accommodation of freight, are too well known to need any detailed description, and nothing that care and forethought can provide is lacking to minister to the luxurious comfort of the voyager. The arrangements for freight-carrying are of a very high order, and in this department a very large trade is done through Mr. Pepper’s agency among the leading merchants, &c., who export goods to America, the “White Star” Line being a very popular one. Mr. Pepper is also passenger agent for the “American” Line (United States), mail steamers connecting with the Pennsylvania railroad, the most direct and shortest route to the West, North-west, and South-west. The firm also hold the agency for the West Hartlepool Steam Navigation Company, who have a bi-weekly service of steamers running between West Hartlepool and Hamburg, and also between West Hartlepool and Gothenburg during the season, sailing at regular intervals. Enough has been said to give some indication of the vast extent of the business carried on. Mr. Pepper has a very large and influential connection among all classes of the community, and under his able supervision the business holds a very high position in public esteem.


Amongst the leading coal merchants of Bradford a prominent place must be assigned to the above firm, who have been established since 1875. The members of the firm are Messrs. Abraham and Joseph Baxandall, who, as the founders of the concern, are possessed of long experience and have a thorough knowledge of the trade. They have entered into arrangements with the best Yorkshire collieries only for the supply of coal; and, being well versed in local requirements, they cater for these in the most satisfactory manner. In order to ensure expedition and economy in transmission and handling, the firm have railway trucks of their own. These are filled at the colliery and despatched to the firm’s stores, which form part of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company’s coal depot, and are immediately unloaded. There is thus no delay either en route or on the arrival of the coal in Bradford. The saving which, in this and other aspects, the firm are able to effect they give the benefit of to their clients, contenting themselves with the narrowest margin of profit. Messrs. Baxandall Brothers have gained a substantial trade in Bradford and district, a feature being made of prompt deliveries. Messrs. Baxandall Brothers trade both in household and engine coal, but it is in respect of the former that they are more particularly well known, and for which they have secured a large and influential family connection. In addition to the direct supply of consumers, the firm are also wholesale merchants and supply dealers for retail distribution. Customers, therefore, who deal with them have the assurance that they are doing so on the most advantageous terms.


This flourishing concern was originally established in Manningham, and transferred in 1891 to the above address where a similar business had been previously carried on; and the present proprietor has since in a very short time considerably increased and developed the scope and extent of his transactions. The premises at 184, Westgate are prominently situated in an excellent business position, in the centre of the commercial community and comprise a convenient and well-arranged show-room at the front, with extensive and capitally fitted workshops at the rear, where an efficient staff of skilled and competent workmen is employed. A good display of superior enamelled stoved tin tickets is shown, embracing many excellent designs in the best class of work of this kind, as well as enamelled copper letters and brilliant gold letters for windows, enamelled irons and tablets, &c. Ticket writing in any style is executed in a superior manner, and with the most skilful and finished workmanship, together with glass and sign-writing, gilding, glass embossing, &c., in the most modern and artistically effective designs. For this latter branch of the business this establishment has a very high and well-known reputation. A speciality is the making to order of carved woodledge plates of every description. All the work sent out receives close and attentive personal supervision from Mr. Widd, who is a thoroughly practical man in all branches of the trade, and possesses a long and valuable experience. He bears a very high reputation in his business connection as a clever and thoroughly reliable man, and is personally very well known, locally and universally respected and esteemed. Writing is done for the trade, and orders by post are promptly attended to. Mr. Widd is patronised by most of the leading firms in the district.


The various sections of the staple trade of the Bradford district are placed in touch with the markets of the world through a number of strong and permanent links, which are constituted by the great mercantile houses of the towns, having branches in other leading centres of commerce. So far as regards the trade in such goods as Italians, Silesias, and all descriptions of coat and dress linings, such a link is supplied by the well-known house of Messrs. Knowles, Cooke & Co., of Peel Place, Bradford, and also of London, Glasgow, and Manchester. This important and most energetically managed business was established in 1849. Early in its history the large technical knowledge of the partners, combined with their exceptional energy and enterprise, created the nucleus of that valuable and substantial business connection which has since been increased to its present proportions. On the decease of Mr. Cooke some years ago the whole responsibility of proprietorship was assumed by the surviving partners, who have since continued to direct successfully the destinies of the firm.

The premises, which are most conveniently situated in Peel Place, and, therefore, in the very heart of the leading mercantile quarter of the town, comprise a commodious five-storeyed building, with a commanding facade to the street. The buildings, which have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade, extend back a considerable distance to the rear in Drake Street. They are fitted with all the appliances for economising time and labour in the conduct of the large commercial correspondence which is entailed by the widespread business relations of the firm. The general offices are occupied by an efficient clerical staff. The remainder of the building is used as sale-rooms, and warehouses in which the heavy stocks which are always held by the firm are carefully departmentalised, and kept in convenient order by the large body of experienced warehousemen. These stocks comprise large quantities of Italians, Silesias, and linings of all sorts of materials and designs.

The house has also offices and warehouses at 18, Laurence Lane, Cheapside, London; at 40, Union Street, Glasgow, and at 15A, York Street, Manchester. It is needless, therefore, to say that Messrs. Knowles, Cooke & Co. are thoroughly well known in all the great markets where there is a demand for the special classes of textile fabrics in which they deal. Their long-established reputation for conducting their business on the highest commercial principles facilitates the task of their representatives in maintaining and extending the lines of their connection. Much of the ever-growing prosperity of the firm is due to the fact that it continues to enjoy the advantage of the wide experience of Mr. Jonathan Knowles, the principal, whose matured judgment is of the greatest service in the conduct of the important details of the business. Mr. Knowles is personally well known and highly respected in the commercial circles of the Bradford district.


In connection with the coachbuilding industry in Bradford and district there is no house of higher repute than that of Mr. G. T. Cheetham, of Chapel Lane, who conducts an extensive and important business the history of which dates back as far as the year 1831. This notable concern was founded by a Mr. Joseph Whitehead, and was carried on by him for, twenty years. It was then taken over by Mr. Cheetham, the present proprietor, and has had a highly successful career under his able and enterprising management. From time to time the premises in Chapel Lane have been considerably enlarged to meet the demands of a constantly growing business, and they now comprise two fine show-rooms, one on each side of the entrance to the factory. These show-rooms exhibit a very interesting assortment of Mr. Cheetham’s manufactures, including landaus, side-light coaches, broughams, barouches, wagonettes, phaetons, four-wheel drags, two-wheel dogcarts, Whitechapel carts, gigs, &c. In all the above vehicles a stock is constantly held to meet immediate requirements, and the characteristic elegance of design and beauty of finish for which the productions of this house are noted are fully manifested in each case.

Mr. Cheetham has a special reputation for sound workmanship and good materials, and all his carriages, though strong and durable, are remarkably graceful and light of draught. The factory, which occupies a four-storey stone building at the rear of the show-rooms, has been admirably arranged throughout, and is splendidly equipped in all its departments with the best appliances and machinery for their several purposes. All branches of the industry are carried out completely on these premises, from the raw material to the finished vehicle. Highly skilled workmen to the number of about seventy are employed, and the various workshops present a series of busy and interesting scenes.

Mr. Cheetham’s name is associated with numerous excellent inventions in coachbuilding, and he has patented many improvements of the most valuable character. For instance, he is the sole patentee and inventor of the excellent automatic head fittings which are such a commendable feature of his landaus. Again, the patent self-acting glass frame, and the “Climax” safety grid-step treads, are both his inventions and property. These and other equally good ideas prove how thoroughly Mr. Cheetham has studied his trade, and how quick has been his perception of new requirements and of the best means of meeting the same. He holds a prize medal awarded by the Council of the Bradford Art and Technical Art College, and stands in the front rank of northern coachbuilders. A very high-class trade is carried on under Mr. Cheetham’s personal supervision, and the influential and old-established connection maintained by the house extends all over the north of England.

Telegrams: “Wildt, Bradford”; telephone, No. 434.

The firm under notice established their business in the year 1882, in the premises now occupied, and have made their house bear a distinguished name among the many great enterprises of Bradford. The partners have made themselves thoroughly conversant with every branch of their calling; and the success of the business they own has been brought about in a great measure by their personal efforts. They have been amongst the first importers of dry spun botanies and higher class woollen yarns, and they represent amongst a good many others, the world-renowned firms of Johann Wuelfing and Sohn of Lennep, and Vom Hovel & Co., of B. Gladbach. The premises occupied consist of a handsome suite of offices and warehouse on the first and second floor of the building. There are four departments, one each for wools, noils, and yarns, the other being used as general and private offices. The connection is principally among the spinners and manufacturers in Bradford and the surrounding districts, for the manufacture of dress goods, worsted coatings, mohairs, flannels, &c.; their export branch reaches over the whole of the continent of Europe and the United States of America. The firm also carry on an extensive business in Leicester town, as dealers in knitting machinery for hosiery manufacturers. They introduced into the English market the French circular frames, known as the Terrot machines, with which they fitted up almost every hosiery factory in the midland counties. These machines are constructed on the very best principles, and are, as said before, almost universally adopted by the leading firms. They are showing in their well-fitted show-rooms at 7, Millstone Lane, Leicester, also a great variety of other hosiery machines and all accessories used in a hosiery factory. The firm is well known for constantly renewing their show-rooms with the latest specimens of machinery used on the Continent, which are therefore looked upon as an exhibition of any new style extant, The extensive and constantly increasing business, in both departments, is carried on under the personal management of the partners, the partnership consisting of Mr. Wildt and Mr. W. Aschenbach. The outdoor departments are undertaken by the partners, and are most energetically worked.


Although Mr. Reinherz’s enterprise I not limited to Russian wools, the supply of that esteemed variety is a leading feature of his business, and as a considerable demand for it exists, he is doing a large trade. Indeed, in this particular line he is pre-eminent. Mr. Reinherz began business in 1885 at the premises he still occupies. These premises comprise an office, warehouse, and sample-room. The stocks held by Mr. Reinherz are considerable and diversified, and include the following classes:— White Savogla fleece, autumns and lambs; white Donskoi fleece, autumns and lambs; grey Donskoi fleece, grey long Zackel fleece, and white Zackel skin; Russian merinos, metis, grosmetis and Zigaya, Turkish and Macedonian Zigaya, fleece and skin, Bokhara wool, Calmuck, Khorassan and Georgian wool, and Russian camelhair. All such wools are imported direct by Mr. Eeinherz, who has excellent connections in Russia and elsewhere, possesses the best facilities for obtaining them, is an admirable judge of their quality, and is able to supply them on the most advantageous terms to his clients. Russian wools are particularly suitable for the manufacture of carpets and worsted coatings and throughout various districts of Yorkshire a considerable demand exists. Mr. Reinherz makes a point of executing all orders entrusted to him with promptitude and efficiency.

The success which has rewarded Mr. Reinherz’s enterprise proves that that enterprise was well conceived, well directed, and judiciously developed. It is, perhaps, worth while mentioning that it was Mr. Reinherz who introduced to Bradford and England generally the Russian merinos. He had at first to overcome great prejudices against this wool, and now it is a leading article in Bradford, and is only second to Australian wool. His first shipment from Odessa in 1879 was fifty bales, and the year’s import stands now at over forty thousand bales. Mr. Reinherz has certainly from the first managed his business with ability and judgment, and shown himself to be possessed of those qualities which are conducive to commercial eminence. In 1888 Mr. Reinherz introduced wool from Buenos Ayres, the shipment for that year being fifty-six bales; in 1889 it ran up to two thousand, and up to the time of writing (which is early in the season) the shipment for this season is three thousand bales, which eventually will become a great boon to the local manufacturers.


Mr. Hepworth, who has had considerable experience, and is familiar with every detail of his business, commenced on his own account as a maker-up and packer in 1885. His original premises were at 6, Booth Street, but as he speedily gained an important connection, those premises were found to be inadequate to his requirements. Accordingly, in 1888, he removed to others more commodious at No. 26 in the same street, which he continues to occupy. They are situated on the third floor of a large block of warehouses, and comprise an office, making-up and packing rooms, in connection with which a number of hands are employed. These goods, which are intended for distribution at home and abroad, are received by Mr. Hepworth from merchants and shippers in the form of “pieces.” They are at his premises measured, rolled, made-up, and packed. The processes referred to involve the exercise of great care as well as expeditious handling. Mr. Hepworth deals with the goods as they come from the Yorkshire factories, and he does all the rest, including forwarding direct to the countries of consignment. The country to which he sends most largely is Turkey, but he is equally prepared to despatch goods to any quarter of the globe.

The packing is done by means of hydraulic presses. The hydraulic presses at Mr. Hepworth’s establishment are driven by a powerful gas-engine. The process of making-up means the encasing of the goods in such a way as to obviate risk of saturation or damage during transit to the places of destination. In everything pertaining to the responsible work he undertakes Mr. Hepworth is an expert. He studies the interests of his clients in every way, and ensures to them the expeditious as well as the satisfactory fulfilment of the engagements they have entered into. That his efforts are well appreciated is shown by the steady growth of his trade and the general confidence he enjoys.


This flourishing business was established by the above-named firm in 1880, and, thanks to the energy and ability displayed, speedily attracted the attention of shrewd buyers and business men generally. The central position of the premises occupied is an advantage, and the fine office and warehouse, which are on the first floor of the large block of buildings, are in every respect well adapted to the requirements of the trade. They are light, lofty, and exceedingly well laid out. No matter the season of the year, the stock on hand is of an exceedingly large, varied, and superior description. The goods are bought with sound judgment from the very best manufacturers, and. every line displayed will be found thoroughly useful and reliable. The goods are principally of the heavy order, and are made up of dress goods, flannels, blankets, quilts, calicoes, skirtings, linseys, woollens, &c., for ladies’ wear. The business is strictly wholesale, the connection extending over a radius of some forty miles, and principally amongst retail drapers and general shopkeepers. The journeys are taken by Mr. F. P. Howker, the sole proprietor, trading as Messrs. Howker Brothers. This much respected gentleman possesses all the qualifications of a successful merchant, being persevering, pleasing in manner and conversation, and having a thorough knowledge of his calling. He has founded a name for strictly honourable dealings, and is at the head of a rapidly rising concern. A competent staff of six assistants attends to the warehouse duties.


Mr. Townsley is well known to the mercantile community of Bradford, is held in high esteem, and enjoys extensive support. His flourishing and important business was founded by Mr. G. C. Hick about 1860, and taken over by Mr. Townsley in 1876. Since then it has steadily developed, thanks to Mr. Townsley’s ability, enterprise and resources. Making-up and packing is an operation requiring for its satisfactory execution technical skill, expertness, and mechanical facilities, all of which are possessed by Mr. Townsley, whose long experience has made him a proficient, and the fact that he is assisted by no fewer than twenty hands is sufficient to prove that he is doing a considerable business. His clients comprise a number of the leading merchants and shippers of Bradford, who transfer to him the piece goods as they come from the manufacturers, and he does everything that is necessary, from the measuring and rolling of those goods to the exportation of them to foreign countries. The packing is done by means of hydraulic presses worked by steam power.


The business carried on by Mr. Crafts was founded about half a century ago by Mr. Joshua Brigg, who carried it on for a great many years and was succeeded by his nephew and namesake. The latter continued to be proprietor till 1890, when the concern was taken over by Mr. Crafts. Mr. Crafts has a thorough knowledge of and is an expert in the business of making-up and packing, which, in an industrial and commercial centre whence consignments of textile fabrics are sent to all parts of the world, is one of vital consequence. Mr. Crafts receives the goods to be forwarded practically in the rough as they come from the factory. They have, therefore, to be measured, rolled, and made up by him, then packed and despatched direct to the consignees abroad. In order to reduce their bulk, the goods are subjected to hydraulic pressure, after which they have to be securely packed so as to be impervious to damp or damage. The importance of the business carried on, and the numerous consignments confided to Mr. Crafts, may be gathered from the fact that he is assisted by between twenty and thirty employes. His premises, which are well adapted to his requirements, comprise two floors in an imposing block of building four storeys high. On the lower floor there is a suite of general and private offices, while the floor above is occupied with the making-up, with packing-rooms in the basement. Mr. Crafts had the advantage of succeeding to an old-established and prosperous business, but under his capable management it is thriving more than ever. By the merchants and shippers of Bradford he is highly esteemed, being thoroughly reliable as regards the prompt and efficient execution of orders. In addition to carrying on business as a maker-up and packer, Mr. Crafts is also a commission agent in Bradford goods. After the explanation given, the appropriateness of this combination will be understood. In all branches of his trade Mr. Crafts is displaying ability and judicious enterprise, and he is certain, therefore, to make excellent headway.


This concern, though of comparatively recent origin, has advanced rapidly into the front ranks of the trade, and the secret of its marked success can probably be traced to the fact that its principals have from the first employed the very best appliances and methods known in the industry they represent. Consequently, high-class goods have been produced, and for these there is always a demand. The Company owes, also, a great deal to the enterprise and sagacity of its founder, Mr. E. Illingworth, who started the business in 1887, in Godwin Street. In 1891, owing to the vast increase of business, a move was made to the large and commodious premises now occupied in Caledonia Street, where, in addition to spacious offices and stock-rooms, there are extensive manufacturing departments on the first and second floors of the buildings, fitted with the most approved appliances, and admirably organised to secure large production under the most favourable conditions. On the top floor of the premises there are special work-rooms for making the noted shower-proof garments for ladies’ wear, these being a prominent feature in the Company’s productions, which include ladies’ and gentlemen’s waterproof garments of every description, and a considerable variety of other goods, such as knapsacks, fishing-stockings, holdalls, bags, gun-cases, &c., for all of which the Company have a high reputation in the trade. By a special process the various waterproof cloaks, coats, capes, &c., are made quite free from odour, and special care is taken to ensure elegance of style and design, as well as excellence of material and finish, this being particularly noticeable in the graceful and fashionable garments for ladies’ wear. No better proof of the real merit of this Company’s productions could be desired than the great demand for them in all markets, and this demand is constantly increasing. At the present time the Company are doing an exceedingly large trade, both home and export, and are turning out an enormous quantity of garments. They employ upwards of one hundred hands at the works, and have to utilise all their resources to meet the 4emands of their widespread and influential connection. Mr. E. Illingworth continues to personally administer all its affairs in a manner calculated to sustain it in the high position it has attained.
The Company’s telephone is No. 400A. Their telegraphic address is “Rubber, Bradford.”


Business was originally commenced in 1870, by the present senior partner of the above-named firm, as a manufacturer of fancy goods, figures, alpacas, balernos, Italians, &c., and in this branch of industry a marked success was obtained. The Warehouse and store-rooms for these goods are on the first floor, and the stock held is a thoroughly representative one. The trade done is exclusively wholesale and export, and extends to almost every part of the world among merchants and warehousemen. In 1887, the firm added the optical department, and have developed it with great energy, skill, and perseverance. The art show-rooms are on the second floor of 14, Tyrrel Street, and are of spacious extent and admirably fitted up for the purposes on hand. A staff of skilled assistants is employed, the numbers varying according to the season. For some time they have dealt largely in photographic apparatus, and their “Stanley” cameras are of the highest character and well-known throughout the trade; but, as their optical lantern trade has developed so rapidly, they found that they had not the time to devote to both if they were to be successfully worked. They have, therefore, given up the purely photographic branch in order to devote all their space and time to the optical lantern and lantern slide department.

In the matter of lantern slides and apparatus connected therewith, the house occupies an unique position both as regards the vastness of its resources and the character of everything it produces. Its goods are as well known in the Antipodes as in Great Britain. One of their leading specialities in lanterns is their celebrated “Praestantia,” which has been from time to time improved until it is now a marvel of perfection, and is commanding remarkable sales. It is portable, compact and strong, produces a light of intense brilliancy, and is fitted with the best lenses that can be made. Their “superb” and “superb extra” Binnials and “Invicta” Trinnials are amongst the finest lanterns that have ever been made. These, specialities are all to be exhibited at the great World’s Fair at Chicago, and are sure to elicit a world-wide approval. The slides made by the firm are of an exceedingly high-class character, admirably selected for lectures on every conceivable topic:— history, statuary, Bible stories, nursery rhymes, fables, voyages and travels, biographical sketches of great men of all ages, poems, novels (epitomised), &c. In most cases illustrative readings are provided to use with the slides. Oxygen, lime, and dissolving view apparatus are largely made by this responsible house, and are offered at prices which cannot be surpassed in the kingdom.

A special and important feature in this department is the system of loans for slides and instruments, of which Messrs. Riley were the originators, and are still the great exponents. They send out from forty to fifty boxes per day on this system, each containing all the necessary appliances for an interesting and attractive limelight lecture. They are in demand in all parts of the world, a very large business being done among missionaries in China, India, and Africa. The connection of the house is increasing every year by leaps and bounds. The firm have recently appointed an agent in New York, who has also appointed sub-agents throughout the States. The present partners in the firm are Mr. J. Riley, the founder, and his two sons, Mr. H. J. Riley and Mr. W. Riley, all gentlemen of large experience, energy, and enterprise, and under their control the firm has before it a splendid future. They are just and equitable in all their transactions, and occupy a position of note in trade and commercial circles. In private life they are well known and respected for their many good qualities, public usefulness, and inflexible integrity.


This prosperous business was founded by the present proprietor in the year 1883. The premises consist of two workshops, on the ground floor, the one at the rear being capitally fitted with dynamo, glazing, and polishing machines, used for nickel-plating, which is very extensively carried on in all its branches. Mr. Radford has the trade of the borough and its districts practically to himself, he being the only nickel-plater in Bradford. His large connection, skill, and possession of first-class appliances enables him to do the best work at remarkably low prices. Mr. Radford is also a working jeweller, and has a valuable connection among the trade, as well as among private families. Great attention is paid to the bicycle trade, and all parts are plated in a most serviceable and lasting manner. Clock dials are lacquered and silver-plated, and all kinds of jewellery repaired, re-gilt, or silvered. Some remarkably cheap work is done in silvering spoons and forks. Table spoons or forks range from 12s. to 16s. per doz.; dessert spoons from 10s. to 14s. per doz.; teaspoons from 6s. to 10s. per doz.; salt, mustard, or egg spoons, at from 6s. to 10s. per doz.; and all other goods are at proportionately low prices. Since commencing business Mr. Radford has enjoyed an ever-increasing amount of support, He employs six competent hands, and all operations are conducted under his personal supervision. He has a thorough knowledge of each detail, and for sound and conscientious work is able to compete favourably with any one in the trade. In all his transactions Mr. Radford is courteous and obliging, and he has a firm hold on the regard of his numerous customers.


The above establishment is the oldest of the kind in Bradford, its foundation dating back to the year 1854. It has long borne the reputation of supplying the very best goods obtainable, and has the regular support of a high-class connection, which extends for a distance of some forty miles around. The shop has a most handsome double front, and the splendidly appointed interior runs to the rear a distance of fully forty feet. The superior nature of the business carried on may be learned from a glance at the fine furnishings, and the refined and artistic manner in which the goods are arranged and displayed. At the end of the shop plate-glass mirrors are placed, adding greatly to the size and appearance. The office is in the centre. The stock embraces the very latest styles in silk and felt hats, which are received from the leading English and French manufacturers. The choicest productions of Lincoln & Bennett and Christy are seen here. The shapes are graceful, easy to the wearer, and in felt hats there are all the prevailing shades and colours. Advantage is taken of the spacious windows to make a most imposing display, which would do credit to any establishment in England. There is an extensive assortment of umbrellas in various materials, and in all manner of handles, forming most suitable articles for presentation purposes. The many light and convenient shapes are of the most advanced kind. A speciality is made of livery hats, any special design being at once supplied to order. Mr. Lee trades on that admirable system, cash, giving his customers the full advantage of a ready-money trade. He personally conducts the business in an able and courteous manner.


This business was founded in 1868, by the present senior partner, who was joined by his two sons, Mr. W. N. and Mr. R. A. Hinchliffe in 1889, when the firm assumed the present title. The premises are located on the first floor of a large block of buildings of four storeys; they are conveniently divided into stock-rooms, offices, and sale-room, the latter being one hundred and twenty feet long by forty feet wide, and are replete with every convenience. To meet the extensive requirements of the trade, Messrs. Hinchliffe & Sons carry a very large and comprehensive stock of general drapery, heavy, plain, and fancy goods, dress materials and art fabrics, ribbons, lace, plushes, velvets, &c. These are the productions of some of the leading manufacturers of the district, and, buying direct from the makers, the firm are enabled to give exceptional advantages both in quality and price. The trade, which is entirely wholesale, is of an influential and steadily growing character. Several experienced travellers represent the house in the Yorkshire districts. A special feature of the business, and one to which great attention is paid, is the valuation of drapery stocks and fixtures for the transfer of businesses. Valuations are also made for probate, &c., and claims for fire insurance assessed. The business in every department receives the strict personal attention of the proprietors, who display commendable enterprise in continually adding to their stock goods which are new and attractive. Messrs. Hinchliffe & Sons are held in the highest esteem, not only as an old-established and successful firm, but also for their active exertions in promoting the best interests of the trade and industries of the town and district.


This important and interesting concern was founded in the year 1872 by its present proprietor, Mr. Edward Bairstow, whose energy and practical skill as a naturalist have steadily developed it into one of the largest undertakings of its kind in the North of England. Mr. Bairstow occupies very commodious central premises in Thornton Road, and carries on a remarkably extensive and well-connected trade as a naturalist and dealer in all kinds of birds, beasts, and reptiles, which he imports from all parts of the world. This establishment forms quite a zoological emporium, always boasts a splendid stock, the collection of birds being a particularly fine one, and including Yorkshire, Norwich, and German Canaries of the best strain, and always in full song, besides linnets, larks, thrushes, and a great variety of foreign birds. Parrots, of course, are a speciality, and Mr. Bairstow’s stock is an exemplary one. Not only does Mr. Bairstow devote himself to actual dealings in birds and animals, but he also gives a large amount of attention to supplying various requisites connected with the keeping of pets of all kinds. He is the manufacturer and proprietor of the following well-known and highly esteemed specialities:— Bairstow’s Champion Condition Dog Powder, Bairstow’s Flexible Metal Dog Brush, Bairstow’s Champion Dog Soap, the “Challenge” birdcage, Yorkshire show cage, double breeding or flight cage, song cage, moulting cage, metal nest boxes, and the immensely successful “Ornithophone” or bird warbler, for teaching any bird to sing. All these are special productions, expressly designed for their several purposes, and greatly favoured by “the fancy” every where.

As the proprietor of the far-famed Airedale Kennels at Bradford, Mr. Bairstow enjoys world-wide repute. Here he breeds for sale and stud purposes the finest Airedale terriers it is possible to produce, and he can supply a capital dog at almost any price, from a couple of pounds up to the highest figures. Hosts of prizes have been won by Mr. Bairstow’s dogs at all the leading shows, including gold and silver medals, silver cups, &c., and he has always a large demand for his specially bred puppies by his own celebrated stud dogs, the prices being twenty-five shillings for dogs, and twenty shillings for bitches.

Altogether this interesting business is in a high state of practical organisation, and is most capably managed by Mr. Bairstow in person. The connection extends to all parts of America and the Continent, as well as throughout the United Kingdom, and among the many distinguished patrons of the concern may be mentioned the Earl of Haddington, Lady Hamilton, Lady Bulkeley, the Honourable Mr. Brett, the Duke of Devonshire, Sir Morgan Crofton, Bart., and Sir George Armytage, Bart., besides many others from the ranks of the leading gentry of England. Mr. Bairstow has gained high honours at exhibitions, including a prize medal at Bradford. in 1882, a gold medal at Halifax in 1887, and a gold medal at Saltaire in
1887, the latter award being for his Tropical Aviary, which was not only admired greatly by all visitors to the exhibitions, but also received the highest commendation in the press, from which the following brief extracts are culled:

“The Railway Supplies Journal, June 11th, 1887.” — “The Tropical Aviary at the Saltaire Exhibition. — Mr. E. Bairstow, of 3, Thornton Road, and 132, Kirkgate Market, Bradford, Yorks, has for many years been known as one of the most notable and successful naturalists in the country, and his productions have gained for him prizes and honours innumerable. But Mr. Bairstow seems to have put into the shade almost all his previous achievements by the display which he has furnished to the Exhibitions at Saltaire. When Her Royal Highness Princess Beatrice made her round of the Exhibition at its opening, the Tropical Aviary shown by Mr. Bairstow was one of the features which specially attracted her attention, and constrained her to delay her progress that she might make a closer inspection of its wonders. The Tropical Aviary covers an area of more than one thousand square feet, and within it we have many of the most beautiful features of natural scenery perfectly imitated. Here are rocks and grottoes, mimic waterfalls and miniature lakes, with all manner of tropical vegetation in splendid luxuriance. Flitting about this fairy-like scene are birds of brilliant plumage, apparently so bright and happy that they seem to be conscious of no captivity. It would be almost impossible to give any idea of their number and variety, but we believe the Aviary contains one thousand five hundred specimens of natural history, including five hundred living foreign birds, from nearly every part of the globe. In addition to these are fifty blue jays from North America, thirty parrots from India, a pelican, an albatross, and we know not what besides; there are also three hundred live snakes, salamanders, lizards, and green tree-frogs from Italy. The waterfall empties itself into a pretty miniature lake, where one thousand fishes disport themselves. There are further preserved specimens of a leopard and ‘cobra di capello’ from India, to say nothing of monkeys innumerable from Senegal, West Africa, Madagascar, and South America. Over one thousand specimens of ferns, trees, and creepers are included in the Aviary, and the whole is exquisitely arranged, and presents a delightful picture of nature.”

“The Wharfedale and Airedale Observer, Friday, May 13th, 1887.” — “The magniacent ‘Tropical Aviary’ is one of the most interesting display s in the Exhibition. It has been carefully prepared by Mr. E. Bairstow, the Yorkshire Naturalist, of 3, Thornton Road, Bradford, and is certain to be a never-ending source of attention to every visitor. Her Royal Highness Princess Beatrice, as she walked round the Exhibition on the arm of Mr. Titus Salt, seemed specially struck with this ‘Tropical Aviary,’ and devoted great attention to it. Its successful erection is due to the enthusiasm of its designer.”

“Sydney Observer, July 18th, 1885.” — “Mr. E. Bairstow, Naturalist, Bradford, advertises some very cheap birdcages, of which he has sent us a sample, which is large and very prettily finished at the price. He also forwarded a very ingeniously contrived seed-hopper, which fills itself as the bird eats. The bird has to pick out each seed separately, and crack it, whereas in the old style of seed-box the bird threw out its seed and wasted it. Another feature is this: the hopper is made to hang up inside the breeding cage, back out of the way of mice.”

“Live Stock Journal, October 21st, 1882.” — “A most useful handbook to ‘Fresh Water Aquaria,’ by Edward Bairstow, Naturalist, Bradford, has recently been published. It gives in plain language full directions for the construction of aquaria. The work is well illu8trated, and will be found of great service to all who have or intend to have one of these interesting table ornaments, giving every necessary information in a concise yet clear manner.”

“Dewsbury Reporter, October 15th, 1881.” — “It is with pleasure we notice a book written by Mr. Edward Bairstow, Naturalist, of Bradford, entitled ‘Plain Instructions for the Management of Fresh-Water Aquaria.’ The work is clearly and sensibly written, and will be a great help to those who wish to keep an aquarium. The book is cheap, and prettily illustrated.”

“Craven herald, October 22nd, 1881.” — “Mr. Bairstow has treated his subject, ‘The Management o£ Fresh-Water Aquaria,’ in a very able and exhaustive manner, that will prove invaluable to amateurs, and be read with interest by scientific men.


The origin of this business dates back to 1864, when operations were commenced as a leather cutter and grindery dealer by Mr. John Riley in Ivegate. The concern was pushed forward with much energy and sagacity, and before long fresh premises were taken. During its long existence the house has progressed in a perfectly satisfactory manner, and it now occupies a position of conspicuous prominence among kindred establishments. In 1880 the present special premises were erected. Large and attractive premises are occupied, consisting of a commodious block of stone building, five storeys high, with a frontage of forty feet. The general sale-room is on the ground floor, and is a large double-fronted apartment, admirably fitted up with every requisite and convenience for the purposes of the business. The boot and shoe warehouses, together with the sale and stock rooms, are on the first and second floors, while the third and fourth floors are used as workshops, and are equipped with the latest plant and machinery employed in the trade, driven by a powerful gas- engine. A large and efficient staff of hands is employed.

An extensive trade is here controlled, and the firm’s productions are well and favourably known, the “Beatall” being their registered trademark. The boots and shoes turned out by this noted house have gained a splendid name for the uniform excellence of their material and their sound and durable workmanship. They are, also, handsome in shape and appearance, and comfortable to wear. Every description of bespoke orders are made in ladies’, gentlemen’s and children’s, and the selection offered, as well as the quality of the article, cannot be beaten in Bradford. Prices will be found here of the most favourable kind, the extent of the business and the efficiency of the productive resources giving the firm many advantages. A substantial business is in operation as leather factors and merchants, their stocks including the productions of the best English tanneries, which are warehoused in the basement of the premises. A special feature is made of boot uppers, which are every where accepted as superior goods. Immense stocks are held, which have been selected with a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the trade; they include, besides every quality and size of boots and shoes and boot uppers, varied supplies of shoe mercery and grindery, and every description of clogging materials.

The business done is entirely wholesale, and extends to various parts of Yorkshire, Lancashire and Cheshire. All orders receive prompt and careful attention at the hands of a numerous body of clerks and assistants, and three commercial travellers represent the interests of the firm on the road. The respected founder of this business retired December 31st, 1887, and the members of the firm now are Mr. William Riley, Mr. John Edward Riley, and Mr. Wright Riley. They are all thoroughly practical men, conversant with the trade in every branch, and of good status in commercial circles. All their transactions are conducted on the strictest lines of fairness and honesty, and by this creditable policy they retain the confidence and continued support of all who come into business connection with them. This is the only firm in the town who are manufacturers and factors in all the branches of the trade.


This noted firm was founded in the year 1868 by Mr. J. Jowett at premises in Horton Lane, but the rapid development of the business soon called for increased accommodation, and after several times enlarging the original premises, the firm eventually erected new works upon a very extensive scale in Chester Street, Little Horton-lane. This fine establishment consists of a commodious stone building of three storeys, which has been admirably arranged to meet the requirements of Messrs. Jowett’s extensive box-making industry. The ground floor contains the offices and warehouse, and also the busy and interesting machine-room, in which there is a large and valuable plant of modern machinery of the most improved type, enabling the firm to secure rapid and economical production as well as highly satisfactory results in the quality and finish of the goods turned out. This machinery is driven by steam power, transmitted by a horizontal engine. The two upper floors of the building (each of which is about eighty feet square) are devoted to box making and finishing. Altogether, the establishment is one admirably adapted to its purpose, and its complete and systematic organisation shows how thoroughly Messrs. Jowett appreciate the needs of their trade and how fully they understand the best means of meeting and satisfying the same.

This firm manufacture boxes of all descriptions for mercantile and general packing purposes, and their specialities consist in cardboard boxes for drapers, manufacturers, and merchants. Mr. Jowett inaugurated an important addition to his business by taking up the shopfitting trade in a large way. This piece of enterprise has met a real want in the district and has been much appreciated, for we believe there is no house devoted to shopfitting exclusively nearer than Manchester. The new department has been suitably accommodated in spacious premises at 58, Sunbridge Road, and it has rapidly increased in magnitude and importance. Shops and offices are completely fitted throughout, and the warehouse in Sunbridge Road is heavily stocked with a complete assortment of goods required in this trade, such as show-stands for milliners, bootmakers, drapers, &c., show-cases of all kinds and sizes, dress and jacket stands, tailors’ heads and figures, umbrella show-stands, tables, chairs, lamps and gas fixtures, and many other fittings for offices and business establishments. Messrs. Jowett can supply any accessory required by a tradesman in any line of operations, and their goods are sound in quality and moderate in price. Contracts for complete shopfitting are carried out upon the most reasonable terms, and the firm’s resources are so large that orders can be executed with the utmost promptitude.

The connection maintained by Messrs. Jowett & Co. is a very extensive one, and they enjoy the support of many influential customers. They make the boxes required by Messrs. S. C. Lister & Co., of Manningham Mills, the most extensive silk-plush and velvet manufacturers in the world. The business continues to develop in both departments, and its progress is promoted by the able and energetic management of Mr. Jowett, the sole principal, who devotes his personal attention to its administration.
The firm’s telephone is No. 529.


This responsible business was established as far back as 1840 by Mr. Barry, who developed it and carried it on with increasing success till 1891, when it was converted into a limited company, Mr. Barry still remaining one of the directors, and giving the business the benefit of his long experience and matured judgment. The premises are ample in extent, and have been arranged with every regard for the expeditious control of the business. They consist of an extended block of two-storey buildings, used as tin and coppersmith shops, and a three-storey building at the rear for brass work. The equipment of the whole establishment is the result of the firm’s experience and progressive policy, and in it» completeness leaves nothing to be desired. Twenty skilled hands are employed, and every department is maintained in a good state of efficiency. An extensive and valuable business is done in the manufacture of every description of ventilators, lamps, baths, brewing pans, coolers, pumps, cylinders, cisterns, brass and copper mullers, spirit measures, &c. The productions of the firm have obtained a recognised position in the trade, and are looked upon as superior articles, both in material and workmanship.

The extensive resources possessed by the company give them great advantages in manufacturing, and they are able to turn out the best goods, and at such prices as cannot be beaten. The leading specialities of the firm are hot water apparatus, for which they have obtained a good reputation. The copper-lined cisterns made here are the invention of Mr. Radford, the managing director of the company, who took out a patent for them. They enjoy an ever-increasing demand, and are high appreciation among all classes of users. Other prominent lines are portable gas and oil boilers for boiling clothes for laundresses; a special feature of these is that water can be kept at any temperature, from boiling point downwards. The connection extends to every part of the United Kingdom, among the principal plumbers and merchants, and its continued increase is eminently gratifying to the management. The firm have recently purchased a large cast-lead trap business, which promises in their hands to be of a most successful character. They have also considerably extended their premises, their Root’s blower and planishing hammer being worked by power; whilst their brass-finishing lathes will shortly be driven by this engine, which has recently been purchased. To Mr. John Radford’s able and vigorous control may be attributed the notable development the business has undergone since it became a limited company. He is a courteous and obliging gentleman, thoroughly well acquainted with all the details of his business, and of good standing in trade circles. Mr. Radford is held in much esteem by all who know him, either as the representative of this important industry, or as an active and influential citizen.


The question of a good and suitable lubricant is one which must of necessity be always of importance to all employers of machinery, for wear and tear to machinery must always be a heavy item in counting the cost of goods. To keep this item at a minimum, shrewd managers and masters of public works are very careful, and have a great difficulty in selecting the most suitable lubricants for the various working parts of their machinery. It is essential to owners of mills, workshops, &c., that not only should they be enabled to buy really good and pure lubricants, but that they should deal with a practical man who can afford them the necessary information as to whether the oil they purpose [propose] buying is suitable to the purpose to which they propose to put it. Such an establishment is that of Mr. Telford. Although only founded in 1888, the concern has made rapid strides, and under able and energetic management has developed a trade which promises to put it into the foremost rank of similar business in and around Bradford. The premises employed consist of the ground floor of a large block of buildings in which the extensive stores are kept. All classes are represented here, and. amongst them we may mention Gallipoli and olive oils, sperm oils and; lubricating colza and cottonseed oils, raw and boiled linseed oils, wagon and railway grease, white lead, tallow, Yorkshire brown grease, &c., &c. The trade done is large and substantial with most of the spinners, manufacturers, colliery owners, &c., in the district. Mr. J. J. Telford (who is the sole proprietor) is a genial gentleman, but a thorough man of business. He personally superintends affairs, and to his tact, energy and business acumen much of the success of the concern may be ascribed.


The Industrial Bakery at Bradford most decidedly deserves a place in these records descriptive of the notable institutions that may be said to have contributed materially to the commercial prosperity of the busy Borough. This bakery was projected in the year 1877, by its present able and energetic proprietor, Mr. E. R. Halford, in Manchester Road, and perhaps the most effectual way in which to indicate its character, scope, and aims would be to give a general description of the business as it now obtains. The premises in Rolling Street, which were formerly the Industrial School, were bought in 1885, extended and adapted, and are now an elaborately equipped hygienic bakery, replete with all the latest and best improvements in machinery for the preparation of wholesome bread of every kind, fancy cakes and confectionery, and all kinds of light table delicacies in the way of blancmanges, jellies, and the like. Among the specialities for which Mr. Halford has won a well-merited renown, however, particular mention must be made of Pooley’s patent malt bread, which has been pronounced by experts and dietetic authorities to be a perfect form of brown bread, containing all the goodness of the wheat in a pure, palatable, and easily assimilable form. Mr. Halford, moreover, is noted far and wide for the high excellence of his bride, christening, and birthday cakes, which have universally been voted as good and toothsome as they are beautiful to behold, the ornamentation and piping being executed by specially skilled workmen. A very choice selection of these dainties is always en evidence in Mr. Halford’s handsomely appointed shop, which was opened in 1885, and runs from Market Street to Tyrrel Street. Here there is also a tea and luncheon department, which is very largely patronised. The trade controlled is both wholesale and retail, amongst general, shopkeepers, hotels, restaurants, clubs, public institutions, and private families, and no house could have won by snore honourable and legitimate means the high reputation and widespread patronage which this firm has so long and so worthily enjoyed.


Mr. Wright originally commenced business in partnership with his brother, Mr. W. Wright, in the immediate vicinity, and removed to the more extensive and commodious premises now occupied in 1877. Mr. W. Wright died in 1887, and since that date the business has been entirely in the hands of the present proprietor. The works are laid out on an extensive scale, and are replete with machinery, tools, and appliances of the most improved description. A large quantity of well-seasoned wood and other materials is stored in the warehouse, which are selected with that great care and sound judgment which is acquired only by long practical experience. Mr. Wright gives employment to upwards of a dozen skilled and experienced workmen, and builds all kinds of carts, wherries, covered vans, dyehouse coaches, cisterns, &c. Mr. Wright has been eminently successful in introducing into the construction of these vehicles many important inventions and improvements, combining lightness and strength without in any way diminishing their durability. Mr. Wright has an excellent connection among wholesale and retail grocers, carriers, dye-works, furniture removers, coal merchants, &c.; he possesses the advantage of long practical experience, and personally superintends every branch of the business. Mr. Wright has always aimed at the attainment and maintenance of a high standard of excellence as a characteristic of all his work, and with the superior facilities at command he is enabled to turn out all classes of vehicles at prices that will compare favourably with any firm in the trade.


Mr. Sam. Blagbrough has been established in business since 1872, and has by dint of merit and perseverance taken a commanding position among those of this important craft. The above premises consist of a large shop on the ground floor, containing a large and well-assorted stock, comprising all kinds of fancy and general stationery and leather goods, including writing-desks, writing-cases, pocketbooks, purses, albums, account-books, writing-paper of all descriptions, and paper for office and packing purposes, &c., &c. Underneath the shop are the printing rooms, which are fitted with the most improved machinery for turning out all sorts of letterpress and commercial printing. In the window may be seen a pretty little “Magand” machine, working off visiting-cards and small jobs. The connection enjoyed is very widespread and valuable, and the trade is so extensive that a staff of experienced workmen is continually engaged. Invoices, circulars, address cards, programmes, price lists, menus, memos, wedding and invitation cards, are all executed in the best and most artistic style, and at the lowest remunerative prices. A speciality is Christmas cards printed with customers’ own wording. Directly one season is over patterns are being got in readiness for the next. We may add that Mr. Sam Blagbrough is a gentleman of undoubted business aptitude and local experience (having served his apprenticeship with the largest firm of stationers in Bradford), enjoying universal esteem and confidence, and of very high status in the printing and stationery trade of Bradford. Market Street post-office is situated at this shop; being so very central and directly opposite the Town Hall, a thriving postal business is done.


Since this business was established in 1872, by the present owner, it has grown into an exceedingly useful and popular concern. Being himself thoroughly practical, Mr. Haigh is in a position of decided advantage in directing all the many branches of the business. The premises consist of a large brick two-storeyed building and an extensive yard. In the latter is piled a large stock of well-seasoned timber, consisting of many varieties, and suited to all requirements of the joinery, building, and cabinet-making trades. The shop is fitted with an excellent engine, driven by steam power, which is applied to the turning, planing, and moulding machines. Mr. Haigh undertakes contracts to any extent, either in town or country, and performs his work in such a complete manner as to invariably give satisfaction, and secure future favours. In the undertaking department he has every facility for making all kinds of coffins from the plainest to the most expensive, and in oak, pine, or other cases, and with handsome fittings, A noticeable feature in connection with this business is that in spite of the invariable solidity and superiority of both material and workmanship, the charges are in all cases exceedingly moderate. A very good business is done in shop and office fitting, and in building operations generally, in which an efficient staff of skilled workmen is employed. As a capable, energetic, and obliging man, Mr. Haigh is deservedly held in the highest respect by all who have had transactions of any kind with him.


Mr. Walsh, who is a popular and respected Bradford tradesman, has been about thirty-one years in business. His well-known establishment is attractively fitted up, and in the window there is a tasteful display of wares, while within the sale-shop will be found a large and comprehensive stock, samples of which are submitted for inspection. The stock referred to includes cigars, cigarettes, tobacco, pipes, and, in short, smokers’ requisites of every description. Each class of goods indicated is represented by numerous varieties. For example, the stock of cigars comprises an extensive selection of brands of English, Continental, Mexican, and Cuban manufacture, a feature of the trade being choice Havanas at popular prices. The varieties of cigarettes kept on sale, which may be had either loose by weight or in packets, are also numerous. All the best qualities of tobacco are kept in stock, including the most favourite packet tobaccos, such as those of Messrs. W. D. & H. O. Wills and Messrs. Ogden, for which Mr. Walsh is agent; also the well-known brands of Messrs. Cope and Messrs. Hignett.

The trade carried on is both wholesale and retail, and is altogether extensive, Mr. Walsh having secured a large and valuable connection. The exceptional resources of the establishment enable him to cater successfully for all classes of custom, and the popular lines on which he conducts his business have given general satisfaction. His trade has much increased since he introduced to the public of Bradford a fine quality of tobacco known as Walsh’s Superior Smoking Mixture, which, as the name implies, is a preparation of his own. A considerable demand has arisen for this already noted mixture, which smokers pronounce to be superior to most other brands in the market. The flourishing business which Mr. Walsh has secured is the outcome of gradual but steady growth, and thanks to the intelligence, enterprise and thorough knowledge of the trade he displays it continues to develop steadily.


A pleasing variation of the system of giving prizes or presentation articles to the purchasers of various goods has been hit upon by Mr. Sweeney, who offers to present a bridecake to every purchaser of a gold wedding-ring, an offer which has resulted in a very considerable demand at this establishment for these emblems of matrimony. Mr. Sweeney commenced business in 1889 in his present premises. The shop has a smart and attractive appearance, the large windows and interior being neatly appointed and stocked with a remarkably attractive assortment of jewellery, &c., comprising gold and silver watches of the best English, American, and Swiss manufacture, gilt and marble timepieces and other clocks, albert and long chains in gold and silver, rings in great variety, brooches, earrings, and bangles, all of the most recent designs, and of high-class workmanship; also spectacles and eyeglasses to suit all sights, cutlery, electro-plate and Britannia metal goods, spoons, forks, cruets, tea and coffee pots, and an immense range of similar goods. In the practical department, watch and clock repairing receive particular attention, as also repairing jewellery, making gold and silver medals for sports, mounting and enamelling coins, &c.

IN THE CATERING FOR “CLUBS” he is making rapid headway. This was only to be expected, seeing the great experience he has had in the management of them for no less than sixteen years, being well known and respected in nearly every town for many miles round Bradford. He has now running, with continually increasing membership, clubs in many manufactories, friendly societies, working men’s clubs, reading-rooms, and other institutions in Bradford, Morley, Birkenshaw, Wyke, Pudsey, Stanningley, Farsley, Otley, Wilsden, Warley, &c., &c. All departments of the business are under the personal control of Mr. Sweeney, who for upwards of twenty years held responsible positions in the establishment of Messrs. Fattorini, Bradford, watchmakers and jewellers. The experience he thus acquired and his steady business habits give every promise of a successful career.

Telegraphic address: “Breaks, Bradford.”

This very important business was established by the father of the present proprietor, in the old market in Darley Street, upwards of sixty years ago, and has enjoyed an uninterrupted career of prosperity. The trade is one of the most extensive concerns of the kind in Bradford. The premises consist of large and convenient stores at No. 12 and 14, St. James’s Market, divided into offices and store-rooms. A very large stock of the finest English and foreign fruit is held, comprising Maltese, Seville and other oranges, lemons, American apples and every variety of English fruit in season. Mr. Barraclough does a very extensive trade as a potato dealer, and stocks a large quantity of the finest English-grown potatoes of the choicest kinds. He also has a considerable connection with growers in all parts of the country, and does a very large commission business with wholesale buyers. Mr. Barraclough himself manages the business with unusual ability and untiring energy. He is in every sense a genuine business man, enjoying universal esteem and confidence, and of very high status in the fruit trade of Bradford.


For over a quarter of a century this business has held a position of very great importance in many of the manufacturing centres of Yorkshire. It was founded by the present senior partner in 1865, near the present works, which were acquired in 1882. The premises are laid out in a thoroughly practical and business-like manner, and are fitted with such appliances as to warrant the best class of work being turned out, competent men being employed in their manipulation. A neat and convenient office, on the ground floor, has at the rear of it a first-rate engineering shop. This is thoroughly equipped with a number of the most improved turning-lathes, planing-machines, verticals, and every needed appliance for producing horizontal, vertical, single and compound steam-engines. The house has also a wide reputation for its work in connection with hydraulics, making steam and hand cranes, and many other valuable machines, &c. The repairing department is a distinct feature, special hands being retained for repairing all kinds of ropes, belts, tooth and mortice gearing. The connection extends throughout Yorkshire. In all cases the material used is of the very best description, and is derived from the best possible sources. The works have the advantage of the personal supervision of Mr. Whitaker, whose long and valuable experience enables him to minutely inspect all the details of the trade. He is ably assisted by his son, Mr. C. B. Whitaker, and there are about twenty hands employed. Courteous, honourable, and enterprising men, the members of the firm are much respected by all who have business relations with them.


This business has the distinction of being the oldest of its kind in Bradford. It was established as far back as 1820, by the grandfather of the present proprietor, who occupied premises in Ivegate, long since demolished to make way for corporation improvements. After carrying it on with unvarying success for many years the founder was succeeded by his son, under whose direction marked progress was made. He in turn gave place to the present proprietor in 1882, the business having in the meantime found more suitable quarters at the above address, on the completion of the fine covered butcher market. The shop is a handsome double-fronted one. The fittings are bright and clean, and the stock displayed is all of the highest class in beef, mutton, pork, veal, lamb, pickled tongues, corned beef, &c. The animals purchased by Mr. Sugden are the primest quality of English and Scotch bullocks, and Welsh and Southampton sheep. The long standing of the firm and the excellence of all supplies have been the means of building up a very widespread and steadily expanding connection, both local and district. As showing the confidence with which the concern is regarded, it may be noted that for upwards of fifty years the whole of the butcher meat required for the supply of the Woodhouse Grove Schools, Apperley Bridge, near Bradford, has been obtained from Mr. Sugden and his predecessors. Families are waited upon and meat delivered in all parts of the town daily. Mr. Sugden’s genial manners and sound business habits are greatly appreciated by the general community.

Telephone No. 647.

It was in the year 1872 that Mr. C. W. Curran entered upon his now prosperous career by opening business in a comparatively modest way at Hardcastle Lane, where by dint of perseverance and well-directed enterprise he soon outgrew his accommodation, for scarcely a year had elapsed before he found it necessary to enter upon larger premises, and he accordingly migrated to the top portion of the present eligible quarters, finally taking up the whole of the large building for his business as it developed. The premises are very carefully allotted into departments, each one of which is equipped in the most perfect manner with all the necessary machinery and appliances incidental to the work being carried on, the motive power being supplied by a powerful “Otto” gas-engine. Mr. Curran, with a staff of from seventy to eighty skilled and experienced hands, operates on a very large scale in every branch of commercial and letterpress printing, lithography, engraving, the embossing of paper, bookbinding, pattern-card making, show-card designing and printing, the making of cheques, invoices, cards, circulars, shields, screens, and every description of chromo-lithographic work, and as a great speciality, the production of sample-boxes for plush and other Bradford goods. An enormous trade is in force amongst manufacturers, merchants, and commercial houses generally, the trade extending not only throughout Bradford and its district, but to all parts of the country, an appreciable custom coming to the house particularly from London, Manchester, and the West Riding of Yorkshire. Mr. Curran is also agent for the registration of trade-marks, for which he has a considerable connection from all parts of the country. The entire business is conducted with characteristic ability and energy, and it is manifestly Mr. Curran’s resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.


This business was founded by the present proprietor, Mr. William E. Booth, in 1866. Operations were originally carried on in the old Church Market, but upon the completion of the above handsome new market in 1874, the business was transferred, and has since been conducted with increased success. Mr. Booth caters for his customers in a most commendable manner, and at all times has for their inspection and purchase one of the finest stocks of fruit and potatoes to be found in the market. Supplies of the soundest and best qualities are received from the most renowned quarters, both English and foreign. Canadian and American apples are largely imported, and oranges, lemons, and other choice fruits are held in profusion. The business is entirely wholesale, the connection extending over a radius of twelve miles. An exceedingly large trade is done in potatoes, these being received from noted growers. The premises are commodious, and arranged to fully meet the requirements of the important trade carried on. There are two clerks, and four warehousemen employed, these being under the personal supervision of the proprietor, whose telegraphic address is “We, Bradford.” Largely as he is engaged with business matters, Mr. Booth contrives to find time to devote himself to the public good. At the present time he is an honoured and useful member of the Bradford Town Council, representing the Bolton Ward.

Telegraphic address: “Wools, Bradford”; Telephone No. 765.

Projected in the year 1863 by the late Mr. Roberts Ogden, the business passed into the hands of his son, Mr. T. L. Ogden, in the year 1885, and is now under the control of that gentleman and his partner, Mr. R. Pollard, trading under the style and title above designated. The firm’s premises are most eligibly situated in Union Street, and consist of a large and substantial three-storeyed warehouse, admirably appointed throughout with offices and ware-rooms and every facility for the rapid transaction of a very large home and export trade in all kinds of wools, yarns, noils, tops and waste, which are distributed to worsted spinners, manufacturers of dress goods, worsted coatings, heavy woollen goods, blankets, flannels and the like, not only throughout the United Kingdom, but very largely to America and the Continent of Europe. The firm, moreover, are manufacturers of Botany, English, Cheviot, mohair, &c., cardings on a large scale, their elaborately equipped power-driven works, replete with carding and other machinery of the latest and most improved kind, being located in Longside Lane. The affairs of the house are administered with sound judgment and ability, and its whole career has been marked by sound principles and honourable methods, continuously in the ascendant, which have endowed it with a special claim to consideration among the representative mercantile institutions of Bradford.

Telegraphic Address: “Autcliffe, Bradford.”

In no part of the busy borough of Bradford is commercial activity seen to better advantage than at the spacious and handsome St. James’s Market. The sights presented here by the energetic firms engaged as fruit salesmen have been the cause of much favourable comment. Among the firms who have specially distinguished themselves for the thorough manner in which they enter into their calling the names of Messrs. Autcliffe Brothers are the first. Since they first commenced operations at the above address in 1887 they have met with uninterrupted success, the result of their own personal merit. Their stores always stand out prominently for the rich and tempting display made. The choicest of English and foreign fruits are always to hand, these being picked samples from the very best growing centres. The show of grapes in the season is particularly worthy of note, the flavour of these being pronounced unequalled. Large supplies of oranges, lemons, pineapples, American apples, and dried fruits are imported regularly. A heavy business is done on commission with many of the Wholesale and retail merchants and dealers of the locality, and the principals are among the most popular salesmen in the market.


This well-known business has flourished since 1847, in which year it was founded by the father of the present proprietors, and was carried on by him successfully up to 1867, when it was taken over by his two sons, who have since conducted it with marked ability. The premises comprise a timber-yard, heavily stocked with a fine selection of English and foreign timbers of all kinds, a drying-shed containing the more valuable and seasoned specimens. There is also a well-arranged wheelwrights’ shop, and blacksmiths’ shop, on the ground floor, and joiners’ shop on the first floor. All work is done by hand; a good and old-established business is in operation, the firm owning a well-won reputation for the thoroughness and solidity of their work. They carry on all the branches connected with the calling of joiners, wheelwrights, and shoeing-smiths. The joinery and building departments embrace the woodwork in connection with public buildings, places of worship, dwelling-houses, &c. They are also large contractors, and have been entrusted with many important contracts, including the woodwork in connection with the erection of the handsome structure, Grange Church and Schools, in Horton Road, Bradford, and the Bank Top Congregational Schools, situate at Great Horton, Bradford, both being highly favourable examples of skill and completeness. The wheelwrights’ department embraces the building of vans, carts, wagonettes, &c. All the processes are gone through - body and wheel making, painting, trimming, and finishing. The vehicles are well and substantially made, and in good style. The connection extends over a», widespread district, and is of a superior character. There are skilful hands employed, these being under the personal supervision of the proprietors, who are thoroughly practical, enterprising, and courteous business men.


This well-known business, which was founded as far back as the year 1830, by Mr. H. W. Crossley, has all along been conducted in such a manner as to secure the entire confidence of customers, and the present proprietor has proved that he is well able to maintain the traditions of the house for high-class goods, moderate prices, and honourable dealing. The premises occupied by Mr. Smith afford unrivalled facilities for the prosecution of an extensive trade. On the ground floor of the two-storey building is a double-fronted warehouse, fitted and appointed with convenient accommodation for counting-house work. The stock includes vast quantities of all the finest varieties of tea, imported direct from India, China, and Ceylon. Mixing and blending are carried out with great skill and mature judgment, the various qualities of tea producing beverages that are marvels of full strength and delicate aroma. Equal care is devoted to the treatment of coffees, which are largely held by Mr. Smith in all the rarest growths of Costa Rica, Jamaica, and Arabia. These are to be had fresh roasted and ground daily, special appliances for these processes being fitted up in the premises. The connection is Wholesale and retail. Mr. Smith’s business gives every promise that this popular establishment will be conducted in the future as it has been in the past.

Telegraphic Address: “Vanguard, Bradford.”

A well-known firm engaged in the fish and poultry trade in Bradford is that of Messrs. David Astley & Co., which has been established for about four years. Originally Mr. David Astley, who is the sole proprietor, commenced business at No. 47, St. James’s Market, but his efforts were crowned with so much success that he subsequently acquired another store at No. 136. Both premises are spacious, and are divided into offices, sale-rooms, and warehouses for the convenient and effective carrying on of the business. The stock is very extensive, and comprises all kind of fish in season from the principal fishing stations received fresh daily, and poultry and rabbits from all parts in large and frequent consignments. Messrs. Astley & Co. do a very considerable commission agency business, and sell fish on commission for many of the principal fishing-smack owners in the kingdom, and poultry, &c., from the important breeders and rabbit warrens in the surrounding districts. A large wholesale business is done in the locality among fishmongers and poulterers, and the connection is very widespread in the district. Two clerks and several warehousemen are employed. The entire establishment is conducted under the personal management of the principal, and, with a constantly increasing trade, the prosperity of this concern is assured.


Since its establishment in 1886, by the present proprietor, wonderful development has attended the progress of this business, owing in no small degree to the energy and ability of Mr. Hudson. Prior to commencing operations on his own account Mr. Hudson had the advantage of some fifteen years’ experience in a similar establishment successfully conducted by his father in Leeds Road, and it is evident that the knowledge there gained has been most successfully applied by him to his own enterprise. The spacious double shop situated at 61 and 53, Manchester Road has a splendid frontage of fitty feet to that busy thoroughfare, and extends fifty feet to the rear. Behind this and on the first floor there are eight fine show-rooms, in which is exhibited a wonderful collection of general household furnishings. Throughout these premises the fittings and appointments are in the best of taste. There is likewise extensive storage accommodation for furniture, bedding, carpets, &c. The stock has been selected with care and good judgment, and embraces dining-room, drawing-room and bedroom suites, in all varieties of woods, and upholstery, chiffonniers, sideboards, wardrobes, cabinets, and other furniture of every conceivable kind, beds, and bedding of all descriptions, carpets, hearthrugs, linoleums, waxcloths, also oil paintings, and other works of art. Indeed, houses of any dimensions from a cottage to a mansion may be furnished throughout at Mr. Hudson’s establishment.

Some idea of the magnitude of the business may be gathered from the fact that Mr. Hudson has found it necessary to open two large branches in order successfully to cope with his growing trade. These are located at 186, Manchester Road, and 493, Leeds Road, at each of which are held heavy stocks of furniture, both of his own and other makers. In addition to his local trade, which in itself would be sufficient to satisfy the ambition of many men, Mr. Hudson sends large quantities of goods to London, Glasgow, and various other centres. A brisk trade is also done in second-hand furniture dealing. There is a large staff of assistants and workpeople employed at the different premises, all of which are conducted under the personal care of the proprietor, who is noted amongst his many business friends for his energy, tact, and fair dealings.


Established in 1889 by the present proprietors, who had had many years of practical experience in the business in all its details, it was not long before a good name was secured for the reliable nature of the goods turned out, as well as for the uniformly low figure at which they were offered. The connection is every day growing in extent and importance. Operations are carried on in a large portion of the Victoria Mills, comprising three floors of the structure. The equipment includes the most modern and improved plant and apparatus used in the trade, and many special labour-saving appliances. The demands made upon the firm call for the constant employment of one hundred first-class looms and of a force of about sixty men and girls. The proprietors, Mr. G. H. Sargent and Mr. R. H. Coupe, give their personal supervision to the concern in its entirety, and a valuable trade is controlled in the manufacture of their speciality. These goods are well known in the markets and are everywhere recognised as superior and standard articles. They command ready sales and good remunerative prices. The material is of the best possible kind, and the workmanship sound and thorough in every part. For the variety of new patterns turned out, the firm have deservedly gained a high repute.

For the convenience of business, offices and warehouses have been opened at 45, Swan Arcade, Bradford, and here is always on hand an extensive and varied selection of the choicest and best kinds of worsted coatings. These have been selected with great knowledge of the wants of superior buyers, and cannot fail to give satisfaction to all discriminating judges. A widespread and valuable home trade has been established among the principal clothing manufacturers and wholesale warehousemen and merchants, and a considerable trade is fast being developed with the Colonies, the United States, and the continent of Europe. The partners are thorough business men, and occupy a position of prominence in local trade circles, and in private life they are held in esteem for their marked ability and strict commercial probity.
The house is connected with the telephone No. 2,129.


The origin of this business goes back to the year 1879, when operations were commenced and carried forward with no less energy and perseverance than success. The premises now occupied are ample in size and convenient in every respect for the business carried on. They consist of the whole of one side of an extensive block of a three-storeyed building known as the Victoria Mills, and comprise offices, warehouses, and all the necessary manufacturing portions. The equipment is the result of the firm’s long connection with this special branch of industrial activity, and includes the latest and most improved plant and machinery driven by steam power. A large and first-class trade is controlled in the manufacture of fancy and figured dress materials and stuffs. The productions of the house are recognised in the markets as of a superior kind. The material is of the best, and no pains are spared in the process of making to keep up the standard of quality for which the house is noted. Much enterprise and ingenuity are bestowed upon the business, and the number of new designs and patterns the firm introduce is probably larger than that of any similar establishment of the same size. The house has a well-arranged piece-room at 41, Brook Street, Bradford.

A widespread and substantial connection has been acquired among the leading merchants in Bradford, London, Glasgow, and Manchester, based upon the solid foundation of reliable articles, reasonable prices, and prompt and careful attention to orders. The individual partners are Mr. John and James Gatecliff, and to their enterprise, energy, and skill is to be attributed the success of the business. They occupy a recognised position in trade and commercial circles, and by their fair and honourable methods command the confidence of all their patrons. They are well known in private life and respected everywhere for their many good personal qualities and the constant and earnest interest they take in all matters affecting the welfare and improvement of their fellow-townsmen.

The telephone number for the mills is 2,128, and the telegraphic address: “Gatecliff, Victoria Mills, Bingley;” the number of the telephone for the Brook Street depot is 214.


PERHAPS there is no industry in which England’s claim to pre-eminence has been more conclusively established than in the steel-working and cutlery trades, and for perfection in these branches, of metallurgical handicraft we instinctively turn to Sheffield. The reason is sufficiently plain. No visitor to this singularly busy and interesting town ever left its precincts with any misapprehension as to the nature of the manufacturing enterprises in which its inhabitants are mainly engaged. Steel, and its conversion into articles of utility and ornament, are the subjects which ever command attention in Sheffield; and to such remarkable purpose have the skilled craftsmen of this place studied and practised their art or “mystery,” as our forefathers might have termed it, that the very name of Sheffield is enough to recommend a knife, or a pair of scissors, or other similar article to international favour. The art of the cutler is hereditary in Sheffield, and one generation takes up the work as another lays it down, and maintains in the fullest degree the reputation of all its predecessors.

Of course there are other metal industries which are successfully carried on in this flourishing town. For instance, Sheffield has a high reputation in the electro-plate trade, and boasts some of the oldest and largest firms in that line in existence. Then there are mighty steel-works here, at which enormous castings and forgings for every conceivable purpose are produced. Situated in the centre of the South Yorkshire coalfields, Sheffield has had special advantages for developing its special industries. How its people tare availed themselves of those advantages we know, and how the town has prospered thereby we can readily judge from the fact that its population has increased more than sixfold in eighty years. Today the municipal borough has a population of nearly 290,000 people. Various are the industries which find representation in the town, and numerous establishments devoted to supplying the ordinary daily wants of a large community are vigorously and successfully carried on. But, speaking generally, every Sheffield man is, by birth, education, and inclination, a son of Tubal Gain, and his loyalty to the metal- working trades deserves appreciative record. What the world would do without Sheffield it is difflcult to conjecture, for there is not a land under the sun in which its products may not be found. A fine system of railway and waterway communication affords valuable facilities to the Sheffield manufacturers for the wide distribution of their goods; and at the present time it is proposed to greatly increase those facilities by the construction of a canal connecting Sheffield with the port of Goole. Power was granted by Parliament in 1889 to form a company with this object, and we believe the preliminaries of the great work are now under discussion.

ROTHERHAM, which became a municipal borough in 1871, is situated close to Sheffield on the north-east, and has a population (1891) of 42,050. It is the very embodiment of industrial energy, and is famed for the production of the heaviest class of steel goods. There are also manufacturers of chemicals, soap, starch, glass, and ropes, and a considerable trade in coal and lime. Rotherham dates from the time of the Romans, and was a place of some consequence in the Saxon period. It has a fine parish church in the Perpendicular style of architecture (temp. Edward IV.), and a grammar school which was founded as far back as 1483. Spanning the Don at Rotherham, there is a curious old bridge, with an ancient chapel on the central pier; and this bridge communicates with Masborough on the opposite bank, noted as the birthplace of Ebenezer Elliott, and also as the site of the great ironworks in which the forgings and castings for some very large bridges were made, including those at Sunderland and Southwark.

Eleven miles north-east of Sheffield, on the Dearne and Dove Canal, is MEXBOROUGH, a busy town, with a population of 7,734. This 'is the ancient Maisebal, the scene of a fierce battle between the Saxons and the Britons. Mexborough has large potteries and ironworks, and, like Sheffield and Rotherham, is well to the front in the industries in which it is engaged. A catalogue of the various artificers in the Sheffield district generally would include makers of files, fire-irons, fenders, forks, table knives and knife blades, scissors, saws, rings, razors, razor-cases, edge tools, and grindery in immense variety; also brassfounders, button-makers, die-sinkers, half pressers, moulders, turners, silver-platers, and white-metal smiths.

We now invite the attention of our readers to the following reviews of prominent and representative firms in the above-mentioned towns.



In connection with Sheffield’s vast and unrivalled cutlery industry there is no name more widely known than that of Messrs. George Wostenholm & Son, Limited, s firm whose history dates back over a period of more than a century. The founder of the business was George Wostenholm, who was originally a fork-maker in Thomas Lane, and he continued the concern for many years. In 1840 he was succeeded by his son, Mr. George Wostenholm, who afterwards became Master Cutler of Sheffield, a town councillor, and a Justice of the Peace for the borough. He removed the business from Rockingham Street to the present headquarters in Wellington Street about 1850. In 1876 Mr. George Wostenholm died, the business having previously been incorporated as a limited liability company, with a nominal capital of £150,000, of which about £90,000 is paid up. The chairman of the company on its formation was the late Bernard Wake, Esq., who died in 1890, and was succeeded in that office by his brother, William Wake, Esq. The able managing director is J. C. Wing, Esq., a member of the Cutlers’ Company, and a gentleman of great practical and commercial experience. Under its limited liability constitution, the business has steadily increased, expanding in influential connections in both the home and export markets, and to-day it is one of the two largest cutlery manufacturing concerns in the town of Sheffield. The works and warehouses in Wellington Street are of great extent, and are most completely organised. Each department is equipped with the most effective machinery and appliances known in the trade, and the many processes of cutlery manufacture are carried out under general conditions of the most favourable character. Employment is given to between seven hundred and eight hundred workpeople, a fact which is in itself an indication of the magnitude of this business; and the splendid quality and finish of Messrs.

Wostenholm’s manufactures testify to the superior skill of the cutlers in their service. This company’s productions include every description of pocket and table cutlery, razors, and scissors, and they are known in all parts of the world as sole makers of the celebrated “I.XL.” cutlery and the original “Pipe” razors. The latter goods bear the imprint of the oldest Cutlers’ Company’s mark granted for articles with a cutting edge, viz., the famous sign of a tobacco pipe, which was granted by the Cutlers’ Company as lar back as December 22nd, 1694. The firm’s other well-known corporate mark takes the form of the letters “I.XL.,” with which most of their noted pocket and. table cutlery is stamped. The excellence of Messrs. Wostenholm’s manufactures is amply attested by the high honours they have gained at the great exhibitions. At London (1851 and 1862) and at Philadelphia (1876) they were the recipients of the highest prize medals. At Paris in 1855 they carried off the large gold medal of honour, the only one awarded for English cutlery, and at the Paris Exhibition of 1867 Mr. Wostenholm was a juror. Further notable awards include a prize medal at Sydney in 1879, and a gold medal at Melbourne in 1880.

An enormous trade is controlled by this firm, and the export to the Continent, Australia, Canada, America, India, China, and almost all foreign markets is of great and increasing magnitude. In addition to the manufacture of cutlery, the firm carries on an extensive hardware merchants’ business. Messrs. George Wostenholm & Son, Limited, have branches at New York, Philadelphia, Montreal, Sydney, and Melbourne, and their London house is situated in Bishopsgate Street Within, E.C. The company’s business affairs are administered with conspicuous ability, and no effort is spared to preserve the renown of this old and distinguished house by fully maintaining the high standard of merit that has always marked its productions.


The eminent firm named above was founded upwards of a hundred years ago, and has had a distinguished career in the Sheffield trade. The business, which has now assumed immense proportions, was started originally by Mr. James Dixon, and has remained under the control of his descendants since then. The present principals are Mr. Henry I. Dixon, senior, Mr. James Willis Dixon, Mr. James D. Fawcett, Mr. James Dixon, Mr. Lennox B. Dixon, and Mr. Ernest D. Fawcett, these gentlemen trading in co-partnership under the title of James Dixon & Sons. The firm are among the leading merchants and manufacturers in Sheffield, and their vast establishment was visited in 1879 by the late Prince Leopold. Ten years later the Shah of Persia, on the occasion of his last tour in England, visited Messrs. Dixon’s works, and expressed himself highly delighted with all that he saw there. The premises cover a great area of ground, and comprise a number of large and lofty blocks of substantial buildings, arranged in the form of a hollow square, and enclosing spacious yards which are intersected by other transverse blocks. The whole place has been planned and laid out with a view to convenience in each department, and the many processes of a highly interesting and complicated industry are here carried out under the most favourable circumstances.

Messrs. James Dixon & Sons employ nearly eight hundred hands, many of whom are workmen of the highest practical skill, and the manufacturing operations carried on embrace the production of silver and best Sheffield electro-plate, Britannia metal and nickel-silver goods, table and pocket cutlery, sporting tackle, &c., for all of which this firm enjoys an international reputation. The sporting department has become a special feature, and the firm are celebrated for all kinds of superior sporting tackle. They have lately patented a cartridge-loading machine capable of turning cut three thousand per hour, which has already been adopted by many of the leading gunmakers. Messrs. Dixon’s manufactures in all departments are noted for their excellence of quality and finish, and are distinguished by the well-known “Trumpet” trade-mark of the house, granted in October, 1879.

An immense trade is controlled by this firm in both the home and the export markets, and Messrs. James Dixon & Sons are especially well known in Australia, where they have offices at 108, Queen Street, Melbourne, and 420, George Street, Sydney. The London offices are at Cornish House, 14, St. Andrew’s Street, Holborn Circus, E.C.
The telegraphic addresses of the house are: “Dixon, Sheffield”; “James Dixon, London”; and “Dixmer, Melbourne.”


The old-established and eminent house here named has been in existence nearly half a century, and ranks among the most notable concerns engaged in the metallurgic industries of Sheffield. Messrs. John Brown & Co.’s name is known all over the world in connection with the manufacture of a number of famous specialities for marine purposes; and among these standard productions we may name the following, which are held in the highest repute both at home and abroad:- “Ellis” patent steel-faced, all-steel and iron armour plates and bolts; the largest sizes of crank and straight shafting, hydraulic pressed, solid or hollow, rough machined, or finished; “Purves” patent ribbed boiler flues, which are acknowledged to be unsurpassed for resistance to collapse, and which possess other special advantages over all other types of flues; the “Serve” patent ribbed boiler tubes, giving a maximum of steam per pound of fuel consumed; the “Van Ollefen” patent gear for quick lowering of doors of water-tight bulkheads; also flanged boiler end-plates of the largest sizes, flanged in hydraulic presses in one heat; and steel propeller blades and bosses, long favourably known for their exceptional soundness and smoothness of surface.

In the production of the above-named specialities Messrs. Brown are unquestionably ahead of most of the competitors in the same branches of the trade, and their prominent position is the result of the many years of careful study they have devoted to the departments with which their name is especially identified. This firm’s armour plates have a great reputation, and are supplied to the Admiralty. Their iron and steel boiler plates, cylinders, wheels, tyres, axles, rails, springs, buffers, and other manufactures of a like nature are also regarded as standard articles for merit and reliability, and the production of foundry and forge pig-iron, crucible cast steel, Siemens steel, Bessemer steel, &c., is also largely engaged in, and Messrs. John Brown & Co.’s industry is in its entirety one of the most important and comprehensive in Sheffield.

The Atlas Works, approached from Savile Street, are of vast extent, the ground occupied being no less than thirty-two acres. Here there is a perfect world of industrial activity, the forges, foundries, rolling-mills and other departments presenting a wonderfully busy and interesting scene. A great deal of the plant in use here is of tremendous power and great ingenuity, and the visitor is deeply impressed by the magnitude of the operations carried on and the splendid resources of this immense establishment, to adequately describe which would require a volume. Messrs. John Brown & Co., Limited, employ no fewer than six thousand hands, to whom about £8,000 is paid in wages every week — facts which will give some idea of the extent of the firm’s undertakings, and of the demands made upon their productive facilities by a connection which is international. This vast business is conducted as a limited liability company, Mr. John D. Ellis and Mr. C. E. Ellis being the managing directors. We may add that the company are also proprietors of the Aldwarke Main and Car House Collieries, near Sheffield, where about one million tons of steam and gas coal are raised annually; and have their London offices at 12, Fenchurch Street, E.C.


The firm of Messrs. John Clarke & Son, Fine Cutlery Manufacturers, of 52, 54, and 56, Harvest Lane, Sheffield, holds a most conspicuous position, even among the great cutlery houses of Hallamshire, for the excellence of the specialities which have made the reputation of the house throughout the trade in all parts of the world. This important firm was established in 1848 by Mr. John Clarke, the father of the present chief partner, Mr. Thomas Clarke. The important commercial connection which was formed by the founder of the business has since been largely strengthened and enlarged by Mr. Thomas Clarke, who has been the principal of the firm for the last twenty years, and who now receives valuable assistance in management from his three sons, who all take an active and energetic interest in the business.

The premises are well adapted to the industrial and commercial requirements of the business. They comprise the general and private offices of the firm, and show-room, in which is displayed in show-cases an exhibit of the finest cutlery made — including knives, five-sixteenths of an inch long (perfect miniatures), to the most expensive sportsmen’s knives, gold and silver mounted, containing every article a sportsman can require, and of the greatest variety of design; Scissors, from the cheap and useful kitchen scissor to those in cases holding four, five, or six pair scissors in each case. The exhibit of Razors is a speciality with this firm, it being one of the best-known razor firms in the town. Many of these exhibits are sumptuously mounted in a diversity of beautiful materials. There are spacious warehouses to the rear, in which are always held large stocks of the class of goods most in demand in those markets where Messrs. Clarke & Son’s reputation stands highest. Only skilled workmen are employed by the firm.

Among the specialities of the firm are the celebrated “EXPRESS” Razors, which are made from the best quality of refined Sheffield steel, the greatest care being bestowed upon the hardening and tempering; the extreme hollowness of the blade makes these razors so flexible that, by their aid, shaving becomes a luxury. The success which Messrs. John Clarke & Son have achieved in the production of the Express Razor is all the more interesting because it disposes for ever of the idea that in hollow grinding the Germans have any superiority: the truth in this matter is exactly the converse. The Express Strop is specially adapted for this razor. The Gem Safety Shaver is another of the articles made by them. This razor is remarkable for the simple manner in which the blade can be adjusted, by means of the screw at the back of the guard. With this useful instrument it is impossible for even the most unskilful operator to cut the face. Clarke’s Patent Dressing-Case is wonderfully compact, containing in little more room than is occupied by the ordinary shaving-case, a mirror, two strops, a razor, comb, and a tube of shaving cream; in fact, it is invaluable to cyclists and travellers, where space is of importance.

The uniformly excellent material and workmanship of Messrs. Clarke & Son’s table-knives and carvers are generally recognised all over the United Kingdom, the principal towns of which are regularly visited by one of the member» of the firm. The trade-marks of the firm are — “NEVA” granted by the Cutlers’ Company in 1856; and “EXPRESS.” The “RING” mark is also one of their registered trade-marks for razors. Their export trade is constantly increasing, owing to being represented by their own agents in London, Melbourne, and New York. The enterprise of the firm has, despite the hostile tariffs of the United States and France, enabled them to retain their hold on the markets there, and they unquestionably owe their well-earned success to the thorough knowledge of all the requirements of the business, both industrially and commercially, and to their assiduous supervision of all its details.


The establishment of this business dates back some thirty years when the late Mr. Lazarus Bell commenced operations at Lead Mill Road, and Suffolk Road. At these works, then known as the Albert Shovel Works, the founder of the business for a number of years carried on business most successfully, and on his retirement his two sons took over the concern and moved it to the premises where it is at present carried on. The two brothers, however, dissolved partnership, and the business is now conducted by Mr. William Bell, who continues the manufacture of every description of best cast steel, riveted and solid shovels, hammered moulders steel faced, socket, miners’ and locomotive shovels, hay and paving spades, spits and draining tools, manure, digging, and coke forks, &c. The speciality of the house, however, is probably the solid steel open socket shovel, of which large quantities are constantly being demanded by their numerous customers.

The premises on which these various implements are manufactured comprise a large yard with offices in front and convenient workshops and store-rooms in the rear. The catalogue issued by Mr. Bell gives particulars and illustrations of almost innumerable spades, shovels, forks and other similar implements, and in these he does a very large trade, his speciality being best cast-steel riveted and solid shovels. The firm’s trade-mark — a kite with the word “Bell’s” across it — is well known in the trade as a guarantee of excellence of manufacture, a continuance of which is ensured by the fact that Mr. Bell, who has had many years’ experience, looks personally after every detail of the business and sees that nothing but good workmanship is turned out.
For the benefit of our readers we may mention that the telephone numbers are: Exchange, 301; and National, 617.


In connection with the wine and spirit and brewing trades in Sheffield, a very notable firm is that of Messrs. J. Wheatley & Son, who control the Dantzic and Rutland Breweries, and carry on an immense business as wine and spirit merchants, black-beer brewers, and makers of cordials, aerated waters, and hop bitters — the last-named article being a highly successful non-intoxicating substitute for ordinary ale. The hop bitters has now become a leading speciality with Messrs. Wheatley, and the popularity of the beverage is so great and increasing that an enormous trade is being done in this department alone. Messrs. J. Wheatley & Son’s business is an old-established concern, and their two breweries are admirably situated, close to each other, and in a healthy, cleanly, elevated district, thoroughly favouring the proper conduct of an industry of this kind. There is an especially good water supply, drawn from artesian wells, which have been sunk by the firm on their own property. The expense attending this work was very great, but it has been amply repaid by results, for the water is of splendid quality, and has proved particularly suitable for the brewing of Wheatley’s hop bitters. The firm are well advised in making this beverage one of the chief products of their industry, for its success already points to a great future. Both breweries have been equipped with special regard to the production of the hop bitters, and in each case the plant and appliances in use are of the most effective character. The Rutland Brewery is the newer erection of the two, and was built to meet the greatly increased business consequent upon the introduction of the hop bitters about three or four years ago. Night and day the brewing now goes on at both establishments, the daily output required to meet the demands of the trade reaching the enormous total of two hundred barrels; and new business is coming in at a rate which bids fair to heavily tax the firm’s productive resources in the near future, large as these are at the present time.

In their entirety Messrs. Wheatley’s establishments form two of the best organised and most completely equipped breweries in the district, and have their own cooperages, smithies, and wheelwrights’ shops. The premises have exactly the appearance of ordinary breweries, and possess all the characteristics of such establishments, even to the hops, testifying to the fact that Messrs. Wheatley’s great speciality is a genuine product, in which the best English hops play the part of a principal ingredient. Upwards of one hundred hands are constantly employed at these fine breweries, and the whole industry is conducted with the greatest care under the personal supervision of the principals.

Wheatley’s hop ale promises to play a great part as a popular non-alcoholic beverage, and in that direction they are certainly unsurpassed at the present moment. With a flavour and appearance equal to the finest sparkling pale ale, the “looks” of this beverage are all in its favour, while its palatable qualities cannot be gainsaid. In fact, the only difference between bitter ale and Wheatley’s hop ale is that the former has a tendency to intoxicate while the latter has not. The hop ale has excellent refreshing and tonic qualities, and makes one of the most wholesome and agreeable drinks imaginable.

Dr. Arthur Hill Hassall and Professor Edwin Goodwin Clayton (two of our most eminent analysts) say in their report on Wheatley’s hop ale: “The flavour was very satisfactory, and we pronounce this non-intoxicant beverage, called by you ‘hop bitters,’ to be wholesome, and one which may be beneficially used.” , Professor Granville H. Sharpe, F.C.S., after a critical analysis of the hop bitters, concludes his report by saying: “I consider this beverage to be the most perfect fermented non-intoxicant I have hitherto examined, and can, with great confidence, recommend it as eminently suited for ordinary and regular consumption, and as a healthful, palatable, and gentle stimulant.”

Messrs. J. Wheatley & Son are certainly to be congratulated upon the production of a non-alcoholic beverage which meets a widespread requirement, and which, while highly approved by the highest chemical authorities, has not failed to secure in a remarkable measure that public favour and general popularity which an article so long desired and so beneficiai in itself deserves/


The renown which attaches to the great silver-working and cutlery industries of Sheffield is shared in a notable degree by one of their most eminent representatives, the house of Messrs. Mappin Brothers, of the Queen’s Plate and Cutlery Works. This is one of the oldest and most famous of typical Sheffield firms, and its history dates back as far as the year 1810. For the past fifty years the vast and constantly increasing business has been carried on under its present title, but three years ago the business was remodelled, and since then the technical skill displayed in the able administration of this important concern has led to success almost unparalleled. The firm has the advantage, also, of the services, as manager, of Mr. W. H. Willoughby, who has had many years’ experience in the trade, and is thoroughly conversant with all its details. The Queen’s Plate and Cutlery Works are very extensive, and comprise all the departments incidental to a large industry, the chief products of which are silverware, electro-plate, and high-class cutlery. The establishment is perfectly appointed throughout, all the machinery and appliances being of the most improved type known in the trade, and regular employment is given here to a large number of skilled workpeople. Messrs. Mappin Brothers’ show-rooms, in connection with the works, contain a magnificent stock of their unsurpassed manufactures, and display all those beauties of design and workmanship which, together with a special standard of excellence in quality, have made the goods of this house famous and esteemed throughout the civilised world. Much distinguished patronage has been bestowed upon the firm during its long and prominent career, and it was Messrs. Mappin Brothers who executed the remarkably beautiful and artistic gold casket presented by the Corporation of the City of London to the German Emperor, on the occasion of His Majesty’s visit in July, 1891.

Through the medium of their splendid show-rooms at 220, Regent Street, and 66, Cheapside, London, Messrs. Mappin Brothers deal direct with the public, and the two establishments referred to are among the most attractive and best known in the metropolis. The firm also supply the trade in all the principal towns of the United Kingdom, and they conduct a very extensive export trade with India, Australia, South America, and the Continent, a great amount of foreign and Colonial business being done through shipping houses. Messrs. Mappin Brothers’ manufactures cover the entire scope of the silver, electro-plate, and fine cutlery trades, and they have separate departments for table cutlery, spoons and forks, razors, pocket cutlery, solid silverware, dressing bags, and electro-plated goods. In all these departments the firm excel, both in the quality and in the design and finish of their goods, and their trade increases continuously, the development of the business during the last two years having been especially marked.

Messrs. Mappin Brothers’ highly artistic productions have gained the most eminent awards at the great exhibitions, including five prize medals at London (1851), and five more at London (1862). The demand for these goods is world-wide, and they are well known everywhere by the “Corporate mark” of the house — the sun. As most of our readers are doubtless aware, this noted Sheffield firm are the donors of the much-coveted “Mappin Brothers’ Cup,” presented by them for competition at the National Rifle-Association’s meetings, formerly at Wimbledon, and now at Bisley. Messrs. Mappin Brothers were cutlers and silversmiths by appointment to His Majesty King William IV., and to Her Majesty Queen Victoria on her accession, a warrant the renewal of which they have just had the honour of receiving by order of Her Majesty. Their addresses are: 66, Cheapside, London; 220, Regent Street, London; and Queen’s Works, Sheffield,


This old-established and leading firm control one of the largest industries in the town, and have a history dating back to the dawn of the century, their vast business having been founded in the year 1803, by Mr. David Ward, great-grandfather of the present proprietors. Originally the house traded as David Ward & Co., but for the last fifty years the title of Ward & Payne has been used. The present principals are the three sons of the late Alderman David Ward, J.P., Messrs. David, Herbert, and Edwin Ward; and these three gentlemen direct the business most capably in co-partnership, retaining the title under which the house has been so long and favourably known in the Sheffield trade. Mr. Payne, whose name appears in the style of the firm, was junior partner up to 1850, when he died. The late Alderman David Ward died in 1889. He was Master Cutler in 1877 and 1878, and Mayor of Sheffield in 1879, and was greatly esteemed and respected in commercial and municipal life.

The house of Messrs. Ward & Payne maintains a universal reputation for first-class productions in sheep-shears, edge tools of all kinds, superior carving tools, joiners’ tools, saws, files, cutlery, spades, shovels, agricultural forks, picks, hoes, and hammers. All these goods are manufactured in large quantities, and in a very high standard of quality, and the demand for them in all parts of the world is sufficient to tax the productive resources of even such an immense and splendidly organised establishment as Ward’s Works. The firm employ between four hundred and five hundred skilled workmen, and conduct their industry upon a most complete and extensive scale. Their specialities in sheep-shears and high-class edge tools are well known in every market at home and abroad, and are admittedly unsurpassed in material and workmanship. This firm are also makers of the celebrated S. J. Addis carving tools, which are so highly esteemed by carvers and sculptors everywhere.

An immense trade is done in all the above-named manufactures, as well as in best tool steel, mining steel, spring steel, &c., and Messrs. Ward & Payne’s valuable and influential connection extends all over Great Britain, the Continent, the Colonies, and into every foreign market in which a demand exists for the unrivalled tool manufactures of Sheffield. The business is conducted with conspicuous ability and judgment, and the principals are gentlemen of high standing and authority in the trade. Messrs. Ward & Payne’s manufactures may be known by the trade-mark they bear, viz., the initials “W. P.” together with an anvil and two crossed hammers. The various goods stamped with this noted brand may be thoroughly relied upon, and are in all respects of the same high order of excellence as those which have gained for Messrs. Ward & Payne gold medals and other honours at the Exhibitions of London, Vienna, Philadelphia, Melbourne, Cape Town, and Christchurch (N.Z.).
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed: “Ward, Sheffield.”


This extensive and important business was founded as long ago as the year 1822 by Mr. William Gallimore, who was succeeded by his son, the late Mr. William Gallimore. After the death of the latter gentleman in 1877, the business was continued under the executors until 1890, when the entire stock, plant, premises, and goodwill were purchased by the sons of the last-named principal, Messrs. Henry and Herbert William Gallimore, as provided for by will. The title of the house was then altered from that of W. Gallimore & Co. to its present form of William Gallimore & Sons. For many years past the concern has had its headquarters at the present large works at the corner of Arundel Street and Sycamore Street, and these premises, enlarged from time to time to meet the requirements of a constantly increasing trade, have attained to very extensive dimensions. Within the last few years the present handsome offices and warehouse have been erected, and this addition has greatly added to the appearance of the establishment. Extending down Arundel and Sycamore Streets is a long range of warehouse buildings, and these contain admirable appointed stock-rooms, sufficiently large to accommodate immense and varied stocks of the firm’s well-known manufactures. At the rear stand several large and substantial structures, comprising some fifteen working departments, in which Messrs. Gallimore’s entire industry is carried on, from the metals in the raw state to the completion of the finished article. These works are splendidly equipped with every requisite for the trade, the plant including three powerful rolling-mills for rolling metals, and a wire-mill for slitting, rolling, and drawing brass and other wires. This latter material is chiefly for shoe rivets and for the Indian trade, and so great is the demand for it that the firm have frequently turned out as much as twenty tons for a single order.

Messrs. Gallimore’s establishment in its entirety is one of the busiest and most interesting in Sheffield, and its various workshops are far too numerous to be reviewed in detail in this brief article. It may be said, however, that they comprise stamping-shops, with about a dozen stamps at work, presses for cutting out spoons, forks, &c., and a large number of spacious and well-lighted work-rooms for planing, rolling, shearing, cutting out, stamping, filing, buffing, electro-plating, and finishing the goods. In each case the machinery in use is of the most effective modern type, and is driven by steam-power supplied from four engines on the premises. On the upper floors of the works are situated comfortable and commodious dining-rooms, and a reading-room for the use of the employes, who have always been treated with kindly consideration at this noted establishment.

Messrs. William Gallimore & Sons rank among the oldest and best-known firms of nickel-silver manufacturers and rollers and drawers of nickel-silver and brass wire in the trade, and their productions are held in the highest possible esteem, being second to none in quality and finish. About two hundred hands are employed, working under capable and experienced managers, and the business increases continuously in all departments. At the present time the firm have just added a new mill to their plant, for rolling silver only, this being rendered necessary by the rapidly growing demand. The firm now pass through their rolling-mills between one and two tons of silver weekly for the local trade. Messrs. Gallimore also turn out vast quantities of beautifully designed and finely finished spoons, forks, ladies, butter knives, fish carvers, dessert knives and forks, fruit spoons, and hundreds of other useful and ornamental articles in nickel silver and electro-plate; and these goods they supply to the trade, not only locally, but to all parts of the country. The business is an immense one, and is conducted with the greatest care and skill in all its departments.

Both the present principals are gentlemen, well known and highly respected in Sheffield, and Mr. Henry Gallimore has for many years been prominently identified with the temperance cause in this town, being President of the Sheffield Temperance Electoral Association, and editor of its organ, “The Temperance Vanguard;” and either president, treasurer, or a member of the executive of many other bodies. He is a member of the Sheffield Chamber of Commerce, a vice-patron of the Iron, Hardware and Metal Trades’ Pension Society, and for two years was an overseer of the township of Sheffield. Although he has been frequently urged to allow himself to be brought forward as a candidate for the Town Council, he has hitherto steadfastly declined such overtures, preferring quieter but not less important paths of work and usefulness.


This enterprising firm has been established about eleven years, but the partners, Mr. James Ball, junior, and Mr. William Ball, are the sons of Mr. James Ball, the inventor and patentee of machine-made shears, and were for sixteen years practically engaged with their father in the manufacture of these goods. The present firm has been successfully carried on ever since its establishment. The premises occupied are large and convenient, comprising a compact suite of well-appointed offices, warehouses, and various workshops. The equipment embraces all the latest machinery used in this branch of industry, together with numerous improved machines and labour-saving appliances, the invention of the firm. Employment is found for a large staff of skilled workmen, and a system of management is in force which is highly complimentary to the proprietors’ administrative ability. Machine-made shears have now been brought to such a state of perfection that the hand-made article is destined before long to be consigned to the limbo of obsolete and antiquated implements. In 1888 the firm took up an invention called “Ball’s Patent Slot-bow Sheep-shear,” which has proved a great success, and for which an increasing demand is constantly going on. Up to the time this valuable patent was brought out it was impossible to sharpen shears without straining them more or less in the process; but by a simple but ingenious contrivance the blades of Ball’s patent slot-bow sheep-shears can be instantaneously separated or united by a single movement of the hand, thus allowing them to be properly sharpened without injury.

The firm’s well-known trade-mark (the word “Success” in a scimitar) is accepted everywhere as a guarantee of superior quality. In the matter of prices, too, the firm can well hold their own, their large business and the perfection of their productive resources giving them advantages in manufacturing not possessed by many competing firms. Large stocks are kept of the various shapes and sizes made, and orders of any magnitude can generally be executed in a short period. A valuable connection has been established among merchants, dealers, and shearers throughout the world, the goods being as well known in the markets at the Cape, South America, New Zealand, the United States, and Canada, as in Great Britain. The partners are both thoroughly practical men, and give the business the full benefit of their close and constant personal supervision. In 1885 they entered into competition with the talent of the town at the Exhibition of Artisans’ Work, promoted by the Cutlers’ Company, and it is eminently gratifying to note that they secured the highest prizes and certificates awarded in the three departments of this branch of Sheffield trade. The principals are strictly fair and honourable in all their transactions, and retain the confidence of all their patrons. They occupy a good position in trade circles, and in private life they are respected for their personal worth, well-merited success, and undoubted ability.


The Victoria Works are specially noted for the great variety of miners’, engineers’ and joiners’ tools which they turn out, many of which are solely made by tins firm. This prosperous and growing business was originally established in 1820 by the late Mr. Charles Farr, who having created the nucleus of the valuable and substantial commercial connection which has since been greatly extended, successfully conducted the affairs of the house until 1884. The business was then taken over by the present principal, Mr. W. H. Ward, the result of whose energetic management has been the maintenance of all the best traditions of the firm, combined with a rapid progress which is the outcome of the prompt adoption of all approved modern methods in applied science. The premises in the Eccleshall Road are remarkably commodious, and the area occupied has been admirably adapted to the requirements of the business. The well-appointed offices, general and private, are situated to the right of the entrance. The various industrial departments occupy a square block of buildings to the rear. They are fitted up throughout with machinery and appliances of the latest and best type. The firm are, therefore, enabled to produce their work under the best possible conditions, and at prices which will compare favourably with those of other houses in the trade. About thirty experienced and skilful workmen are constantly employed.

The firm are manufacturers of all kinds of steel, specially adapted for miners’ and engineers’ tools, of light and heavy edge tools, augers, joiners’ tools, hammers, &c. They have a high repute for their ship, Scotch, and carpenters' augers, tap and bung borers, sledge, engineers’ and quarry hammers. Among miners the firm are well and favourably known as makers of their special welding crucible cast-steel and octagon, and every variety of miners’ tools. They were the first makers of the celebrated miners’ twist drills. Among their other specialities may be mentioned their boring machines for rock or coal, and also the granite pick, the platelayers’ pickaxe, the Kent axe, the scaling hammer, the keying hammer, the bright Scotch screw auger, with barrel eye; the lead-beaters’ pattern black wagon bit, with bright edges; the carpenters’ tanged shell auger, the Dodd’s patent shell auger, the Bright’s single screw-bit, &c., &c. The firm guarantee all their goods to be made from warranted best cast steel, and the value which experience has taught their customers to attach to this guarantee is proved by the constant receipt of repeat orders from all parts of the country. The rapid extension of the firm’s business relations is to be explained by the thorough practical knowledge which Mr. Ward possesses of all branches of the trade, and by the careful supervision which he bestows upon all the details of the business.


This old-established and world-famous house, whose works cover a larger area than any others devoted to the manufacture of steel at Sheffield, was founded as far back as the year 1792, and has always been known under the name of Jessop. Of the present limited liability company Mr. William Jessop is the chairman, and the active duties of the administration are vested in two managing directors. These gentlemen manifest a thorough knowledge of the trade in all its details, and under their supervision the business of the company pursues its accustomed course of steady development. The growth of this gigantic concern has almost been unparalleled in the history of Sheffield industries, and some idea of the magnitude to which it has now attained may be gathered from the fact that the works at Brightside now cover an area of no less than thirty-one acres, and contain six miles of railway lines, upon which two locomotives are constantly plying. The large establishment is divided into two parts by the River Don, and has more the appearance of a small manufacturing town than that of the works of one firm. The railway facilities are particularly complete, and there are ample conveniences of transport by road and by water. The industrial arrangements are all upon a scale of remarkable extent, there being in the works no fewer than forty melting and converting furnaces, thirty steam-hammers, thirteen rolling-mills, and two large foundries, in one of which crucible steel as well as Siemens-Martin castings can be produced in immense quantities. All the requirements of an enormous industry of this kind are amply provided for, and the plant and machinery in use is all of the very best modern type. This plant, moreover, is being constantly added to, and the company have always shown marked enterprise in keeping pace with the times.

Messrs. William Jessop & Sons have always been noted as producers of the highest classes of steel, and have for a hundred years maintained an unsurpassed reputation in the trade. At the present day they are celebrated throughout the world for their superior and special steels for all engineering, marine, and mechanical purposes, and have an equal renown for their fine steel for edge tools, cutlery, hammers, mill picks, needles, shear blades, fish-hooks, and clock and watch springs. Sheet steel for circular saws, and for the manufacture of steel pens, has long been a speciality of this house, and is very largely produced. In 1878 the company began to make steel castings, and they now turn out great quantities of these for various purposes. They were, we believe, the first to make ships’ stems, rudders, rudder frames, stem-frames, &c., in one piece, and their cast-steel crank-shafts are held in very high esteem by shipbuilders and marine engineers. Steel forgings of all kinds, weighing up to thirty tons, are produced at the Brightside Works in the highest excellence of quality and finish, and the company supply these and their steel castings to the Admiralty, the War Office, and several of the foreign governments.

For many years Messrs. William Jessop & Sons, Limited, have been importers of some of the most esteemed brands of Swedish bar iron. Their manufactures have gained eminent awards at the exhibitions of Paris (1878 and 1889), Melbourne (1881), London (1884), Tynemouth (1882), Antwerp (1885), Inventions (London, 1885), and Liverpool (1886). The trade controlled extends to every quarter of the globe, and the company have depots at London, Manchester, Glasgow, Paris, Dusseldorf, and St. Petersburg. In the American markets their connection is an especially important one, and they have American stores at 91, John Street, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Providence (R.I.), Chicago, Baltimore, San Francisco, Newark (N.J.), Montreal, and Buenos Ayres.
The telegraphic address of the company is “Jessop, Sheffield,” and the telephone (National) is No. 152.


It was in 1842 that Mr. George Fisher established the above business, a business that under his management became far-famed and of world-wide reputation. There is no fear that under the management of its present partners, Mr. Joseph Newton (for many years sole manager of the business of George Fisher & Co.) and Mr. Thos. Banks (who has represented the firm for over a quarter of a century), the fame or reputation of the firm will suffer any diminution. The business of the firm is carried on in three large buildings, with extensive frontages, with a large gateway entrance to the works at the front. Also in the front building are convenient and commodious offices and warehouses, and extensive crucible melting furnaces, forging, converting plant, furnaces, file and rasp workshops at the rear. A leading speciality of the firm is the manufacture of high-class refined cast steel, for all kinds of engineers’ tools, as above mentioned; and another speciality of the firm is the manufacture of files and rasps (for years the late Mr. George Fisher supplied files and steel to Her Majesty’s Government); and it should be specially noted that all the files supplied are hand-cut, the firm having steadfastly set its face against file-cutting machines, and having resolutely declined to have anything to do with them.

Of files and rasps a large quantity are turned out every year, and so eagerly are the firm’s goods sought after that fraudulent dealers have taken to imitating their trade-marks. To guard against this the firm have issued a special notice specifying the trade-marks placed by them on various classes of goods, and traders will do well to see that all goods professing to be Fisher & Co.’s bear this registered trade-mark. At the Hoyle Street Works, too, a very large trade is done in blacksmiths’ hammers and engineers’ tools. The firm are importers and extensive dealers in Russian and Swedish iron, and in the best Norway nail-rods. The trade is by no means confined to the home market, but is largely an export one, especially in connection with various British Colonies. The present partners give their own personal attention to every detail of the business, and, they have under them a small army of workmen, and many competent assistants in every department.


Nearly a century and a quarter have elapsed since the foundation of this firm was first laid. The founders of this time-honoured institution were Messrs. Smith & Moorhouse, who in the year 1770 commenced operations in the works still occupied. They were succeeded by Mr. William Parkin, who, in 1846, took Mr. Marshall into partnership. The latter gentleman died in 1852, and the business was carried on under the sole control of Mr. Parkin until his death in 1873, when he was succeeded by his two sons, the present proprietors, Mr. William Parkin and Mr. Bernard Parkin. During all these years, the business has gone on steadily increasing in the extent of its transactions and the importance of its clientele, until at the present time it fairly claims a leading and representative position among similar establishments. The premises are at the present time large in extent and ample in convenience of arrangement. They comprise a suite of well-appointed private and general offices, show-rooms, and stock-rooms on the first floor, together with workshops on the upper floors and at the rear. The works include every department requisite for production of the goods manufactured, from the rough casting to the finished article, and are well equipped with every appliance, plant, and machinery of the latest and best description. Employment is found for a numerous body of skilled workpeople, and every department is kept in a state of efficiency calculated to produce the best results.

A valuable trade is carried on by the firm, chiefly in the manufacture of table cutlery and pocket-knives. Articles belonging to this class sent out by the firm are well known in the trade as of a superior kind, and as such command ready sales at top prices. The house is famous for its electro-plate, of which it offers a wide range of selections in patterns and designs. In the year 1855 Messrs. Parkin added the manufacture of steel and files, taking for that purpose works which had just been vacated by Sir John Brown, who had removed to the well-known Atlas Works, so long associated with his name. Fifteen years later, in order to meet the demands of their customers, the firm commenced to make all kinds of machine knives, such, e.g., as are used in reaping or mowing and various other agricultural machines, as also saws and cutters used in saw-mills. They have provided themselves in this department also with costly machinery of the latest and most approved type, and have the satisfaction of knowing by a constantly increasing trade that their efforts to meet the market are approved. The corporate mark of the firm, granted in 1789, is XL ALL. This stamped on any goods sent out, is accepted as a reliable indication of superior and uniform quality. The firm are contractors to the War Office, Admiralty and India Offices.

Extensive and varied stocks are held which have been selected with an intimate knowledge of the trade and a close acquaintance with the wants of buyers. They embrace all the leading lines in many choice varieties, together with a fine display of new and attractive patterns. All orders intrusted to this responsible house receive the most careful attention, and satisfaction in every respect is fully guaranteed. The connection is large and influential, a valuable trade being done with all the principal towns in Great Britain. Travellers are kept constantly on the road, and agents are stationed in London, Glasgow, and Bristol. The partners are men of extended experience in every branch of their business, and their able and energetic personal supervision is bestowed upon the concern in its entirety. They occupy a prominent position in trade and commercial circles, and in private life are respected as enterprising and successful business men, of marked ability and inflexible integrity. Mr. William Parkin is an active and influential participant in all matters of public interest, and is a member of the Sheffield School Board as well as honorary secretary of the Wesley College, Sheffield.
The telegraphic address of the house is “Cutlery, Sheffield,” the telephone numbers are Sheffield, 103; National, 363.

Since the above account of the works of Messrs» Parkin & Marshall was written we have been informed that, with a view to concentration of their business and to afford increased facilities for making quick delivery of their goods, they have entirely removed their business from the premises where it had been carried on for more than one hundred and twenty years. They are now in a position to complete the various articles of their manufacture on their own premises, which is of very great advantage alike to themselves and their correspondents.


Mr. William Dixon, who had previously had many years’ experience m most responsible positions with leading firms in Sheffield, started his present business in the year 1864, and has since then won that success which ever attends the persevering, energetic, and capable business man. The works and offices of the firm are situate some little distance from Sheffield, and from their surroundings and arrangements present as picturesque and rural an appearance as can ever be presented by an establishment where work such as they are engaged in is carried on. The business done as tilters, forgers, and manufacturers of shear-steel is a very large one. Messrs. Dixon & Sons’ previous employment and experience have given them a thorough knowledge of the trade, with the result that it is a rapidly improving and growing one, and that the house bids fair to win for themselves a position which shall be second to none in the business in which they are engaged.


The important company which is carrying on the business of Messrs. Askham Bros. & Wilson under the Limited Liability Acts had its origin in the firm which was founded, some twenty-five years ago, by Messrs. John and Phillip Unwin Askham, the two brothers whose relationship is imported into the style of the business. Mr. Wilson was subsequently admitted to partnership, and eventually the principle of limited liability was adopted as the financial basis of the firm. Happily the two gentlemen whose names give the company its title continue to take the most active interest in its welfare. The premises of the Yorkshire Steel and Engineering Works in Napier Street and Soho Street are very spacious, covering an area of about two and a half acres, a bird’s-eye view of which, as shown above, discloses a small town of foundries, casting-shops machinery and ironworkers’ shops, all thronged with industrial life. The suite of general and private offices are well appointed, and furnished with all the requisites for facilitating the conduct of an extensive commercial correspondent, such as is entailed by the widely spread business relations of the company. The registered telegraphic address is: “Askham, Sheffield,” and their trade-marks are the stag and dolphin.

The industrial departments are throughout fitted up with machinery and mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type, driven by powerful steam-engines of recent construction. Everything, indeed, which the matured experience of the principals could suggest, and which a wise expenditure of capital could command, has been provided, to save time and labour in the several industrial operations. The economies thus effected are so material that, while they enable the company to execute all their manufacturing work under the best possible conditions, they are at the same time placed in a position to quote prices which are most favourable to the purchaser, for goods of the best material and the highest class of workmanship. The company have gained the best reputation in the markets of the world, protected by their trade-marks, for their productions of mining drill steel, special tool steel, and double shear, crucible steel castings, to any size and weight, also contractors’ and platelayers’ tools, and have been awarded first honours at the most important exhibitions.

The Company are likewise the manufacturers of a number of specialities, consisting of stone breakers, crushing and separating machinery, disintegrators, pulverisers, wrought-iron-cased elevators, with chain or belting, and malleable and stamped steel buckets, either plain, turned, or galvanised, which are largely used in this country by manufacturers of cement, lime, phosphates, bones, artificial manures, chemical crystals, charcoal, coal, coke, patent fuel, fullers’ earth, fireclay, and all kinds of material requiring reduction and separation to a fine powder. The company also manufacture patent dust-proof machinery for reducing material to an impalpable powder, such as mica, and patent machinery for treating superphosphates direct from the den. A further speciality of the company is their gold-mining machinery, which is a most economical and effective plant, the advantages of which consist in the small cost at which a complete plant can be erected, and the economy of power as compared with other methods. The working parts, being interchangeable, are easily replaced, and an important advantage is a considerable saving of labour, and cost of transit in mining districts abroad. They are likewise the owners and sole manufacturers of Mumford & Moodie’s patent separator, which, briefly described, is an apparatus self-contained, wherein a current of air circulating continuously through a descending stream of ground material, separates the finer particles from the coarser, the core or tailings being returned to the pulveriser, millstones, or other grinding machinery to be re-ground. It can be adjusted to produce, at one operation, a finished material of almost any degree of fineness, requiring no settling or stive rooms. This machine is most simple, there being no bruches, sieves, clothing, or wearing parts to get out of order. A most important advantage in using this machine is that it is dust-proof in working, thus avoiding the deleterious effect upon the health of the workmen which attends the working of all other methods of separation.

In another class of industry they make specialities of such general utility as tramway material, such as crucible steel points and crossings, having patterns for every section of rails. Their patent sole plates and heel plates are universally used, and they number amongst the lines they have equipped ail the chief tramway companies in Great Britain, South America, and the Colonies. The commercial relations of the company, which are constantly increasing, extend to all parts of the world. The Messrs. Askham carefully supervise all the details of the several producing departments, and thus offer a practical guarantee, which is much valued in the trade, for the excellence of all the goods which are sent out of the Yorkshire Steel and Engineering Works. These gentlemen are personally well known in the highest engineering circles in the country, each being a member of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, and are held in general esteem.


The importance of Sheffield as a seat of manufacturing industry in England is nowhere more strikingly or more conclusively attested than at the vast electro works of Messrs. Walker & Hall. This distinguished house has been in existence about half a century, and it holds the honoured position of being the pioneer in the great art-industry with which its name is associated, the electro-deposition of gold and silver. One has only to reflect for a moment upon the universal use of electro-plate at the present day to understand what a mighty trade was originated in Sheffield some fifty years ago, when the business here under notice was inaugurated by its founder, Mr. George Walker, who was soon after joined by Mr. Henry Hall, both of whom are now deceased. George Walker, the actual founder, has left behind him a name that is never likely to be forgotten in Sheffield, and few men, even in Yorkshire, have displayed such talent, energy, and natural ability in raising themselves from a comparatively humble station in life through tenaciously working out a new invention. Certainly it falls to the lot of very few men to start so huge an industry as that of electro-plating at Sheffield, and the success he achieved in developing and improving this wonderful trade stands as convincing testimony to Mr. George Walker’s rare capabilities. Starting as a working cutler, and at the scanty wage of fifteen shillings per week maintaining himself, his mother, and two children, George Walker little knew that he was destined to be a leader in the great and entirely new industry of depositing gold and silver upon metal wares by means of electricity. He soon showed a desire to advance himself by the acquirement of technical knowledge, and in his eagerness to learn something beyond the craft to which he had been brought up, he early exhibited those traits of character — industry, application, and an indomitable resolution to make progress — which have distinguished nearly everyone who, like himself, has proved his claim to be ranked among the unassuming great men of the country.

After preparing his mind by reading such books as he could obtain, George Walker sought in earnest for the acquirement of practical knowledge, and to this end he petitioned to be admitted to the electrical classes then conducted by Mr. Branson, surgeon, who, we believe, still lives at Baslow, Derbyshire, at a very advanced age. This request was acceded to, and Walker’s instruction was to be paid for by his personal services in cleaning and keeping in order the various apparatus used for the class experiments. Mr. Wright, surgeon, of Attercliffe (then a suburb, now a part, of Sheffield), who was ultimately the inventor of electro-plating, selected George Walker to assist him in his development of the discovery, advancing his wages to twenty-five shillings per week. These two laboured so successfully together that eventually they brought into a practicable condition the great invention which was to add beauty and durability to countless articles of daily use, and to provide a means of livelihood for thousands of workpeople, nearly one thousand being employed by Walker & Hall. After leaving Sheffield for a time to perfect his knowledge, George Walker returned and entered into an engagement to work for a capitalist, but, disagreeing with his employer, he commenced operations on his own account. Being joined by Mr. Henry Hall, the two partners entered earnestly into their work, and after many nights and days of study, thought, and labour, they eventually succeeded in perfecting the art of electro-plating.

The disappointments George Walker endured were such as are inseparable from the lot of anyone who essays to develop a new idea or create a new industry. Many a time he had to persuade manufacturers to try once more his great invention, and on all such occasions he had to combat the most stubborn unbelief. Many a time the capricious silver would not adhere in the process of depositing, but fell off in flakes, or granulated into real silver sand. Many a time the solution decomposed, or deposited so roughly as to make the work far too expensive. But perseverantia omnia vincit [perseverance conquers all], and in the end success was the crown of unremitting labour. Before he died George Walker had the joy and satisfaction of seeing the art attain its present perfection, and also of seeing the firm of his prime creation achieve its position among the largest and most celebrated concerns of its kind in the world.

It is gratifying to know that this vast business remains in the hands of Mr. Hall’s nephews, men who are in every respect qualified to conduct it upon lines worthy of its founder, and who have not only maintained, but have also considerably enhanced its worldwide reputation by their zeal, energy, and technical skill. The present senior partner, Colonel John E. Bingham, J.P., entered the business at the age of sixteen, and has advanced step by step through all its grades to his present position as the senior of the concern, and is now, we believe, the oldest master electro-plater living. With him are now associated in co-partnership his brother, Mr. Charles Henry Bingham, and his son Captain Albert E. Bingham. The coming of age of the last-named gentleman was celebrated in November, 1889, by a dinner upon a remarkably large scale, at which Colonel Bingham entertained all the employes and many friends of the firm. The occasion was one of great and justifiable rejoicing, and was marked by a number of speeches in which the principals of the firm and the foremen of the several departments gave interesting reminiscences of the electro-plating trade and of the distinguished part their house has played in its origin and development. Reports of these speeches and of the proceedings in general were subsequently collected from the press and re-issued by the firm as a memento of the auspicious occasion, in the form of a neat little brochure adorned with a portrait of the junior partner.

With regard to the industrial operations of Messrs. Walker & Hall, they have developed at a rate which must have far exceeded even the most hopeful expectations of those interested in the progress of the concern. At first the attention of the house was wholly confined to electro-deposition for the manufacturers of plated wares, &c., in Sheffield and other towns; but after due consideration, Messrs. Walker & Hall commenced to manufacture on their own account, though they continue this department of electro-plating for the trade. So greatly has their industry increased and prospered since then that the weight of silver they now deposit upon their own goods far exceeds that which was ever deposited by them in former times for the united trade of the whole of Sheffield, London, and other towns. The present senior partner joined the concern when it mustered some twenty hands — to-day, the firm have in their employ nearly 1,000 workpeople, and their huge establishment, the result of many and frequent enlargements, is now one of the sights of Sheffield, particularly at night time, when its hundreds of close-set windows, emitting a ray of light from within, present a very brilliant and striking scene indeed.

It would be impossible in this brief sketch to speak in detail of the many departments of these great electro works. It must suffice to say that they are probably unsurpassed in plan, equipment, and general working resources, and that they exhibit a completeness and perfection of organization which may be fairly attributed to the broad experience and sound practical ability brought to bear by the present principals and their managers upon the general development of the business. All the machinery in use is of the most improved and effective type, and every process of the industry is carried out under the most favourable conditions, each department being managed by a trusted and experienced foreman, and supervised by the partners. Messrs. Walker & Hall manufacture every class, not only of electro-plate, but also of solid silver ware and table cutlery. Among their specialities may be mentioned such goods as epergnes and presentation plate, prize cups, shields, trophies of every description, mugs, &c., tea and coffee services and kettles, dish covers, meat and venison dishes, revolving soup tureens, and entree dishes, tea trays and waiters, cruet frames, liquor and egg frames, biscuit and sardine boxes, dessert and fish-eating knives and forks, fruit spoons, nutcracks, fish carvers, salad bowls and servers, steel table cutlery, general case goods, novelties, etc. Spoons and forks are a very special product of this noted house, and are turned out in patterns and qualities calculated to meet the most exacting requirements.

In all the above-mentioned specialities the firm maintain a standard of merit which is quite unsurpassed, and they hold very large stocks of the various goods, the exquisite design and finish of which may be seen to advantage in the warehouses and showrooms at the works, or at any of the firm’s branches. The general quality of each article is attested by the presence of the trade-mark of the house, a banner bearing the letters “W & H.” It will be observed that the present principals prefer to perpetuate the memory of the founder of the house and his partner Mr. Hall by retaining the old firm’s name and trade-mark. Messrs Walker & Hall have the highest awards it has been possible to gain at every exhibition, with one exception, which their goods have been placed in competition.

The firm now have in their possession a piece of plate partly made by royal hands, this interesting memento being the outcome of the late Prince Albert Victor’s visit to their works when he opened the Sheffield Handicraft Exhibition in 1885. That exhibition, which proved of great advantage to the trades of Sheffield, we may remark, was inaugurated by Colonel J. E. Bingham, who has twice been elected to the distinguished post of Master Cutler of Sheffield. Colonel Bingham is the popular and esteemed commander of the 1st West York Volunteers, Royal Engineers, and he is also a Justice of the Peace for the Borough of Sheffield. He and his co-partners are greatly respected in the town, not only as the heads of a great business concern whose trade extends all over the world, but also as gentlemen who have ever taken an active and beneficial interest in the welfare of Sheffield, its people, and its industries. The frequent presentations made to the partners of this great firm by their workpeople, testify to the good will which always has been and still continues to be one of the chief pleasures of the principals’ business relationship with their managers, foremen, and all in their service. Another proof of this good feeling is shown by the fact that the firm has recently propounded an old-age and long-service pension scheme which has been commented upon by all the leading papers in the country. The following extract from the “Times” briefly states the details of this scheme:- “Messrs Walker & Hall, electro-platers of Sheffield, have just brought forward a scheme which will secure provision for their employes after a certain period of service. On Monday evening the workpeople employed by the firm assembled in the yard of the manufactory and were addressed by Mr. J. E. Bingham, who explained the scheme. It is to be under the management of a committee, consisting of eight persons, four to be appointed by the heads of the firm and four by the workpeople. In order to receive benefit a man or woman must have been in the employ of the firm for twenty-one years, without interruption, and must either be permanently incapacitated, or have attained the age of sixty-five. After twenty-one years’ service the men will receive 8s. 6d. and the women 4s. 3d.; after twenty-five years’ service, 10s. and 5s.; after thirty years’, 15s. and 7s. 6d.; and after forty years’, 17s. 6d. and 8s. 9d. The workpeople, it may be mentioned, will not be called upon to contribute to the scheme in any way. Fifty-three persons employed by the firm are already entitled to benefit under the scheme, and it was stated by one of the partners that an employe who entered the service of the firm at fourteen would be eligible at the age of thirty-five. The workpeople present spoke very favourably of the scheme.”

In conclusion we may say that Messrs. Walker & Hall have branch establishments at the following addresses 45, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C.; 24 to 34, Paradise Street, Liverpool; 3, Fountain Street, Manchester; 8, Gordon Street, Glasgow; 17, South St. Andrew Street, Edinburgh; and Little Collins Street, Melbourne.
Their telegraphic addresses are:— “Bingham,” Sheffield, and “Flag Mark,” London.


This important industry was established twenty-five years ago by Messrs. James Benjamin and William Swift, who each took an active share in the industrial and commercial business of the firm until a few months ago, when the successful fraternal partnership was sadly interrupted by the decease of Mr. William Swift. The firm now consists, therefore, of his surviving brothers, under whose able control the business continues to exhibit its normal tendency to expansion. The Owlerton Rolling Mills are very extensive, comprising an area of about an acre, and affording every facility for the processes of rolling, tilting, &c. At Loxley, again, the Storrs Bridge establishment, belonging to the firm, comprises extensive steel-works. The magnitude of the firm’s operations is such that they are at all times in a position to cope with unusually large demands suddenly arising in the metal markets. In the several departments of their two industrial establishments they employ a staff which numbers not less than a hundred and forty hands, and includes many experts of high technical skill. The suite of£ well-appointed general and private offices are furnished with telephonic communication, and all the other necessary appliances of scientific device for facilitating the large amount of clerical work required by the numerous and important transactions of the firm. They are noted amongst the other excellent characteristics of the equipment of their establishments for the exceptionally fine breed of cart-horses which they always keep for the conveyance of the heavy commodities in which they deal. The Messrs. Swift are personally well known throughout the leading industrial and commercial circles of the district, where they are highly esteemed for the high principles and the spirit of liberality by which all their transactions are animated.


This eminent house was founded in the year 1846, under the title of Joel & Sons, and about twenty years ago it came into the hands of its present proprietors, Messrs. Leadbeater & Scott, who erected the fine works now occupied in Penistone Road. These premises, which cover a very large area of ground, were built expressly for the firm’s business, and are admirably adapted to all its requirements. They have a long and handsome frontage of offices and. warehouses, and at the rear stand the various spacious buildings incidental to the industry carried on, with casting-furnaces, moulding-shops, and a valuable plant of modern machinery of the most improved type. There is a large outfit of special apparatus for wire-drawing and the making of steel, spokes, and tools used in the manufacture of bicycles, tricycles, &c.

As general steel converters and refiners Messrs. Leadbeater & Scott maintain a most eminent reputation, and among the many manufactures for which they are justly famous are cast-steel files of the best quality, spring and Bessemer steel, cast steel, shear and blister steel, saws, hammers, picks, shovels, screwing tackle, steel wire for all purposes, sheet steel, and smiths’ tools of every description. The special tough spokes for bicycles, &c., are prepared by a secret process, and combine high tensile and torsional strains in a remarkable degree. Steel and rims for pneumatic and cushion tyres are also among the specialities of this house, and Messrs. Leadbeater & Scott’s superfine cast steel for all kinds of machines and tools is famous both in this country and abroad.

The several departments of the works in Penistone Road are in a state of splendid practical organisation, and the whole establishment gives regular employment to a very large staff of skilled workmen. Messrs. Leadbeater & Scott control an enormous home trade, and also export largely to many of the principal markets abroad, including those of the Continent and Australia. No house in the trade enjoys a higher reputation for productions of standard worth and excellence, and in every way that reputation is most adequately sustained. Mr. Leadbeater, the senior partner, has had an especially broad and comprehensive experience in manufactures of steel and iron, and he takes the active management of the business, which is undoubtedly one of the largest and most important concerns of its kind in the country.


This widely known and thoroughly typical firm was founded about forty years ago by the late Mr. Brookes, and the business is now continued very successfully, under the old title, by the surviving partner, Mr. Crookes, in conjunction with his two sons. For the past thirty-four years the firm have had their headquarters at the present address, and their large premises here, known as the Atlantic Works, form one of the most extensive and best organised industrial establishments in Sheffield. They comprise several large and lofty blocks of buildings, well arranged and admirably equipped throughout, and here the firm employ about one hundred and fifty highly skilled workmen in all branches of high-class cutlery manufacture, their leading lines being in spring knives, table-knives, razors, scissors, dressing-case instruments, &c., every blade of which is forged from the very finest steel for cutlery purposes. They have brought out many special articles that have gained a world-wide fame, and one of these is their celebrated explorer’s knife, a veritable multum in parvo, which has been named after Mr. H. M. Stanley, of Central African fame. One of these knives was sent to Mr. Stanley by the firm, and in acknowledging the receipt of it the explorer dilated at considerable length upon its merits, concluding with the words: “I think it a marvel of utility, for which accept my hearty thanks.” Other special knives for hunters, fishermen, sportsmen, smokers, florists, and others show that Messrs. Brookes & Crookes have prosecuted their enquiries very diligently in finding out the kind of article most likely to meet with favour in these connections, and the list has been further extended by the addition of the “Cartridge” knife, various smokers’ knives, and the “Triple-Action Guard Razor,” all of which have been eminently successful. Of ladies’ knives, penknives, office knives, razors, scissors, and many other articles of high-class cutlery, the variety produced by this noted house is almost infinite, and in the matter of quality and finish they are unexcelled by anything else of the same kind in the market.

For Messrs. Brookes & Crookes’ manufactures there is a great and constant demand in all parts of the world, and the firm’s trade is consequently one of great magnitude and widespread range, extending throughout the home markets, and, through the medium of shippers, to all the Colonies and foreign countries. Though every kind of first-class cutlery is here manufactured, it may be said that Messrs. Brookes & Crookes have their chief speciality in high- class pocket-knives. Their productions in this line have no superior anywhere, and are used daily by royalty and by every section of the community capable of properly appreciating an article which is alike perfect in design, material, and workmanship.

The firm under notice have gained high honours at the great international exhibitions—notably at London (1862), Paris (1867), Vienna (1873), Philadelphia (1876), Paris (1878), Brussels (1880), and Calcutta (1883-4); and few firms have done so much to maintain the honour and renown of Sheffield as the greatest centre in the world for the production of cutlery of absolutely the first quality and workmanship. Messrs. Brookes & Crookes are held in high esteem and confidence in the trade, and under the able administration of Mr. Thomas Crookes and his two experienced sons, the house bids fair to hold its eminent position as worthily as ever for many years to come.


The patent compensating pistons of Messrs. William Buckley & Co. are so well known throughout the engineering world, and their use is so rapidly increasing, that a few notes with reference to the headquarters of the firm will be of general interest. This notable industry, the chief outcome of which has been the celebrated compensating metallic piston, was established about twenty-seven years ago, by Mr. William Buckley, who continues to hold all the proprietorial rights in the works, as well as in the patent rights which he has secured. The premises at Millsands are very extensive, consisting of a large and commodious engineering shop, furnished with first-class tools, and contiguous is a large building comprising a foundry and pattern-making shop, in which are produced castings of steel, iron, and brass required in the industry. The business gives employment to a large number of hands.

Buckley’s piston has so thoroughly recommended itself to the engineering world, as well as to owners of steam-engines in general, that already more than twenty-three thousand of these valuable appliances are in use. The list of firms in Lancashire and Yorkshire to whom references may be made as to their practical experience of Buckley’s pistons includes the names of the leading engineering houses as well as of a great many eminent textile manufacturers in these counties. The reasons for the remarkable popularity of this useful invention are numerous. It is simple in construction, self-adjusting, and by its use steam tightness is effected with the least amount of friction; in many cases the first cost has been saved in three months by the reduced consumption of fuel alone. It is adaptable to all stationary, marine, locomotive, and blowing purposes, and especially to the purposes of steam vessels going long voyages. The packing rings and spring are adapted to ordinary pistons now in use.

In addition to the piston above described the firm have recently patented further improvements, which are equal to the high steam pressure and high speed of to-day. Messrs. William Buckley & Co. are also the patentees and makers of a piston rod support, which has just been placed on the market. By its application the weight of the piston and rod is supported and they are maintained in a suspended position in the cylinder, and the wearing down of the piston and the wear on the bottom of the cylinder and glands is prevented. It thus removes one of the principal objections to horizontal engines, and by its use increased power is obtained, which features will be fully appreciated by all parties interested in engines and engineering. The firm are also patentees and sole makers of an improved lathe which they have recently introduced. This, we may remark, is a decided advance on anything of the kind hitherto brought before the public. Right speed can be obtained for any diameter it will take in; it will take off double the amount of cut than any ordinary lathe, and it will take as large a cut off large diameters as it will off small diameters. It is extraordinarily strong in all its parts. All the material used in its construction is of the very best; the wheels are of steel, machine cut, and the workmanship is of the best, in addition to which all its parts are made to Whitworth’s standard gauges. Mr. Buckley is personally well known in engineering circles, and is highly esteemed as an accomplished mechanical engineer, as well as on account of his excellent social qualities.


The business of this firm was established in 1873 by the late Mr. John Dewhurst, and is now carried on by Mr. John H. Dewhurst, with the assistance of Mr. George Longden. The range of business done by the firm is a very wide one, and extensive premises are necessary in which to carry it on. These the firm possess in the shape of a large three-storeyed building, two large shops, with show-rooms and workshop at the rear, containing many specimens of engines, boilers, and machinery. Here also is the depot for the Patent Exhaust Steam Injector, and other mechanical inventions of the firm, including the improved wrought-iron, solid, or split pulleys. The exhaust injector is an instrument specially designed to utilise exhaust steam, and by means of the smallest possible quantity of cold water the largest possible quantity of exhaust steam is condensed, and put back into the boiler without the aid of any other power than the exhaust steam itself. It can be attached to any class of non-condensing engine, and its application invariably increases the power of the engine and boilers. The saving in fuel and water is very marked, and seldom shows less than fifteen per cent.; generally, however, it is nearly twenty-five per cent. This and the solid and the Dodge Independence Split-Wood Pulleys may be said to be the firm’s specialities.

In the engineering department there is hardly any engineering or mechanical requirement that the firm are not makers of and dealers in. In the indiarubber and leather department the stock of the firm is similarly complete, and the firm are the sole proprietors of the Monarch and the Standard Self-lubricating Engine Hammer and Pump Packing, and other patent packings. In leather bands for machinery a very large trade is done, and a very extensive stock of all descriptions and widths is kept. As oil, tallow, and grease merchants the firm do an extensive business. As Consulting engineers Messrs. Dewhurst & Son are at all times ready to advise professionally as to the best and most economical means of obtaining motive power to indicate engines, and also to supply plans, specifications, and tenders for new and second-hand engines, boilers, pumps, hammers, and machinery. They also undertake the inspection of engines, boilers, and machinery during construction, give estimates for the erection thereof, and for repairs. In this branch of their business they have secured a large connection, and the value of their experienced advice is appreciated by a large and growing circle of clients, with whom a very large business has for a long time past been carried on, and this business, it is gratifying to state, continues to progress in a manner most satisfactory to all concerned.

National Telephone No.427.

Organised in the year 1879, by its present able and energetic proprietor, the commercial development of this representative business has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement; and doubtless the most effectual way in which to indicate its true character, scope, and aims would be to give a concise descriptive account of the establishment as it now obtains, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. The premises occupied are most eligibly located, and consist of a large and substantial three- storeyed building, the ground floor of which forms a spacious well- appointed double-fronted shop; while on the first floor there are capitally-arranged show-rooms, and a well-equipped workshop at the rear of the premises. The display of articles in all branches of the trade is exceptionally good, and the premises, as a whole, have a very elegant and superior appearance. Furnishing ironmongery and gas fittings form important features; also, all classes of goods appertaining to domestic use, culinary purposes, &c. A large trade is, moreover, done in all goods incidental to building ironmongery and kindred industrial branches, and tools for all trades are always prominently en evidence. Mr. Crapper, moreover, operates on a large scale in every branch of repairs, tinsmithry, and the like, and is assisted by a staff of well-trained hands. In every department of the business high-class quality is made a sine qua non; and it is largely due to this fact that. Mr. Crapper has become so popular and that such an extensive and thriving business has been developed.


This old-established and influential firm dates back upwards of a century, and after sundry changes came into the possession of Mr. Henry Godfrey Long, after whose death (about thirty years ago) the business was continued under the successive titles of Wragg, Long & Co., Long, Gregory & Co., Long, Son & Hawkesey, and Long, Hawksley & Marples. For the past twenty years the title of Long, Hawksley & Co. has obtained, and this style is still adhered to by the present principals. The firm’s output is very large and varied, embracing table and dessert knives and carvers, butchers’ and cooks’’ knives, Long’s celebrated farriers’ knives, pen and pocket knives in great variety, pruning and budding knives, razors and razor strops, scissors and scissor sheaths, Long’s well-known handsaws and backsaws, files, edge tools, joiners’ tools, garden shears, electro-plated spoons and forks, electro-plated tea and coffee sets, electro-plated cruet frames, &c.

Their “corporate mark” [shield and crossed swords] is known in all quarters as a guarantee of merit. The Hallamshire Works are among the largest industrial establishments in Sheffield, and have lately been considerably extended to meet the requirements of a constantly increasing trade. In all departments they are admirably equipped and effectually organised. In every instance the goods manufactured by this representative firm are of a quality and finish that have nothing to fear from comparison with the best products of the Sheffield trade, and it is worthy of remark that extensive stocks are always held in the warehouses at the Hallamshire Works, so that Messrs. Long, Hawksley & Co. are enabled to fulfil any urgent orders sent in with all desirable promptitude.


This notable house originated in the year 1833, the founders being Messrs. Samuel & Charles Wardlow, and they carried, on the business with marked success for many years. The original partners were succeeded by their sons, and eventually, in 1892, the business came into the hands of Mr. Marmaduke Wardlow, son of the late Mr. Charles Wardlow, one of the founders. Mr. M. Wardlow is now the sole proprietor of this flourishing concern, but he retains the old title, and trades as S. & C. Wardlow, a name which is known in almost every quarter of the globe in which Sheffield manufactures are to be found. The Portobello Steel Works are of very large extent and most complete equipment, and in addition to these premises the firm have a large establishment, with rolling-mills, tilts, and forges, situated at Oughtibridge, and known as the Congress Steel Works. Messrs. S. & C. Wardlow are manufacturers of all kinds of crucible cast steel for pen and pocket cutlery, scissors, razors, &c., also best cast; steel for turning tools, cold chisels, punches, &c., as well as shear steel, blister and spring steel, and best cast steel for taps, dies, drills, &c., &c. The special steel produced by this firm for turning tools and chilled rolls is in large and constant demand, and shares very largely in the high reputation that attaches to all productions associated with the name of Wardlow. The house Controls a widespread and influential trade with valuable connections in the home and export markets, and has an American branch office and store at 95, John Street, New York, where a large business is done annually in the best qualities of cast steel.


Founded upwards of half a century ago, the house of Messrs. Burys & Co., Limited, has had a very successful career, and its prosperity in recent years has been promoted by the application of the principle of limited liability to its management. Mr. Thomas Brown is the able and experienced secretary and manager of the company, and its widespread trading operations receive his careful personal supervision. The Regent Works and Philadelphia Rolling Mills cover about six acres of ground, and possess a most complete plant, the machinery and appliances being all of the best modern type. Recently the company have added a steel-foundry to their establishment, so that they are in a position to produce steel castings from the crucible for all the varied purposes to which such castings are now applied. The works in their entirety are among the most perfectly organised establishments of the kind in England, and the extent of their resources is such that they are capable of turning out one hundred and fifty tons of finished steel per week.

The goods manufactured by Messrs. Burys & Co., limited, consist chiefly of the following:—crucible cast steel, double and single shear steel, blister steel, spring steel, Bessemer steel in bars and sheets, rolled, tilted, and forged in special and suitable tempers for all purposes. Also crucible steel castings, files and rasps of all kinds cut entirely by hand; light and heavy edge tools for carpenters, coopers, joiners, millwrights, &c., carving tools, sheep shears, scythes, machine knives for paper and tobacco manufacturers; improved goucher pattern rolled-steel beater plates, rake-teeth steel, plough plates, chaff knives, reaper sections, &c., for agricultural purposes; engineers’ hand tools, hammers of every description, saws, patent picks for road making and railway works, forged circular pieces for milling cutters, forged steel spanners, Ripley & Wormald’s tube wrench and universal spanner, patent steel card-room cans. For the above-named productions Messrs. Burys & Co., Limited, have gained a high reputation both at home and abroad, and as steel manufacturers generally they stand in the very front rank. Indeed, they invite enquiries from those desirous of applying steel to special purposes for which iron has hitherto been used. They have gained numerous medals at the leading exhibitions, among their most important awards in this respect being the gold medal at Paris, 1867 and 1878; the silver medal at Paris, 1855; the gold medal at Paris, 1875; and the gold medal at Cape Town, 1877. They have also been awarded the gold medal of the last Paris Exhibition (1889).

Over seven hundred hands are employed at Messrs. Burys & Co.’s great works, and the trade carried on is unquestionably one of the largest of its kind in the kingdom. Its operations are world-wide, and the connection in all markets is of the most influential character. In every respect the business of this company is a gigantic one, and the manner in which its affairs are administered reflects the highest credit upon Mr. Brown, the manager, and his colleagues. We may add that the company have a Paris establishment at 68, Rue des Marais, Boulevard Magenta, and London at 33, Gracechurch Street, E.C.


The above business was founded in, 1883 by Mr. Woollen, who had previously many years’ practical experience in every branch of the art. The firm occupy very extensive and commodious premises, which comprise spacious and handsome double shop and show-rooms, situated in the centre of the town. The premises also contain well-equipped work-rooms, offices, and every convenience for the successful working of a large and increasing business. Messrs. Woollen & Co. give employment to a large staff of skilled and experienced hands, and amongst the various departments of the industry may be mentioned sign and glass writing, gilding and embossing, the production of stylish window-tickets and show-cards of every description, large gilded wood letters for works, shop fronts, sky signs, &c. Of these they are the largest makers in the provinces, brass and glass door and window plates, wire blinds, glass screens, &c.; silk and cloth banners for societies, Sunday schools, &c., artistic hand-painted posters, illuminated signs, rubber stamps, stencil- plates, &c. In the show-rooms are many splendid specimens of work which well display in beauty and originality of design, elegance, and accuracy in every detail of execution the superior skill and talent employed in this establishment. Mr. Woollen is a thoroughly practical workman; every department of the business receives his strict personal attention, and throughout it is conducted with that commendable spirit of enterprise and energy which are so eminently characteristic of the tradesmen of this busy town and district. We are informed Messrs. Woollen & Co. claim to have made more gilded wood letters and white enamelled copper letters within the space of twelve months than all the other letter-makers in the district combined have made in their lifetime. Anyone after seeing the numerous important contracts they have executed in all parts of the country, cannot help being struck with the fact of the tremendous headway this firm have made in their business in a comparatively short space of time.


This old and distinguished house was founded as far back as the year 1795 by Mr. Joseph Fenton, and was for a long time carried on at headquarters in Scotland Street. About twenty years ago, however, a move was made to the present address, where the premises occupied are much larger, besides being of more modern construction. These works, in fact, are among the most extensive and commodious in Sheffield, and are so planned and organised as to meet ail the requirements of the great industry to which they are devoted. They comprise a very large block of three-storey buildings, having stock warehouses, show-rooms, and well-appointed offices on the ground floor. At the rear there are several spacious blocks of workshops for forging, grinding, buffing, polishing, finishing, and many other processes incidental to the manufacture of superior cutlery. These all contain plant and machinery of the most elaborate and effective character for the several purposes referred to, and the motive power (steam) is supplied from large engine and boiler houses close by.

The three principal departments of Messrs. Fenton’s business consist in table-knives, pocket-knives, and files, and for each of these departments there are separate warehouses, containing an enormous and most comprehensive stock, and controlled by a manager and a staff of assistants. The workshops which supply these department» are also kept distinct from each other, and similarly careful and exact organisation is met with in all parts of the works, the system tending to ensure the utmost smoothness and best progress in the routine of the entire establishment. Messrs. Joseph Fenton & Sons employ from three hundred to four hundred hands all told, and they manufacture very largely in medium and high-class qualities of goods. They rank as one of the oldest existent firms in Sheffield’s great industry, and their productions have long enjoyed an unsurpassed reputation in all the leading markets.

Every article produced by Messrs. Fenton & Sons bears the corporate mark of the house (a Maltese cross, with the letters W W reversed), which mark was granted in 1796, and which demonstrates the genuineness of any piece of cutlery bearing its imprint. Messrs. Fenton’s trade has increased continuously from the first, and it now extends not only throughout the whole of the United Kingdom, but also to Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Africa, China, and various British Colonies, the firm exporting largely to these countries through shippers and special agents. The trade with Ireland is particularly important and well developed, and Messrs. Fenton have numerous travellers and representatives in the chief Irish districts, as well as in Great Britain. All the affairs of the business are administered with conspicuous skill and enterprise, and the house continues to enjoy the respect and confidence of one of the most valuable connections in the trade. The present co-partners are Mr. Thomas Fenton, Mr. George Cornu, and Mr. J. T. Roberts. These gentlemen possess a thorough knowledge of the cutlery trade in all its details, and by their constant energy and the influence of their large practical experience, they have made their house more than ever one of the leading exponents of the great industry with which it has been so long and so honourably associated.


Among the representative industrial firms of Sheffield none holds a higher position in connection with the town’s great steel, file, and tool manufactures than that of Messrs. James Howarth & Sons, of the Broomspring Works. This old and noted house originated as far back as the year 1835, when the late Mr. James Howarth, senior, and Mr. Henry Taylor commenced business as edge-tool manufacturers under the title of Taylor & Howarth. This partnership lasted for seven years, and then Mr. Howarth became sole proprietor of the concern. Having been trained in the practical departments of the trade from his boyhood Mr. Howarth was fully qualified to develop the business, which he did with a degree of energy, skill, and integrity that soon brought him into prominence. He had to contend against heavy competition, but perseverance and industry enabled him to win a place in the ranks of the leaders of the trade, and that position his house continues to maintain. Indeed, at the present day, Messrs. James Howarth & Son stand second to no firm in Sheffield as steel melters and refiners, manufacturers of every description of cast, shear, blister, mining, spring and sheet steel, and makers of superior qualities of edge tools, joiners’ tools, files, hammers, saws, skates, augers, hoes, rakes, bill-hooks, and all manner of farmers’ and garden tools.

The firm’s file and tool works are situated in Bath Street, while the steel department is in Eyre Street. The works in their entirety are of considerable extent and excellent organisation, and rank among the busiest and most interesting establishments in Sheffield. Employment is given to several hundreds of hands, and these include many of the most skilful workmen in the district. Messrs. Howarth’s goods are known and esteemed in all parts of the world, and are characterised by a remarkably high order of excellence in quality and finish, which standard is maintained with the greatest care and conscientiousness. The firm have gained notable honours in international competition, especially at the great exhibitions of London, 1851 and 1862, and Paris, 1855. The Universal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Industry specially reported on Mr. Howarth’s goods at the Paris Exhibition, and awarded him their first-class prize medal for the excellency of his tools. This compliment was the more highly appreciated by its recipient inasmuch as it was not accorded to any other British manufacturer of edge tools. Mr. Howarth was also, at the same time, elected a vice-president of the society.

Messrs. Howarth’s registered tri-cut hand files for brass, copper, and gun-metal are a speciality, by which greater truth combined with higher finish can be obtained than with the ordinary double-cut files, while the teeth being much higher, they are quicker in filing. These files are greatly esteemed by engineers, brassfounders, &c. Messrs. James Howarth & Sons control a large home trade and some considerable export trade, principally with Canada, South Africa, Australia, &c., and their business is most capably and energetically managed under the personal supervision of the principals, Messrs. James, Samuel, Edwin, and John Charles Howarth, sons of the late Mr. James Howarth, all of whom possess a complete practical knowledge of the trade, and take an active part in its further development. The Messrs. Howarth are held in the highest respect by their many employes, with whom they maintain very cordial relations, and they are equally esteemed for their honourable and straightforward business principles and for the worthy manner in which they sustain the distinguished reputation their house has so long enjoyed, at home and abroad.


The valuable connection which is now enjoyed by Messrs. Williams Brothers, of Green Lane, as Brass Founders, Factors, and Importers, for the manufacture and sale of Sheffield goods of certain classes, began to be created twenty years ago by the two Brothers who founded the firm, and whose name formed the style under which they traded. It is still maintained, but the sole proprietor is now Mr. George Williams, who successfully maintains the best traditions of the house, and is constantly extending its commercial relations. The premises in Green Lane are now very commodious, and are about to be considerably enlarged, and have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the business; they consist of a large modern brass foundry, fitted up with every appliance requisite for the manufacture of mill, forge, and engine brasses, wagon axle brasses, and all kinds of brasses for machinery which now constitute one of the specialities of the firm; castings in brass, gun-metal, or phosphor bronze are turned out in any size from one pound up to one ton from the crucible.

The spacious warehouses and stock-rooms are well stored with enormous quantities of the commodities in which the firm regularly deal, and for the excellent qualities of which they have obtained their reputation in the markets. They include, amongst innumerable other articles, such specialities as patent wrought rose nails, wire nails, tram nails, clout nails, and all other varieties of wrought and cut nails. They dispose of large quantities of bolts and nuts, set screws, bolt ends, coach screws, washers, iron and brass wood screws, engineers’ and machine screws, &c.
The well-appointed general and private offices are fitted up with telephonic communications, and all the other appliances of modern inventions for facilitating the conduct of an extensive commercial correspondence such as is entailed by the numerous and widely spread transactions of the house. The registered telegraphic address is: “Williams, Sheffield,” the National Telephone number, 421.

A very important part, too, of Messrs. Williams Brothers’ business is the agency which they hold for the sale of the productions of the eminent firm of Messrs. John Knowles & Co., proprietors of the Derby Steel Pot Clay, whose headquarters are at Wooden Box, near Burton-on-Trent. Messrs. Williams Brothers also represent Messrs. John Knowles & Co. in their capacity as manufacturers of firebricks, lumps, tiles, &c. Mr. George Williams has a thorough practical knowledge of all the commodities in dealing with which the success of his firm has been made, and he bestows his careful personal supervision upon the details of all its departments. He is personally well known in the best commercial circles throughout the Sheffield district; and is much esteemed for his business aptitude and for the sterling integrity which characterises all the transactions of his firm.


A very large and important industry is carried on at the above-named works by Messrs. Winder Brothers, Limited, who have a wide reputation in the leading markets of the world as engineers, ironfounders and makers of chilled-iron rolls. This noted house was founded upwards of half a century ago by the late Mr. John H. Winder, father of the present principals, and the business then was principally devoted to the manufacture of engraving-steel. Mr. C. A. Winder was put to the engineering business, and when he commenced on his own account it was in a small way, in a portion of his father’s premises. Some twenty years ago the father retired, and Mr. C. A. Winder was joined by his brother, Mr. A. Winder, in the management of the joint business, under the style of Winder Brothers. Since those days the character of their productions has almost entirely changed, and instead of the steel making, as in the father’s days, being the more important department, it has given place to an engineering trade of a special and extensive description. The altered condition of things is due mainly, if not entirely, to the skill, and energy, and enterprise of Mr. C. A. Winder, who is an enthusiast in his profession; and he has devoted himself to the pursuit of it with an earnestness and perseverance seldom surpassed. His determination was to build up a business, and for certain specialities to make the name of Winder famous in the mechanical world. He has more than succeeded in what he under took.

For the past three years the business has been conducted On a limited liability basis. The company is, however, of a private nature, and the shares are not allowed to go on the market, being held almost entirely by the three proprietors. In 1889 Mr. A. Winder retired from active partnership, though he still retains his interest in the firm and is chairman of the board of directors. Mr. C. A. Winder was then joined by Mr. Walter J. Davy, son of Mr. Walters Davy, late chairman of Davy Brothers, Limited, engineers, of this town, and these two gentlemen are now the active managers of the concern. The Royds Works to-day take first rank for the production of all kinds of chilled rolls and similar goods, rotary, and other pumps. As makers of chilled rolls particularly, the firm occupy a highly-favoured position. For their manufacture they have put down special plant and machinery of their own designing, and for the hardness of the surface of these rolls and their high polish no other house in the trade can touch them. They are about to put down further plant for the manufacture of chilled rolls for flour-mills, also for chilled car-wheels, and other classes of chilled iron of a like description. Their chilled rolls are largely in use on the Continent as well as in the principal towns in England, where they have the reputation of being exceedingly hard on the face, and wherever used are preferred to any other make. They are also extensively used by paper-manufacturers. Some years ago it was generally believed that English manufacturers could not produce these rolls, but judging from the amount of trade this firm is doing all this is changed, and in this department the firm of Winder & Co. are decidedly in the van.

About three years ago the firm made considerable alterations and extensions to enable them to cope with the heavier class of trade, and they are now in a position to produce castings up to fifty tons weight; their appliances are entirely modern, and they are thus able to turn out their work with the greatest possible despatch. Mr. Winder, sen., was a steel-maker, but he had good notions on the subject of engineering, and he invented and patented a rotary pump, which grew in favour, and had a large sale. The original patent ran out some time ago, but Mr. C. A. Winder has introduced into it valuable improvements, notably new rotary pistons, and it has evidently entered upon a new and very vigorous lease of life. The pump has no valves, and has only two working parts. It has a positive action and slow speed, and is pronounced economical. It is particularly adapted for contractors, agriculturists, brewers, chemists, tanners, oil works, papermakers, and others, and is well adapted for raising sewage and other impure water, sludge, tar, and so on. Brewers find it valuable for pumping hot wort; and it will raise oil and varnish at five hundred degrees Fahr. without detriment to the pump. When needed for lifting turpentine, it is made entirely of brass, to prevent the spirit “flashing.” The firm have put down a number of complete pumping plants at different places, and at others simply the pumps, all of which have given satisfaction. It has been adopted by the Metropolitan Board of Works, and by a large number of local boards. The firm are makers of a simple and effective ram, the working parts of which are on the outside, and are therefore accessible to inspection. They are adapted to any class of work where an ordinary pump is required, and large numbers of them are in use. Every department is under strict supervision, and both Mr. Winder and Mr. Davy devote the whole of their time and experience to the advancement of the business they so ably represent.


This old-established and widely known firm of drapers and furnishers originated nearly half a century ago, the business being then founded by three of the present principals, Mr. John Cole, Mr. Thomas Cole, and Mr. Skelton Cole; the present firm including two of their sons, Messrs. T. S. Cole and T. Cole, junior. The concern is one of the largest and most important of its kind in the district, and occupies a large and commanding block of premises at the corner of Church Street and Fargate. This situation is unsurpassed in the town, from a business point of view, and the building (which is six storeys high, exclusive of the basement) has the additional advantage of being constructed in a substantial and handsome style of architecture.

Internally the plan and general appointments of the place are excellent, and the departmental arrangement is most convenient, being as follows:— Basement: carpets, floor oilcloths, linoleums, cocoanut mattings, sheepskin and Axminster rugs and mats, and gentlemen’s hosiery and outfittingp. Ground floor: silks, velvets, fancy dresses, hosiery, gloves, English and foreign laces, trimmings, haberdashery, prints, calicoes and Manchester goods, household linens, muslins, lawn handkerchiefs, ribbons, ladies’ scarves, flannels, underclothing, woollen cloths, furnishing and upholstery trimmings, lace curtains, tapestries, damasks, cretonnes, blankets and quilts, shawls, furs, umbrellas, and parasols, mourning goods and funeral furnishings.

First floor: mantles, jackets, &c., millinery, bonnets, hats, black and coloured costumes, ladies’ and children’s outfitting’s, ladies’ and children’s underclothing, Berlin wool and fancy work, flowers and feathers, fancy goods, portmanteaus. Second floor: brass and iron bedsteads, bedding, &c., and dressmaking, fitting and waiting rooms. In each of the above departments a splendid stock is held, the range of choice being well-nigh inexhaustible, and the firm show many highly attractive specialities, particularly in furnishing draperies, carpets, and upholstery. They are agents for Dr. Jaeger’s sanitary woollen system, which has come so deservedly into favour, and in general outfitting goods of every kind they show all the best productions and latest novelties of the home and foreign markets.

The fashion departments receive special attention, and London itself cannot show anything more interesting than Messrs. Cole Brothers’ mantle and millinery show-rooms, where all the newest styles from London and Paris find early and faithful exemplification. Great enterprise is shown in keeping each department in this great warehouse fully “up to date,” and in this matter Messrs. Cole Brothers are eminently successful. We were greatly impressed with the elaborate and complete organisation of Messrs. Cole Brothers’ extensive establishment, from the counting-house to the work-rooms or to the commodious domestic quarters for the numerous staff employed, one meets on every hand many evidences of careful and efficient management; and in the spacious sale-rooms and show-rooms the arrangements for the reception of customers leave nothing to be desired. The premises are to a large extent lighted by electricity, and possess every modern convenience, including a passenger elevator upon the most approved principle.

Messrs. Cole Brothers hold a leading position in the drapery trade in Sheffield, and their business is one of great magnitude and superior character, a large amount of distinguished patronage being received. The connection extends widely throughout the town and district, and the house stands very high in public esteem as a reliable source of supply for new and fashionable goods in the several branches to which the attention of the firm is given. The Messrs. Cole, who personally superintend the entire business, are well known and much respected in Sheffield as public-spirited citizens and enterprising, energetic merchants; and Mr. Skelton Cole is a Justice of the Peace for the borough. The firm’s
National Telephone No. is 224, and the telegraphic address: “Cole Sheffield.”


This business has an interesting and honourable history of thirty years, having been founded so far back by Messrs. Mitchell & Co., who successfully carried it on up to some six years since, when it was taken over by Mr. W. Griffith, the present proprietor. Each of the works afford employment to a staff of experienced hands, many of whom are highly skilled artificers; all the mechanical appliances are of the most approved type. The industrial processes are thus conducted under the most favourable conditions possible, and the firm are thus enabled to make the most moderate quotations for their uniformly high-class productions. They manufacture, in large quantities, such specialities as railway wagon bearing and buffing springs, crucible cast steel, and manipulate Bessemer steel in bars of all shapes, for home and export, plough and share plates, sheets and shovel plates, steel castings and hammered forgings. They have recently added the manufacture of mild steel bottles for holding carbonic and other gases under a high pressure, and are the patentees of Brotherton & Griffith’s patent excelsior tube for this rapidly-growing industry. These tubes are light, and constructed to stand the great pressure required by foreign countries’ regulations and go everywhere, from China to Peru.

The central offices are Wharncliffe Chambers. The telephone numbers are 53 and 846, and the registered telegraphic address: “ Griffith, Sheffield.”


The ancient and interesting craft of organ-building has been brought to a state of the highest perfection in England, and it is an admitted fact that the work of English organ-builders is pre-eminent in the excellence of its artistic results, in the efficacy of its mechanical devices, and in its intelligent and thoughtful application of sound scientific principles. Among the foremost organ-builders of the present day in England stand Messrs. Brindley & Foster, of Sheffield and London, an old-established and representative firm, whose many admirable improvements in the structure and capabilities of the “king of instruments” have met with widespread favour, and reflected no little credit upon this much- maligned "unmusical nation” of ours. If we really are immusical, perhaps those critics who have established the fact(?) to their own satisfaction will inform us how it comes to pass that we have in our midst a goodly number of firms, such as the one now under notice, who have gained and preserved an international and quite unsurpassed reputation as makers of the grandest and most comprehensive musical instrument extant. Such a strange circumstance cries aloud for explanation — but this by the way.

The firm of Messrs. Brindley & Foster dates its history from the year 1854, and has had a highly successful career in the technical art industry with which its name is associated. Having London offices at Messrs. Metzler’s (Great Marlborough Street), and Messrs. Chappell’s (Bond Street), this firm’s headquarters and works are situated in Suffolk Street, Sheffield, where large and commodious premises are occupied, and where the busy workshops are replete with all such effective machinery and appliances as long experience and practical skill can devise and suggest. Here upwards of a hundred workmen are employed — all well-trained and expert craftsmen in their several departments; and here every process in the building of pipe organs is carefully and systematically carried out under the most favourable conditions.

An artistic spirit pervades all Messrs. Brindley & Foster’s work, and their instruments prove beyond all question that their first aim is to ensure true musical quality and perfect workmanship in their organs; after that comes the consideration of commercial profit. “Jerry-building” is an iniquitous procedure from which not even the honoured industry of the organ-builder seems to be exempt in this competitive age, and it is too true that those who have placed their orders with builders of the “jerry” stamp frequently have reason to deplore their lack of discretion when they are presented with a nice “little bill” for some loud and blatant box of pipes (a veritable “kist o’ whustles,” as the old Scotch lady said), whose “specification” was pretty enough on paper, but whose performance proves to be unspeakably bad when put to the test. Such an “organ” as this has fallen to the lot of more than one congregation who have done nothing to deserve so dreadful a visitation; but no such instrument has ever borne the name of Messrs. Brindley & Foster.

It pays to deal with a responsible and well-established firm, possessing a reputation which they cannot afford to jeopardise by slovenly or careless work; and the firm here under notice carries unquestionable credentials in the notable array of fine organs it has built and erected at home and abroad. These instruments may be found not only in all parts of the United Kingdom, but also in South Africa, Egypt, Australia, Russia, and other distant quarters of the globe, and the satisfaction they give is the best possible tribute to the bond fide of their makers. If any further recommendation be needed it is forthcoming in the testimony of a large number of well-known and eminent members of the musical profession. Messrs. Brindley & Foster can show highly complimentary letters from a host of organists, clergymen, and churchwardens, and they are permitted to refer enquirers to the following distinguished musicians and organ virtuosi:— W. T. Best, Esq., Dr. E. H. Turpin, Henry Gadsby, Esq., H. R. Rose, Esq. (Royal Academy of Music), J. M. Coward, Esq. (late organist of St. Ann’s, Soho, London), J. H. Maunder, Esq., (special accompanist to Mr. Sims Reeves), and numerous other well-known gentlemen, who will speak for the quality of the firm’s work, and the faithful manner in which they carry out their engagements.

One or two noteworthy points in connection with the work of Messrs. Brindley & Foster may here be brought under the cognisance of our readers. At the International Inventions Exhibition, London, 1885, the firm obtained the “silver medal and only award for general excellence of tone and mechanism” for an ordinary one-manual organ which was not intended for exhibition. Since they commenced business Messrs. Brindley & Foster have erected nearly a thousand instruments in all parts of the world. From the very first they have enjoyed a reputation as artists in tone production, and in every instance all pipes are “voiced” by the two principals. Moreover, the firm have developed the following important patented specialities:— (1) A new method of amplification (Metechotic System), whereby the variety and effectiveness of an instrument may be greatly increased. (2) A new and valuable system of interchangeable composition action. (3) An entirely new and original tubular pneumatic action, which gives absolute promptness of attack and distinctness of repetition. By the adoption of this system the expense of costly alteration of churches to adapt them to organs is rendered unnecessary, as the organ can be divided and placed in different parts of the church without the slightest prejudice to the successful working of the instrument.

It may also be mentioned that Messrs. Brindley & Foster undertake the rebuilding and enlarging of organs upon the most approved modern principles, including the incorporation of their own specialities; and they effect repairs in any part of the country by yearly contract or other arrangement. Before us, as we write, there lie a number of printed specifications of notable organs erected by this well-known firm, and some of these we should much like to refer to, as they illustrate Messrs. Brindley & Foster’s methods and capabilities in a very practical manner. Limits of space, however, forbid the further extension of this necessarily brief article, and we must conclude by advising those of our readers who are interested in the purchase of organs for church use, or concert-hall purposes, to place themselves in direct communication with this trustworthy firm. They may rely upon receiving courteous and straightforward treatment, and their orders will be carried out with that careful regard to durability, tone, quality, and general excellence of musical effect which has always distinguished the house under notice. Mr. C. F. Brindley and Mr. A. H. Foster are the principals of this successful concern, and both are gentlemen possessing the highest practical and theoretical knowledge of the organ-builder’s art. As we have already stated, they voice all pipes themselves, and otherwise personally supervise all the operations of a very extensive and widespread business.
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed: “Organs, Sheffield.”


This excellent business was established in 1840 by Messrs. G. & J. W. Hawksley. These gentlemen were successful in establishing a high reputation for the goods manufactured by their firm, and they created for it very important and numerous commercial connections. They carried it on until 1887 under these favourable conditions, when the business was transferred to a limited liability company. The premises of the Carver Works consist of a large three-storeyed building. It includes a suite of well-appointed offices, with all the appliances requisite for the speedy despatch of a large amount of commercial business and correspondence. There is a spacious show-room, in which are exhibited to advantage the beautiful and often artistically decorative manufactures of the firm in all their variety of design and material. A series of large warehouses contain the heavy extra-stocks which the company always hold to meet the exigencies of the markets in which their goods are generally known and appreciated. The workshops are situated at the rear of the building, and are supplied with all the appliances of the latest device for the purposes of the several manufacturing processes. From sixty to seventy hands, most of whom are expert workmen of the highest class, are regularly employed by the firm.

The company is largely engaged in the manufacture of cartridge-loading machines, powder-flasks, leather goods, and sporting requisites generally. They have a specially high reputation in the trade for their productions in dram flasks, sandwich-cases, hunting-canteens, dog-whistles, &c. Many of the flasks which are to be seen in the show-room are covered with the latest novelties in leathers, such as lizard, crocodile, russia, pigskin, also sterling silver, those having electro-plated cups and bayonet tops having a large demand, many of the designs of which are artistically valuable. The trade-marks of the company, which are universally accepted as a guarantee for excellence of materials and workmanship, are a bird carrying a letter with the legend, “Despatch,” and “G. & J. W. Hawksley.” A large trade is done throughout the whole of the United Kingdom, the principal towns of which are periodically visited by the representatives of the firm. But a large proportion of the company’s productions are exported to the continent of Europe, to the different colonies of Australasia, and, in a marked degree, to India, where their goods are in high favour with sportsmen. Much of the commercial success of this company is due to the direct interest which is taken by the management in all the details of the business, whether manufacturing or commercial.


This thriving and flourishing industry was first established in the year 1859, by the late Mr. J. T. Henry, and upon his decease in 1869 the business was taken over and conducted by Mr. Isaac Eyre, the executor and trustee on behalf of the widow and family until 1886, when the youngest child attained her majority, and at the request of all the parties interested Mr. I. Eyre then purchased the entire goodwill, stock-in-trade, and effects of the business, continuing the extensive operations at the same works under his own name, and retaining the confidence and support of the large and influential connection by whom he had been so long and favourably known. The premises are very roomy and capacious, having a considerable frontage and containing very commodious workshops, completely fitted with a valuable and well-arranged plant, as well as capital offices and every other accommodation for carrying on the business upon a very extensive scale. The stock of dies for stamping purposes is specially noteworthy for its variety and completeness, being alone worth considerably over £500. The trade is very important, and consists mainly in the manufacture of fish-carvers, fish-eaters, dessert and plated goods generally, in cases; also pickles, butter, crumb scoops, and butter knives and every variety of solid ware, including spoons and forks in most patterns going, which are produced in the works from the very commencement until the finish; also table cutlery in best and medium qualities to order. Mr. Eyre is a thoroughly practical man, having over thirty years’ experience of the trade, and he is well known in commercial circles and everywhere esteemed and respected.


The immense works of this old-established firm present one of the busiest scenes of industrial activity to be met with in Sheffield, and certainly in the heavy department of steel manufacturing are the very foremost steel-works of the district. The firm originated in the early part of the century, and has from the first maintained a very eminent position in the trade. Its name is widely and favourably known, and its productions stand second to none in the market. The business is now conducted under a limited liability organisation, the chairman being Mr. T. E. Vickers, a gentleman of very large experience in the steel trade, and one well qualified by practical knowledge to successfully administer the affairs of this large and important concern, having had the manufacturing management for over thirty-eight years. Under this gentleman’s management the firm were the introducers of making castings in steel; they commenced about 1855 to make this a commercial success, and from the beginning the heavy work has gradually developed into its present large proportions.

Messrs. Vickers, Sons & Co.’s works cover an area of about forty acres of ground, and are well provided with the most powerful and effective plant known to the trade. The various buildings are substantially constructed, and most regularly and systematically arranged, and the establishment in its entirety has facilities enabling it to maintain from week to week an enormous output of steel and steel forgings and castings of all descriptions. The specialities of the house are armour plates for warships, finished guns, marine cranks and shafting, propellers, railway tyres and axles. For all these products the firm under notice have gained an unsurpassed reputation, and in them they do a trade of great magnitude, both in this country and abroad. Messrs. Vickers, Sons & Co., Limited, are large contractors to Her Majesty’s Government for the supply of armour plates and finished guns. They also supply nearly all the great railway companies of the United Kingdom with tyres and axles, and number many leading foreign railways among their customers for the same classes of goods. The business in its entirety is probably without a superior in Great Britain, either as regards the quality of its productions, or the extent and character of its connection; and it is a concern equally creditable to Sheffield and to its enterprising proprietors and directors. Mr. Vickers has long taken a prominent interest in the Volunteer movement, having joined at the very commencement. He was captain of the Hallamshire Rifles in 1859, and has for many years commanded this regiment.


The founder of this undertaking, Mr. William Marples, brought to its development a wide experience in the various branches of the trade and an intimate acquaintance with the wants of the best class of buyers. A good start was soon effected, and a name secured for the thoroughly reliable character of everything handled, and for the straightforward and honourable manner in which all business transactions were conducted. The partners are Mr. Edwin Henry Marples and his two sons, Mr. H. E. Marples, and Mr. E. A. Marples. Operations are conducted in extensive and commodious premises consisting of a substantial block of four-storey building, having a frontage of one hundred and fifty feet and extending some considerable distance to the rear. They comprise a well-appointed suite of offices, general and private, spacious show-rooms and numerous warehouses and store-rooms. The workshops are at the rear, are ample in size, and thoroughly well equipped with the latest and best kinds of plant and machinery known to the trade, while employment is found for a force of no less than two hundred skilled hands. Here is controlled a business of no inconsiderable importance in the manufacture of edge tools, joiners’ and engineers’ tools, and, in fact, of tools of all descriptions, and for all manner of purposes. The trade-mark of the firm is a Shamrock, and the goods which bear it are well known in the trade, and are every where recognised by the best class of buyers as standards of excellence in their respective lines. The material used is of the best kind and the workmanship thoroughly good. Wherever these articles are introduced they hold their own against all corners, in suitability, quality, and price.

It is interesting to note that the firm were awarded the first degree of merit at Sydney and the gold medal at Melbourne for the superior excellence of their tools. Large stocks are held of the goods manufactured, as well as of every description of hardware, tools for all trades and agricultural implements which have been obtained from the best-known sources of supply, and are offered at such prices as cannot be surpassed elsewhere. During its long and flourishing career, the house has formed a valuable connection both at home and abroad, and the constant increase in the trade shows unmistakably that every satisfaction is being given to customers. The London establishment belonging to this house is at 15, Ivy Lane, E.C. The partners occupy a position of prominence in the trade life of Sheffield, and are everywhere regarded as worthy representatives of this important branch of local industry. They are well known in social and municipal circles, and are held in the highest estimation for their personal worth, their valuable services in all matters connected with the public good, and for their strict commercial integrity.


Razor manufacture is undoubtedly one of the most important branches of the cutlery industry, and it is exemplified in a high state of perfection by the well-known house of Mr. John Heiffor. Founded nearly a hundred years ago, this notable Sheffield concern has remained from the first under the control of the same family, and has enjoyed a career of unvarying prosperity, which is well maintained by the ability and practical skill of the present principal, who is a grandson of the founder. Large and commodious premises are occupied at the above address, where a numerous staff of skilful workmen is employed under Mr. Heiffor’s personal supervision, and where there is every mechanical facility to promote expedition and ensure satisfaction in the execution of orders.

For many years past the great speciality of this house has been in razors, and these are produced in a variety of styles and patterns all of the best quality, to suit all requirements. Mr. Heiffor is particularly noted for his celebrated “army” razors, for which there is now such a universal demand. This splendid razor, equally renowned for its strength, durability, and fine quality of steel, has met with the approval of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, the Board of Ordnance, the East India Company, and many distinguished officers of the British army, and at the present day it is known and esteemed in all parts of the world. Hollow-ground razors — the favourites of the period — were first made by this house, and have gained wonderful popularity in recent years. The hands employed here excel in the production of these goods, the grinding of which calls for special skill and training, and Mr. Heiffor’s “German” hollow-ground razor is a splendid specimen of its class. It has been introduced in obedience to a widespread demand for an “easy-shaving” razor, and has met with such a favourable reception that it is now one of the most successful specialities of the day in the cutlery trade.

Mr. Heiffor’s goods all bear one or another of his well-known “corporate marks,” attesting their genuineness and reliability. The success which has attended this business is the outcome of the adoption of improved methods, due to a patient and systematic working out of a series of ideas, extending over many years, and resulting in a combination of inventions which enables this firm to turn out a more perfect hollow-ground razor than has hitherto been possible. Altogether this is a very interesting and thoroughly representative business, with a large and valuable connection in all the leading markets, and its affairs are administered with great care and excellent judgment by the present proprietor, who is well known in Sheffield as a worthy exponent of his ancient craft, possessing a sound practical knowledge of all its details, and adhering to the most straightforward methods in his dealings with the trade both at home and abroad.


One of the most notable and extensive concerns engaged in the manufacture of silverware and electro-plate at Sheffield is that conducted under the well-known style of Martin, Hall & Co., Limited. This business in its present form is the amalgamation of two separate firms (Martin & Naylor, and Roberts & Hall) about the year 1854; and the house, in conjunction with its predecessors, is one of the oldest in its line in Yorkshire. The trade carried on is certainly among the most important and influential of its kind in the county, or indeed in the kingdom, and all its operations are most ably and energetically administered by the present chairman, Ebenezer Hall, Esq., and the managing directors, Peter Wragg, Esq., and Ebenezer Hall, jun., Esq., who are all widely known in the trade.

The headquarters of the Company are known as Shrewsbury Works, and are situated in Broad Street. The establishment is admirably arranged throughout, and the numerous work-shops are splendidly equipped for the purposes of the trade engaged in. Here nearly four hundred hands are employed, and in the fine show-rooms which occupy a part of the premises we find a varied and interesting display of the firm’s noted manufactures. These embrace all descriptions of first-class silver plate and electro-plate, together with silver plated and silver cutlery of every kind for household and table use. Messrs. Martin, Hall & Co., Limited, are famed for the beauty of design and finish, as well as for the high excellence of quality and workmanship that distinguish all their goods, and in these respects the magnificent stock exhibited in the Sheffield show-rooms is fully up to the superior standard the house has so long maintained. Everything is manufactured by the Company on their own premises, and under conditions ensuring the attainment of the best possible results in the articles produced. Prize Medals gained at the London and Sydney Exhibitions (1862 and 1879) attest the success of this firm’s productions in international competition.

Messrs. Martin, Hall & Co., Limited, have London warehouse and show- rooms at22, Ely Place, Holborn Circus, E.C., where they are represented by Mr. Charles E. Hicks. They have also a Glasgow warehouse at 186, St. Vincent Street (agent, Mr. Thomas E. Watson), and an Australian warehouse at 38, Castlereagh Street, Sydney (agent, Mr. Harry King). The telegraphic addresses of the Company are as follow:- “Hall, Sheffield”; “Argents, London”; and “Major, Glasgow.”


One of the oldest and best-known firms engaged in the silver-plate industry at Sheffield is that of Messrs. Shaw & Fisher, whose extensive business was founded as far back as the year 1835. For many years this important concern was carried on by the founders, Messrs. Shaw & Fisher, and was subsequently continued under the proprietorship of Mr. Frederick Hall and Mr. Fisher, junior. The sole principal now is Mr. Hall, who has been associated with the house for half a century, and who retains the original title, so widely and favourably known in the home and export markets. The firm’s works comprise an extensive group of buildings in the form of a hollow square, covering a considerable area of ground, and possessing an excellent equipment of the best modern machinery and appliances for the purposes of the industry engaged in. A large number of hands are employed in the various departments.

About ten years ago the present proprietor added to the premises large offices and show-rooms, and these enable the firm to make an interesting display of their well-known manufactures in silver-plated and Britannia-metal goods, the leading specialities being tea and coffee sets, dishes, covers, &c., &c. Messrs. Shaw & Fisher are patentees of the celebrated seamless metal dish-covers (made in Britannia metal by a special process), and also of Hall’s Patent Infusor for teapots and urns. They likewise produce a registered two-handled teapot, which has a large sale. Another article manufactured by this house is an improved form of Hydrostatic Percolator, which is very successful, and Messrs. Shaw & Fisher have an exceedingly large demand for their various styles and sizes of earthenware jugs, with Britannia-metal and electro-plated covers. Messrs. Shaw & Fisher’s “Cross Arrow” Hard White-metal is one of the most celebrated and most useful specialities in the Sheffield trade. Medals from the great exhibitions at home and abroad testify to the merits of this firm’s manufactures, among which may be named the London, Paris, Vienna, Amsterdam, Sydney and Adelaide Exhibitions.

A very large and far-reaching home and export trade is controlled, and Messrs. Shaw & Fisher’s manufactures are in constant demand in the Continental, Australian and other foreign and Colonial markets, as well as in all parts of the United Kingdom. The whole business is personally superintended by Mr. Hall, the sole proprietor, assisted by his son who resides in Sheffield. They are thoroughly acquainted with the trade in all its details, having had a lifelong experience therein, and the administration of this old and representative business is marked by conspicuous ability, enterprise, and sound judgment. The telegraphic address of the house is: “Hallwahs, Sheffield.”


One of the most important auxiliaries to the great staple industry of Sheffield, the cutlery industry, is the manufacture of steel. On the quality of the steel the greatest issues hang, and it is imperative that it should be without flaw, and have gone through the most searching processes. To render the steel up to the standard of the quality required by the leading cutlers, vast expense is involved in putting down the necessary plant, and in providing the appliances. Nor is this all, for the greatest experience, the soundest judgment, and the greatest care is necessary. All these requirements, and more, have been met by the firm under notice, the justly celebrated firm of Messrs. J. Vessey & Sons, whose commodious works, the Brunswick Steel Works, are a model of enterprise, completeness, and order. The original members of the firm were Messrs. Vessey and Friend, who commenced business over a quarter of a century ago. Mr. Friend is deceased, and Mr. Vessey has been joined by his sons, thus forming the present firm. The works are in the form of a square, and cover a large ground space. The furnaces are of the most improved kind for the manufacture of crucible cast steel, and a staff of experienced hands is regularly employed in the different departments. The bulk of the attention is devoted to the production of steel specially suitable for the manufacture of all kinds of cutlery, especially pen and pocket knives, surgical instruments, razors, scissors, edge tools, machine knives, butchers’ knives, and cutlery of every description. All the vast operations are under the personal observation and direction of the members of the firm, who are possessed of an intimate knowledge of each detail. They conduct their transactions with sound judgment, and meet their customers in an honourable and courteous manner. It is such firms as Messrs. John Vessey & Sons who have helped to make Sheffield the important industrial centre it is, and the estimation in which the members of the firm are held by those around them, and the support which is accorded, must recompense them for their spirited enterprise.


Organised about forty years ago by the late Mr. John Milner, this factory is now under the sole proprietary control of Mr. Walter Asquith, a gentleman of recognised ability and practical experience, who has been connected with the business for the past twenty-five years, for fourteen years as Mr. Milner’s partner, and during the past two years as sole principal. The Trafalgar Works, in Trafalgar Street, are in every point of character and situation exactly adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business of the kind, being equipped with the most modern machinery and appliances, and calling into active requisition the services of skilled and experienced hands in the production of the special commodities for which the firm has become noted. These consist of exclusively the best pen and pocket knives, and surgical and anatomical instruments of every description. The corporate mark, granted in 1848, is “Intrinsic,” a word that has always stood true with regard to the firm’s productions. The trade controlled is principally supported by merchants and factors in London and on the Continent; and no house could have won by more honourable and legitimate means the high reputation this firm has so long and so deservedly enjoyed.


The above firm was established in 1860, but of the two partners of whom it then consisted Mr. George W. Hawksley alone survives. The premises in Saville Street are most extensive, covering some acres of ground, on which have been erected large boiler-making and engine-making sheds, forge and foundry works, and in all some two hundred hands are employed. Here engines and boilers of all descriptions are made in large numbers, but the speciality of the firm is the making of the Patent Flanged Flued Boiler, for which a patent has been held for over twenty years, and which is in great demand amongst users of steam power, and of which over two thousand have been put down in different parts of the United Kingdom and abroad. These patent boilers are made in single-flued and double-flued patterns, and its special features are the strength and expansion of the flues, allowing for the severest possible expansion and contraction without extra strain on either the seams of the flue or the ends of the shell, thereby preventing leakage and consequent need of repairs; the flanges also give at each joint a strong section of iron to resist collapse, thus forming, as its experience proves, one of the strongest and safest flues yet invented.

The economy and power of this boiler result from the irregular surface of the flues and the insertion of the tubes, which thoroughly mix the gases, cause a more perfect consumption of smoke, and prevent any portion of the flame passing through the flues, without impinging a number of times upon the heating surface, whereby the power of the boiler is greatly increased, with a large saving of fuel. The flues being of alternate diameters there is a corresponding difference in body of water around the flues, which sets up a current, and thus with half the usual number of vertical tubes perfect circulation is attained. Another advantage is that a man can stand on the bottom of the boiler and clean right and left, and this is an impossibility with other flues. The two thousand boilers before mentioned have been worked at a very high pressure night and day for a number of years, and they have fully proved that they have the above advantages, and that for strength, safety, saving of fuel, and freedom from repair they stand pre-eminent amongst flued boilers.

Amongst other specialities made by the firm may be mentioned marine boilers to Lloyd’s specification, patent vomiters for esparto boilers for paper-mills; improved self-contained multitubular boilers, improved vertical multitubular boilers, improved expansion feed water-heater, for utilising exhaust steam, patent sliding coal elevator for unloading barges, &c., improved expansion water-heater for baths, breweries, wash-houses, &c., &c.; patent filters for dye-works, where a large quantity of water is required; patent diagonal grate bar, improved dead-weight safety valve. Mr. Hawksley also undertakes the flanging of plates for the trade by the most improved hydraulic machinery, which is also used for other purposes by the firm. Mr. Hawksley owns and carries on two large dye-works, one at Wakefield and one at Halifax. We have said enough already to indicate that the business carried on at the Sheffield Works is a most extensive one, and it only remains to add that the connections and business relations of the firm are spread over a very wide area, both in the United Kingdom and abroad. The many patented articles with which Mr. Hawksley’s name is associated are in active demand, and that gentleman himself, who, it is admitted, stands at the very top of his profession, is not only widely known throughout the engineering world, but is also universally respected and esteemed.


This industry was originally founded in the year 1872 at premises in Eldon Street, and after a long career of steady and continuous growth and prosperous development, the concern was in 1887 removed to the present more commodious premises. The Lion Works, as the factory in Arundel Street is called, consist of a substantial building of three storeys, having large cutting, grinding, japanning, and tempering shops on the ground floor, and a very complete plant, specially laid down for the manufacture of the above goods, and driven by two gas-engines. A large number of hands are employed in the various departments, and the different processes of manufacture are of a very interesting character, the interior of the works presenting a very busy and animated appearance. The appropriately selected telegraphic address of the firm is: “Utility, Sheffield.”

A large home trade is done in the principal towns of the United Kingdom, and Mr. George Mettham has also direct relations with all parts of the Continent, while he has a large trade also through the leading shippers to Australia and the Colonies. He has a world-wide name for his special class of manufactures, the quality of which is in every way to be thoroughly relied upon, while in design and construction they are distinguished by their ingenuity and practical utility. Mr. Mettham has recently patented a shoe spring, for the secure holding of dancing slippers, court shoes, &c.


The business carried on at the above-mentioned works was established in 1867. The works of the firm are of modern construction, specially built, fitted, and adapted for the class of manufacture carried on in them. They include extensive workshops, with suitable offices in front, the workshops, which are three storeys high, being fitted with special machinery for turning out steel and all descriptions of rules, measures, and tapes. The measuring tapes and band measures are completely manufactured on the premises, both leather and metal cases being made by the firm. The articles manufactured by the firm in this department include English and foreign tape measures (all of which are coated with the firm’s own registered waterproof enamel), steel tapes, rules, squares, straight-edges, flexible steel measuring tapes and band chains, spring measures, machine-divided steel rules, &c., &c. The firm also manufacture and deal largely in fine hardened, tempered, and polished steel, and are makers of clock-springs and steel suitable for clock and watch makers. They are also manufacturers in an almost endless variety of garden syringes, in two qualities, one known as their best make and the other as cheap syringes. The stock kept by the firm in all departments of their business is a most extensive one, and they do a large trade with factors and merchants all over the United Kingdom, as well as on the Continent, with Canada and Australia, where they have agents, and other Colonies. The house is undoubtedly one of the best in the trade, and Messrs. Tyzack & Holmes, who look personally after the business in all its branches are both thoroughly practical men, and as they are constantly improving their machinery and bringing out specialities in their own line of business, their trade is a good and increasing one.


By reason of the variety and importance of its specialities, the firm of Messrs. Joseph Trippett & Son, of the Standard Steel Casting Works, Coleridge Road, Attercliffe, Sheffield, has a claim to a high position among the houses engaged in the staple industry of Sheffield. Established but recently, the firm has already made a large number of important business connections, which are sure to increase in the immediate future. In assuming the responsibility of starting an establishment of such magnitude as the Standard Steel Casting Works, Mr. Trippett had the advantage of a long and valuable experience extending over twenty years, during the last seven of which he acted in the capacity of manager to Messrs. Sybry, Searls, & Co., of Sheffield. The valuable professional experience he thus gained has stood him in good stead.

The premises of the Standard Works are commodious and are admirably arranged. A well-appointed suite of offices are fitted up with telephonic communication and with all the other modern appliances which facilitate the conduct of a large body of commercial correspondence. The telegraphic address of the firm is: “Canal, Sheffield,” and the numbers on the National and Exchange Telephones are respectively 364 and 1,636. There is also a large foundry and a spacious crucible-shop, with melting holes well arranged for steel castings. The firm have likewise a series of annealing furnaces for all descriptions of crucible steel castings for railways, tramways, collieries, ironstone, ore and lead mines, slate quarries, brick and gas works, &c., also for engineers, shipbuilders, boilermakers, &c. These well-equipped works are also provided with pattern-shops, fitting-shops, fettling-shops, moulding-shops, and drying-stoves, &c. They are, moreover, fitted up throughout with every mechanical requirement of the newest type; and to meet the demands of an exceedingly large volume of trade, a large number of skilled workmen are regularly employed on the premises.

The general character of the manufactured productions of the firm may be inferred from the foregoing statements, but it may be added that they have already gained a high reputation for many well-known specialities. Among the leading ones particular mention may be made of their gold-stamping machinery, as cams, tappets, stamps, &c., which are manufactured from the very best crucible cast steel, and command a large and increasing sale in all the gold-producing centres of the world; also of their hydraulic jacks and cylinders, railway and tramway wheels, and wheels for all kinds of mines and quarries, which they turn out in vast numbers, and which for quality, strength, and reliability are unsurpassed. Equally famous among the productions of this firm are their buffer cases, axle blocks, piston heads, cranks, crossheads, sheaves and pulleys, manholes, standpipes, and every description of boiler mounting. They are also makers of Hundleby’s patent steel sleepers for collieries, mines, and portable railways, which they manufacture on a most extensive scale. They, moreover, make many special castings to order, and supply quotations from drawings or patterns. The crucible steel castings made by them range from half a pound in weight up to fifteen hundred pounds. With regard to the whole of the productions of this firm, they will be found to be of the highest order of excellence and to stand the tests of the Boards of Admiralty or Trade. At the time of our visit to the works they presented a busy scene of industrial activity owing to heavy orders being on hand for Indian railways. In his task of carefully supervising all the details, industrial and commercial, of his thriving business, Mr. Joseph Trippett is most ably assisted by his son, Mr. John Trippett, who has also the advantage of many years’ experience in this special business.


This house was established as far back as the year 1791, and since that time has still continued increasing every year in the efficiency of its resources and the value of its transactions. The business still remains in the hands of the same family, the present proprietors, who have been in possession some years, being Mr. Walsh & Son, who are descendants from the founder, and trade in the time-honoured name of Champion & Co. Operations are conducted in large and commodious premises, consisting of a substantial block of three-storey building, and comprising offices on the second floor. The works are at the rear, and are large in size and thoroughly well equipped with plant and machinery of the latest and most improved kind. Between thirty and forty skilled hands are employed, and an extensive and valuable trade is carried on under conditions conducive to the best results.

In the manufacture of a superior class of scissors, the house has few equals in Sheffield. The material is of the best quality procurable, and every process is carried out by competent workpeople under the close supervision of experienced managers. In beauty of finish and variety and elegance of designs, the work of the firm is worthy of special notice. In 1826 Messrs. Champion & Co. had the honour of making the scissors contained in the case of cutlery for presentation to His Royal Highness the Duke of York, an account of which is contained in the “Sheffield Iris” of April 25th, 1826. Messrs. Champion are the patentees and sole manufacturers of Thomas’s folding scissors, the most ingenious and popular of this class of goods yet introduced. Extensive stocks are held which include many of the most desirable and saleable novelties to be found in this department of the cutlery trade. The supplies have been selected with an intimate acquaintance with the requirements of buyers, and are exhibited in a very orderly and attractive way. All orders receive prompt and careful attention, Mr. Walsh, who is a thoroughly practical man, devoting his constant care to the business in all its branches. The proprietors are well known in trade circles for their straightforward and just dealings, and the house presents a noteworthy example of a long, honourable and prosperous business career. The corporate mark is the letter “C” in an oval.


This prominent and old-established firm was founded in 1828 by Mr. Robert Marples, now deceased, who was succeeded about thirty years ago by his son, Mr. H. D. Marples, the present principal of the concern. The trade referred to includes the manufacture of every description of joiners’ tools, edge tools, joiners’ cramps, garden tools, &c. Joiners’, amateurs', and juvenile tool chests, tool cabinets, cards and racks are a speciality. The manufacture of skates is also an important feature of the trade. The numerous varieties of tools made by the firm comprise augers, screw-bits, gimlets, wood and iron planes, engineers’, boilermakers’, sledge stone, and other hammers, trowels, rules, &c. The following trade-marks appear on all the goods manufactured by the firm as a sufficient guarantee that they are genuine; namely: a bust of a “hermit” enclosed in a circle surrounded with the words, “Trade-mark, Hermit,” as illustrated, granted by the Cutlers’ Company, 1887. Also, “Robert Marples, Hermitage Works,” “H. D. Marples, Hermitage Works,” “Henry Dixon, Hermitage Works,” and “Robert Henry, Hermitage Works,” “Henry Greaves, Hermitage Works.”

The Hermitage Works, as the premises are called, are extensive and commodious, splendidly equipped with all necessary appliances, and admirably arranged for the expeditious execution of the work in hand. In the various departments a large number of skilled and experienced mechanics are employed. The quality of the firm’s manufactures has long been noted for their utility, adaptability to special requirements, and superior finish. Forty years ago their excellence was already so manifest that a large case of specimens contributed by the firm to the great Exhibition of 1851 commanded exceptional attention. Not content with the high reputation they then acquired, the firm have since promptly adopted every improved process of manufacture, and have striven to give increased satisfaction all the while to their clients. By consistently conducting their business on such admirable lines the firm have become pre-eminent in the trade, and have extensive connections in the United Kingdom, the Colonies, and South America, whither Messrs. Robert Marples & Son export direct. The firm, it should further be stated, are represented by an agent of their own in Australia. Excellent as the reputation of Messrs. Robert Marples & Son always has been, both at home and abroad, it has been greatly enhanced by the present proprietor, who is a gentleman of the highest capacity, able, enterprising and assiduous. Under his management the concern he Controls ha» grown in importance, the connections of the house have been extended, and the trade has greatly developed.


Among the leading exponents of the great cutlery industry of Sheffield the house of Messrs. George Butler & Co. has long maintained a position of special prominence and distinction. As the “Ironmonger” (the leading hardware journal) remarked in its issue of September 10th, 1883:“ For more than a century Messrs. Butler & Co., Trinity Works, have produced some of the finest table and pocket cutlery, razors, and scissors that have been sent out of Sheffield.” The history of the representative concern under notice dates back for upwards of a hundred years, and for a very long period the business has been conducted under the style of George Butler & Co. The present head of the house is Robert Belfitt, Esq., Master Cutler of Sheffield for the term 1891-92, and one of the best known and most respected men in the trade.

In 1864 the business was moved from its original location in Trinity Street to the present large and commodious works in Eyre Street, forming one of the most extensive and most perfectly equipped industrial establishments in Sheffield. These premises afford admirable facilities for all the operations of Messrs. Butler’s immense business, and every process in the manufacture of high-class cutlery is here exemplified under the most favourable conditions by workmen of that unrivalled class whose skill has given to Sheffield wares a universal and pre-eminent fame. Messrs. George Butler & Co. have won numerous medals and other notable awards in recognition of the rare merit of their goods, and their splendid show of Cutlery at the Newcastle-on-Tyne Exhibition in 1887 carried off the highest award, special commendation being accorded to two of the firm’s leading specialities, the “Keen” razor, and the “Cavendish” table cutlery. The “Keen” razor deserves a word of individual mention. It is a distinctly special article, and has achieved a remarkable success by virtue of its perfect quality and action. No finer razor exists, and the firm have testimonials from those two distinguished actors Henry Irving and J. L. Toole, both of whom speak highly of the “Keen” razor. Even Shakespeare seems to have prophetically proclaimed the merits of this excellent speciality, for does he not say in “Love’s Labour’s Lost,” act v., scene 2—

“KEEN as this razor’s edge invisible,
Cutting smaller hairs than may be seen ” ?

Messrs. Butler & Co. also make the “Keen” strop, expressly prepared for stropping the “Keen” and other razors.

The. “Cavendish” cutlery, above referred to, is made from special steel in the highest quality only, and, besides being remarkable for strength and beautiful finish, is considerably brighter and more elegant than older styles of table cutlery. The exceedingly handsome silver-mounted “Cavendish” carvers, in cases, are very suitable for presents, and the “Cavendish” pocket cutlery and scissors are equally recommended by their beauty and utility. Other notable products of the Trinity Works include spoons and forks, fish-eaters, fish-carvers, plated desserts, hunting knives, &c., &c., in all of which the firm’s characteristic standard of high quality is fully maintained. Messrs. George Butler & Co. also manufacture special styles and sets of cutlery for particular occasions, and have done a great deal of notable work in this connection. About ten years ago they made for the Royal Family a splendid cabinet of cutlery, consisting of six hundred pieces, exquisitely mounted in the finest ivory, and every article bearing the crest and motto of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. The firm also executed the beautiful gold-mounted caskets presented to his late Royal Highness Prince Albert Victor (Duke of Clarence) on the occasion of his opening the Sheffield Industrial Exhibition, six years ago, and on the 15th June the cabinet of cutlery presented to the Archbishop of York by the Sheffield workmen was the manufacture of this eminent firm. It is a splendid piece of work, and will take rank with the historic productions in Sheffield’s chief staple trade.

Several hundreds of skilled workmen are employed in the various departments of Messrs. George Butler & Co.’s extensive industry, and an immense trade is carried on by the firm with all the great commercial circles centres of the United Kingdom in addition to a very large export to Australia, India, and the Colonies generally. The trade-marks of this eminent house are the word “Art” and a “Key,” the latter mark having been acquired some time ago by the purchase of the business of Messrs. Steer & Webster, Castle Hill Works. During recent years great enterprise has been shown by Messrs. George Butler & Co. in the introduction of many new and highly attractive styles of goods, and a visit to their commodious show-rooms, either at Sheffield or at 62, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C., will demonstrate that this firm has done a great deal to promote artistic as well as practical improvement in high-class cutlery.

Mr. Robert Belfitt, the present principal, has been connected with the house for over twenty years, and the business has been much increased and expanded under his able and energetic administration. Mr. Belfitt was installed as Master Cutler of Sheffield on September 3rd, 1891, and two days later he gave a dinner to his employes at the Cutler’s Hall, upon which occasion he made some well-chosen remarks on the condition of the cutlery trade. Few men know more about this important subject than Mr. Belfitt, who possesses the experience of a lifetime, and who is highly qualified in all respects to direct with dignity and continued success the very old-established business over which he now presides.


The explanation of the word “Permanent” used in the designation of the above works may be found in the fact that “Permanent” is the trade-mark by which Mr. Raynes’ manufactures are distinguished. Mr. Raynes began business in 1874, and the industry then initiated has ever since been identified with the works in Eyre Street. To say that, in addition to being a manufacturer of table, pocket, and sportsman’s cutlery, spoons, forks, electro-plate and nickel silver cruets, &c., Mr. Raynes is a very extensive manufacturer of scissors, and the celebrated “Permanent” razors, scarcely suffices to convey an adequate idea of the scope of his business.

The variety of scissors and shears suited to different purposes is very great, and as Mr. Raynes caters for all requirements, his trade is a comprehensive one. Amongst the varieties of scissors and shears made by him are ladies’ shears, tailors’ cutting-out scissors, nail and button-hole scissors, flower and grape scissors, ladies’ and gardeners’ pruning scissors, and tailors’ clipping shears. He also makes a speciality of sets of scissors in morocco cases. Mr. Raynes has shown himself to be astute as well as ambitious to obtain the highest possible standard of excellence with his goods. The cutlery manufacture, it should be stated, he supplements by the making of a plate powder, also distinguished by the trade-mark, “Permanent,” which has commended itself by its efficacy, and is greatly appreciated in hotels, clubs, and private houses. For this a large sale has resulted, and the demand appears to be steadily on the increase.

The front part of the Permanent Scissors Works is occupied by the offices and show-room, behind which are two extensive blocks of workshops. The forging hearths are on the ground floor, and on the floor above are the stock warehouses, filers’, and finishers’ workshops, where the class of work turned out is highly creditable to the mechanical skill of the employes, as well as to the intelligent direction of the principal. Such is the reputation of Mr. Raynes’ manufactures that a large demand for them exists throughout the United Kingdom, and he does an extensive trade with the principal towns of England, Scotland, and Ireland. His long experience, his practical knowledge, and his business aptitude have, in combination, proved to be the factors of the prosperity which has attended his operations, and the reputation he has earned as a representative Sheffield manufacturer.


This business was established about thirty years ago, and has been carried on at the Hollis Croft Works for some twenty-five years by the present owner, Mr. Wilfred Jackson. The works are of a most complete and compact nature, and are fitted with every requisite for securing satisfactory results in the various departments. The proprietor actively superintends the operations going on, and has succeeded in building up a large and remunerative business. He is in a position to compete favourably with the many similar industries carried on around him. His goods are characterised by a novelty and beauty of design and superior finish. The variety, too, is excellent, there being no lack of choice; and new patterns are frequently being added. The chief attention is devoted to hollow ware, in teapots, coffee-pots, cups, and general hollow-ware goods. These are in electro-plate and Britannia metal. Many very handsome designs are turned out in cups, suitable for all kinds of presentation purposes. The premises have the office in the front, and the works are at the rear. A new engine-house has recently been erected, in which is placed one of Crossley Brothers’ celebrated gas-engines, to supply power to the works. There are several spinning, burnishing, and making-up workshops, and a shop set apart for plating and gilding. A considerable number of expert hands find employment. The trade extends over the greater part of England, and is of a very extensive nature. Mr. Jackson’s enterprise and industry is fully recognised, and he is much respected by all having business dealings with him.


This superior and well-conducted business continues to make rapid progress, and is earning the reputation of being one of the most able establishments of the kind in Sheffield. The business was founded by the present proprietors in 1887, in the premises now occupied. The shop has an attractive looking single front, and the interior is very well fitted and arranged, the greatest neatness being observed. At the rear of the shop is a convenient private room for taking measurements, the well-appointed work-rooms being on the higher floors. In these competent coat, vest, and trousers hands are employed, including specialities for the ladies’ department entered into by the firm. The trade is entirely bespoke, and is of a high-class character, the connection being among the private and commercial gentlemen of the town and district. Each of the co-partners possesses an intimate knowledge of the business, and have had long and superior experience, which they turn to the greatest advantage. The system of cutting out is conducted on the most approved modern principles, and garments are turned out in the latest and most fashionable styles. Very special attention is devoted to the making of ladies’ outfits, costumes, jackets, ulsters, &c., and riding habits of the most becoming design are regularly supplied to order. Other notable specialities are made of uniforms, hunting and riding breeches, liveries, &c. A fine range of materials is on hand to select from, including goods from the leading English and Scotch manufacturers. The partners, Mr. Donald Fowler and Mr. T. W. Murphy, who share the responsibility of the supervision of the establishment, are greatly respected by their superior clientele. The telephone No. is 771.


This splendid firm, established twenty-five years ago in London, have become famous for the beauty, the artistic merit, the permanence, and the cheapness of their portraits, and, in a great measure, may be said to have revolutionised the trade. The handsome premises at the above address were opened fifteen years ago, and, like the rest of the studios owned by this eminent firm, have met with marvellous success. The splendidly appointed suite of rooms contain modern comforts and conveniences for patrons of the highest order, these being on the first floor of the building. There are compact offices, reception and dressing-rooms, and the most perfect of studios. In the reception-rooms are numerous choice specimens of work done by the firm, including various groups of the Royal Family, and many of the leading nobility and gentry. The firm have been honoured by many commissions from royalty, and have photographed Her Majesty the Queen, the Prince and Princess of Wales, and all the Royal Family. They hold a special warrant in this respect,

During the twenty-five years they have been in business they have sent out over two million drawing-room family portraits, and enough cabinets and cartes to encircle the globe. Being wholesale dealers in chemicals, and manufacturers of photographic apparatus, they have always a large stock of cameras, lenses, and all necessaries for amateurs on hand. Very successful results are obtained in the reproduction from old cartes-de-visite or glass portraits of deceased persons. Orders to photograph picnic or garden parties, cricket, football, or other groups can be executed at once, experienced operators being always in readiness. Portraits are taken from the ordinary carte-de-visite up to the largest sizes, the latter being handsomely framed. Oil paintings on canvas are supplied, in superior frame, sixteen inches by thirteen inches, at 84s., and twenty inches by sixteen inches, at £6 6s. Perhaps the greatest speciality of the house, and the most successful, has been their well-known Excelsior portrait, size twelve inches by ten inches, painted in oil by first-class artists. These are produced at 30s. with which, is given one dozen vignette cartes-de-visite. The managing partner, Mr. W. Middleton, is a most courteous, painstaking, and gifted gentleman, to whom much of the success met with in Sheffield and the surrounding districts is undoubtedly due, he having under his superintendence the towns of Nottingham, Derby, &c.


During the seventeen years it has been in existence this business has been the centre of attraction to a large number of connoisseurs and searchers after antiques and rare and ancient goods. The business is conducted with the greatest amount of enterprise. The sole proprietor, Mr. Herbert Coopland, is a gentleman of exceptional experience, and has devoted himself during the past twenty years to the collection of the goods in which he deals. There is always something new to be seen in his heavily stocked rooms, as he makes a point of attending all the sales in the district where there are curiosities to be secured. The premises are well situate, and occupy a commanding corner position, the two spacious windows being tastefully set out with a large assortment of rare and artistic goods. The large shop presents a most pleasing and novel appearance, and is heavily stocked with a valuable collection of oil paintings, by known and distinguished masters, rare old coins, old china, in elegant and fantastic designs, modern and antique furniture, musical instruments, water-colour drawings, bric-a-brac, &c. There are many excellent examples of old oak furniture, in fine preservation, and beautifully carved. The commodious show-room is stocked in a similar manner. Goods are bought and sold on commission, and the business generally is conducted on very liberal lines. The connection is a large one, and is of a decidedly high-class nature. Mr. Coopland is known over a wide area, and is a familiar figure in artistic circles.


This business, recently opened by the present proprietor, forms a handsome addition to the trading community of the town, and has already come into considerable repute. The commodious single-fronted shop is most advantageously laid out, and is certainly one of the pleasing and refined features of the leading thoroughfare in which it is situate. The window is artistically arranged with a selection of all the prevailing novelties in plain and fancy stationery, there being a beautiful assortment of note-papers and envelopes, &c. Fancy goods of many kinds, all bearing the stamp of refinement, are here, and form fitting and acceptable subjects for purposes of presentation. Amongst other firms those popular children’s publishers, Dean & Son, are well represented by their brightly printed toy books. The leading authors of the day are fully represented, as are also the poets, the standard authors, &c. A good supply of the most popular fiction is also on hand, as well as all kinds of educational and other works.

Mr. Bain is ready to supply entire libraries for Church, Mutual Improvement Society, parish, and private libraries. Boxes of books containing a comprehensive assortment are sent on approbation to library committees and others. The arrangement and cataloguing of libraries of new and second-hand books is undertaken, as also their valuation and purchase. all kinds of school books and scholastic stationery are kept in stock, and supplied on discount terms. The textbooks in use at Firth College, and at the Technical and Central Schools, are always on hand; also medical works for the Sheffield Medical School. Any of the above that may not be in stock are speedily obtained on the best terms. Bookbinding is executed in a most artistic style at reasonable prices. There is an ample choice of fine art engravings, drawings, writing materials, &c. The establishment from any point of view is well worthy of a visit. One prominent feature of the place is the marked courtesy of the proprietor and his assistants. The growing popularity of the proprietor and his establishment is not to be wondered at, seeing that the place is conducted on such thoroughly satisfactory lines.


The brewing industry has several notable representatives in the vicinity of Sheffield, and among these a prominent position is held by Messrs. A. H. Smith &Co., whose extensive headquarters are at the well-known Don Brewery. This firm’s important business was founded early in the century by a Mr. Turton, whose representative sold it in 1832 to Mr. William Smith, father of the present sole proprietor, Mr. A. H. Smith. The latter gentleman has had control of the business since 1875, and it has been greatly developed under his able and energetic management. The Don Brewery as it now stands is a very large and admirably organised establishment, and has a first-class plant, of the best modern type, capable of extensive output. The brewing processes are carried out by able and experienced brewers under the direct personal supervision of Mr. Smith, than whom few men could possess a more masterly knowledge of the trade in all its industrial and commercial details. For many years the Don Brewery has been noted for the purity and fine quality of its mild and bitter ales and porter, and its high reputation in this respect continues to be carefully maintained. The best malt and hops only are used here, and no adulteration of any kind is allowed. The brewing is all done under the most favourable conditions, and no beers are sent out in any other than perfect condition. They command a widespread sale, and are immensely popular among all classes — a fact which is a standing testimony to their genuine merit. The Don Brewery at Sheffield is, in fact, a thoroughly representative establishment, distinguished for the excellence of its products and the ability of its management, and it is fully reviewed in Mr. Alfred Barnard’s standard work, “Noted Breweries of Great Britain and Ireland.” Messrs. A. H. Smith'& Co. supplement their extensive trade as brewers by a large wine and spirit business, and in this department they hold complete and carefully selected stocks, and enjoy the support and confidence of an extensive, and valuable connection.


As the most select business of its kind in Sheffield and its surroundings, a brief sketch of this notable concern is deserving of a prominent place upon these records of representative commercial and industrial institutions. The premises consist of a large double-fronted house, with elegantly appointed reception and fitting rooms, leading to extensive stock and perfectly equipped work-rooms at the rear, where an extensive selection of all the most fashionable goods is always held, and where a large staff of expert modistes and costumiers is retained. This capitally ordered institution has been established upwards of fifty years, and was opened about ten years ago, under the capable and energetic management of Mr. G. Simpson, as a branch from the famous headquarters of the firm, known as Regent House, Regent Street, London, W., and is now the sole property of Mr. G. Simpson, who has recently acquired the proprietorship. This gentleman always keeps in readiness for inspection a vast variety of the best and most fashionable silk mercery goods, dress stuffs, millinery materials, and the like, and these are made up to suit the individual taste s of customers. The characteristics of the business are those of a house whose nature has been influienced, and whose methods have been formed, by a constant connection with an essentially superior class of custom.


There is probably no English firm of wine and spirit merchants more widely known than that of Messrs. Duncan Gilmour & Co., Limited, whose extensive business, founded nearly half a century ago, is now conducted as a limited liability company, under the joint managing directorship of Mr. Duncan Gilmour and Mr. Duncan McDougall. The headquarters of this great concern are at Sheffield, where their bonded and duty-paid stores cover many acres, and contain a portion of one of the largest and best private stocks of wines and spirits in the Kingdom. We say a portion, as the great bulk of this enterprising company’s stock is stored at the various distilleries throughout Scotland and Ireland, as well as at their several branch establishments in London, Liverpool, Glasgow, and Dublin.

Although doing an extensive and rapidly growing wholesale trade throughout England in wines and spirits generally, particularly in ports, brandies, rums, and all kinds of bottled wines, it is to blended whiskies that the fame of the house is more particularly to be ascribed. They have for years devoted much time and care to the judicious blending of their whiskies, and have made the requirements of consumers a study. They are rewarded by having now a large and ever-increasing trade, and a reputation for whisky, not only in the United Kingdom, but on the Continent, in India, China, Egypt, South America, and the Colonies —indeed, their whiskies may be obtained in any country. Their blending is done in their own bonding warehouses at Sheffield, Liverpool, Glasgow, and Dublin, under the direct supervision of the Excise officials, and they have always a large stock of their various blends matured and maturing for use. With their enormous stock of all the finest whiskies made in Scotland and Ireland, and with the great knowledge and experience they possess, there is no limit to the quantity they can turn out. Their bonding warehouses at Sheffield have lately had to be enlarged to three times their former size, and additional large blending vats, capable of holding many thousands of gallons, have had to be erected to meet the requirements of their immense business.

During recent years Messrs. Duncan Gilmour & Co., Limited, have added considerably to their renown by solving that difficult problem, the production of a satisfactory non-intoxicating substitute for beer. This they have accomplished in their now famous Hop Bitter Beer, which is brewed at Liverpool and Sheffield, and supplied in cask to between two and three thousand bottlers throughout Great Britain and Ireland. They have also arranged to export it, and have already made several large shipments to the United States and Canada. The manufacture of this article is carried on as a separate business from the wine and spirit trade. Of the excellence of this beer, and its superiority over all would-be rivals, the following extracts from unsolicited notices and analysts’ reports will testify.

“It is unquestionably the best substitute for ale that has ever been put upon the market.” — Century’s Progress. “The Hop Bitter Beer may therefore be regarded as the drink of the future for all abstainers, and indeed for all who would possess a healthy, agreeable, and nourishing beverage.” — Christian Union. “The lion may now truly lie down with the lamb. The moderate drinker and the teetotaller may enter a refreshment bar together, and call for a Gilmour’s Hops, toast the Queen, the president, the king, &c., repeat the order, toast themselves, and go their way, no one’s susceptibilities having been harmed in the least.” — Whisky Trade Review. Sir Charles Cameron, the eminent analyst, says of it:— “It is an article I can strongly recommend. It has a most agreeable flavour and is thoroughly fermented. The bitter principle in it is altogether derived from hops, and is associated with the fragrant principles of the hop. It is an excellent tonic. I am sure this beverage will become a great favourite, and being non-intoxicating, it will commend itself to persons who profess temperance principles.” We could go on quoting many others, but the above examples will suffice to show that a perfect non-intoxicating beverage has been discovered at last.

Messrs. Duncan Gilmour & Co.’s great business, in all its departments, is conducted with conspicuous ability and energy by its experienced managing directors, who are gentlemen well known and highly esteemed in the trade with which they have been so long associated. The house is supported by a most valuable and extensive connection, and is almost as well known abroad as it is in all parts of the United Kingdom.


Mr. Dawson has been established for more than twenty-eight years, removing from 56, London Road to his present address in 1886. He is a man of large experience in every department of his business, and the house now is one of the most important of its kind in this district. Extensive premises are occupied, consisting of a three-storey block of building, comprising single-fronted shop, with plate-glass windows, containing a costly and well-arranged selection of the various superior articles handled by the house. The interior of the shop is admirably fitted up with counters and show-cases, while the workshops at the rear and in the basement are adequate in size and well equipped with appliances and means for the successful conduct of a business of this kind. Everything emanating from this house is of superior quality and guaranteed to be exactly as represented, Mr. Dawson’s honourable reputation of thirty years’ duration being ample criterion that nothing but genuine and intrinsic goods will ever be offered for sale.

He is well acquainted with the best sources of supply, and his selections have been made with a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the public. They include adequate supplies of English and foreign watches and clocks, barometers, thermometers, opera and field glasses, spectacles, and eyeglasses, jet goods, steel alberts, gold and silver jewellery in the latest styles and designs, bronzes, wedding, diamond, dress and gem rings, &c. A special feature is made of the manufacture and fixing of public clocks for churches, railway stations and public institutions; and the proprietor is clockmaker by appointment to the Sheffield School Board. All kinds of watches and clocks are cleaned, repaired, and regulated in a reliable manner, and at reasonable prices. The gilding and plating department is worthy of special notice. A powerful engine has been laid down and, also, a large dynamo, and every class of work is done in a perfectly satisfactory manner. In the extent, variety, and novelty of the various goods it offers the house is well prepared to hold its own. Mr. Dawson is an expert and practical man, his experience extending to every department of his business. He is straightforward and honourable in all his transactions, and he is no less esteemed in business circles than in private life.


Mr. Dixon commenced business about six years ago, but during the course of the year 1891 his premises unfortunately caught fire, and considerable damage was done. They were, however, speedily rebuilt and greatly enlarged, and now comprise a large and admirably constructed building of four storeys. The spacious and well-appointed offices are at the front, numerous work-rooms occupy the upper floors, and warehouse and stock-rooms are at the rear. In addition to this Mr. Dixon has a large warehouse on the other side of the Street. The premises in their entirety constitute one of the largest and most complete establishments of their kind in the district. Mr. Dixon has spared neither pains nor expense in their construction and arrangement, the various departments have been specially fitted with machinery and appliances of the most improved description, and every facility has been adopted to ensure the effective and economical working of the business.

The industry here carried on is not only very interesting, but also of great and growing importance, and requires for its successful prosecution a considerable amount of artistic taste, ingenuity, and practical skill. Amongst the variety of articles manufactured here deserving of special mention is the “Santa Claus” Christmas bag, sold at one halfpenny each, which, besides sweets, contains a charming surprise which is at once novel and amusing. The Santa Claus stocking is another novelty which Mr. Dixon has introduced with very great success. Other items of interest in the large and comprehensive stock include toys, dolls, policemen, pantaloons, clowns, flags of all nations, money-boxes, fancy boxes, brooches, cages, Japanese curiosities, and an immense variety of comical figures. The parachute, another toy which Mr. Dixon was the first to introduce, is now commanding a large and increasing sale. As a novelty manufacturer Mr. Dixon Controls a trade of far-reaching extent, and brings to bear upon the business the advantage of many years’ experience, and the success which he has achieved is the just outcome of his well- directed energies and a laudable desire to meet the requirements of his numerous patrons.


Only seven years have elapsed since Mr. E. W. Johnson began operations as a chair-maker at the Sheffield Chair Works, situated in Granville Street. To that manufacture he brought to bear exceptional skill and experience, so that his practical acquaintance with every detail of the trade stood him in good stead at the very outset. Moreover, he started on a scale which enabled him to turn out work of the very best quality at reasonable prices, and, as a consequence, it was not long before he made his mark in the trade. The productions of the Sheffield Chair Works are not merely locally important, for the chairs made there are in great demand in places remote from Sheffield. The works comprise a three-storeyed building of considerable range and capacity, and this is subdivided into various departments appropriate to the work carried on in each. On the ground floor there is a spacious show-room with an attractive stock of goods manufactured by Mr. Johnson. These are exceedingly varied, for there is no branch of the trade which is not undertaken at his establishment. At the rear are situated the offices, including Mr. Johnson’s private room. On the upper floors are other show-rooms, and the practical departments where the processes of manufacture are carried on are at the rear. Here a number of skilled workmen are busily engaged in these processes, aided by the best mechanical facilities. Although chair-making is, of course, the one staple industry at Mr. Johnson’s works, the diversities of manufacture are considerable, for there are great differences as regards style, material, and finish, ranging from canework to elaborately upholstered goods. There are, for instance, arm-chairs, easy-chairs, bath-chairs, and several other varieties. Special attention is devoted to the making of hair-covered and easy chairs, also rockers. The admirable workmanship which is an invariable characteristic of Mr. Johnson’s manufactures and the excellence of the materials he employs have gained for him the confidence of the trade. If the success already attained may be taken as an indication of enhanced prosperity in the future, Mr. Johnson has every reason to anticipate a trade of the first magnitude.


This prosperous business was established in 1874, by Mr. Mark Willis, in Fargate, whence it was removed to Tudor Place. About four years ago the steady increase in the volume of the firm’s business made another change of venue necessary, and the present commodious premises in Rockingham Street were therefore acquired. The present members of the firm are Mr. Mark Willis and his son, Mr. William Willis. The premises comprise a spacious three-storey warehouse and factory. The suite of offices is fitted up with all the modern appliances which facilitate the transaction of a large amount of commercial business. Two handsome show-rooms are replete with a display of the beautiful articles manufactured by the firm, arranged with such taste as to render the business of selection a pleasure. At the rear and on the higher floors are numerous workshops where every process of the trade is carried on, including making-up, spinning, buffing, chasing, burnishing, engraving, and other operations. These are performed by a staff of skilled hands, numbering about sixty, and including many experts of the highest class.

The firm manufacture in large quantities tea and coffee services, cruets, biscuit boxes, also liquor frames, spoons and forks, egg stands, toast racks, case goods, and all descriptions of hollow-ware in silver and electro-plate. Large stocks of these and other productions are always held to meet sudden demands in the markets where the manufactures of the firm are generally known and appreciated. The reputation of the firm for novelty of design, excellence of workmanship, and moderation in price extends throughout the United Kingdom, the principal towns of which are periodically visited by their representatives. Messrs. Willis & Son have agents of their own in Glasgow, and also in Sydney, and they export to the Australasian and other Colonies as well as to the Continent of Europe. Mr. Willis has a thorough practical knowledge of all the departments of his business, both on the manufacturing and the commercial side, and the partners actively supervise every detail. The reputation of the firm for the thoroughly business-like character of all its transactions stands deservedly high in commercial circles.


This prosperous business was established in 1877, and at an early stage in its history the excellent connection was formed which has since been largely developed. The sole proprietors are Messrs. Wilfred and Arthur Lambert, who are accomplished mechanical engineers. The premises comprise a commodious three-storeyed building, which forms a portion of the block known as the Exchange Works, and are provided with all the requisites for the conduct of the commercial department of the firm. To the right is the spacious warehouse, in which the firm always hold heavy stocks of such of their specialities as are in constant demand, and are thus enabled to fulfil the largest orders without delay. The works are fitted up throughout with machinery and mechanical appliances of the latest and most approved type. The machinery is driven by a powerful steam-engine of recent construction. Skilled workmen of great experience, and special technical knowledge, are regularly engaged in the works. The firm manufacture a great variety of engineers’ tools, all of which are made of the best materials, and are finished in the most workmanlike manner. But they have a special reputation in the trade for their Clyburn spanners, coach wrenches, ratchet braces, drill stoops, saw spindles, bench and pipe drills, &c. In these classes of goods Messrs. Lambert Brothers do a large business with the principal engineering firms in Yorkshire and the adjacent counties. Large quantities of their tools also, are exported to all parts of the world, through the great shipping houses. The confidence which regular customers repose in the productions of this firm is increased by the fact that the principal personally supervises all the details of the business, industrial and commercial. The firm are thus in a position to guarantee the quality of all the goods which leave their premises. The Messrs. Lambert are well-known throughout the district, in the best commercial circles, and are held in high esteem for the sterling integrity which distinguishes all their commercial transactions.


In connection with the great cutlery industry of Sheffield the house of Messrs. M. Hunter & Son commands attention as one of the oldest and best reputed concerns in the trade. Its history dates back as far as the year 1780, and it has always borne an excellent name for goods of first-class quality and finish, its corporate marks — the “Bugle,” the “Buffalo,” and the “Llama” being well and favourably known in both the home and the export markets. Talbot Works have a frontage of over three hundred feet to Saville Street, and cover a large area of ground, forming an establishment thoroughly worthy of a firm of such distinction. These works comprise in themselves all the departments incidental to a large cutlery industry, and are equipped throughout with the best appliances of the trade, all arrangements being made to ensure a first-class as well as an extensive output. The spacious and handsomely appointed show-rooms display a vast and interesting stock of the firm’s productions, in all of which the highest possible standard of quality, design, and finish is carefully maintained.

Messrs. M. Hunter & Son manufacture and trade in all kinds of cutlery, including table and butchers’ knives, spear knives, razors, scissors, pen and pocket knives, sportsmen’s and gardeners’ knives, hay knives, scythes, and sickles; and they have a speciality in steel skates, for which they have long been noted. Other products of the Talbot Works comprise files, steel, engineers’ and joiners’ tools, edge tools generally, saws, sheep-shears, &c., and they have also a large output in electro-plated and Britannia-metal goods. The trade controlled in these various wares extends to almost all parts of the world, and the firm have agencies at Cape Town, Montreal, Hamburg, and many South American and other towns. Telegrams should be addressed, “ Fuerte, Sheffield.”

The members of this leading firm have always been prominent men in Sheffield, and Mr. Michael Hunter, the present head of the house, is no exception to this rule. He was Mayor of Sheffield during two consecutive years (1881 and 1882), and was also Master Cutler in 1860-1. He is at the present time an Alderman of the borough, and a Justice of the Peace for the borough and West Riding, and is highly respected by all sections of the community, both as an upright business man, a considerate employer, and a public-spirited citizen.


This business was established in 1883 by Mr. Swift Levick. The commodious premises, which have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade, occupy nearly two acres of ground. They comprise a large three-storeyed block of buildings, the several floors of which are used as offices, warehouses, and stock-rooms, with a large amount of yard space utilised for storage purposes. The converting and blast furnaces, forges, and foundry for crucible castings, together with finishing shops and other industrial departments, are distributed at convenient intervals. The well-appointed general and private offices are provided with all the requisites for facilitating the conduct of an extensive commercial correspondence, such as is entailed by the widely spread business relations of the house. The registered telegraphic address is: “Levick, Sheffield.”

The spacious warehouses and stock-rooms always hold heavy stocks of files and other tools, for the production of which the firm have obtained a celebrity in the markets; and the largest orders, therefore, can always be executed without delay. The specialities of the house are the “Clarence” self-hardening steel and the “Clarence” rock-drill steel, which are well known and highly appreciated in the metal markets. The productions of the works include a great variety of steels of various descriptions, and of tools manufactured therefrom. Their neatly got-up price-list is much valued in the trade for reference. They produce large quantities of their best warranted cast steel for turning tools, drills, punches, taps and dies, chisels, sets, boiler cups, &c.; and also of their special Wolfram steel for hot punches and for magnets.

Included in the regular stocks are such commodities as the best warranted single and double shear steel, warranted welding steel for facing hammers, steeling tools, &c.; best Dannemora blister steel, special steel for drifts, bolts and pins, Swedish key and ferrule steel, best spring steel from Swedish and from English irons, &c. Messrs. Swift Levick & Sons are also large manufacturers of best warranted cast-steel files, which are entirely hand cut, and are of full standard Weight. They also make, in immense quantities, the warranted solid steel engineers’ hammers, boilermakers’ and sledge hammers. A large business is done in the supply of the best mild steel for machinery purposes, round, square, and flat. The first description are rolled by the patent rolling-machines, and are perfectly round and straight. The firm likewise execute many important orders in crucible cast steel-castings, carefully annealed, and in Bessemer and Siemens steel forgings, which are made to any size or shape. The members of the firm are all accomplished experts in the matter of steel manufacture, and personally supervise all the details, industrial as well as commercial, of their important business. To this may be attributed the notable success which has marked the history of the firm during the ten years of its existence.


Unquestionably one of the most important commercial institutions of Sheffield is the Nunnery Colliery Company, Limited, which supplies most of the public institutions of the town with coal, and also, directly or indirectly, provides at least one half of the inhabitants. The business was originally established in 1868. The Nunnery Colliery was formerly the sole property of the Duke of Norfolk, under whom it was worked until seventeen years ago, when a number of capitalists succeeded in converting it into a limited liability company. The managing director is Mr. Emerson Bainbridge, J.P., a gentleman who is well known and held in high estimation throughout a wide commercial circle. Mr. William Black is the secretary. The head offices at Corn Exchange Buildings are handsomely appointed, with a spacious board- room and private rooms for the heads of the several departments. A large clerical staff is provided with all the modern appliances for the rapid transaction of a large amount of commercial correspondence and other business. The Company have a branch office at 58, West Street, and also offices in London. They have also fine depots in Sheffield, which are known respectively as Soap House, in Blast Lane; Salmon Pastures, in Attercliffe Road; Nunnery, in Woodbourn Road and Cricket Road, to all of which the Company have their private line of railways; Manor Pit, within a stone’s throw of the old Manor Castle; Woodthorpe Pit, in Intake Road. There are, likewise, two additional depots, one at Heeley Station, on the Midland Railway, and the other at Wadsley Bridge, on the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway.

The Nunnery Colliery Company are producing Silkstone and Parkgate coal at the Silkstone, Parkgate, Manor, and Woodthorpe pits, which are all situated in the neighbourhood of Sheffield. The output of these pits is about seventeen hundred tons per day. As they are raising the Silkstone coal at three different pits, they are enabled to guarantee promptitude in the execution of orders for this favourite fuel. They also manufacture upwards of two hundred tons per day of the finest washed steel melting coke, for which they have a large demand in Sheffield for crucible steel melting, where it is held in very high esteem. In the large stables and stable yards of the Company there is accommodation for from eighty to one hundred horses and carts. All these vehicles are in constant use, and the Company are, therefore, able to supply coal direct from the pits to the cellars of their customers. The saving which is thus effected by dispensing with the usual charges for railway carriage and hire of wagons enables the Company to deliver coals at the lowest possible prices.

A large amount of money has recently been spent by the Company in providing the most complete mechanical arrangements for thoroughly picking and cleaning the coal. The coal is tipped over vibrating riddles, by means of which the small coal is entirely separated from the large. The large coal is carried slowly by belts into carts and railway trucks, and all impurities are picked out by a number of men and boys placed on the two sides of the belts. The management of this great business in all its departments is most energetic, and all its details, industrial as well as commercial, are constantly under the personal supervision of the managing director and the secretary. The Company contemplate sinking two new pits to the Silkstone and Parkgate seams, in the neighbourhood of Darnell, at an early date, which will very considerably increase the already large output of both house and manufacturing coal.


This extensive and important business was founded in the year 1845 in Arundel Street, removing thence to Cambridge Street in 1878. Mr. John Batt successfully carried on the business until his death in 1889, when his sons undertook the management of the firm, purchased the property and business of Messrs. Cutts & Sons, and removed to the premises now occupied, and continue the business in the old firm-name and under their own personal management. The Park Works in Broad Street form commodious and well-situated headquarters for this large industry. They cover a considerable space of ground, and have a valuable equipment of the most effective modern plant. On the first floor of the premises there are spacious offices and a large show-room, the latter containing a fine display of the firm’s productions in numerous show-cases. This stock fully represents Mr. Batt’s manufactures, and is both varied and extensive. It embraces every description of choice silver and electro-plated goods, Britannia-metal ware, &c., in a great variety of new and artistic designs, and includes a wide range of selection in such standard articles as tea and coffee services, waiters, dishes and dish covers, fruit and flower stands, liqueur frames, biscuit and marmalade receptacles, cake baskets, fish carvers, fish eaters, dessert knives and forks, pickle forks, butter knives, melon carvers, sugar sifters, and cutlery generally, and a special line of dessert services, the designs of which are unique, being the property of this firm exclusively.

All the above-named goods are manufactured on the premises, every process being carried out under the most favourable conditions, from the melting and moulding of the raw material to the final polishing of the finished articles. Upwards of one hundred hands are employed at this establishment, and the whole of the manufacture comes under the immediate supervision of Messrs. Batt, whose knowledge of the trade is exhaustive and thoroughly practical. The productions of this firm (all the various styles of which are splendidly illustrated in their large trade catalogue) enjoy a high reputation for sound quality, beauty and novelty of design, and excellence of finish. These favourable characteristics are very carefully maintained, and, in addition to doing a large and increasing home trade, the house is developing an important export business, through the medium of shippers, to Australia, Canada, and other markets. The business in all its departments is directed with marked ability and energy. There is a London office and show-room at 157, Aldersgate Street, E.C. This branch exhibits a representative stock of goods, for the special convenience of metropolitan buyers, and is well managed by the firm’s London representative, Mr. Horace Batt, who has been in the trade for nearly twenty years.


This celebrated firm originated as long ago as the year 1821, and during the seventy years that have elapsed since then the business has developed into one of the largest and most successful concerns in Yorkshire. The founder of the house was the late Mr. John Crowley, who commenced operations in Pond Street as an ironfounder and manufacturer of the boot heel and toe plates known as “tips.” Nine years later Mr. Crowley took up his quarters at the Kelham Iron Works, which have since become a large and notable establishment. These works are now devoted entirely to the production of malleable iron castings for an infinite variety of purposes, and amongst others who largely avail themselves of the process may be instanced engineers, machinists, wagon-builders, coachbuilders, makers of agricultural implements and machinery, brewers, &c. — in fact, whenever a forging is of a costly or difficult character, Messrs. Crowley claim that they can produce its prototype in a casting equally reliable.

At the Kelham Iron Works the larger portion of the castings produced are made from the crucible, ensuring that uniformity of characteristic excellence which has served to maintain the firm’s good repute for so many years. Their Meadow Hall works are situated about three and a half miles from Sheffield, are close to the M. S. & L. and Midland Railways, branch lines from which are carried right into the works. They are some eight acres in extent, and it is by no means improbable that the whole site of eleven acres will shortly be covered. These works are replete with all the modern facilities for the advantageous and economical working of the engineering and foundry business carried on at Meadow Hall. The foundry in which their ordinary iron castings are made is one of the largest in the country, being one hundred and fifty feet by one hundred and thirty feet, and is capable of accommodating three hundred workmen. It contains three cupolas so arranged as most advantageously to supply the metal for the numerous workmen. Advantage has been taken of the perfection to which the moulding-machine has now arrived, and several of them are in constant use and with most satisfactory results.

In agricultural and horticultural implements Messrs. Crowley’s productions are unrivalled, and are held in the highest esteem both at home and abroad. They are characterised by all those improvements which constant contact with practical users is sure to suggest, and of whose experience, even in most trivial details, due note is recorded; and in addition to these Messrs. Crowley have identified their name with many other notable manufactures, including the following:— Knight’s new patent knife cleaner and knife sharpener, winner of three silver medals; Crowley’s projecting zinc letters, for signs, shop fronts, public buildings, ship stems,, &c.; Woodcroft’s section tappet, which is now so generally used in the cotton, woollen, linen, silk, and worsted industries; and Crowley’s carburetted malleable cast-iron spanners, the high qualities of which have gained for them prize medals at Sydney (1879), and Melbourne (1880).

An excellent and exhaustive description of this firm’s works appeared in “Martineau and Smith’s Hardware Trade Journal,” June 30th, 1887, and Messrs. Crowley had that article reprinted in the form of a separate pamphlet. Few Sheffield houses control a more extensive trade or give employment to a larger staff than does that of Messrs. John Crowley & Co., Limited, and it may be truly said that no firm in the metal trades stands higher in the esteem and confidence of its customers in the home and export markets. The business in all its departments is conducted with conspicuous ability and enterprise, and a constant demand exists for its useful and almost innumerable specialities. Mr. William Henry Crowley is the managing director, and Mr. John F. Crowley the secretary of the limited company which now Controls the affairs of this old-established concern. Both these gentlemen are thoroughly experienced and capable business men, well known and much respected in the trade with which their family name has been so long and so creditably associated.

Telephone No. 909.

The history of this notable house extends back for more than thirty-five years, at which period operations were commenced in this direction by Mr. De Garrs. He brought to bear on his new enterprise a sound experience acquired in every branch of the trade, united to considerable push and energy. He soon made a good start, and fixed the concern on a sure and permanent foundation. He was afterwards joined in partnership by Mr. Allen, and under their joint control the progress of the business has left no thing to be desired, every year adding to the extent of the transactions and the importance of the connection. The premises are ample in size and well adapted in arrangement for the expeditious conduct of a business of this varied character. They comprise a large block of three-storey building in the front which is joined by a bridge to a similar building at the back of the yard. They comprise offices, warehouses, store-rooms, and numerous workshops. The equipment has been carried out without regard to expense, including, as it does, all the most improved and recent appliances, plant and wood-working machinery known to the trade. The large circular saws and elaborate turning-lathes are much admired by those interested in the business. The extensive yard is well stocked with a selection of British and foreign timber, sufficient being always kept on hand to meet the largest orders or contracts. An extensive and valuable business is carried on by the firm in the manufacture of its specialities. These are well known in the markets and are accepted by experienced buyers as standards of excellence in their respective lines. Skilled workpeople are employed and every department is presided over by an experienced and competent foreman. Thoroughly sound work is always guaranteed and a uniformity of finish such as is seldom obtained in articles of this kind. The firm are no less noted for their reasonable and low prices than for the excellency of their quality.

A leading speciality with the firm is their mortice and rim-lock furniture, in which branch their productions are of a first-class character, and these superior goods are supplied at prices which command a ready sale. Another leading line is made of drawer-knobs. These the firm turn out in immense quantities, of all shapes, sizes, and kinds, and made of all kinds of wood, and polished or japanned. They possess a special character, much appreciated in the trade, by being fitted with the firm’s well-known patent screws, in wood or iron. Particular reference deserves to be made to the well-finished cornice-poles, with elegantly-shaped ends, turned out here. They are made of every size and diameter in mahogany, walnut, and imitation mahogany, and are quoted at prices which must induce business. The stocks comprise varied supplies of finger-plates, cupboard turns, wardrobe and latch-knobs, hall-door knobs, lock furniture, cornice-poles, gas-blocks, and tea and coffee pot handles in ebony and japanned. The connection of the house is large and important, extending to all the principal towns in the kingdom among wholesale ironmongers, hardware dealers, and merchants. A considerable export trade, too, is controlled through the medium of the shippers. The proprietors are known for their just and honourable business methods, and in private life they are respected and esteemed by a wide circle of friends and acquaintances.


This business originated about forty years ago under the auspices of the present principals, whose energetic management and the production of a really superior class of goods have brought this house into the front rank of the trade. The firm’s industrial headquarters are known as the Wharncliffe Works, and comprise a large and admirably equipped establishment, covering upwards of an acre of ground, and giving employment to a large staff of hands. The warehouses contain a large stock, held in readiness for the prompt execution of orders for the home or export trade, and the various departments of the works proper are effectively organised, and provided with plant and machinery of the best modern type for their several purposes. Messrs. Steel & Garland manufacture all kinds of stoves, grates, and fenders, for which they have long enjoyed an eminent reputation, and their leading speciality at the present time is the patent “Marlborough” Grate (Garland’s Patent, No. 13,355), which they produce in a large variety of useful and elegant designs. This excellent grate can be strongly recommended, and the immense demand now existing for it proves beyond all question its practical merits. Among the many advantages of the “Marlborough” Grate are its great heating power and economy in fuel, perfect combustion and consumption of smoke, controlled combustion, ease and simplicity in fixing and sweeping, and controlled ventilation by means of an adjustable canopy. It is a complete cure for smoky chimneys. Of all Messrs. Steel & Garland’s productions it can be truly said that they display thought and scientific skill in construction, as well as beauty of design and conscientious workmanship. Messrs. Steel & Garland have show-rooms in London, at 18, Charterhouse Street, Holborn Circus, E.C., and 9, Cork Street, Bond Street, W., where the “Marlborough” Grate can be seen in actual use with fires burning; and we recommend our London readers, and all others visiting the metropolis or Sheffield, to take an early opportunity of inspecting this highly successful and satisfactory invention.


Since 1850, when Mr. Absalom Harrop established his business, the Fitzroy Bellows Works have gradually attained the position which they now hold as an industrial institution of great importance, and of a reputation as unique as are the specialities which the firm manufacture. Mr. Harrop’s works comprise a two-storeyed building, with a fine frontage, and the industrial departments to the rear, the premises altogether forming three sides of a quadrangle, with ample yard accommodation for storage. The several workshops are well supplied with all the necessary mechanical tools. Mr. Harrop’s patent circular double and single blast bellows are known throughout the United Kingdom in all the leading industrial establishments where smiths’ work is required. He also makes certain improved descriptions of portable forges, as well as vices and vice benches, patent tue-irons, anvils, swage blocks, hammers, and smiths’ tools in general. The whole of the industrial processes are performed under the best possible conditions, and Mr. Harrop is able to guarantee that every article sent out is made of the very best material, with workmanship that cannot be excelled.

A copious catalogue issued by Mr. Harrop, and profusely illustrated, is now in its sixth edition, and is constantly consulted as a valuable work of reference by managers of engineering works. It contains full descriptions of the various classes of bellows, forges, iron hearths, &c., made by the firm, with indications of the special classes of work to which they are best adapted. Mr. Harrop, to whose personal ability and never-tiring exertions is due the notable success which he has achieved, is well known and very highly esteemed in the leading industrial and commercial circles of the Sheffield district. The excellence of his patented contrivances has been recognised by the award of several gold medals, including those gained at the Exhibitions in Sheffield, Derby, and Wolverhampton in 1891, and Birmingham in 1892.


This large business was founded and carried on for many years as Messrs. Burkinshaw & Sons, and for the past ten years has been the property of Mr. W. H. Burkinshaw. The premises consist of a well-constructed building of three-storey elevation, with capital office and warehouse on the first floor. The works are at No. 76, Eyre Street, and contain many modern appliances for carrying on the many branches engaged in. The number of hands employed is considerable, these being well versed in their respective duties. Special attention is devoted to the manufacture of all descriptions of tools for joiners, carpenters, &c., such as in turnscrews, squares, and bevels. These are equal in every respect to any at present before the trade, and are most carefully inspected before they leave the works. There are also great facilities for manufacturing joiners’ chisels, gouges, spokeshaves, &c., all sizes and edges in high-class quality. The same completeness is found in the manufacture of all kinds of table cutlery, this being a noted branch of the business.

The greatest speciality of the house is perhaps the manufacture of palette, putty, and artists’ knives — especially artists’ trowels, gilders’ knives, plumbers’ shave-hooks, &c. 'This branch is the outcome of a business purchased some four or five years ago from Mr. A. Dodworth, whose services have been retained. The trade-mark is the word, “Torpedo.”. In addition to these large and important operations, Mr. Burkinshaw also carries on the business of a general wood turner, saw-handle maker, and cutter of hard and other wood scales and handles. This works in well with the other portion of his enterprise, and is managed in the same efficient and judicious manner. Mr. Burkinshaw has made a careful and exhaustive study of the operations embraced in his calling, and has had ample opportunity of gaining experience of the highest value. This enables him to personally superintend all the branches with marked success. The connection is of both a local and general description. Travellers are sent to the chief towns of Great Britain, and meet with a large measure of success, the goods of the firm having gained a most favourable name on the markets. Mr. Burkinshaw is much esteemed for the courteous and honourable manner in which he conducts his transactions.


Although the business under consideration still bears the name of its founder, Mr. James Dewsnap, the partnership now comprises two gentlemen, namely, Mr. J. T. Bolsover and Mr. W. H. Appleby. The business was established by Mr. James Dewsnap in 1841, to whom, eleven years ago, the present proprietors succeeded. The firm mentioned are manufacturers of fancy cabinet goods of every description, including ladies’ and gentlemen’s dressing cases and bags, jewellery cases, ladies’ etui-cases, brush-cases, and cases of brushes, collar-boxes, key-boxes, cashboxes, playing-card cases, photo cases, students’ writing-cases, tourists’ cases, blotting books, fitted blotters, purses, pocketbooks, wallets, lettercases, bill-cases, toilette cases, visiting-card cases, scent cases, glove and handkerchief cases, combination scent and work cases, jewel and work cases, music cases and carriers, combination cigar and cigarette cabinets, writing and despatch desks, liqueur cabinets, workboxes, stationery cases, tea caddies, dram flasks, razor strops and razor cases, &c., &c. This constitutes an exceedingly interesting and attractive industry, one in which there is plenty of scope for the exercise of taste as well as mechanical skill and, indeed, of some artistic aptitude.

Considering the scale upon which the manufacture is carried on by the firm of James Dewsnap, it is manifest that their wares must be of the highest excellence, and consequently, in very great demand, for at their works are employed no fewer than four hundred hands — men, women, boys, and girls. The premises where the industry is carried on are extensive and spacious. They are divided into two sections, on different sides of the street. One of these is a six-storeyed building, and the other comprises seven storeys, and are admirably equipped for the effective and economical working of the business. The business thus described is one of the oldest established of its class in the town, and also the most important. Under the direction of its founder it had already attained very considerable dimensions, but since the present firm became proprietors very notable advances have been made. The product of the factory is immense, and it is distributed throughout the length and breadth of the land. Samples of all their manufactures are on view at the London show-rooms 35, Ely Place, Holborn, E.C., and customers are respectfully invited to call and inspect them. All new patterns are sent to the show-rooms the day they are produced, so that the latest novelties can always be seen there. The business receives the direct personal attention of the proprietors, and is conducted throughout with marked ability, energy, and enterprise.


This important business was established by the present proprietor, Mr. James Smith, in the year 1866, and each succeeding year has witnessed a distinct advance over the preceding one in building up a valuable connection. The premises occupied consist of a building of two-storey elevation, situate at the above address. There is a large and convenient workshop, wherein axe all the necessary appliances used in the business. The special, features of this firm consist of every description of copper-plate engraving for illustrations of Sheffield goods and general commercial work. Mr. Smith also produces window plates and door plates, and makes etching plates a speciality. Inscriptions and monograms in every possible design are made to order. Mr. Smith devotes close attention to his business. He is courteous in his bearing, and much respected in the trade.


This business was commenced more than thirty years ago under the title of Danby & Co., and was subsequently carried on as Messrs. Favell, Liddell & Co. Mr. Thomas Favell has for many years been the sole proprietor, trading under the above style. The premises occupied consist of a commodious suite of well-appointed offices and large sample-room, together with ample cellar accommodation in the basement. A large and valuable trade is controlled in wines and spirits of the best quality. Mr. Favell is well acquainted with the best sources of supply, and is a man of large experience and matured judgment in all matters connected with his business. His selections are made with great care and discrimination, and patrons can rely upon receiving the choicest commodities procurable, while from the extent of his transactions and his skill in buying, he is able to quote prices which cannot be surpassed by any first-class house in the trade.

The business done is almost exclusively of a private character, being transacted with the most important and influential families in the district. The stocks held are no less noticeable for their extent and variety than for their uniform and exceptional quality. The ports and sherries are “old and crusted,” and selected from the productions of the best vintage years; the brandies are of the best brands, and so are the Scotch and Irish whiskeys, and the champagnes include the finest productions of the most celebrated makers. Superior and choice supplies are held, also, of clarets, moselle, Burgundy, hocks, Madeira, &c., and a varied and comprehensive selection of foreign liqueurs and English cordials. In cigars the house is very strong, all the choicest brands of Havannas, Partagas, Larranagas, Intimidad, Princeps, being largely represented and offered at most reasonable prices. Mr. Favell is sole agent for Sheffield and the district for Baggett’s celebrated nourishing stout and golden hop pale ale, the same as supplied to Her Majesty the Queen. This stout has been well and favourably known among judges for considerably more than a quarter of a century, and its still growing popularity is evidence of the high appreciation in which it is held.

Every order with which the house is favoured receives prompt and careful attention, the proprietor himself giving his personal supervision to the business, and leaving no effort untried to give entire satisfaction to his clients. Mr. Favell is a thorough man of business, and is looked upon as an authority in everything connected with his calling. He occupies a position of prominence in trade and commercial circles, and is conspicuous for the active interest he takes in all matters affecting the welfare of his fellow-townsmen. He is an overseer for Eccleshall, and has been honoured with the appointment of Vice-Consul for Spain; the consulate office is at 26, George Street.


During the last nine years this business has come rapidly to the front, and now holds a recognised important position among that large industrial section of Sheffield engaged in the manufacture of brushes. This business was founded by the present owner, Mr. John Blagden, and from the inception this gentleman, who has a keen practical knowledge of the business, has laid himself out for its development. Such is the high quality of the goods he constantly places before his customers that he has considerably out-distanced many of his older competitors, and has formed a valuable and ever-growing connection. The works are extensive, of modern construction, and are fitted with a liberal supply of all the latest appliances necessary to the calling. The entrance is in the large yard, the building being of three spacious floors. The office is on the first floor, and at its rear are the shop, the work-room, and the finishing-rooms. The show-room, a fine apartment, contains a first-class and representative stock of the goods manufactured on the premises. The most complete examples of all kinds of brushes are seen here, handsome in appearance, handy, and of the most serviceable properties. These are for household purposes, foundry use, for brewers, for shipping purposes, and for silversmiths. Competent representatives are sent to all the principal towns, and a remunerative and daily increasing trade is in progress. In the various departments a large number of hands are employed. The proprietor is deserving of congratulation upon achieving such a marked success. He has the hearty respect of a large and discriminating clientele.


This business is a very old-established one, and has been successfully conducted for over seventy years. It was founded by the grandfather of the present proprietors, and has never been out of the family. The various buildings are all arranged on a capital system for facilitating the operations, and securing satisfactory results. The plant is a large and superior one, capable of an extensive weekly output. The offices, which are well appointed and furnished, are in the front of the two-storey building. The boiler-house, containing a powerful boiler, is quite a feature of the place. The. following is a list of the productions:- X ale, XX ale, XXX ale, XXXX ale, porter, S.S. double stout, “Brunswick” ale, and pale ale. A special line is made of the “Brunswick” ale, which is rich and nourishing; also the double stout, which is confidently recommended to invalids. The business connection is a steady and substantial one.


In these days of keen commercial competition the abolition of the middle-man is rapidly becoming well-nigh universal in consequence of the undeniable benefits conferred upon the public at large by enterprising manufacturers, and in this connection Messrs. Langton & Son manufacture and distribute boots and shoes of all classes “direct from the cow’s back to the wearer’s feet,” or in other words, direct from the producer to the consumers, without any intermediary. This progressive firm was founded in the year 1871, trading under the style and title above designated. The premises occupied are very extensive, and in every point of character and situation precisely adapted to the requirements of the vast industry in operation. They comprise three great factories, each of which is three storeys in height, and elaborately equipped throughout with all the most modern machinery and appliances, driven by a powerful gas-engine, and calling into active requisition the services of a very large staff of male and female hands, for the production of boots and shoes of every conceivable kind, all of which are produced from the soundest materials, and available at prices to suit the pockets of all classes of the community.

The most noticeable feature about these boots and shoes is that, taking quality into consideration, they are purchaseable at extraordinarily low figures, there being but one profit charged on them, viz., the manufacturer’s lawful due. Many thousands of pairs are held in readiness at the firm’s great warehouses, from which supplies are sent to their numerous depots, from which they may be obtained by the public. These depots are located as follows:— In Sheffield, at 11, Wicker; 252, Infirmary Road, and 158, Sheffield Moor. In Attercliffe, at 345, Attercliffe Common; 549, Attercliffe Road, and 807, Attercliffe Road; and also at 8, High Street, Rotherham; and 11, Sheffield Road, Barnsley. The entire organisation of the business is sans reproche, and no house could have won by more honourable and legitimate means the high reputation and extensive business relations which this firm now so deservedly enjoys.

Telephone No. 1,138.

This flourishing and, energetically conducted business was established in 1847, by Mr. John Burley, who, at an early period in the history of the firm, created the germ of the valuable local connection which has since been largely expanded by his successor, Mr. Godley, who became sole proprietor in 1857. The business was originally carried on in Fargate, but some ten years ago the increasing demands upon the producing powers of the firm rendered necessary a removal to the present commodious premises, which are known as the Exchange Die and Letter Works, and are situated at 57 and 59, Eyre Street. These premises, which have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade, comprise a spacious building of three storeys. On the ground floor are the well-appointed general and private offices, which are provided with all the requisites for the conducting of the extensive commercial correspondence necessitated by the numerous and widely distributed transactions of the house. The higher floors are occupied for the manufacture of marks, embossing presses, dies, brands, rubber stamps, &c. A number of highly skilled workmen are constantly employed on the premises. The industrial departments are fitted throughout with all the mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type, for the saving of time and labour in the several producing processes.

Special mention must be made of the plant and appliances laid down by Mr. Godley for the manufacture of indiarubber stamps, rubber-faced type, &c., a branch which this gentleman has developed with a considerable amount of success. During recent years there has arisen a considerable demand for rubber stamps and rubber-faced type for almost every conceivable purpose, and Mr. Godley by his energy and enterprise is fully prepared to meet all these requirements. Important economies are thereby effected which enable the firm to produce goods of the highest quality, under the best possible conditions, at prices which compare very favourably with those of other first-class houses in the trade. The firm have an excellent connection with eminent local manufacturers for such specialities as workmen’s time checks, trade-marks, embossing presses, brass labels, &c. Nor is the celebrity of the firm merely a local one, for they constantly receive orders for special classes of goods from all the industrial centres of the United Kingdom. Mr. Godley, who has had over forty years’ experience of the business, and who has, therefore, a thorough knowledge of all the requirements of the trade, bestows a careful supervision upon all the details of the different departments, industrial as well as commercial.


This business was established in Arundel Street, as Messrs. Rawson & Turner, and was afterwards transferred to Holly Street. On the retirement of Mr. Rawson, about 1886, Mr. Turner became the sole proprietor. In 1890, to meet the grown requirements of the trade, the present premises were secured. These are known as the Cambridge Ivory Works. They are roomy, and appropriate to the calling pursued. There is a large well-arranged and well-fitted warehouse, and at the rear are the workshops, where all kinds of ivory handles for table knives, and scales for spring knives, are cut with very fine saws. Mr. Turner is in the full possession of, and bears a distinguished name for, superior ability. The large cutlery manufacturers of the town and vicinity are supplied by him with handles and scales made from ivory, a good stock of which is always on hand. The hands employed are thoroughly experienced, and all the branches of the trade are carried out with expertness. In addition to the respect inspired by his skill, Mr. Turner is esteemed by all who know him, or have dealings with him, for his strict integrity. The success which has attended his efforts is richly merited, and he worthily takes his place among the honoured craftsmen and residents of Sheffield.

Mr. Turner started life under very disadvantageous circumstances. He unfortunately lost his mother (the best friend he had) at the age of nine years. He was always thoughtful and studious, and therefore occupied his time in acquiring that knowledge which has since fitted him for so efficient discharge of the duties which have since come upon him. He had no person to render him material aid, yet he struggled to make his way with honour and credit to himself. He is also a prominent public man, he has been a local preacher for eighteen years in the section of the Church known as Wesleyan Reformers, of which he is now a distinguished member. At the Quarter-day held Christmas, 1891, he was unanimously elected president of the Sheffield Reform Circuit; he was also re-elected in 1892. Mr. Turner’ s fame has spread beyond the limits of his own town, he being called to preach in other towns, where causes are planted by the section of the Church above named. Mr. Turner has occupied the distinguished position of member of the General Committee of the Wesleyan Reform Union over six years, and in the year 1892 he was nominated at the Annual Delegate Meeting (held at Shipley, Yorkshire) as President of the Wesleyan Reform Union, which honoured position he would have now sustained had he not in honour preferred another, and pleaded his youth as a reason why the delegates should vote for the Rev. Thomas Bromage, his competitor, who only then passed Mr. Turner by two votes, Mr. Turner being more honoured than by being elected. Mr. Turner was further honoured by being elected president of the Wesleyan Reform Union Conference, held at High Wycombe, August 1st, 1892.


Established many years ago at the above address by Messrs. L. & C. Glauert, and since the death of Mr. C. Glauert about two years ago, carried on by the surviving brother. The registered trade-mark — a crowned eagle’s head, with the word “Patriot” beneath it — is well known on the Continent, and in most of the Colonial and South American markets, where an extensive trade is carried on.


The business carried on by Mr. Dearden at Hillfoot, Sheffield, was founded by that gentleman’s grandfather sixty years ago, and the present owner, having been brought up to the trade, is well skilled in every detail of it. During the fifteen years he has been proprietor of the concern its progress has been accelerated and its general development increased. The High House Brewery and Bottling Stores occupy a considerable ground area, and they are both extensive and commodious. The buildings they comprise are extensive, and internally they are fitted up with the best appliances, so that the operations carried on are facilitated to the utmost, and the most satisfactory results ensured. The beer produced at this brewery is very popular in Sheffield and the surrounding districts, being bright, sparkling, wholesome, and tonic. The bitter beer, in particular, has gained celebrity for its purity and flavour. In both respects it vies with the best qualities produced at the most noted breweries in England. For the table beer also of this brewery a great demand exists, it being light, palatable, and so preferred by many to full-bodied ales. Mr. Dearden, likewise, produces a very popular quality of porter, which is nutrient, mellow, and pleasant as regards flavour.

The excellent quality which invariably characterises the beer, ale, and porter produced at this brewery is due to the conscientious use of the very best materials, the adoption of the best methods, and the skill exercised. The suitability of the water for brewing purposes is an advantage at the very outset, but Mr. Dearden is scrupulous also to make use only of the finest malt and hops. A speciality of this brewery is the “Bushman” brand of English pale ale, brewed and bottled expressly for the Colonies. Mr. Dearden holds large stocks of, and extensively supplies, Bass & Co.’s Pale Ale and Guinness’s Extra Stout in bottle. His premises being situated within convenient distance of the town, and the distributive facilities at his command being exceptional, orders are always promptly complied with, no matter how large or how urgent these may be. Mr. Dearden, as the proprietor of an important and flourishing local industry, is well known in Sheffield, and his name has become familiar to ail. By those who know him personally he is well liked and respected.

National Telephone No. 600.

This business, which has continued in the same family till the third generation, and which has already attained the centenary of its establishment, was founded in 1790 by Mr. Robert Hides in Hollis Croft, where it is still located. It was directed by him for something like thirty years, when he was succeeded by his son, Mr._George Hides. The latter gentleman continued to be identified with it for fifty years, and, upon his decease, the control of the concern devolved upon his son, Mr. W. F. Hides. The firm, therefore, is one of the oldest and best known in the trade, its manufactures being highly appreciated in the markets of the world. The Hollis Works are extensive, well arranged, and fitted up with the best mechanical appliances. They present a three-storeyed frontage, with a large gateway for heavy traffic. The office and warehouses are in the front section, while the works are at the rear. Behind the section referred to there is a large yard enclosed on all sides by the buildings which abut upon it, and which comprise numerous workshops where the manufacture of cutlery is carried on in all its details. That manufacture includes every description of table and spring cutlery, pallets, putty and oyster knives, butchers’ steels, butchers’ knives, razors, &c.

In the various operations thus indicated between eighty and ninety hands are employed. Of table cutlery the varied classes manufactured are too numerous to specially describe, but notably amongst them are wood, bone, black and natural coloured horn, staghorn, imitation ivory, &c., and for real ivory-handled knives there is no doubt that for quality of goods this firm stands Al. Even greater diversity is noticeable in the firm’s makes of pocket and pen knives, which are of all sorts and sizes, differing in respect of pattern, material, and number of blades. The firm have a very extensive trade both at home and abroad. A very large export trade is done to the Colonies direct from the firm through their agents. They also export largely to South Africa, where they have a traveller who looks specially after their interests in that region. All over the world, therefore, the “Excelsior” trade-mark, which attests the genuineness of Messrs. Hides & Son’s goods, is familiar and popular, and especially is this proved by the fact that Messrs. Hides & Son are one of the very few firms in Sheffield who use absolutely no other quality of steel than the Best Shear for all classes of Table Cutlery manufactured by them.

Since his accession to the ownership Mr. W. F. Hides, who is well versed in all that relates to the industry, who is possessed of administrative ability, is enterprising and energetic, has done much to promote the prosperity of the very important undertaking founded by his grandfather. Under his judicious supervision it has made marked progress, and so long as he continues to be associated with it the high reputation of the firm of George Hides & Son is much more likely to be enhanced than diminished.


Projected close upon a century ago by a Mr. R. T. Taylor, and subsequently a Mr. Wick, followed by Mr. T. Perry, the house, so far as its personnel was concerned, went through many mutations, eventually coming, in the year 1865, into the hands of Mr. Cubley. Two years later Mr. Cubley was joined by Mr. J. Preston, who, in 1888, upon the retirement of the former gentleman, continued to develop the resources of the concern as sole proprietor. The premises occupied are in every point well adapted to the requirements oi a very brisk business. They are located in the best part of the principal thoroughfare of the town, and consist of a spacious, handsomely appointed, double-fronted sale-shop, replete with every facility for the rapid transaction of a good counter and general dispensing business, the elegantly contrived show-cases, &c., being well filled with a large and comprehensive series of goods incidental to the modern pharmacist’s purely trade department, and comprising all kinds of toilet requisites and perfumery, patent medicines, carbonated beverages in bottles and syphons, medical and surgical appliances, chemists’ sundries, and an exhaustive series of drugs and chemicals.

To the rear there is an elaborately equipped laboratory, where, in addition to the production of a large number of proprietary specialities, all the pills and powders, tinctures, decoctions, and infusions are carefully prepared by skilled and duly qualified assistants. Here, also, Mr. Preston devotes the most careful and competent attention to the dispensing of physicians’ prescriptions and the compounding of family recipes. Adjoining the laboratory are the large warehouses, perhaps the finest of their kind in Sheffield, the ample accommodation afforded being divided into a series of special departments, each of which is very fully stocked with a selection of exclusively superior goods, in quantities to meet either retail or wholesale demands. These include ware-rooms for photographic apparatus and chemicals, chemical and philosophical instruments, magic lanterns and slides, lamps and lanterns for all occasions, medical and surgical appliances, including invalid furniture and the like; toilet requisites and perfumery, patent medicines, and proprietary articles, &c.

In each and every department there are many examples of Mr. Preston’s own specialities, which include, among many others, Persian Essence, an exquisite perfume, of extraordinarily lasting properties; White Rose Eau de Cologne, superior to and less costly than the foreign article; Meloderma, an odoriferous, cleanly, and effective preparation for the prevention and cure of chapped hands, rough skin, freckles, sunburn, &c.; Preston’s Chilblain Application; “Acoriza,” a new alkaloid remedy for the more serious species of influenza; The Anti-Germ Clip-Cover Feeding-Bottle, an invaluable article for babies; Preston’s “One Cell” Inhaler, for the easy inhalation of ammonium chloride vapour, or any other volatile medicament; Cubley & Preston’s Special Dark Tent, for photographers; The “C.P.S.” Tourists’ Folding Pocket Lamps; Marble Renovator; Anti-rust; Arnold’s Sulphur Apparatus, for the estimation of sulphur in iron or steel; The Registered Pattern Flask; Allen’s Nitro- meter;. Allen’s Gas Analysis Apparatus; Snell’s Eye Magnet; The “Perfection” Lecturers’ Reading-Lamp; The Chameleon Lamp, for photographers, &c., &c. The business in all its branches is conducted with conspicuous care and judgment, and no one could have won by more honourable and legitimate means the high reputation and widespread patronage which Mr. Preston now so deservedly enjoys.


The Derwent Steel Works, which are situated in Soho Street, and are the property of Mr. Thomas E. Kitchin, are especially notable among the other great steel manufacturing establishments of Sheffield, by reason of the exceptional excellence of the premises and the plant, which were designed and erected expressly to suit the requirements of Mr. Kitchin and his business. The building of the works and their equipment were completed about one year ago, when Mr. Kitchin took over the business established by his brother some eight years back, as a manufacturer of cast, shear, and spring steel. The Derwent Steel Works cover a considerable area. They comprise in the front a two-storey building, with a fine facade and a suite of offices, show-rooms and warehouses, all of which are handsomely appointed and equipped. The general and private offices are supplied with all the requisites for facilitating the conduct of a large commercial correspondence. In the show-rooms are tastefully displayed a representative assortment of the different descriptions of steel manufactured in the works. In the spacious warehouse the firm always hold heavy stocks of the hammers, files, forgings, and other commodities for which they have gained a reputation in the markets where their productions are in special request.

The industrial departments are to the rear of the main building, and are fitted up throughout with mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type, for the manufacturing processes which the firm carry on. The greatest possible economy, therefore, is effected in regard to time and labour; and while, therefore, the firm conduct their operations under the best possible conditions, they are able to quote terms which compare very favourably with those of other first-class houses in the trade. A large staff of skilful and experienced workmen is regularly employed in the works.

The productions of the firm include forgings in great variety, and in this department a large amount of work is done in manufacturing articles for special purposes, which are accurately made to pattern and to drawing. The hammers, files, and other tools, which are turned out of the works in large quantities, are all made out of the best steel manufactured on the premises, in which, also, the firm conduct a large business as merchants. The connections of the house extend throughout eminent engineering firms in all parts of the country. The remarkable success which has been achieved by this firm within a comparatively limited period must be accounted for by the thorough knowledge which Mr. Kitchin possesses of all the requirements of the trade, industrial as well as commercial, and to the excellence of materials and workmanship which he can always guarantee by personally supervising the details of all the departments of the business.
The telegraphic address of the firm is: “Dauntless, Sheffield.”


This is a business which, established in 1838, was carried on for many years with much success by the late Mr. George Bocking, and has since his death been equally successfully conducted by his son, who inherited both name and business. Large and spacious premises are occupied, which comprise large warehouses and show-rooms on the ground floor, and offices and workshops on the second and third floors. Mr. Bocking manufactures in very large quantities fine table cutlery, pocket-knives, scissors, and also every description of silver cutlery. The manufacture of the first named may, indeed, be called the speciality of the Ebor Works, for to its production particular attention is paid, and the excellence and sterling quality of the articles turned out are well known in the trade. Indeed, this may be said of every article manufactured by Mr. Bocking, who endeavours always to act up to the spirit of his trade-mark (granted in 1858): “True,” ever the aim of the founder of the business, and has won for it and himself the high reputation both enjoyed. The present proprietor has a high reputation in the business circles in which he moves, whilst his business shows most gratifying signs of progress. Every article made by him is guaranteed, being made from the very finest Double Shear Steel and all hand-made.


This business was recently founded on the above premises by the present proprietor. The entire place is well arranged for the purposes of the trade, and the workshops are liberally provided with all the necessary appliances of the most modern description. The manufacture is of every kind of dram bottles in Britannia metal and glass with Britannia-metal and electro-plated Britannia-metal cups; also nickel-silver electro-plated flasks in morocco, hogskin, russia, crocodile, and lizard. These goods are all made with the greatest care, and their thoroughly attractive appearance commands for them a ready sale, and they are rapidly taking a prominent place on the markets. Other useful goods are in breech-loading implements, closers, recappers, extractors, cleaners, oil bottles, turn-screws, C. F. keys, dog calls, &c. The proprietor was formerly with the firm of Messrs. William Bartram & Co. He has a thorough knowledge of all the branches of the trade, his matured experience enabling him to conduct his operations with great advantage. The important connection formed is partly of a local description, and with the principal towns of England and Scotland. The flasks are made throughout on the premises. The sole proprietor, Mr. John Falding, takes the active management of the concern, and to his personal tact and skill much of the success enjoyed is due. In the different departments a goodly number of hands are employed, both competent and trustworthy. Mr. Falding has also established a reputation for integrity, and is widely known and respected.


This firm dates its history back for more than seventy years, and controls one of the largest and most notable businesses of the kind in this part of the country. The house was founded in the year 1820, and was carried on for a very long period by Mr. John Marples, who has now retired from business. Since 1888 the concern has been under the sole proprietorship and direction of his son, Mr. Edward John Eyre Marples, a gentleman of comprehensive experience in all departments of the trade. From the first this representative business has been carried on at its present headquarters in Market Street, where it occupies a large corner building, with very commodious offices and sample-rooms. One suite of rooms is devoted entirely to the bottled trade; another to retail counter trade, and a select department to smoke-rooms for a better class of trade. During the past three years the premises have been considerably extended to meet the requirements of a constantly increasing business.

Messrs. John Marples & Co. continue to fully maintain their position as leading wine and spirit merchants, and they hold very large and complete stocks of vintage ports bought from the best-known shippers, superior port from the wood, and many choice vintages of port bearing the names of such noted firms as Dow, Rebello Valente, Graham, Silva & Cozens, Cockburn, and Martinez. In other departments Messrs. Marples show an equal command of the best resources of the trade, and their stocks of sherry, claret, White Bordeaux, Burgundy, Madeira, Marsala, Hock and Moselle, &c., are as large and as well selected as any in the district. The champagne department is, of course, a speciality, and this most popular of modern high-class wines is represented by the shipments of the most noted growers in the Champagne country, all the “crack” brands being included in the firm’s list.

For choice old brandies and rare old Irish and Scotch whiskies, Messrs. Maples have always been celebrated, and we note in these lines the famous products of Martell and Hennessey, the Islay and Glenlivet Scotch whiskies, and Kinahan’s and “Old Bushmills” Irish whiskies, all of which are so well and so favourably known throughout the world that comment upon their merits would be quite superfluous. An extensive trade is also done by Messrs. John Marples & Co. in such excellent specialities as the following:— Bass’sales, Guinness’s stout, Schweppe’s mineral waters, Westmacott’s lemon squash (equal in every respect to the fresh-made beverage), Westmacott’s tonic effervescent quinine water, Shipley’s high-class seltzer water, orange bitters, lime juice cordial, peppermint, gingerette, quinine wine, black beer, and all the leading brands of foreign liqueurs. Finally, the firm hold one of the largest and best stocks of Havana, Mexican, British, and Continental cigars in Yorkshire.

Messrs. Marples are sole agents in Sheffield for the “Old Bushmills” whisky, for Kinahan’s “LL.” Irish whisky, for Westmacott’s lemon squash and quinine water, and for “Stoutine.” They have extensive and well-appointed bottling stores in Norfolk Street, where they bottle Bass’s ale and Guinness’s stout in large quantities. A widespread and influential trade is carried on in all the northern and midland counties, where the firm keep in touch with their valuable Wholesale and private connections by means of numerous local and travelling representatives. A large staff is employed, and Mr. Marples is ably assisted in the practical administration of the business by his experienced manager, Mr. A. E. Mayger, who was formerly a representative of one of the largest firms at Burton-on-Trent.


The history of this business dates back to its foundation a quarter of a century ago, by Mr. J. Uttley, who retired about nine years ago. It was then acquired by the present proprietors, Messrs. Albert and William Lighton, who have since continued the concern with steadily increasing success. The Earsham Works are situated in the street of that name, the premises comprising extensive yard, with gateway entrance from the street, on each side of which are ranged the several working departments of the manufactory. These include bottling-rooms, replete with improved modern plant and machinery for both bottling by cork and patent stopper, bottle-washing sheds, together with syrup-room, stock warehouse, stabling, and van-sheds, &c. A notable feature in connection with the factory is the scrupulous attention paid to the perfection of cleanliness observable in every process of the works, which, combined with the absolute purity of the various ingredients used in the manufacture, and a plentiful supply of brilliantly clear water, affords a satisfactory assurance for the high-class and wholesome qualities of the beverages supplied by the firm. These include soda, lithia, potass, and seltzer water, lemonade, ginger beer, ginger ale, horehound, hop bitters, “Hot Tom,” sarsaparilla, tonic beer, champagne cider raspberryade, lime juice, cordials, &c., &c. Mineral waters of every description are also supplied in syphons.

A widespread local connection has been established by the firm in Sheffield and the surrounding districts, within a radius of ten miles, which includes the leading hotel, restaurant, and inn keepers, and numerous private families in the neighbourhood. An efficient staff of hands is employed in the works, and a number of well-appointed vehicles are daily engaged in the collection and delivery of orders, the whole arrangements of the management, in the capable hands of the proprietors, being of the most complete and systematic character, fully meriting the success which has been achieved by this enterprising firm.


The inception of this notable concern goes back to 1823, at which time operations were commenced by Mr. J. F. Parkin, who was subsequently joined by Mr. W. H. Bacon. The present owner, Mr. Walter H. Bacon, came into possession a number of years ago, and under his energetic and well-directed control, the business has assumed a position of prominence second to that of no similar establishment in the locality. Large and commodious premises are occupied, consisting of offices, warehouses, and store-rooms, together with various workshops thoroughly well arranged and furnished with appliances, plant, and machinery of the most improved and efficient kind. The equipment is the result of the firm’s long experience, and includes printing machinery, rotary machinery, cutting and folding presses, lithographic machinery, and every labour-saving apparatus known to the trade. Employment is found in the various departments for about fifty skilled hands, and orders of any magnitude are filled with promptness and completeness. Every class of printing is undertaken, and a high order of excellence is maintained in every department.

As engravers and lithographers they take the lead in the town, and a constantly increasing demand is being made upon them for illustrated price sheets and pattern books, a department in which they have deservedly gained a well-recognised reputation. Visiting and complimentary cards, tradesmen’s cards and invoices, cutlery labels, and similar high-class articles are turned out in a thoroughly satisfactory manner. Coats-of-arms, crests, and cyphers are engraved on stone or silver. A special line is made of the manufacture of account-books, and the strong, serviceable work turned out is well known and appreciated. Stocks are held of every style of private and commercial paper, envelopes, blotting papers, &c. Account-books, ledgers, journals, invoice-books, memorandum-books, &c., are manufactured to order.

During its long and prosperous career the house has built up a connection of a very valuable character, chiefly among the professional classes and the leading business houses in the district. Mr. Bacon i3 well known for his business-like and creditable methods, and is a recognised authority in all matters appertaining to the business. In his private capacity he enjoys the respect and esteem of all who know him for his marked ability, public services, and personal worth.

National Telephone No. 817.

An important addition has been made to the engineering works of Sheffield through the acquisition by Mr. Burges of the premises in Edward Street which are known as the Effingham Engineering Works. The nucleus of the concern was created in 1879, when Mr. Burges commenced business at Grange Lane, near Sheffield. The present premises cover a large area, on which have been erected a number of engineering sheds. The sheds are fitted with the newest and most improved labour-saving appliances for the manufacturing processes carried on by the firm. All descriptions of machinery are dealt with. Brass castings and forgings in considerable bulk are supplied to the trade. The increasing business of the firm is due to the careful supervision of the proprietor, who is an experienced mechanical engineer, with good connections throughout the trade. Mr. Burges employs an efficient staff-of skilled workmen in the several departments of the business, and he is highly respected in Sheffield and the surrounding districts, wherever he has business relations, for his high commercial integrity and straightforwardness.


It is now some fifteen years since Mr. F. Jeckells established the business, as a decorator, which he still carries on upon an enormously extended scale. In addition to his general aptitude for business, Mr. Jeckells has a genuine and enthusiastic zeal for the artistic industry in which he is engaged. The premises, which are of exceptional extent, occupy a commanding corner site at the junction of Glossop Road and Regent Terrace. Here the firm have a spacious two-storeyed building with a double-fronted warehouse and sale-room facing the two thoroughfares. In Regent Terrace, again, there is an irregular facade, which indicates the blocks of buildings, numbering 1 to 15, in which are located the well-appointed offices, the ample show-rooms, and the commodious stock-rooms and warehouses, some twenty in number, containing, in apparently endless variety, the materials for the effective decoration of interiors, where Tynecastle tapestry contrasts with raiscd flock papers on gold and coloured grounds. There are numberless varieties of crystal, damask, and frosted gold papers, while such novelties as anaglypta and mural vellum are well represented.

The firm have special arrangements for obtaining the newest designs in the world-famous Lincrusta Walton, which is applicable for dados, walls and ceilings, and for the ornamentation of panels, friezes, cornices, cabinets, folding screens, &c. This material is also used for the treatment of plaques and art objects, of which Mr. Jeckells has many decorated examples on view. A special feature is made of dado and panel decorations for reception-rooms, staircases, &c. The ideas of certain distinguished scientific authorities are represented by an assortment of sanitary washable papers, which are warranted to be absolutely non-poisonous. Particular tastes are provided for in the collection of papers, the ornamentation of which consists of landscape and marine views, figures, medallions, &c. The fact that the firm always hold extensive stocks of white and coloured frostings and also antique carved and other decorative mouldings for dado and picture rails, naturally leads to the remark that they have had a large and successful experience in church decoration.

Mr. Jeckells employs an efficient staff of skilled workmen, many of whom are experts of high technical ability. The general and private offices, which are situated in Regent Terrace, are handsomely appointed, and are provided with telephonic communication and all the other requisite appliances of modern device for facilitating the conduct of a great commercial business. The large measure of success which has been achieved by Mr. Jeckells is chiefly due to the indefatigable zeal which he has exhibited, combined with a high degree of artistic taste, in meeting the different requirements of his patrons.


This well-conducted and flourishing business was founded, so far back as 1852, by Mr. Cross, who, by dint of thorough knowledge of the requirements of the trade, added to an exceptional degree of energy and enterprise, and unwearying endeavours to supply the special wants of each of his customers, has created a most valuable and substantial connection. The premises are spacious, and well adapted to the requirements of the business. The stock is, at all times, an ample one, affording practically an unlimited choice to purchasers. Prime beef, mutton, veal and lamb, fed upon the richest pastures of Great Britain, including the finest of Aberdeenshire beef and the most succulent of Welsh mutton, are always to be found at Mr. Cross’s establishment. His customers, many of them through the experience of long years, have found that the quality of his meat never varies, and he possesses, therefore, the unreserved confidence of many of the leading residents in Sheffield, as well as that of a large number of the most distinguished country families in the district. On two occasions Mr. Cross has had the honour of supplying members of the Royal Family, viz., on the occasion of the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to Sheffield, and also when the late Duke of Albany similarly honoured the town. The chops, steaks, and pickled tongues — the latter being a special delicacy for which the establishment has a great reputation — which are supplied by Mr. Cross are always of the best. He is personally well known throughout a wide district, and is highly esteemed for his sterling integrity and the spirit of liberality which characterises his transactions.


Close upon a century has elapsed since the foundation of this thriving concern, the founder being succeeded by a Mr. Anthony Whitaker, who carried on the business with marked success until the year 1868, when he was succeeded by the present experienced proprietor, who up to last year occupied premises at 14, Fargate, and has now removed the business to the eligible quarters at 31, Fargate, and has there developed the undertaking to its present eminent position among the leading mercantile houses of the borough. The premises occupied are admirably adapted to the requirements of a brisk trade of the kind. They consist of a spacious, elegantly appointed shop, with offices attached, and arranged throughout in the most methodical manner to hold and display a particularly well-selected stock of books in every branch of literature, plain and fancy stationery of every description, stationers’ requisites, and all the items incidental to a first-class book and stationery depot. Careful and capable management maintains a thoroughly satisfactory condition in all the affairs of the house, and the well-known high principles and honourable methods adopted by its proprietor fully justify the confidence reposed in him by an exceptionally large and valuable clientele.


This prominent house was established in 1879 by Messrs. George Edward and Samuel Wright, both of whom are still actively engaged in the promotion of the business, which now has a branch depot at 9, Netherthorpe Place, Portmahon, Sheffield. The premises in the Attercliffe Road consist of two spacious adjoining shops, with large show-rooms on the first floor of a great three-storeyed building, the display windows forming one of the most attractive features of the busy thoroughfare in which they are fortunately situated. Within doors all the arrangements of the place are projected in the most modern style, the show-rooms for mantles and millinery being particularly elegant. The large and comprehensive stock includes silks, dresses, mantles, costumes, drapery, blankets, flannels, ladies’ lingerie and trousseaux, baby-linen and layettes, millinery, feathers and flowers, ribbons and laces, hosiery, corsets and gloves, gentlemen’s shirts, collars, &c., outfitting items, and haberdashery. In each of the departments indicated a complete and carefully selected stock of first-class goods is held, and in some instances the firm make a magnificent display of fashionable specialities, notably in the case of millinery, mantles, and costumes — three lines of production in which the house maintains a particularly high reputation. A good assortment of house-furnishing drapery, carpets, and floorcloths is also noteworthy for variety, value, and general merit. Every branch of the business receives the personal supervision of the principals, and is conducted with a careful competence that is well calculated to preserve the credit for this highly reputed house, and to sustain it in the public favour it has so long and so deservedly enjoyed.


The success which has attended this business may be said to be entirely due to the energy and ability of Mr. Pearson, both of which he has exhibited in a high degree. The premises occupied in Castle Street consist of a spacious shop, with a single window, with convenient work-rooms at the rear. The arrangement of the stock, both in the window and in the interior of the shop, is very effective and pleasing. The fittings and furnishings are in modern style. The general stock of jewellery is a large and representative one, and includes a costly and handsome selection of gold and silver watches, both for ladies’ and gentlemen’s wear, and at very reasonable prices. There are some excellent workmen’s watches, which will be difficult to equal at the price asked. There is also a fine stock of clocks of all kinds, both English, Continental, and American, and at various prices. The general stock includes the many articles to be found on the premises of a first-class jeweller. Mr. Pearson does a very considerable wholesale and retail trade in watch- makers’ and jewellers’ materials, each department being replete with the various articles. There is a very large repairing trade carried on, and several competent hands are kept fully employed, Mr. Pearson himself personally superintending this important department. There is a branch of the business at 7, Wicker Street, fitted and stocked in a similar manner to the above. In all his transactions Mr. Pearson is courteous and obliging, and is much respected by his large and valuable connection.


This business, which has steadily grown to large dimensions, was founded about fifteen years ago by the present Proprietor, Mr. Carter, who trades under the title of Carter’s Star Drug Company. The original premises in Shoreham Street becoming much too small for the increased nature of the business, a removal was made to the present more commodious premises in 1891. These premises are approached through wide gateways, and are of three-storey elevation. The place has been specially planned out to meet the peculiar requirements of the trade, and certainly nothing could be better or more conducive to the quick despatch of work. On the left-hand side the factory stands, the ground floor being the bottling department, and at the rear are the store-rooms, in which a number of females are employed. The well-furnished office is on the first floor. On the upper floors are large stock-rooms, and a machine-room, where all the labels are cut and made, and the packing of the pills, powder, &c., is done.

The speciality of the firm is the manufacturing of several of the Proprietor’s valuable preparations. Carter’s herb beer essence, prepared from pure hops and other choice herbs, makes the finest sparkling herb beer, and is incomparably a better drink than can be made from any other essence, being both wholesome, pleasing, and very refreshing. One sixpenny bottle will make eight gallons of beautiful beer. He is also famous as the maker of a most superior Teething Powder, which has an enormous sale, and which is equal, if not superior, to any at present before the public. Some idea of the enormous demand for this article may be gathered from the fact that upwards of four hundred and fifty thousand packages have been sent out in the short space of nine months. Mr. Carter has also other specialities which he manufactures, viz., cough balsam, diarrhoea mixture, infant soother, Indian rubbing-oils, glycerine, and all kinds of flavouring essences, &c., &c., all sent out with the Company’s “Red Seal Star” label, and packed in sizes varying from one penny upwards. He also stocks a quantity of pure drugs of the finest quality. Mr. J. H. Carter was awarded the highest honour at Sheffield in 1891, receiving the prize medal and diploma of merit. Representatives are sent to all parts of the country, and a first-class and remunerative business is in progress, which is superintended with great ability by the respected proprietor.


This business, which has recently advanced with exceptionally rapid strides, was established in 1860, by Mr. Dover. He began operations in Burgess Street. Eighteen years ago, however, he found that the demand for his productions had altogether outgrown the possibilities of the Burgess Street premises. With characteristic enterprise, therefore, he proceeded to erect the present works on plans which were prepared specially to meet the requirements of his business. Since then he has from time to time enlarged his premises. The Sycamore Tree Works cover a large area, and comprise a three-storeyed factory of large dimensions. The ground floor is, for the most part, occupied by stock-rooms, where are stored large quantities of the products of the various departments of the works. The packing-rooms, which are adjacent to the stock-rooms, are provided with all the appliances requisite to insure the prompt despatch of goods. On the first floor are situated the well-appointed offices of the firm, with an efficient clerical staff. Here also are large work-rooms, fitted up with turning-machines of the best make, and large rooms where a number of carvers are working. On the second floor are found another series of stock-rooms, together with more work-rooms, all fitted with the most improved modern mechanical appliances. Mr. Dover keeps large stocks of the woods used by the firm, principally sycamore, oak, and boxwood. During the last year over three hundred thousand feet of valuable, thoroughly-seasoned wood was used in the works, a fact which indicated a very large increase of business as compared with the preceding annual periods.

The platters which constitute the bulk of Mr. Dover’s productions are elaborately carved with fruits, flowers, leaves, wheat, barley, oats, and other artistic representations of beautiful natural objects; and in such articles of luxury as much as ten guineas may be profitably invested. Others, again, are carved, at prices varying from fourpence each; but those sold from 2s. 6d. to 6s. are mostly in demand, so as to be suitable for wedding presents, &c. The firm has in its possession over nine hundred patterns for platters suitable for bread, cheese, &c. To this long list of designs novelties are constantly being added. Bread platters are being introduced to vary the normal circular form, in new shapes, such as squares, octagons, &c. Another noteworthy and beautiful novelty is the manufacture of elaborately carved biscuit-boxes in oak, together with trays, cruet frames, and salad bowls, mounted, more or less expensively, in silver, electro-plate or nickel silver, &c. Mr. Dover also manufactures a great variety of ornamental plaques, corner cupboards, kitchen and dairy utensils, &c. In 1883 Mr. Dover received a gratifying token of his artistic success in the form of a certificate, awarded by the Cutlers’ Company of London, for the merit of his productions in carved wood, the only one ever given by this ancient company.

It should be added that his stock includes, in addition to the articles already enumerated, such commodities as pickle jars, ash plates, bread and butter knives, which is one of the leading features of his business. The trade-marks of the firm are, in the first place, the representation of a sycamore-tree, and secondly, the suitable presentment of a loaf of bread, with the legend “Staff of Life.” The latter trade-mark is used for cutlery, and the sycamore-tree for wooden goods. The excellence of the workmanship of the commodities produced in Mr. Dover’s factory is now so generally recognised that they have become regular articles of commerce all over the world. They are especially well known throughout the trade in the United Kingdom, in the principal cities and towns of which the commercial connections of the firm are being rapidly extended through the periodical visits of Mr. Dover’s representatives. A very large proportion of his productions is, however, exported direct from the Sycamore Tree Works to Australia, to America, and to the continent of Europe.

Mr. Dover has had a long experience of the class of business which he so successfully pursues, and much of the prosperity of his firm is due to the energy and industry with which he supervises every detail of the working of his factory. He is well known throughout a wide business circle, in which he is universally respected. He has just added to his numerous designs a bread platter, with electro-plated nickel-silver mountings; the centre is made to take out, so that it can easily be cleaned. Below is an engraving of this useful and elaborate bread platter. He has also just patented a candlestick and match receptacle combined, one of the most useful things ever brought out. The matches can always be found with the candlestick, thus saving a deal of annoyance, and not causing so much risk of fires by matches being carelessly thrown about. In the opposite column will be seen an engraving of this useful patent, which ought to be used in every house where a candlestick is required. Mr. Dover has patented this invention in every kind of metal, china, glass, wood, &c..


One of the oldest and best-known houses in the building trade in Sheffield is that of Messrs. Henry Loxley & Son, which was established upwards of half a century ago by the late Mr. J. Loxley, and has since that date been continued by successive representatives of the founder’s family; the present proprietor of the business, Mr. R. M. Loxley, being a grandson of that gentleman, trading under the above style. The premises occupied are situated in Alma Street, and comprise commodious three-storey building, with spacious timber yard adjoining, offices and large joinery works, the whole being very conveniently arranged. Extensive stocks of timber and building materials of every description are held by the firm, and a staff of skilled hands is employed in the various departments of the works. Messrs. Loxley are largely engaged in the execution of important contracts for the erection of public and private buildings, manufactories, and other edifices, the ample resources at their command enabling them to complete works of this character with the utmost promptitude. A special feature of the business to which attention must also be directed is the assessment of loss by fire, Messrs. Loxley having for the past twenty years acted in the capacity of valuers to the principal fire insurance companies in the Yorkshire and Derbyshire districts.

The business is admirably organised in each department, under the personal direction of the principal, giving employment to a large number of hands in the several works in progress, and extending in its operation over a wide area in the district, where the high reputation enjoyed by Messrs. Loxley for the superior excellence of their work has secured for them the confidence of an extensive and valuable clientele.


Operations have been carried on at the present address, the Eccleshall Works, for the last thirteen years. These well-laid-out and extensive premises are in every way calculated to lend assistance to satisfactory results being obtained. The building is of three-storey elevation, and has a large and well-arranged show-room on the first floor. There are numerous workshops, each being fitted complete with the latest and most improved appliances used in the different processes. There are about twenty hands employed. The firm manufacture a large and most choice variety of electro-plated and Britannia-metal goods, of a medium class. The principal efforts, are devoted to the production of tea and coffee sets, spoons, forks, &c. These have a most marketable and superior appearance, many of the designs being cleverly wrought out. The goods are made in all the most useful sizes, and present a most creditable display. The corporate mark is: “W. W. S.” The goods command a large trade in all parts of the United Kingdom, the connection being a well-founded and substantial one. Mr. Wolstenholme has had fifty-five years’ practical experience, and personally manages the business. His matured knowledge and innate ability enable him to do so with remarkable success, and he is widely known as a talented and conscientious gentleman.


Organised a century ago, in the premises still occupied in Castle Street, this prosperous concern can claim to be one of the oldest established, as it certainly is one of the best and most popular places of business of its kind in Sheffield. Both of the present proprietors, Mr. William Mart and Mr. John Chapman, were apprenticed to their predecessor, Mr. Charles Hoole, who commenced business in 1837, having served an apprenticeship with the late Thomas Porter, in King Street. Upon Mr. Hoole’s retirement some twenty-two years ago, the present firm acquired the business, and purchased the property some ten years ago, and developed the business to its present eminent position in the trade, opening branch establishments at 440 and 441, Carbrook, and 81, Broad Street, Park, Sheffield. Vestiges of the olden days of the house in Castle Street may be seen in the premises themselves, which have not been much modernised, while within doors the firm possess a file of accounts dated 1790, and treasure a relic of bygone times in the form of a small tin measure, which was used a century ago for selling snuff.

The premises are admirably adapted to the purposes of the business, and there is displayed a very large and exclusively high-class stock of choice teas, coffees and spices, general groceries of every description, Italian goods of every conceivable kind, Continental comestibles, American tinned goods, and table delicacies of the finest description, and as fine a stock of prime provisions in the way of English and foreign cheese, hams and bacon, lard and butter, and the freshest eggs procurable. The attendance is all that could be desired, the firm keeping a service of drays and vans constantly employed in collecting and delivering orders, and as a result of their perfect management and careful personal supervision in every department, and the supply of only the best procurable articles, the firm possess a family trade which is second to none of its kind in Sheffield or the neighbourhood.


This thriving business was established in 1879 by the present senior partner, Mr. William Jackson, who had for nearly twenty years previously been employed in a responsible position by the eminent firm of Messrs. John Brown & Co., leaving them with the highest testimonials to engage in the trade on his own account, under the title of William Jackson & Son, under which it has been successfully conducted down to the present date. The premises occupied comprise conveniently adapted workshops, smithies, and repairing shops, providing ample accommodation for the various branches of the business. These include every description of wheelwrights’ work, carriage-building to order, and general smiths’ and shoeing work. The principal department of the trade is the horse- shoeing, special attention being directed to the careful execution of this work by the senior partner, whose thoroughly practical skill is demonstrated by his membership of the Worshipful Company of Farriers, London, under whose charter Mr. Jackson is entitled to assume the letters, R.S.S. (Royal Shoeing Smith), after his name. The firm also undertake the repair, retrimming, and painting of carriages and traps of every description in first-class style at moderate charges, a staff of competent hands being employed specially for this department of the business. An extensive and influential local connection has been established by the firm in each branch of the trade, their circle of patronage including the leading horsekeepers in the district, whose confidence has been assured by the reliable and trustworthy character of all work entrusted to Messrs. Jackson for execution, and the promptitude and punctuality with which it is completed.


Thirty years have now elapsed since the formation of this now representative institution by the late Mr. Joseph Benson, who was ably succeeded by his nephew, the present proprietor, Mr. Benjamin Swinden, a gentleman of recognised ability and vast practical experience in connection with the important industrial branch to which his attention is still so vigorously and successfully directed. The Excelsior Glass Works, as they are called, are in every point of character and situation exactly adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business of the kind. Heralding the elaborately equipped workshops are the well-appointed offices, large stock warehouses, and tastefully laid out show-rooms, where a very choice selection of the work executed is always en evidence.

The glass, received “in the rough,” is deftly cut and engraved, and polished, and otherwise treated in the most marvellous manner by a staff of some forty expert workers, the results being acknowledged to stand practically unsurpassable. These are the largest works of the kind in Sheffield, the trade being local, amongst the leading manufacturers and merchants in the town and surrounding districts. The business continues to increase rapidly and substantially, and in all its phases it reflects the highest credit upon the personal ability, energy, and talent that promote its development. At the Yorkshire Trades Exhibition, held at Sheffield in October, 1892, Mr. Benson was awarded a gold medal for the excellence of his exhibits of cut glass, which included a huge, richly-cut salad bowl, said to be the largest ever produced in cut glass.


Mr. James Jackson controls the largest and most important undertaking of its kind in the Kingdom. Such a position has been gained by steady and continuous progress during thirty-five years, and in the latter part of that period the works have grown to an extent far exceeding their original limitations. Additions have from time to time been made since the acquisition of what are known as the London Works (built some twelve years ago, and specially adapted to the trade), to accommodate the gradual development of the business. Every item of the firm’s extensive output is most interesting. The steel plates are put into an annealing furnace and softened, and then gradually allowed to cool, after which they are passed through the cold-rolls until rolled down to the gauge required. They are then cut into strips, and hardened and tempered, then cut into lengths, next shaped, and afterwards punched and japanned.

Each busk is actually subjected to no less than seventeen or more processes, and much ingenuity is illustrated in the cutting-out and stamping shops, the former containing machines of an especially improved character for cutting and heading studs for fasteners. It is in the large warehouses with the drying-stoves where japanning is principally carried on, and other large warehouses are reserved for the preservation of a stock the magnitude of which may be conceived from the fact that the firm’s plant is capable of producing from one thousand to one thousand two hundred gross of busks per week. In the operation of rolling down steel plates for busks four pairs of cold rolls are employed, while the rolling machinery is propelled by two double engines of forty nominal horse-power, made by Oliver Chesterfield, and the general machinery by three other steam-engines of varying power. The mechanical and other resources of the work are such that besides the main and special industry of busk-making, the firm engage in such kindred operations as the cold-rolling, hardening, and tempering of strips, the production of glazed and blued steel strips, and of all descriptions of crinoline steel, worked by a staff of some two hundred or three hundred hands.

The firm command a splendid outlet for their productions all over the principal towns of Great Britain, in each of which they are fully represented; while the home trade is supplemented by a large export trade, taking effect chiefly on the Continent, where the firm’s productions are highly appreciated. With the successful administration of the affairs of the house, and with the maintenance of its far-extending prestige, the able system of organisation observed by the two partners of the firm may be worthily credited. In his endeavour to sustain the undiminished reputation of the concern, Mr. James Jackson, the principal, is ably and zealously seconded by Mr. J. R. Jackson, his son. Both gentlemen fulfil the numerous responsibilities of a large industry and business with acceptance, and preserve its eminent respectability and distinction by adherence to principle3 adopted at the outset and still intelligently observed.


Many large and influential firms are occupied in the above branch of industry, and among these a leading position belongs to the house presided over by Mr. Spurr, who has all his life been actively engaged in this business. He commenced operations on his own account some fourteen or fifteen years ago, and has developed his enterprise with much success. He early acquired a good name for the uniform excellence of his work and the thorough reliance that could be placed upon him for the prompt execution of orders. Operations are carried on in a large and commodious block of buildings, having a frontage of some fifty feet. A well-appointed suite of offices is on the first floor, and there are spacious stock-rooms and various warehouses, together with a row of three-storey shopping at the rear. The arrangement throughout is the result of the proprietor’s long experience, and the equipment is one of the best of its kind, embracing all the latest and most useful appliances and plant. Employment is found for a good number of skilled hands.

There is controlled a very important trade, and everything turned out deservedly takes rank among the best of its kind. The local manufacturers find in them the very thing they need to set off and enhance the various goods they make, and the constant increase in the demand is a sure sign that Mr. Spurr is supplying their requirements in a most satisfactory manner. The material is well selected and thoroughly shrunk before being used, and the linings, velvets, clasps, and hinges are the best for the purpose that can be procured, and in durability, elegance of appearance, and perfect finish the goods have few, or no superiors in the trade. Many novel and specially appropriate patterns have been recently introduced by the house, and these are commanding large sales. The leading specialities for which the firm is noted are cabinets, plate chests, table cutlery cases, fish-eater and dessert-knife cases, fish carver, knife, fork and spoon cases, rolls, &c. Many admirable specimens of these articles will be found in the well-arranged show-room, together with many novelties. Orders of whatever magnitude receive careful and prompt attention.

Mr. Spurr takes an active part in the business, and is anxious to maintain at all points the invaiuable reputation his house has acquired. He occupies a position of prominence in trade circles, and is respected by all who know him, whether as the representative of his branch of industry or as an influential and worthy citizen. For the convenience of business, telephonic connection has been laid with the factory, 100, Charles Street, (No. 513), and with the proprietor’s private residence, 198, Edmund Road (No. 1,304).


One of the leading firms of cabinetmakers and house furnishers in Sheffield is that of Messrs. G. H. Hovey & Sons, whose large and successful business was founded nearly half a century ago by the present senior partner, Mr. G. H. Hovey. That gentleman, has since been joined by his two sons, Messrs. George H. and Ernest B. Hovey, and the business is thus continued with increasing prosperity under the style of G. H. Hovey & Sons. The firm occupy a splendid six-storey building at the corner of Angel Street and Castle Street, and these fine premises afford the most suitable and satisfactory accommodation for the large and important trade carried on. The departmental arrangement of the establishment leaves nothing to be desired as regards convenience, and the appointments throughout are of a superior and appropriate character.

Messrs. G. H. Hovey & Sons have stocked this large and commodious warehouse with all that is new and fashionable in general drapery, silks, dress goods, mantles, millinery, costumes, baby linen, underclothing, hosiery, gloves, laces, ribbons, calicoes, shirtings, all kinds of complete house furnishings, &c. Recently added departments embrace gentlemen’s tailoring and hats, boys’ and youths’ tailoring and hats, ladies’, gentlemen’s, and children’s boots and shoes, and other items of outfitting. This firm’s annual stock-taking clearance sale is one of the “events” of the season in retail trade circles at Sheffield, and serves two excellent purposes— (1) it enables Messrs. Hovey to clear out all surplus stock and get ready for the arrivals of the next season; (2) it places a splendid selection of choice goods before the public at remarkably low prices.

As house furnishers Messrs. Hovey manifest exceptional resources, and their stock is always a particularly fine one in bedsteads, bedding, carpets, linoleums, floorcloths, curtains, cretonnes, household linens, and every requisite for furnishing any size or style of house throughout. In celebration of the festive Yuletide season, Messrs. Hovey always make a special point of organising a Christmas bazaar, with a unique exhibition of toys, dolls, fancy articles, and various other features. Special attention is devoted to the mantle department, where all the latest novelties are held in great profusion and diversities of style.

There is also an extensive dressmaking department, in which the services of a staff of Al cutters are retained. The firm deal largely in the celebrated sewing-machines of Messrs. Frister & Rossmann. A special feature is made of household removals, for which purpose Messrs. Hovey & Sons have had a number of vans constructed with a view to removals by rail, so that the necessity for loading and unloading at the railway-stations is done away with. Altogether, Messrs. G. H. Hovey & Sons have one of the very best businesses of its kind in Yorkshire, and they enjoy the support of a most valuable town and country connection. They do a good deal of manufacturing, particularly in cabinetmaking and upholstering, which is done at their works in Bridge Street and Love Lane, and give employment to a very numerous staff of hands. No house in Sheffield better deserves the esteem and confidence in which it is held.


For upwards of forty years this business was carried on by the late Mr. Radley in the eligible premises now occupied, and finally, in 1877, came under the sole proprietary control of Mr, G. T. W. Newsholme, a gentleman of “light and leading” in the world of technical chemistry, who has made the name of his house famous as the birthplace of many chaste medicinal preparations of the highest utility in the treatment of alimentary disorders, of which special mention must be made of fluid malt extract; various pure preparations of pepsin and pancreatin, fluid nitrite, and solutions and decoctions of cascara, cinchona, and other valuable drugs.

Mr. Newsholme’s splendidly equipped laboratory is located in the High Street, and here he operates on a very extensive scale in preparing the drugs and medicines, and a very complete series of sundries for chemists and medical practitioners. Here also he conducts chemical and microscopical analyses of all kinds for private persons, commercial men, and agriculturists, such as of water, food substances, soils, &c. The premises occupied in Market Place consist of a large and handsomely appointed shop, admirably arranged to hold and display an exhaustive selection of drugs, chemicals, and pharmaceutical preparations; and augmented at the rear by offices and warehouses. The entire business is conducted with ability and enterprise, amongst a very old-established high-class connection, composed principally of medical men, chemists and druggists, and private gentlemen; and Mr. Newsholme is everywhere respected, as much on account of his well-known integrity and honourable business methods as for his many estimable personal qualities.


The above business was established in the year 1857, by a Mr. Ward, who was succeeded by Mr. T. B. Chapman in Orchard Street, and for the past twenty years has been in the hands of the present proprietors, by whom the trade has been greatly developed, and the connection considerably extended. The retail establishment at No. 27, Old Haymarket, occupies an excellent position in the most central part of the town. The spacious and handsome shop is fitted up in a very superior style with elegant yet substantial counters, stands, showcases, skilfully-arranged mirrors and other appropriate appointments. A very large and well-selected stock of English and foreign cigars of the finest brands, tobaccos and mixtures, pipes, pouches, cigar-cases and smokers' requisites is held; these goods are tastefully displayed and admirably arranged for the inspection of customers.

This is one of the oldest-established shops in Sheffield in this line, and commands a splendid trade, being liberally supported by all lovers of the “fragrant weed” who thoroughly appreciate a good cigar offered at the lowest possible price. At No. 7, Orchard Street, the firm have a very large cigar manufactory, which is replete with all the most improved appliances for the successful working of the business; here a large number of experienced hands are busily employed. This department of the business is managed by Mr. Candlish, who possesses the advantage of long practical experience in every detail of the manufacture. The firm control a very extensive trade, both wholesale and retail, and with the superior facilities at command they are in a position to compete on favourable terms with any firm in the trade. Both the partners take an active part in the business, and that commendable spirit of enterprise and energy which has always so strongly animated the members of this firm is conspicuous in the management of every department.


The flourishing business which is now conducted by Mr. R. Hanbidge has a history which goes back to 1856. It is now over fifteen years since the establishment came into the hands of the present proprietor, during whose business career the area of the trade has been very much extended. In 1889 the demands upon Mr. Hanbidge’s space were found to be growing so rapidly that it became necessary to add very considerably to the original premises, which now cover an area of over two thousand eight hundred square feet. The establishment is situated at the important corner of Fargate and Norfolk Row, and presents an exceedingly commanding appearance. The frontage to Fargate forms two large show windows, with spacious entrance in the centre. At the corner is a circular window, and the frontage to Norfolk Row consists of six large show-windows, and an entrance, the whole embracing a street frontage of over one hundred and ten feet. The magnificent display of the large and varied assortment of useful and beautiful goods which the proprietor always holds forms one of the leading attractions of the town.

The interior is lofty and commodious, and has been most handsomely and conveniently fitted throughout by the eminent firm of shopfitters, Messrs. Fred. Sage & Co., of London. The lighting is exceptionally good, the premises being balconied throughout, and having a glass roof extending nearly the entire length of the building. The artificial lighting is beautifully and effectively carried out by electricity, there being nearly two hundred incandescent lamps, each of sixteen-candle power, arranged in a manner which adds much to the very pleasing effect of the whole interior arrangements. The whole of the premises are comfortably heated by the most approved hot-water system. In addition to magnificent show-cases surrounding nearly the whole of the interior, there are standing on the floor in various positions four of the largest and most beautiful centre show-cases we have ever seen in any similar establishment. These cases are all perfectly air-tight and dust-proof, and in them Mr. Hanbidge is enabled to make a most striking and attractive display of the varied and beautiful stock which he holds of gloves, scarves, shirts, handkerchiefs, umbrellas, and fancy articles, and one which we have never seen equalled.

The hat department contains a large stock of silk and felt hats manufactured by the celebrated firms of Lincoln, Bennett & Co., Woodrow & Sons, and McQueen & Co., Mr. Hanbidge being the sole agent for the two last-named firms in the Sheffield district. As a ladies' hatter Mr. Hanbidge has established a reputation throughout the whole of the Midland counties, there being an ever-increasing demand for the very beautiful walking, riding, and driving hats he supplies. The hosiery department embraces an extensive and carefully selected stock of all the best makes of ladies’, gentlemen’s, and children’s underclothing from the leading hosiery manufacturers.

On the first floor is a commodious show-room with seven large windows, where an immense stock is displayed of travelling and leather goods of every description, embracing portmanteaus, dress baskets, saratogas, overland trunks, cabin trunks, visiting-cases, hat-cases, ladies’ and gentlemen’s fitted dressing bags and cases, travelling-rugs, carriage-rugs, dressing-gowns, bath gowns, smoking- jackets, &c., &c. In this room there is also an extensive display of waterproof coats of every description, in which a large business is done, and Mr. Hanbidge is also the sole agent in this district for the celebrated overcoats made by Messrs. H. J. Nicoll & Co., of Regent Street, London. The umbrella department has increased very considerably during the last few years, and Mr. Hanbidge now manufactures and repairs these goods on the premises, the work-rooms being on the upper floor of the building. In the manufacture of these goods Mr. Hanbidge uses only the celebrated Fox’s umbrella frames, made by Samuel Fox & Co., Limited, Stockbridge, near Sheffield, these being undoubtedly without exception the very best umbrella frames made.

In the conduct of his business Mr. Hanbidge has thoroughly maintained the prestige of the old-established firm, while at the same time he has constantly introduced the latest novelties. His intimate relations with the leading manufacturing firms in the hosiery and other departments enables him to place before his patrons at the earliest possible date the latest designs in fabrics and in patterns. Among his list of regular customers are included the names of most of the leading residents in Sheffield and the surrounding districts. He employs an efficient staff of assistants in the various branches of the business. Their number includes several experts, whose knowledge of the trade is the result of much experience. The utmost courtesy and a zealous desire to meet the individual requirements of each customer are uniformly manifested, with the result that Mr. Hanbidge’s circle of patrons is constantly being extended.


Mr. Tarr first commenced his important and flourishing industry about thirty-five years ago, but had previously had considerable experience in the business with his father. It is also a very interesting fact that he made a complete violin at the age of thirteen years, and this violin was played upon in the Theatre Royal, Manchester, for three months previous to the maker being fourteen. During the whole of the time he has been engaged in business his extensive operations have been steadily and continuously increased and developed, with the most highly satisfactory results. He occupies roomy and commodious premises, having a large and well-arranged sale-room on the ground floor, and extensive workshops at the rear and on the floor above, where the manufacture of violins of all kinds is busily conducted upon a scale of considerable importance. Mr. Tarr not only makes violins which have a widespread and enviable reputation for superior manufacture and power and sweetness of tone, but he also deals in Cremonese instruments, of which he has a large and valuable selection always in stock. He also makes a speciality of violin-strings, of which he sells very large quantities. Mr. Tarr is very well known, and has an excellent connection among professional and amateur musicians, as well as throughout the trade, in a wide area round the town. As an active and capable business man, possessing long and extensive experience, and a thorough practical knowledge of the art of violin- making, he is universally looked up to, while he is alike popular and deeply respected by the wide circle of those who enjoy the advantage of his private and personal acquaintance.


The extent of the operations of this business renders it among the most prominent of the kind in or around Sheffield. It was founded by Mr. W. Keaton somewhere about 1865, and came into the hands of Messrs. T. & G. Harston in 1874, and is now the property Of Mr. G. Harston, who in 1886 increased the premises to about double its former proportions. The head premises at 359 and 361, Glossop Road, and 173, Broomspring Lane, cover a large ground space. The building is of two-storey elevation, the shop having a fine double front. The office is at the rear, and is very handsomely fitted and furnished. At the rear are also very extensive stock-rooms and warehouse, as well as the stables, and sheds for the wagons, &c. The cellars are large, and have been specially laid out for the stocks of wines and spirits, fruits, &c.

The stock held represents a vast amount of capital, and is of the soundest and best description. A full supply of groceries is constantly arriving from the very best markets, each article being warranted. There are a great many of the choicest provisions, including hams and bacon, his own feeding and curing; also butters, lard, cheese, &c., English, Colonial, and American. Mr. Harston is deservedly noted for his teas, which are of great strength and exquisite flavour, being his own special blending. He also holds large stocks of superior wines and spirits, which command a brisk sale. In the corn trade Mr. Harston does a very large business, probably the largest of its kind in Sheffield. The proprietor has splendidly equipped mills, known as the Abbeydale Corn Mills, Millhouses. Here every facility is to hand for grinding, splitting, nibbing, drying, &c., the corn grown on Mr. Harston’s farms and received from other noted quarters. The oat-meal and grist milled by the firm stands unequalled for its high quality and purity, and as such is known all over the district. The facilities for delivering the immense quantities of corn, groceries, flour, meal, provisions, wines, &c., are very ample; a complement of ten or a dozen horses, carts, wagons, &e., is constantly on the road; the horses are all superb animals, chosen with a view to quality and use, and there is no firm in the town having a better stud. The magnitude of the business is further increased by the branch establishment which is situate at 280, Fulwood Road, Ranmoor.

The telephone numbers are — for Glossop Road, 590, and Ranmoor, 1,290; and for Millhouses the number is 591.
The telegraphic address, is: “Harston, Glossop Road, Sheffield.”
A courteous and kindly gentleman, Mr. Harston is held in high esteem by all who claim the pleasure of his acquaintance.


It has often been remarked that Sheffield is particularly well supplied with a number of first-class tailoring establishments, and the inhabitants of the great and busy town hold the reputation of being in the secret of “how to dress well.” Probably at no other establishment in the town is work so thoroughly and conscientiously turned out, and with greater skill and style. The proprietor, a man of great experience and unquestionable ability, is constantly introducing the latest improvements, the system of his cutting out being conducted on the most approved scientific principles, conducive not only to an elegant and stylish fit, but also to general health and comfort. This extensive business was founded in 1852, by the late Mr. Henry Brown, who was succeeded in 1885 by the present owner, whose experience of the trade runs over a period of nearly half a century, and whose grandfather established a business in this line at Worksop as far back as the year 1750, and at whose death it passed to the father of Mr. J. Hastings.

The premises consist of a capital shop which has a good single front. The fittings and furnishings are very neat and attractive, and there is an air of superiority throughout the place. The convenient cutting and fitting rooms are at the rear of the shop. A choice stock is kept of West of England, diagonals, worsteds, English and Scotch tweeds, and all the latest novelties and patterns in woollen cloths. These are of guaranteed quality, and will wear exceedingly well. Specialities are in clerical garments, breeches, riding, hunting, &c., liveries, &c. A high-class bespoke trade is in progress, chiefly among the private and commercial gentry of the town and neighbourhood, who hold Mr. Hastings in the greatest respect.


Mr. Harry M. Pashley commenced his flourishing and extensive business in 1874, and since then he has become widely and favourably known as an expert in cycle matters, a capital rider, an energetic agent for all the leading makers, and a manufacturer whose productions do him credit in many ways. Mr. Pashley remained at his original premises in London Road, Highfields, until 1886. There he introduced to the Sheffield people the modern bicycle, the first safety, the first tricycle, the first sociable, the first geared ordinary bicycle, cushion and pneumatic tyres, Hill gears, and every new feature in cycles up to the present time, thus displaying the enterprise which has aided him in achieving a very substantial and, no doubt, a permanent success in the trade. The growth of the business necessitated Mr. Pashley’s removal, in 1886, to his present fine premises in Ecclesall Road, where he has splendid show-rooms, riding-school, and well-equipped works, the whole establishment extending to Bridgefield Road, and covering a ground area of nine thousand square feet.

In his show-rooms he displays a magnificent and varied stock of bicycles and tricycles of every size and style. This large assortment of high-class machines embraces not only Mr, Pashley’s own excellent productions, but also the cycles of such noted makers as Messrs. Singer & Co., the Rudge Cycle Company, Messrs. Starley Brothers, Messrs. Marriott & Cooper, &c., in all the newest designs, and with the latest improvements. Mr. Pashley’s own make of machines embody many fine features, which are the outcome of his long practical experience. His leading specialities are those well-known high-class mounts, “Expert” racers and “King of the Road” safeties, both rear and front drivers, and “Gem” cycles. These machines are made in several designs and sizes, and are unquestionably amongst the very best and most serviceable machines in the market. The “Gem,” “Expert,” and “King of the Road” safeties (all of Mr. Pashley’s own make) are sold at remarkably moderate prices, and it is a fact that they have given their riders less trouble than many reputed high-class machines at double his prices.

Visitors to Mr. Pashley’s establishment can inspect a stock of cycles and cycling requisites which is unsurpassed in the provinces. They will find Mr. Pashley’s business principles as sound as his prices are reasonable. There is, too, a large covered riding school (the only one in Sheffield) on the premises, where purchasers may freely make trial of, or be taught to ride, the cycle. Repairs of all kinds are skilfully executed, and an immense business is done in everything connected with cycling, including exchanging and building special machines to riders’ orders. The house and its popular proprietor are widely known and esteemed, and Mr. Pashley enjoys the support and confidence of a very extensive and valuable clientele, Mrs. Pashley, too, being held in great esteem for the work she has done in aiding her respected husband on behalf of the Cyclists’ Lifeboat Fund, and the Sheffield Charity Cycling Tournament. The family are depicted above.
The telephone No. (National) is 544.


This is one of the oldest businesses of the kind in the kingdom, having been founded over a century ago. For many years it has been carried on under the above title, the present proprietor, Mr. W. T. Morgan, a nephew of Chadburn Brothers, having been connected with the establishment over forty years. The premises comprise a spacious and well-appointed shop and show-room, to the rear of which is a long three-storey block of buildings used as work-rooms, and fitted with elaborate and specially constructed machinery and appliances suitable to the various requirements of the manufacturing optician. A large number of highly skilled and experienced hands are busily employed in the manufacture of all kinds of opticians’ goods, drawing and mathematical instruments, theodolites and surveyors’ instruments, barometers, thermometers, magic lanterns, stereoscopes, microscopes, telescopes, spectacles and eyeglasses, &c., in fact, all kinds of lenses for any and every purpose. A registered portable barometer is an invention of Messrs. Chadburn Brothers, which has a very large sale. Photographic lenses and spectacles are also a leading speciality with this house.

In the show-rooms the firm display a very large and interesting stock of their productions. These beautifully made and highly finished instruments are of guaranteed accuracy and display in every detail of their construction that marvellous excellence of material and workmanship which has made the goods bearing the well-known trade mark of Messrs. Chadburn Brothers famous throughout the world. At the London Exhibition of 1851, Messrs. Chadburn Brothers received honourable mention for their display of GOOD and CHEAP instruments, which was confirmed in the International Exhibition of 1862. With respect to a firm of such old standing and eminent position, an inspection of its arrangements, industrial, economical, and commercial, will fully justify Messrs. Chadburn Brothers in their position, as one of the largest and most enterprising firms of their kind in the United' Kingdom.


Mr. Knowles established this business in 1886, and has continued a successful and prosperous career up to the present time, and with every prospect of future success. The premises are extensive with a large sale-room in the front, and offices at the rear, an arrangement highly convenient to all concerned. This enterprising gentleman does not limit his sphere of operations to his own premises, but has a large connection in the town and district, and conducts sales, where desired, on the owner’s premises. Mr. Knowles’s capabilities are daily engaged on the matter of public-house valuations and hotel transfers. Indeed, this is the principal item in connection with the business. This, which would prove a severe strain on many, comes familiarly to this gentleman, and the manner in which his connection has increased is the surest token of his efficiency. The premises are centrally situated near South Street, Moorhead, and the new Municipal Buildings, and the energetic proprietor most carefully ensures their adaptability for the uses to which they are put as a central auction mart, hotel transfer agency, and estate office.


This is one of the most admirably housed and energetically conducted provision merchants’ establishments in the North of England, and dates back to 1844, in which year it was founded at 3, Old Fargate, where it was carried on with great success until 1889. At that date the Sheffield Improvement Act was put into force, and the widening of Fargate was commenced, so that it was a matter of necessity to acquire new quarters. This was accomplished by the action of the executors of the late Mr. A. H. Holland, who removed the business to the splendid new building erected at the above address. The premises, which are known as “The Provision Stores,” comprise a handsome five-storeyed block of stone buildings, with a bold and commanding facade, and a noble double-fronted entrance, and fine plate-glass windows, whose tastefully arranged assortments of comestibles constitute one of the most attractive features in the street. The offices are to the rear. They are handsomely appointed, and are furnished with telephonic communication and other appliances for facilitating the efficient working of the business, which, under the control of the executors of the late Mr. A. H. Holland, has assumed large proportions.

The firm conduct a considerable Wholesale business, but the chief feature of their trade is the fine quality of the goods supplied, which command a first-class family connection. The stocks generally include large quantities of the finest hams and bacon, cured by the firm on their own premises, also many of the leading prize-taking dairies of Stilton, Cheshire, and other cheeses. The enterprise of the house is shown by their competing at the International Dairy Show, London, in 1855, where they were awarded two prize-medals, viz., one for hams cured by themselves, and the other for their special dairy of Danish butter, which is an article very largely dealt in by the firm, and which they send out regularly to all parts of the town and suburbs, and to greater distances by parcel post, &c. The firm are also sole agents for Lord Vernon’s fresh butter, cream cheese, &c. The premises are fitted up throughout in elegant style, and are admirably adapted to the purposes for which they were erected. The planning and arrangements are most complete and perfect in every respect, the buildings being erected from the designs and under the superintendence of the joint architects, Messrs. Alwyn H. Holland, and Flockton & Gibbs, of Sheffield.


This firm was founded at the above address in the year 1880, by Mr. William Evans, and his two sons, Mr. George Edward Evans, and Mr. William Evans, junior, but Mr. George Edward Evans is the actual manager of the firm. The premises where the famous waters are made are of large extent and consist of a large three-storeyed building, comprising two spacious shops and stores, fitted with all the most approved modern machinery for manufacturing and filling the following celebrated beverages, namely, ginger beer, ginger ale, champagne cider, orange champagne, horehound beer, sarsaparilla stout, raspberry wine, lime juice, lemonade, split lemonades, and soda, potass, lithia and seltzer waters, &c., which are supplied in syphons, and cork and patent stoppered bottles. The cordials manufactured by the firm embrace peppermint, gingerette, ginger brandy, elderberry, and raspberry vinegar, black currant wine, rum shrub, black beer, strawberry lime juice, &c., &c. The firm also manufacture in immense quantities their celebrated “Ye olde stone ginger beers,” which are well known and recognised as the best and most popular beverages made in Yorkshire. A speciality is also made of hop bitters manufactured only from pure (new season’s) Kent hops.

In the premises are various bottle-washing machines of the newest and best construction. The firm has won a wide reputation for their productions, on account of their being so carefully manufactured from the purest materials, and by the best machinery known. They have a splendid connection with the leading hotels, restaurants, refreshment-rooms, and private families in Sheffield and neighbourhood for twelve miles round. The business in every department is conducted with exemplary vigour and capacity, and in the extent and importance of its operations ranks with the largest and most influential in the trade. The firm are manufacturers of a very valuable cough mixture, which also relieves bronchitis and asthma instantly, and are likewise makers of what is known as the “Wonder Relish,” for roast meat, steaks, cutlets, chops, fish, curries, gravies, game, and soup. This article can be obtained through grocers and Italian warehousemen.


This prosperous and most energetically managed business was established in 1872 in Penistone Street by the present proprietor. When certain street improvements rendered it necessary to remove from those premises, the firm wisely profited by the occasion to build the present block in Norfolk Street. The existing premises comprise a large four-storeyed building which, in its various departments, has been admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade. The general and private offices are well appointed and are furnished with all the requisites for facilitating the conduct of a large commercial correspondence. An efficient clerical staff performs the work of the offices. On the ground floor is situated the series of roomy warehouses and store-rooms, in which the firm always hold heavy stocks of those articles of their manufacture which are chiefly in demand in the numerous markets where their productions are known and appreciated. The adjoining show-rooms are very elegantly fitted up and decorated in harmony with the artistically beautiful character of their contents. They contain, at all times, a tastefully arranged and thoroughly representative display of the varied productions of the firm’s workshops, including examples of the novelties in design which they are constantly introducing. Here are also situated the spacious plating- rooms. They are elaborately fitted up with all the most modern dynamos and electrical appliances for working the baths and vats of solutions for the depositing of gold and silver on the various classes of goods, and are in every way adapted to cope with the extensive and increasing business of the firm.

All the manufacturing processes required in the production of Mr. Baum’s varied classes of goods, from the forging and grinding to the plating and finishing of the articles ready for sale, are performed in the various departments of the admirably arranged works. The general workshops are fitted up throughout with mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type. The economies thus effected enable the firm, while producing goods of the best material and the most finished workmanship, to quote prices which compare very favourably with those of other first-class houses.

The firm, in addition to doing a large general business as silversmiths, are very large manufacturers of silver, electro-plated, and steel cutlery. They produce great quantities of nickel silver and Britannia-metal goods. Their stocks, also, always include, in great variety, spoons and forks, pickle forks, butter knives, desserts, fish eaters, fish carvers, &c. It is in connection with the production of such articles that the firm have gained a high reputation in the markets by the introduction of a new metal, to which they have given the (registered) name of “Silverine.” This metal, as applied to the manufacture of such goods as spoons, forks, &c., has earned much celebrity all over the world for its whiteness, permanency of colour, and equality in appearance to sterling silver. A considerable business is also carried on at the Albert Works in the manufacture of table cutlery, and especially in meat carvers mounted in silver and electro-plate. These are fitted in handsome cases, and are sold at very moderate prices.

About a hundred and thirty hands, including many expert workmen of the highest technical skill, are regularly employed at the Albert Works. The business relations of the firm extend all over the United Kingdom, the principal towns of which are regularly visited by its commercial representatives, whose efforts to extend the connection of the house are much facilitated by the high reputation which it bears throughout the trade. The firm have a special agency in London at 94, Hatton Garden. They do a large export trade to Australia, India, the British Colonies generally, and the continent of Europe. Much of the remarkable success which has been gained by this firm must be attributed to the thorough knowledge which Mr. Baum possesses of all the requirements of the trade, and to the assiduity with which he personally supervises all the details of the several departments. It is thus that he is enabled personally to guarantee the value of all goods sent out of his establishment.


“Let us to billiards,” said Cleopatra to Antony, and ever since Shakespeare indicted the invitation the fascinating game, in one form or other, has been popular in Hallamshire and the adjacent districts. Owing to the enterprise and energy of Messrs. Fitzpatrick & Longley, the people of Sheffield are enabled to procure, in their own famous borough, the billiard and bagatelle tables on which they find the means of wholesale and fascinating recreation. The business was established in 1843, by the late Mr. Bernard Fitzpatrick, and during the half-century which has elapsed the commercial connection of the house has been continuously extended. Since his death in 1883 the business has been conducted by his grandsons, Messrs. Bernard Fitzpatrick, and Herbert Fitzpatrick Longley, and they now constitute the firm, and worthily maintain its excellent traditions, under the title of Fitzpatrick & Longley.

The premises in West Street are commodious, and have in the course of years been admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade. They comprise a spacious show-room which, with its commanding double frontage, is handsomely appointed, and contains a representative selection of the firm’s productions. On the upper floor a further reserve stock is always kept of billiard-tables, full sized, and also smaller sizes which are suitable to apartments of smaller proportions. The show-rooms are fitted throughout with all the appliances necessary for the convenience of intending purchasers. To the rear of the main building are the workshops, which are fitted throughout with labour-saving machinery of the most modern type, enabling the firm to produce billiard-tables and accessories at prices which defy competition. The widely reaching transactions of the firm render necessary an extensive correspondence, for the conduct of which the general and private offices are provided with telephonic communication, and all the other modern devices for facilitating business communication. The telephone number, on the National system, is 454.

The stocks of all the adjuncts for the billiard-room, which are constantly held, are so large that the most important orders can be executed without delay. Most of the leading hotels and clubs in the district have been supplied with Messrs. Fitzpatrick & Longley’s billiard or bagatelle tables, and the demand for their productions is steadily increasing amongst many of the distinguished families in the adjacent counties. Amongst the numerous places supplied we may mention that they have recently completely fitted up the Lion Billiard Saloon, the largest saloon in Sheffield, which contains six of their splendid tables. The house has become favourably known in districts far remote from Sheffield, on account of the speciality which it possesses in the form of improved cold-resisting cushions, which can be fitted to any table, and are not affected by any temperature. A very considerable amount of business is done in the repair of billiard-tables, and the fine West of England cloths which the firm use for re-covering can always be relied on for quality. Messrs. Fitzpatrick & Longley are thoroughly familiar with all the requirements of billiard-players, and are deservedly popular throughout a wide district for the zeal which. they show in meeting the special wants of all their patrons.


The business under consideration was founded in 1854, since which time it has remained practically in the same hands, for, though Mr. Yates, senior, is now deceased, his place has been fittingly filled by his son. Messrs. Yates & Wood, whose appropriate trade-mark is “Straight-cut,” are manufacturers of saws and machine knives; also stone, slate, and railway bar saws. For the purposes of this manufacture their works in Wicker Lane are equipped with some of the latest and best machinery, and between thirty and forty men are employed. The works are three storeys high and conveniently arranged. The offices and warehouse are on the first floor, and the machine shops and various workshops are on the ground floor and in the upper storeys, all being commodious and well arranged. The firm has a considerable trade, both in the home and foreign markets, and their saws are distinguished by their accurate adjustment, temper, and durability, and by their means the most satisfactory results are obtained. Both the principals of this important concern, which has been built up and Consolidated under judicious guidance, are thoroughly practical men, well able to maintain the trade supremacy the firm has secured during the thirty-seven years of its existence. Prompt in turning every serviceable idea to account, shrewd to perceive the possibilities which foreign as well as home markets offer for their manufactures, they are creditable representatives of that industrial enterprise which has made Sheffield one of the great workshops of the world — which has made it the great and prosperous community it has happily become.


This eminent firm have been established in Sheffield for about three years. Previous to coming to this town, the senior partner, Mr. James Kinnear, was in business in Scotland for a quarter of a century. On opening out at the above address he admitted his son into partnership, the two trading as Messrs. James Kinnear & Son. These gentlemen own the only business of the kind carried on in Sheffield, being the actual inventors and makers of their various appliances. As such they have worthily gained one of the highest reputations, and as a proof of their skill it has only to be named that many patients, after having visited London for treatment unsuccessfully, have applied to this firm, and received entire and complete satisfaction. The most complicated bodily appliances are made to any design, under the supervision of the medical gentleman in attendance, and patients are saved the trouble of going away to London or Edinburgh. Many striking references can be given to patients who have been fitted with artificial limbs so perfect as to almost defy detection.

During many years of experience the firm have had the continued patronage of the leading physicians and surgeons, and have regularly done work for many hospitals and institutions. They are thoroughly practical surgical mechanicians and inventors of artificial limbs, spinal machines, poro- plastic jackets, hernia bandages, and every description of deformity appliances. These are made to each special case, and give universai satisfaction both for comfort, fit, and ease. Among the honours and distinctions gained by the firm was the highest medal and diploma of merit at the Edinburgh International Exhibition, 1886, also the three highest awards for exhibitions in 1882, 1887, and 1888. Messrs. Kinnear had the honour of selling to the University of Aberdeen their exhibits of 1882, for demonstration purposes in the surgical classes presided over by Dr. Alexander Ogston, Regius Professor of Surgery, now appointed Surgeon- in-Ordinary to the Queen in Scotland. The premises are situate between Glossop Road and Devonshire Street, where all the appliances, limbs, &c., are made. Special terms are offered to hospitals, infirmaries, dispensaries, charitable institutions, and railway companies. Messrs. Kinnear & Son have earned the thanks and regards of the numerous patients to whom they have given such close and patient attention, and can be recommended as a thoroughly skilful, honourable, and courteous firm.


Always well to the front in the display of novelties, the above firm are constantly adding to their enormous stock the most recent and effective patterns of seasonable materials. The practical part of the business is conducted in a manner thoroughly in keeping with the excellent character of the stock, a large staff of experienced workmen being engaged in making up, while cutting and fitting receive the most careful attention from the principals themselves, who stand unrivalled in the district as exponents of scientific cutting. They are particularly successful in the production of high-class dress suits, uniforms, and liveries, in which lines they do a very extensive trade, while mourning orders are attended to with the utmost promptitude and accuracy. Indeed, it may be said that every garment turned out by them bears the impress of refined taste and perfect workmanship. Messrs. Hoyland & Son act as agents for the celebrated hat manufacturing firm of Messrs. Lincoln, Bennett, & Co., and have always on stock a choice selection of their newest and most fashionable silk and felt hats. The business was established so long ago as 1827. The premises consist of large show-rooms on the first floor, and workshops immediately above. By their smart business habits and attentive courtesy the principals have risen high in popular opinion, and have secured one of the most influential connections in the neighbourhood.
The Telephone Exchange number of the house is 1,127.


This business was founded by the father of the present proprietor, Mr. Edwin Rippon, who from the commencement developed an extensive trade. Such is the repute in which his clocks are held that they have been supplied to many large churches, halls, and other public buildings in various parts. The testimonial received carry overwhelming evidence of the splendid quality of these turret clocks. A few of the places recently supplied are here given out of a very large number:— Sir John Brown, Endcliffe, Sheffield; Rev. J.B. Draper, All Saints Church; Darnall Parish Church, Repton Church, Burton-on-Trent; Swynnerton Church, Stone, Staffordshire; Thurnscoe Hall, Rotherham; Middlewood Hall, Barnsley; Weston Park and Firth Park, Sheffield, and also the clocks at the Fitzalan Square waiting-room; that at Walker & Hall’s in Howard Street; Taylor Brothers, Arundel Street, tramway stables at Attercliffe; Bolsterstone Church; Brown Bailey’s steel works, &c. These clocks are wound and kept in repair by Mr. Rippon, as are also the Corporation clocks of Sheffield.

The prices for clocks range from £10 to £300, and are made to order on Denison’s principle, with gravity escapements. A large and very valuable stock of ladies’ and gentlemen’s gold and silver watches is on hand, very handsomely cased, and containing all the most recent improvements. There are also many very choice designs in French and English clocks. The business throughout is conducted with commendable energy, and on the most honourable lines, the proprietor being particularly noted in this respect. He is most courteous in giving advice upon any subject in connection with clocks, and holds the esteem of his numerous patrons.
His telephone No. is 627.


This business has borne a high local and district reputation for considerably over sixty years, having been established in 1826. The founder was Mr. Lewis Hiller, who, a quarter of a century ago, was succeeded by his son, Mr. John F. Hiller, the present proprietor. The premises consist of a large single-fronted shop, having attached to it capital and convenient storing accommodation, slaughtering-houses, &c. The latter are at the rear, and are remarkable for their perfect cleanliness. This is observed throughout the whole of the premises, and is a recognised and appreciated feature. A plentiful supply of water is to hand, and sanitation and ventilation are carefully looked to. Mr. Hiller has all his life been engaged in the pork trade, and is allowed to be a highly competent judge and authority. His supplies are drawn from the most famous Yorkshire herds, and are famous for their sweet and pure flavour. In the processes of curing the hams and bacon great skill and experience is brought to bear upon each detail, and the hams are pronounced by connoisseurs to be without equal. Mr. Hiller has also acquired a great reputation all over the country for his polonies, sausages, and pork pies. Through the medium of that great public boon, the Parcel Post, now so universally used for small orders, he sends larger quantities every week to all parts of the United Kingdom. The polonies are very much appreciated in London, Mr. Hiller having several agents in the City. They are much enjoyed, and prove a welcome relish for the luncheon or supper table. The shop has a very attractive appearance, and is specially well adapted to the requirements of a business of this description. Mr. Hiller takes the personal management of the concern, his efforts being ably supplemented by his son. There are also civil and competent assistants employed, and all dealings are carried out in a most superior and expeditious manner.
The telegraphic address is: “Hiller, Moor, Sheffield.”


The above business is one of the most important of its kind in Sheffield. It was founded by the present proprietor in the year 1874, at the premises still occupied. These are spacious, commodious, and admirably adapted to the purposes of their designation. They comprise spacious workshops, offices, stores, &c., all being commodiously arranged and well fitted with all the most improved and patent machinery essential to this branch of industry, winch is worked by a powerful steam-engine, and in every department a noticeable feature is the completeness with which all details as to machinery and plant have been observed. No expense has been spared in adapting the works to the highest class of trade. A large number of specially selected hands are employed, under the careful supervision of the proprietor. The sphere of operations taken up by this firm is that of a pearl handle and scale cutter. These are cut by machinery from the shell, grinding away the waste portion, and then cutting to the required sizes and lengths. This is the only trade for knife handles and scales where grinding is necessary, a branch of industry in which the firm has reached the very acme of perfection.

Mr. Casson is a gentleman possessing the advantage of long and thorough practical experience of the trade, and has a good connection with the local makers of cutlery and fancy pearl goods, as well as with the principal business centres of Great Britain. A very large export trade is also controlled, chiefly to the Continent, where the firm export direct to the manufacturers. The business is well developed in all its branches, and is personally conducted with enterprise and ability. The house is well known both at home and abroad, and the position it holds in the department of trade with which its name is closely identified has been attained by faithful devotion to the observance of sound and honourable principles, and the practice of commercial methods unquestionable in integrity and rectitude.


Projected about six-and-twenty years ago by the able and energetic senior member of the firm, the commercial development of the concern became so rapid that he found it imperative to make very considerable extensions, and accordingly in 1878 entered upon the present eligible premises, which had been specially built for the business in operation. The Exchange Works, as they are called, consist of a large and substantial three-storeyed block of buildings, with commodious well-appointed offices, and a large yard for the storage and seasoning of the wood. The works proper are elaborately equipped with every facility for the rapid production of every class and grade of table, dessert, and fish-eater cases, plate chests, cabinets and canteens, fish-carver cases, and all kinds of morocco and other cases for silver goods; and call into active requisition the services of a very large staff of skilled craftsmen and others whose labours are carefully supervised by the principals in person. Messrs. Greaves & Son’s productions are so well known for their perfect construction and moderate prices that their entire out-turn is absorbed by local manufacturers of cutlery, silver, and electro-plated wares, and no house could have won by more honourable and legitimate means the high reputation and extensive business connections which this firm now so deservedly enjoy.


This most energetically conducted business was established in 1854 by the late Mr. Charles Nichols, who was successful in creating a valuable business connection which has been very considerably extended by the enterprise of his successors. For many years after his death, which occurred in 1865, the business was conducted, with unremitting assiduity, by Mrs. Emma Nichols, who subsequently taking her brother, Mr. Joseph Goodall, into partnership, assumed the style of E. Nichols & Co. At the end of 1887 Mrs. Nichols retired and was succeeded in the management by her son, Mr. John William Nichols, who, with Mr. Goodall as his colleague, has since continued to maintain and strengthen the excellent traditions of the firm. Since the retirement of Mrs. Nichols the firm has been styled Nichols & Co. The premises in Gibraltar Street are very extensive, and comprise a spacious Wholesale sale-room, where samples of the great variety of commodities in which the firm deal are exhibited. The stock-yard to the rear is surrounded by ample warehouses, which from time to time have been enlarged to meet the growing requirements of the firm. The buildings include stabling for fifteen horses.

An idea of the scope and magnitude of the firm’s commercial transactions as wholesale agents, between the great importing and manufacturing houses on the one hand, and the retail dealers of Yorkshire and adjacent counties on the other, may be formed by a study of Messrs. Nichols & Co.’s “Trade Catalogue and Commercial Book of Reference.” This copious handbook, which is illustrated by several views of the firm’s premises, contains, in addition to the ample list of groceries and provision goods, for the sale of many of which the firm are specially appointed agents, but also a large mass of valuable commercial information such as is likely to be useful to the retail trader. Throughout the wide district in which their business connection extends Messrs. Nichols & Co. have a specially high reputation as blenders of the teas and coffees, in the buying of which their long experience and trained judgment are placed at the service of their customers. To this and to the excellent record of the firm for the strictest fairness and integrity in all its transactions must be attributed the remarkable degree of success which the firm has achieved. Both the partners are thoroughly acquainted with all the requirements of the trade, and studiously supervise all its details. They are personally well known and are much esteemed in business circles in Sheffield and the district.


This most useful business was founded in 1864 by Mr. Edwin Terry, the present sole proprietor, who has occupied the premises at the above address some four years. He succeeded also to the business of Mr. James Dodsworth, and purchased the buildings. The Reliance Works are of great extent, and are fitted with all the most approved machinery and appliances. There are neatly fitted and furnished offices, stock warehouses, and blocks of workshops for forging, grinding, buffing and for finishing. The machinery, &c., is driven by a powerful engine. The branches are numerous and consist of the manufacture of all kinds of palette and putty knives, hacking, gilders’, farriers’, and plumbers’ knives, in various sizes and shapes. Plumbers’ shave hooks are also manufactured, as well as steel graining combs. The warehouses contain a large amount of stock, ready for immediate dispatch on receipt of order, many experienced hands being engaged on the premises in renewing the supplies. The corporate marks, by which the goods are known, are the words, “Reliance” and “Optime.” The bulk of the large trade is with the chief towns in Great Britain, the Continent, and the Colonies, there being a steadily increasing all-round demand for the goods. The business is superintended in a most efficient manner by Mr. Terry, who, by his courtesy and very straightforward dealings, has secured the cordial respect of his influential clientele.


This thriving and eminently representative concern was originally established by the present proprietor some twenty years or more ago, in premises situated at No. 69, Arundel Street, where he did a very extensive and considerable trade until, towards the end of 1890, the growing requirements of constantly increasing and developing business necessitated a removal to the present more commodious premises. The building now occupied is commodious and substantially built, consisting of two roomy floors, the lower of which is devoted to the embossing department, and the upper to the work of chasing, in both of which a numerous staff of skilled and competent hands is employed. Mr. Wingfield undertakes all kinds of work coming within the scope of the chaser and embosser’s craft, and he does an extensive and flourishing business in connection with all kinds of silver, pewter, and German-silver goods, &c. He is himself a thoroughly practical man in all branches of the trade, and devotes close and watchful personal supervision to all work entrusted to him for execution. He bears a very favourable name for the superior finish and careful workmanship for which he may at all times be thoroughly depended upon, and he has a very large and influential connection of old standing, having been for so many years well known in trade circles in the town, and everywhere greatly esteemed and respected.


The business carried on by the firm of Edward Greaves & Sons, which is the leading one of its kind in Sheffield, was established by Mr. Edward Greaves thirty-one years ago. He began operations in South Street, but owing to the extension of his trade, larger premises became necessary, and the firm now own two distinct works, one in Gilbert Street, and the other in Duke Street Lane. Now that his sons have become partners, Mr. Greaves does not take so active a part as he did till six years ago in the management of the business, but Messrs. William and Thomas Greaves, upon whom the control of the concern mainly devolves, are thoroughly capable, energetic, and enterprising. The Gilbert Street premises are very large and commodious, covering a ground area of about one acre. They comprise a square block of buildings enclosing a yard, and in the square there are no fewer than twenty-five workrooms; also stock-rooms and warehouse, and large engine-house, with steam engine and heating apparatus. In front is the show-room, where there is a large stock of boots and shoes, slippers and laces. The second and third floors are arranged as workshops, in which about one hundred and fifty hands are employed.

The firm’s production of boots and shoes is very considerable, and it includes all kinds of ready-made goods for men, women, and children, together with running-shoes and other special makes. Considering the excellence of the materials, the admirable pattern and finish of their goods, the firm supply these at exceedingly moderate prices. A very great demand has therefore arisen, and the firm’s trade is a most extensive one. Another feature of their trade in the Duke Street Lane premises is the manufacture of porpoise, calf, Cordovan and kip straight-cut laces. The production of these is immense, and they will be found to be the best in the market.

The Gilbert Street premises are wholly devoted to curriery, which is another important branch of the firm’s business. It will be seen, therefore, that Messrs. Greaves & Sons, by undertaking all classes of leather work from curriery to boot and lace making, are in a very favourable position compared with manufacturers who limit themselves to one branch. The works in Gilbert Street are large, and a considerable number of hands are employed, and work is carried on under the best conditions. The great and thriving industry which Mr. Edward Greaves created, and which his sons are now so successfully carrying on, affords a good example of what can be accomplished by ability and enterprise. Its importance and its prosperity are alike notable, and yet it continues to grow so that its future development is likely to be still more remarkable.


This is in all probability the oldest house in the district, if not in the kingdom, engaged in this line, its inception dating back for more than one hundred years. The founder was Mr. William Hutchinson; then came the late Alderman William Hutchinson, who was in partnership with his brother, Mr. Henry Hutchinson. The present sole proprietor is Mr. George Tomlinson, a nephew of Alderman Hutchinson, previously referred to, and a gentleman of large practical experience in the business. The premises now occupied consist of an extensive three- storey building, with large frontage in Matilda Street, and comprise a handsomely appointed suite of general and private offices, warehouses, and show-rooms. The factory is a compact four-storeyed building, situate at the rear of the offices. It contains forging and grinding rooms on the ground floor, warehouses and finishing and making-up rooms on the first floor; on the second floor are the various buffing and filing rooms, with fitting and other rooms on the third floor. The whole of these spacious premises have been arranged with a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the trade, and have been equipped with every appliance, plant, and machinery that experience can suggest or money procure. Close upon a hundred skilled hands are employed, and every department is kept in a high state of efficiency.

An extensive and high-class trade is done by the firm in the manufacture of their speciality. All their productions have gained a high standing in the markets and are universally recognised as having no superiors. The perfect resources possessed by the firm give them advantages in the manufacture equalled by very few other houses, and all their instruments are made from beginning to end on the premises. Everything they turn out is absolutely reliable in every respect. The material selected is the best of its kind, and every process is carefully watched and vigorously tested, so that the finished article can be guaranteed to be without flaw or blemish.

Mr. Tomlinson is a man of wide and minute knowledge in every branch of his business, and is well posted up in the improvements and changes which science and experience are constantly making. His goods combine all the latest improvements, and are highly appreciated by our leading surgeons and specialists. They include sets of instruments for army and navy surgeons and for private practice, amputating instruments, cupping instruments, eye instruments, midwifery instruments, enema syringes, lancets, complete sets of instruments for dental surgery, dissecting instruments, sets of veterinary instruments, and instruments for microscopic dissection in great variety. The connection enjoyed by the house is large and valuable, extending to all the principal towns of Great Britain, and a considerable export trade is controlled with the Continent, the Colonies, and many foreign countries. Mr. Tomlinson gives the business the in valuable advantage of his close personal supervision, and by his fair and honourable methods and uniform courtesy he commands the esteem and confidence of all who come into business connection with him.


This flourishing business was established in 1846, by Messrs. Boothroyd & Warriner. At an early period in the history of the firm these gentlemen succeeded in creating the excellent commercial connection which has since been materially extended. On the dissolution of their partnership Mr. Warriner assumed the responsibility of sole proprietorship, and continued to conduct the business with much credit and profit. About ten years ago it was taken over by Mr. Francis Petit, who brought to the undertaking a large amount of technical knowledge, and an exceptional degree of energy and enterprise. The result has proved most satisfactory, and the old-established business has now entered on a new career of prosperity. The premises of the firm in Broomhall Street are commodious, and have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the trade. The well-appointed offices are situated in the front. They are provided with all the requisites for facilitating the conduct of the large amount of commercial correspondence necessitated by the widespread business relations of the firm. Adjoining are the spacious show-rooms, in which are displayed a thoroughly representative assortment of the various goods manufactured on the premises, many of which are invested with high artistic merit. The industrial departments occupy a large two-storeyed house to the rear.

The workshops are fitted throughout with mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type necessary for the production of the beautiful commodities which have made the reputation of the firm; as a result, the prices quoted will compare very favourably with those of other first-class houses in the trade. The productions of the firm, which are well known and are highly appreciated in the trade, include cabinet, table, and dessert knife-cases, plate-chests, cutlery-cases, razor-cases, fish-carvers cases, and every description of leather and hardwood cases, rolls, &c. The growing success of the firm is due, doubtless, to Mr. Petit’s thorough knowledge of all departments of the trade, industrial as well as commercial, and to the untiring supervision which he bestows upon all the details of his business. Mr. Petit is personally well known in the commercial circles of Sheffield and the district, and is much esteemed for the sterling integrity which characterises all the commercial transactions of his firm.


To this large and superior business belongs the distinction of being the oldest of its kind in Sheffield. It has held a position of importance for over half a century, and was founded by William Townsend, father of the present proprietor, who is also called William, and who, having two sons, William Arthur and Ernest Hope, who will eventually come into the business, the title remains unchanged. During the marvellous transformation which has taken place in the printing world since this firm commenced operations, they have constantly kept pace with the times, displaying a most commendable amount of energy and enterprise. The premises consist of a commodious three-storeyed building. The shop, on the ground floor, occupies an advantageous corner position, facing into Norfolk Lane and Surrey Street. In the shop, which is very nicely fitted and furnished, a good display is made of every practical kind of commercial and general stationery, including a fine range of account- books in all manner of rulings and bindings. There is also a useful stock of office requisites, all of the best quality. The large printing-rooms reveal the enterprise and the resources of the firm, for every department is in thorough order to turn out the best class of work, whether in commercial, ornamental, or general printing, the appliances being of the most approved order. In lithography some praiseworthy and highly artistic designs are being constantly produced. A special feature is made of the manufacturing of account-books, which are made on the premises by skilled and special hands. All kinds of bookbinding are also undertaken, and the volumes are strongly sewn, and bound in any style, or in any leather. A considerable amount of attention is given to the production of pattern cards, the firm being very successful in this direction. The business is, in fact. a good all-round one, and has features about it not often seen in provincial offices. One of these features rests in the fact that all work can be completed on the premises. A competent staff of hands work under the personal supervision of the respected proprietor.


This large and influential business was established by the above-named gentleman in 1888, originally in the Haymarket Chambers, and removed about twelve months ago to the present address, where the firm occupy a spacious suite of well-appointed offices, with waiting-room and every facility for the expeditions transaction of business. Mr. Crowther has a splendid connection amongst the leading mercantile firms, bankers, insurance offices, and manufacturers in Sheffield and the adjoining towns. He is a gentleman of long experience, and to the strict and conscientious consideration of the best interests of his clients is to be traced the eminent position achieved among his contemporaries.


Mr. S. Sylvester first laid the foundation of his busy and prosperous establishment about five years ago, when he first commenced operations at the above address, previous to which he had been connected with the trade over twenty years. Since then he has with steady and continuous progress developed and increased the scope and extent of his transactions with the most highly satisfactory results. The roomy and commodious shop is situated in the substantial block known as Channing Hall Buildings, facing the site of the New Sheffield Town Hall, and is of handsome and attractive appearance, and admirably fitted and appointed in its interior arrangements for the purposes of a very high-class trade. The stock is very large and comprehensive, and includes a fine selection of the choicest cigars and tobaccos as well as an extensive assortment of pipes, pouches, cigar cases, cabinets, and smokers’ requisites, and fancy goods and sundries generally.

Mr. Sylvester does a very thriving and active trade, both of a wholesale and retail character, in which department he represents for the Midland and Northern counties of England the celebrated firm of Stephen Mitchell & Son, of Glasgow, a house dating back in this trade to the year 1723, and as a matter of course does a large and increasing trade. It may be interesting to note that this firm are the manufacturers of a tobacco now widely known as “ Tam o’ Shanter,” and this tobacco was made and named at the suggestion of Mr. Sylvester. Mr. Sylvester has the appreciative confidence and warm and cordial support of a very large and influential connection in the district, and over the whole of the ground he covers. He is well known and much looked up to in commercial circles, and he is personally greatly esteemed and respected by all with whom he comes in contact.


Thirty-one years have now elapsed since Mr. Aves installed his first cab-yard at Broomspring Lane, and he can therefore claim to be the oldest established, as he is now one of the largest and best-known, cab proprietors in Sheffield. Under his able System of administration the business grew apace, and he found it imperative to make very considerable extensions. He accordingly acquired the present site in Broomhall Road, and there erected his splendid establishment and mews, which are elaborately constructed in accordance with all the latest advances, and provide for the comfortable accommodation of a large number of horses, and for the proper housing of some eighty-five cabs and other vehicles, harness, and other equestrian equipments.

Although the cab business forms the principal part of his great undertaking, Mr. Aves does a very substantial trade as a buyer and seller on commission of horses and carriages, and for this purpose has recently acquired additional premises, 61, Ecclesall Road, where a considerable trade is done, and keeps in constant readiness a large number of cabs and hansoms, party carriages, wagonettes, stanhopes, gigs, dogcarts, and other equipages for hire, with or without full attendance, such as drivers, coachmen, and others. He has also won a well-merited renown as an expert horse-breaker, and individually exercises a wonderful power over horses, making them tractable and useful for any specified kind of work, and this department of his business has brought him into close contact with a very large and valuable clientele, drawn from members of the aristocracy and gentry living in and around Sheffield. For the rest, the business increases rapidly and substantially, and in all its phases has attained a condition reflecting the highest credit upon the personal energy, ability, and talent that promote its development.

Telephone Exchange No. 1,316.

Mr. Knight first laid the foundations of his thriving and flourishing operations over twenty years ago; He occupies very commodious premises conveniently arranged on three floors, the basement of which is level with the workshops at the back. On the ground floor is a roomy and well-stocked shop, show-room, and offices, and above are three excellent and well-lighted work-rooms, where gilding, designing, and sketching is carried on by himself and a staff of first-class artists. A considerable and prosperous trade is done in all kinds of sign and facia writing, wood letters, enamelled copper letters, opal and crystal glass letters, as well as in embossing on glass, &c. A leading feature is also made of specialities in advertising novelties for various purposes, and Mr. Knight is the patentee and manufacturer of the match-striking and advertising tablet, which has been much approved by leading firms of the most extensive advertisers.

In addition to his other branches of the business, Mr. Knight makes a speciality of the “Climax” call bell (patent 19,351) for hotel, office, restaurant, billiard, card and dining tables, &c. They are superior (for the purpo3s) to electric bells, as they require no battery, and are self-sustained. They do away with all handbells, and are most convenient, as you can ring up without moving from your seat. They can be fixed to any table (portable or otherwise) at a nominal cost. Leading features are also made of a marble-top table, 3 feet 6 inches by 1 foot 8 inches; and bronzed iron standards, first-class style, fitted with “Climax” call bell and four pulls or pushes, complete, £2 15s.

Hotel and cafe smoke-rooms and billiard-rooms are fitted up to any style or design, first-class workmen only being employed. The trade done is exceedingly large and, indeed, Mr. Knight has of late developed and increased the scope and extent of his operations so rapidly and so successfully that a considerable extension of his premises at a very early date has now become imperatively necessary. Mr. J. H. Knight is a very active and energetic business man, possessing great natural capacity combined with a thorough practical knowledge and valuable experience of every branch of the trade. He is well known in local commercial circles and is universally popular and much respected and esteemed.


The headquarters of this important and extensive concern are located at 378, Glossop Road, where Mr. W. H. Haigh has his chief offices. He has also large premises and stables in the Ecclesall Road, where he has well-appointed stables and coach-houses of very considerable extent. He has further a thriving branch at Royal Hotel Yard, Waingate, where a very busy trade is done. Some idea of the extent and importance of this interesting and noteworthy business may be formed from the fact that Mr. Haigh keeps a stud varying in number up to as many as one hundred strong and serviceable animals, while in his busy carriage-building works at Ecclesall Road over a hundred men are constantly and regularly employed. Mr. Haigh being so well known in the district, his cab trade is naturally of first consequence. He also makes a speciality of the supply of carriages for wed- dings and other similar occasions, and caters extensively for large pleasure parties. The funeral department is one in which a very considerable business is done, Mr. Haigh having a number of handsomely appointed mourning-coaches, hearses, and saloon funeral omnibuses, drawn by Belgian horses of high class. The telephone numbers of this important business are at Royal Hotel Yard, 198; Ecclesall Road, 199; and at Glossop Road, 200.

Mr. W. H. Haigh, who is the sole proprietor of the concern, is a very active and energetic business man, who devotes close and experienced attention to every detail of his affairs. He is well known and greatly respected locally as a sound and substantial business man of the first standing, and is personally held in high regard and esteem by all with whom he comes in contact.



Projected in the year 1840, this thoroughly representative pharmacy is most eligibly situated in a commanding position in the High Street and Bridgegate, and consists of a spacious double-fronted shop, elegantly appointed throughout in the most modern style, very fully stocked with an exhaustive series of drugs and chemicals of ascertained purity and standard strength, toilet requisites, and all the articles incidental to a thoroughly high-class pharmacy, and augmented by a perfectly-equipped dispensing department, where Mr. Humphrey Davy, with a staff of fully-qualified assistants, operates in every branch of his profession, and has won the respect and confidence of the leading medical practitioners of the town, and the liberal support of a very large and desirable clientele. The pharmacy, moreover, is affiliated to a very large manufacturing and wholesale distributing concern, of which Mr. Davy is the managing director, known to the trade in all parts of the United Kingdom under the style and title of Humphrey Davy & Son, Limited, Wholesale and Export Chemists, Druggists, and Drysalters.

The company’s works are located at Masborough, in the outskirts of Rotherham, and are known as the Victoria Works, and here the firm operate as manufacturers and wholesale dealers in a large number of chaste preparations, for which they have become world-famous, and of which an accurate estimate may be gathered from the following list of leading lines. These include:— Davy’s celebrated toilet preparations, such as royal tooth paste, areca nut tooth paste, glycerine jelly, “special” perfumes, “special” lavender water, “special” eau de Cologne, “special” petroleum pomade, “special” cold cream, “special” violet powder, “special ” fullers’ earth; Davy’s household preparations, which include the following useful commodities: furniture cream, polishing pastes, Brunswick black, plate powder, blue-black writing fluid, scarlet, blue, and violet inks, violet copying ink, knife polish, starch gloss, and a large variety of fine flavouring essences.

The firm are also the sole proprietors and manufacturers of Pownall’s soluble family liquid blue, which is certified to be the best and cheapest form of blue for laundry work, and of Pownall’s chemical marking ink, which is one of the most indelible preparations of its kind extant. The, firm are also importers, refiners, and dealers in all kinds of domestic and manufacturing oils, such as castor, cod liver, olive, salad, and hair oils, machine, bicycle, sewing-machine, nut, and camphorated oils, and do a very substantial business in every description of druggists’, grocers’, and drysalters’ sundries, of which they publish periodical price currents. The business connections of the house are of a permanent, widespread, and influential character, extending not only to all parts of the Kingdom, but to the leading export]markets of the day; and the entire undertaking is conducted with marked ability, energy, and enterprise.


This thriving and successful business is one of recent origin, having been founded by the present proprietor only three years ago, but notwithstanding the fact that the history of the firm is somewhat short, it has rapidly attained a leading position, and is now among the principal houses in the trade. The premises consist of a good substantial three-storeyed building, having a large double-fronted and tastefully-arranged shop on the ground floor, extending some distance to the rear. The stock is a large, varied and well-selected one, comprising a vast and choice assortment of calicoes, linens, sheetings, quilts, counterpanes, and heavy Manchester goods generally, together with ladies’ dress materials of the finest quality and in the newest designs and colours, silk and satin fabrics, velvets, and velveteens, hosiery, ladies’ underclothing, and a large and varied selection of all kinds of fancy goods, including silk handkerchiefs and mufflers, ladies’ ruffles, aprons, turnovers, gloves, haberdashery of all kinds, ribbons, laces, feathers, flowers, and millinery requisites generally.

A very high standard of quality has been maintained in every department. In dress materials this is particularly noticeable, and great taste and style is manifest to the most casual observer. A good staff of assistants is constantly and busily employed under the superintendence of the proprietor. A large trade is controlled among a good medium-class connection which extends to all parts of the district. The careful management and enterprise of the proprietor have brought the trade to its present position. About twelve months ago Mr. Beckett’s enterprise led him to open a branch establishment at Mexborough, a most thriving district about six miles distant from Rotherham. At this establishment, too, a large trade is being done. Three years ago when Mr. Beckett commenced business he took for his motto, “Small profits and quick returns,” and there is no doubt that the success which has attended his efforts is largely due to the observance of this rule, and it may be safely said that those who once enter and purchase at Mr. Beckett’s houses, either at Rotherham or Mexborough, will do so again.

National Telephone No. 1,019.

Projected in the year 1838 by Messrs. Hinchcliffe, and carried on by them to the beginning of 1886, it was purchased in that year by Mr. Frederick Slack, a gentleman of practical ability in the printing trade, to whose able and vigorous policy of administration must be attributed the remarkable success which has characterised the concern. The premises in occupation comprise a large and substantial square three-storeyed block of buildings at 16, Churchyard, elaborately equipped with the most modern machinery and other appliances incidental to the brisk business carried on in general letterpress and job printing, catalogue making, bookbinding, paper ruling, die sinking, envelope and paper stamping, and the manufacture of account-books of every description on a large scale, calling into requisition the services of a large staff of skilled and experienced hands, whose labours are most carefully and energetically directed by Mr. Slack in propria persona. Then there is the shop in High Street, a building admirably suited for the retail trade, in which there is a large stock oi stationery and stationers’ sundries of every conceivable kind. Energetic and enterprising in following up every advance of the times, Mr. Slack thoroughly merits the distinct success that has attended his representative house; and he spares no effort to preserve intact the reputation it has acquired, the confidence it has gained, and the high advantages it has secured, in the possession of a large and influential connection, drawn from all parts of the borough and its surroundings.

John Cobban & Son, Nurserymen, Seedsmen, and Florists,
1, Market Place, Rotherham.

Rotherham contains no more pleasing establishment, or one of greater service, than that founded by Mr. Flintham, in 1831, and now owned and managed by Mr. John Cobban. This talented and enterprising gentleman has conducted the business for many years, and it is satisfactory to be enabled to note that he has met with the support and due appreciation that his merit deserves. The handsome double-fronted shop holds a commanding corner position at the above address. There are many exquisite flowering and foliage plants, choice cut flowers, daintily arranged bouquets, wreaths, crosses, &c. Wedding and other bouquets are made to order on the shortest notice. A specially pleasing show is made of all kinds of foreign grasses, pampas grasses, and artistic devices in flowers.

A large and important trade is done in specially selected agricultural seeds, famous for their pure strain and prolific nature. There are large quantities of horticultural plants, Dutch bulbs, and English-grown roots of every description. The nurseries are situate at Greasborough. Here are the most improved greenhouses, forcing-house3, and frames, all capitally looked after, and producing the choicest varieties of fruits and early vegetables. At the opening of the Clifton Park, Rotherham, by their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, in June, 1891, a large and most exquisitely designed bouquet, and a large basket of the very choicest fruit, was presented to the royal visitors, both of these coming from the nurseries of the firm.

A really first-class business is carried on with the leading families of the neighbourhood. Mr. John Cobban is ably assisted in the management of the shop by his son, of the same name. Both gentlemen occupy a high position in the estimation of their fellow- townsmen, and are noted for their upright dealings.


Dating back in its foundation almost from the commencement of the present century, the extensive business now so successfully carried on by Mr. Charles M. Ratcliffe, Printer, Stationer, Bookbinder, and Account-book Manufacturer, is one of the oldest establishments in Rotherham. Mr. Abraham Gilling, the founder, carried it on for many years, and at his death it passed into the hands of the present proprietor, which is upwards of ten years since. Previous to that Mr. C. M. Ratcliffe was fifteen years manager of the printing department of the “Rotherham and Masborough Advertiser.” The establishment, which is known as the “Albion” Office, occupies an excellent position in Church Street (No. 11), and consists of a commodious two-storey building, with a spacious and well-appointed show-room on the ground floor. To the rear are the printing works, fitted with machinery and appliances of the most improved description, and worked by one of Crossley’s patent gas-engines, and every facility for the effective and economical working of the various branches of the business. Mr. Ratcliffe gives employment to skilled and experienced hands (Society), and undertakes every description of letterpress printing executed in the very best style. Orders taken for lithographic printing, die-stamping, bookbinding, ruling, and the manufacture of account-books, ledgers, diaries, memorandum-books, cheque-books, &c., are also extensively carried out and with the superior facilities at command Mr. Ratcliffe is in a position to complete all orders on the shortest notice and on the most reasonable terms, and in all cases equal to any house in the trade.

A large and thoroughly representative stock of mercantile, school, and general stationery is held; also some good specimens of printing and lithographic work, which display in every detail of execution the superior skill and talent employed in this establishment. Mr. Ratcliffe brings to bear upon the business the advantage of many years’ practical experience, and exercises a careful personal supervision over each department. He is much respected and esteemed by a large and influential circle of customers and friends, not only for his business enterprise, but also for the upright and honourable manner in which he carries out all his transactions.


Mr. J. Crosby opened his beautifully-appointed studio to the public some fifteen years ago, and has so distinctly excelled in his profession as to be admittedly the best photographer in the district. The premises are most eligibly situated for a first-class business of the kind, and consist of a large and substantial three-storeyed building, the ground floor of which forms a fine show-room for specimens; the first floor being elegantly appointed as a reception-room, with dressing-rooms attached, while the topmost storey is carefully constructed as a studio, replete with every contrivance up to date for the management of the light, and elaborately equipped with all the latest and best cameras, lenses, and appliances for the production of pictures by all the best-known processes. Mr. Crosby does not merely excel as a photographer, but is an artist of high repute, many of his coloured portraits being masterpieces of their kind. His scale of charges is most moderate, and he possesses that savoir faire so essential in a business of this kind, in invariably posing his clients (both children and adults) in such a way as to secure telling likenesses of expression, life, and truthfulness. As a result of this, he has built up a firmly established connection of the very best class, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in days to come.


This extensive and ever-growing business has now been established over twenty-two years, having been inaugurated in 1870. It was founded by the present proprietor, Mr. Charles Hague, at the above address. The premises, especially in the summer season, bear a very busy appearance, and they are admirably laid out for the purposes of the trade. The plant is an excellent one, and capable of turning out immense supplies. There are eight engines and machines, by well-known makers. The factory also possesses an ample supply of pure water, and the entire place is kept scrupulously clean, and in perfect order. The premises consist of a two-storey building, the factory being on the ground floor. On the upper floor is the laboratory, also the warehouses. The principal beverages made are ginger beer, lemonade, sodawater, hop beer, bitter beer, champagne cider, horehound beer, &c. The champagne cider, hop beer, and bitter beers have become widely known and vastly appreciated. All the ingredients used are pure, and of the best quality. Pure filtered water only is used, and this is stored in a slate cistern with a capacity of 200 gallons. The beverages form thoroughly wholesome and refreshing drinks, and are of uniform quality and excellence. Mr. Charles Hague, the sole proprietor, is greatly respected by all who know him. He is an old resident, and on many occasions has shown his interest in those around him, and has quietly advanced the welfare of the town.

Telegrams: “France, Rotherham
National Telephone No. 1,022.

A quarter of a century has now elapsed since the inauguration of this representative pharmacy by its present estimable proprietor. The premises occupied consist of a spacious elegantly appointed pharmacy of the most modern type, very fully stocked with an exhaustive series of drugs and chemicals of a certain purity and standard strength; choice toilet preparations and perfumery, all the popular patent medicines of the day, medical and surgical appliances, chemists’ sundries, and proprietary articles incidental to the trade, and prominent amongst these may be noticed a preparation for which Mr. France has won a well-merited renown, viz., France’s Cough Emulsion, which has been found efficacious for the cure of coughs, colds, asthma, difficult expectoration, shortness of breath, bronchitis, influenza, chest affections, hoarseness, hooping cough, &c.

In his purely professional work, Mr. France, with a staff of fully qualified assistants, operates on a very large scale as a dispenser of physicians’ prescriptions and in the compounding of family recipes, devoting the most careful and competent attention to the exact requirements of his clients, with the result that he has won the esteem and confidence of the leading local medical practitioners, and the respect and liberal support of their patients, and all classes of the community at large. Lastly, Mr. France deals on an extensive scale as a wholesale and retail oil and colour merchant and general drysalter, his depot for these goods being located at Millgate, and consisting of a large and substantial two-storeyed building, very fully stocked with a large and comprehensive selection of exclusively the best and purest products of the market.

Another very essential part of his business is the large trade done with the glass and bottle manufacturers, as he is the sole agent in Yorkshire for THE UNITED ALKALI COMPANY, Limited, Liverpool, for the sale of their chemicals to the glass manufacturer, and under his able and vigorous direction there is every assurance that the substantial success and eminent position gained shall not only be well sustained but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in days to come.



The business was originally established half a century ago, and was acquired by Mr. Clarke in 1885, since which date he has considerably extended and developed the concern by his skilful and energetic management. The premises at No. 34, High Street comprise a handsome and commodious shop, tastefully fitted throughout with elegant glass show-cases and other modern appointments for the effective display of the extensive and varied stock. This includes a choice selection of valuable gold and silver watches, gold and gem jewellery, drawing and dining room clocks and timepieces, electro-plated and silver dinner, tea, and dessert services, wedding and keeper rings, brooches, bracelets, earrings, lockets, necklets, and an immense variety of ornamental and useful articles suitable for birthday and wedding gifts, prizes, presentation, &e. Mr. Clarke also has on hand every description of opticians’ specialities in spectacles, eyeglasses, field and opera glasses, &c., barometers, and other goods of this description. Special attention is given to watch, clock, and jewellery repairs, which are promptly executed at moderate charges by competent and experienced hands.

The cigar and tobacco stores, located at No. 38, High Street, are replete with the choicest brands of British and foreign cigars, fancy and packet tobaccos, and every description of smokers' requisites in great variety, and of exceptionally superior quality, for the wholesale and retail trade. The business in each department is widely patronised by the residents of the locality, with whom the proprietor is deservedly popular, and by his unremitting attention to the requirements of his numerous visitors Mr. Clarke has secured a substantial measure of favour with all classes throughout the neighbourhood.


This notable business was established by Mr. George H, Bayes in 1883. The premises are neat and appropriate, and afford every facility for carrying on a large and high-class business. The proprietor is personally conversant with all the branches of the trade, and is an accomplished cutter, and thoroughly understands the making- up of all kinds of high-class garments. He adopts the latest and most scientific system, and is enabled in all cases to guarantee a perfect and stylish fit. He chiefly caters for a better-class clientele, and holds one of the most fashionable and select stocks in Mexborough. Included are the prevailing colours and patterns in woollens, West of Englands, English and Scotch tweeds, serges, &c.; among which are many special patterns and materials for trouserings and overcoatings. Competent and trustworthy hands only are engaged, and the greatest attention is paid to urgent and mourning orders. As Mr. Bayes obtain s his supplies from the best-known manufacturers, he is enabled to conscientiously recommend his materials. He has a valuable and steady connection among the commercial men of the town and the surrounding districts. His agreeable manner of conducting his transactions renders him exceedingly popular with his patrons, and he is generally respected by those around him.


THAT chapter in the history of British commerce and industry which reviews the past achievements and present standing of the busy town of Leeds, as a centre of trade activity, must assuredly be specially interesting to the student of our national prosperity, for among the communities of Britain there are few which have, in modern times, afforded a more striking example of municipal and mercantile growth and progress than this great seat of northern business enterprise. Leeds has long been noted as the chief emporium of our immense woollen trade — the mart to which the world at large looks constantly for a large proportion of its requirements in the matter of woollen fabrics; but at the present day Leeds is something more even than this. The energies of its people have overflowed into many other channels of action, and have developed a host of other trades and manufactures which, by the widespread influence they exercise and the material prosperity of which they are the basis, have raised the vast borough on the Aire to the rank of a metropolis in that quarter of England wherein it is the most extensive and populous community. It will need but a glance at the articles in the following pages to show how the inherent energy of Yorkshiremen in all branches of business has contributed to, and ensured, this grand result.

The early history of Leeds extends back into the days of tradition, and the most reliable sources of information tell us little more concerning the origin of the place than that it was one of twenty-eight “cities” founded by our worthy ancestors, the Early Britons, in the time of their independence — that is to say, before the advent of the conquering legions of Rome. The tribe of Britons to whom Leeds owes its foundation was probably that of the Brigantes, who were renowned for their valour and skill in warfare, and whose sturdy spirit seems to still survive in the Yorkshjremen of to-day. They gave to the town the name of “Caer-hoid-Coit” (“the town in the wood”), but the modern name of Leeds is supposed to have been derived from Lede, or Leod, a British chieftain who had charge of it in the days of its infancy. In due course the Romans came —traces of their presence have been discovered here from time to time — and in due course they left, being succeeded by the Saxons. During the Heptarchy, Leeds was one of the towns in the kingdom of Deiral ruled by Oswin.

When Domesday Book was compiled Leeds was evidently a place of some consequence, for that great inventory of landed property speaks of the manor being held by seven thanes, of course under the King. William the Conqueror granted the manor to one of his feudal retainers, Ilbert De Lacy, and though the Norman rule did little to encourage the peaceful arts, the place seems to have flourished nevertheless. A quotation from Dr. Whitaker’s well-known works will indicate the topographical aspect of Leeds in those early times. He writes:—

“Whatsoever streets do not bear the Saxon name of ‘gate’ were then, if anything, lanes in the fields; and this rule restricts the original Leeds to Briggate, Kirkgate, and Swinegate, which lane formed the approach to a castle subsequently erected by the Lacys referred to. Let the present-day reader figure to himself, in place of the now busy and crowded thoroughfares, two deep and dirty highways, one stretching from the bridge to the Town Hall, and the other at a right angle to the parish church, with seven-and-twenty dwelling-houses constructed of mud, wattles and straw — the usual architecture of the period — with barns, farmyards of a sort, &c., and here and there a wretched cabin, perhaps of still meaner construction, dispersed at intervais along the two lines. To the backs of these, in every direction, lay a wide extent of open fields, and with these exceptions the streets and squares into which this great commercial town has expanded were alternately grazed by cattle or wrought by the plough.”

Difficult indeed is it to trace any resemblance between the paltry burgh thus portrayed and the populous and prosperous town of to-day, with its teeming thoroughfares, noisy with the traffic of a stupendous trade, and its vast blocks of mercantile edifices and stately public buildings, not a few of which are among the noblest structures of their kind in the kingdom.

The modern town of Leeds, with its one thousand seven hundred streets, is particularly well-placed for manufacturing and commercial purposes, and is divided into two parts by the river Aire, a useful and well-conserved stream flowing eastward into the estuary of the Humber. Almost the whole of the north side, and a greater portion of the south side may be said to be devoted to the service of commerce in its various forms and undertakings; and where the six bridges form connecting links between the one bank and the other, here lies the great heart of the town, pulsing continuously to the ebb and flow of an ever-swelling stream of mercantile interests. Here what is left of the older part of the town has its special features absorbed in the rush and bustle of modern push and progress, the clatter of cabs and drays, the chink of gold in the counting-house, and the hurrying forms of thousands of busy battlers in the great struggle for commercial fame and its enchanting emoluments. But here, too, the Leeds of to-day is seen at its best and brightest, for Leeds is essentially and corporeally a city of trade and industry; and no true son of Leod would dream of wishing the everyday garb of his beloved town (black and smoky though that garb may sometimes be) to be exchanged for the less useful and less profitable attire of antiquarian or historical interest. A town of the times is this great hive of workers, whose labours are for the welfare of mankind, and whose products have the whole wide world for their market. If it has been said that Leeds is not strictly beautiful, no one can deny that Leeds has won imperishable laurels in the battle of business, and that she stands to-day upon a financial basis of which any of the world’s capitals might be justly proud. We have scores of towns and cities to maintain our fame in the matter of natural and artificial graces and elegances; and though Leeds may lack the classic charm of Greece and Italy, or even the time-honoured dignity that reposes in our own ancient cathedral towns, she can place in the counterbalance her nine hundred factories and workshops, monuments of her wealth, industry, and mercantile prestige, and who shall say that her side of the scale is the lighter of the two?

The “march of improvement” has left many a trace upon the structural aspect of Leeds in recent years. The general scheme of improvement, planned and carried out by the local authorities as opportunity offered, has bequeathed to the citizens and their posterity a rich heritage of spacious streets and stately buildings; and we heed only mention the Town Hall, the Grammar School, the General Infirmary, the Mechanics’ Institute and School of Art, the Royal Exchange, the Corn Exchange and the Yorkshire College, to show that this busy town is not lacking in architectural attractions of the most superb character. Few towns are so well provided with places of worship, and few outside of the cathedral cities can show a more noble ecclesiastical edifice than the parish church of Leeds, an exceedingly beautiful example of the Perpendicular and Early Decorated styles of architecture. Educational and benevolent institutions abound, and all the characteristics of a great nineteenth-century community, far advanced in all the devices of enlightened civilisation, are strikingly and abundantly exemplified. Music, art, literature/the drama, are all cultivated here, with due regard to their refining and elevating influences. The voice of the local press is powerful for the immediate good of the district, and is not without a large amount of influence, wisely wielded, in the affairs of the nation and the empire.

In the immediate vicinity of Leeds there are several communities, smaller in size than their great neighbour (some even forming a recognised part of the chief borough), but all participating to some extent in the renown appertaining to its leading industries. Of two or three of these places we may here say just a word or two of an introductory nature.

BRAMLEY is situated within the parish and borough of Leeds, on the Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax Junction Railway, and it forms one of the wards into which the borough of Leeds is divided. Quarries of slate and sandstone are profitably worked at Bramley, but woollen manufacture is the chief industry, and affords occupation to the majority of the working inhabitants. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes near, and Bramley enjoys its share of those splendid railway facilities which have contributed so largely to the prosperity of the entire district.

ARMLEY is another division of the extensive and populous industrial region of which Leeds is the heart and centre. It lies in the Valley of the Aire, on the Leeds, Bradford, and Halifax branch of the Great Northern Railway, and has long been engaged in the woollen industries, which still form the chief of its manufacturing operations. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes through the parish, penetrating the Giant’s Hill, where there are traces of a Danish camp. Armley has grown concurrently with Leeds, and has partaken of its prosperity. Its local men of business are well known for their enterprise, and among its works and factories may be found some of the best-managed and most successful establishments in the neighbourhood.

MORLEY is a thriving municipal borough, finely situated in the parish of Batley, about four or five miles to the south-west of Leeds. This town, which has risen greatly in importance during the last half-century, is mentioned in Domesday Book as a place of some consequence; but in 1801 its population was only 2,108, and in 1831, 3,819. The great modern development of the woollen trade here, and the success achieved in the manufacture of those useful and economical woollen cloths with which the name of Morley is now inseparably associated, have brought the borough to its present prosperous and progressive condition. The population was 15,011 in 1881; it had increased to 18,725 in 1891; and henceforward Morley will claim a prominent place among the manufacturing towns of Yorkshire.



An immense industry is carried on by the above-named firm, who exemplify, at their busy works in Whitehall Road, one of the many important channels in which the manufacturing energy and enterprise of modern Leeds find scope for progress and expansion. Founded upwards of thirty years ago by Messrs. Joseph Watson & Sons, the house under notice has now gained a position among the leaders of the soap trade, and its productions are in steady demand in all the principal markets. The business was started in Woodhouse Lane, but was removed about twenty years ago to the present Whitehall Works, which were specially erected by the firm to meet the exigencies of the growing trade. This establishment is one of the largest soap-works in England, covering a total area-of several acres; and the building extends from Whitehall Road back to the river Aire. In all parts the works are substantially built, spacious, and organised upon thoroughly practical lines, and they contain a splendid plant of the best modern machinery and utensils, capable of turning out the vast quantity of six hundred tons of soap per week. Upwards of seven hundred hands are employed in the works, and the commercial routine of the business calls for the services of between forty and fifty clerks and managers.

Perhaps the leading specialities of the business consist in “Watson’s Matchless Cleanser” and Venus Soap, special soaps which fully justify their title, and which have an immense sale in all parts of the country.

Not only are Messrs. Joseph Watson & Sons manufacturers of soaps upon an enormous scale, but they are also large importers in all kinds of oil, resin, tallow, &c. For this latter they have five large storage depots in Leeds, containing stocks amounting to many thousands of tons of oil and tallow. Another important department is the distillation of glycerine, chiefly for dynamite manufacturing and exportation to foreign markets; and the firm rank among the principal dealers in hides and skins in this great centre of the northern leather trade.

Messrs. Joseph Watson & Sons have branches at Snow Hill, London, E. C., and at 19, Howard Street, Glasgow; and they are represented by agents and travellers in all parts of the United Kingdom. Probably no English house operates more extensively in the same lines of trade, and certainly none is more widely known. The present principals are Messrs. Charles and George Watson (sons of the late Mr. Joseph Watson), both of whom take an active part in the management of the business, and display therein a degree of energy and practical ability which is productive of- excellent results in the growth and progress of this thoroughly representative concern.


With the development of the goldsmiths’ and jewellers’ industry in Leeds probably no house has borne a closer or more intimate association than that of Messrs. Brownbill & Co. whose operations date as far back as 1772, and whose business bears the especial historic interest of being the oldest of the same kind in this district. The house has, during the long interim of one hundred and twenty years, been characterised by a uniformity of method and principle creditable to its long and well-sustained family proprietory, and from 1772 to 1890 the operations of the business were continuously carried on in the same premises in the Briggate in which it was first initiated by Mr. Henry Brownbill. It
was he who, in 1793, issued the famous “halfpenny” which has become the registered trademark of the house, bearing on one side a view of the “Cloth Hall,” and on the reverse a portrait of Bishop Blaise, with the words, “Success to the Yorkshire woollen manufactory”; also on the rim the words “Payable at H. Brownbill’s, Silversmith.”

Since the very outset the house has sustained a character for liberal trading upon which, next to the excellence of everything the firm provide, the confidence of an influential and extended clientele may be said to be largely based, and by a consistent adherenee to the highest standard of workmanship only, Messrs. Brownbill & Co. have acquired a repute of the first distinction in the old and important industry they have so long and capably illustrated. The desire on the part of the firm to give full money value to their patrons has greatly conduced to their success, and in the department of watches alone they have become the accredited house in this district, being enabled to give a sound and unqualified guarantee with every watch they supply, whether at one pound or at the cost of a hundred and eighty.

In view of the widespread character of their clientele, and the large trade transacted through the postal medium, the firm undertake the risks of transit and give a written guarantee for three years. Their recent acquisition of the only right granted in this district of selling silver watches accompanied by the Kew Observatory certificate, enables the firm to sell silver watches with this much-desired certificate, until recently confined to gold watches of an expensive class; and they have availed themselves, for the benefit of their numerous patrons, of all modern improvements embodied in chronometers, minute repeaters, chronographs, and complicated watches of every description.

The superb characteristics of all the other items of gold and silver jewellery, bijouterie, and gem and presentation work are to be noted in the contents of the establishments at the Briggate and at the Arcade, in both of which there are submitted an almost limitless profusion of recherche articles, combining ail the attractions of the modern jewellers’ art. As might be expected from an establishment so long founded in popular support, a very large trade is effected in presentation goods, the choice variety of which is especially commendable for this object.

All kinds of watch and jewellery repairs are executed by practical watchmakers and jewellers selected for their accurate knowledge of all the best features of the trade, and the work of mounting gems in a highly-artistic style is aided by the close personal superintendence of the head of the firm, Mr. Joseph Edgar Brownbill, whose acquaintance with the intrinsic as well as purely artistic qualifications of gems is already well manifested in the neat work of his own compiling, entitled “Flowers of the Mineral World.” Copies of this interesting volume have been accepted by Her Majesty the Queen, the Princess of Wales, and numerous members of the nobility, and it forms an appropriate present to the customers of the house, many of whom have expressed their admiration of the charming and thoroughly readable style in which the book is written.

In conclusion of this necessarily brief sketch it need only be added that, after a century’s uninterrupted progress, the house of Brownbill & Co. commands undiminished favour and celebrity, particularly in the busy commercial centre of which it forms still a feature of more than ordinary interest. The firm enjoy the patronage of the leading residents of Leeds and district, and the handsome appearance of both establishments, and the courtesy and activeness of the esteemed principal, contribute to the popularity of the business, even among strangers or occasional residents in this vicinity.


This energetically conducted business was established about sixty years ago by the late Mr. Samuel Gray. Eventually Mr. ¥m. Gray, son of the above, joined the firm, and on the decease of his father carried it on until his own death about three years ago, when his son, Mr. Edwin Gray, became sole proprietor. The commercial headquarters of the firm are conveniently situated at 50, Park Place, in the centre of the mercantile quarter of Leeds. The warehouse contains, at all times, a large and varied stock of the manufactured goods of the firm. The manufactory of the firm is situated at Rawden and is known as the Rawden Low Mills. They are fitted throughout with looms and other mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type. The excellence of the working plant enables the firm. to effect very considerable saving in time and labour, the result of which is the very moderate terms which they quote for goods of sound material and thorough finish. It is thus that they are constantly extending their commercial relations. Messrs. Gray, Sons & Co.’s manufactory gives constant employment to over a hundred hands in weaving and finishing woollen coatings and trouserings in great variety and design. These are disposed of chiefly in the home markets, notably those of Liverpool, Manchester, London, and other large towns throughout the United Kingdom. No firm in their branch of the woollen trade have a higher reputation for the soundness and reliability of their goods.


The production of high-class clothing upon a Wholesale scale, to meet the requirements of the fashionable merchant tailors of our country, is a branch of the business very far removed from the manufacture of ordinary ready-made garments. It is practically bespoke tailoring on extensive and greatly improved principles, producing a class of goods which testify to the judgment, skill, and care of the makers, and to the great amount of labour expended in obtaining the excellence of style and finish which they possess. We believe that this portion of the trade is confined to very few manufacturers, but it is nowhere perhaps more systematically and successfully followed than at Leeds. And at this line it would indeed be difficult to indicate a more noteworthy house which has risen to the very front of the trade, entirely upon the merits and intrinsic value of its productions, than the one whose rise and progress furnishes the theme of this brief historical review.

This house was founded only eight years ago by Mr. J. W. Sunderland, at Leeds, and at Kimberley, South Africa, and during the earlier portion of its existence devoted its energy entirely to the manufacture of goods suitable to the South African markets, but later, in consequence of the share crisis and consequent trade depression of the great diamond-fields industry, it withdrew from the Colonial trade. In 1887 Mr. Sunderland was joined in the business by Mr. A. Wilton, and the name of the present firm of Sunderland & Wilton came into existence. From that date the rise and progress of the house has been successful to a remarkable degree. Foreseeing that the manufacture of low-priced goods was growing faster than the demand, they determined to tum their attention to a better-class article, at first experiencing many disappointments in their aim to obtain the fit and finish necessary, but with the determination and perseverance of true Yorkshiremen, succeeded at last, and their present factory and trade is the most convincing proof of the great success that has attended their efforts. Making nothing but better-class goods, it is a pleasure to go through their extensive premises and see ail the choice and latest cloths of the day being converted with care and skill into the different styles of garments, and to observe the great taste and judgment displayed in the trimming and finishing of them, every garment being made inside their own factory.

The factories occupied, known as Millgarth Mills, situated below Kirkgate Market, are in point of character well adapted to the requirements of a large business of this kind. They consist of substantially built offices and goods receiving-room, which are lighted from the roof, a six-storeyed fireproof structure known as Old Zion, a four-storeyed fireproof factory known as New Zion, and a substantially built five-storeyed warehouse with shed roof, all of which are connected with one large staircase, and most admirably appointed throughout for their systematic business routine. The premises are fitted up with the most modern and improved machinery (many of which are the firm’s own improvements and patents) and fittings, power from two Crossley’s gas-engines driving the whole. Nothing could be more commendable than the order and system prevailing throughout the premises.

One of the last but not least features of this business is the thought and care taken for the welfare and comfort of its workpeople. A well-lighted and furnished dining-room is provided, with cooking-room above it, fitted with the latest gas-cooking arrangements, and equal to providing for about two hundred and fifty hands, and here each meal-time an experienced cook with two assistants provides good and wholesome meals for as many of the workpeople as desire to stay. These meals are provided at the bare cost price of the uncooked food, and come well within the reach of all, besides many little delicacies in the way of fruit, all sold in small quantities at bare wholesale prices, and if this system was carried out in more of our large workshops, great good to the working classes would be the result.

Another positive proof of the demand for this firm’s productions is found in the fact that although their trade is of so considerable a volume, Mr. Wilton is the only representative they have on the road, and rarely leaves home without definite appointments. For the rest, the entire business is conducted with very great personal care and supervision in every detail, and the marked success that has already been achieved stands clearly as evidence of the remarkable energy and sound enterprise of the proprietors.


The history of this representative business dates from 1846, when operations were commenced by Mr. J. T. Pearson, who established the business on a sure foundation and developed it with vigour and judgment. He continued at the head of affairs until ten years ago, when he was succeeded by the present proprietors, Mr. Alfred Fox and Mr. Frederick Ben Atkinson. Under their joint control the concern has expanded in resources and importance, until it now occupies a position of prominence second to no similar house in the locality. From their long and close connection with the business in all its branches, the partners are well acquainted with the wants of buyers and consumers, and the means at their command enable them to supply these requirements in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Extensive and commodious premises are occupied, which have been arranged with a view to the successful and expeditious control of the business. They comprise a five-storey warehouse, having an extended frontage to The Calls, and another to the river Aire, where the firm have valuable wharf accommodation. An exceedingly large trade is done in the manufacture of artificial manures of every kind. These productions are well known all over the Kingdom, and are regarded by the best judges as among the most efficacious and reliable to be obtained. All the resources of science, supplemented by the long experience of the proprietors, have been employed to render these articles perfectly pure and highly fertilising, and the continued increase in the demand is a gratifying proof that they have succeeded in their efforts.

The firm are large makers of phospho guano and other manures. The quality of these manures is guaranteed by analysis, and orders are accepted for delivery at any future date and in any quantities. The firm are makers of linseed cakes, cotton cakes, and corn cakes of a superior quality, which find ready sales among cattle owners and breeders. A speciality is made of agricultural seeds, large quantities of which, well selected and well cleaned, are always on hand. The connection is of a widespread and valuable character, and its permanent increase has become assured under the careful attention all customers receive. A numerous body of workpeople and assistants is employed, and the partners give the business the full benefit of their able personal supervision. The proprietors are men of good trade standing, strictly fair and honourable in all their transactions, and they are much respected by all who know them, whether in private life or as the worthy representatives of this important business.


The system of supplying coal direct from the mine to the consumer, and all the economical advantages derivable therefrom, may be said to find an excellent illustration in Leeds in the operations of the well-known colliery company trading under the above designation. The products of the Silkstone and Haigh Moor Collieries have attained a popularity in this neighbourhood which is in many respects unrivalled. The qualities of coal known under the several titles of best old Silkstone main, Wallsend house, cobbles, Silkstone nuts, and Middleton main hards are everywhere acknowledged, and, being the products of the best Silkstone seam in the district, they afford all the desirable merits of rapid lighting, free burning, and a pleasant cheerful fire without sulphur. As a company providing more particularly for the interests of domestic connections, the coals are put out in sizes, ready for using without breaking up, and, being particularly adapted for culinary and general household purposes, burn slowly and economise consumption.

The trade of the company being of a very extensive and general character, important and large contracts are also engaged in for the supply of engine and steam coal for all classes of work, and a regularly daily sale is maintained of upwards of three hundred tons from the Leeds wharves alone, while a service of some thirty or forty boats convey the coals from the pits at Allerton Bywater, Castleford, and these — together with an additional service of horses and carts — enable the company to deliver expeditiously, the coals being for these reasons supplied on terms much more favourable than those of any other firm in the trade.

The methodical regulation of the Leeds business may be best demonstrated from the following arrangement of the wharf delivery centres, and the means of ready communication with customers respectively located in the vicinity of each:

1st, Victoria Bridge Wharf; telephone No. 357 postal address, 24, Neville Street, Leeds. Convenient for the centre of the town and the district within the areas embraced by Wood- house Lane and North Street.
2nd, Water Lane; telephone No. 357; postal address, 46, Water Lane, Leeds. Convenient for Holbeck, Hunslet and South Leeds generally.
3rd, Ferns Island Wharf; telephone No. 3O7A; postal address, East Street, Leeds. Convenient for the East End, Chapel-town, and Roundhay Road district.
4th, Castletown Wharf; telephone No. 823; postal address, Armley Road End, Leeds. Convenient for Holbeck, New Wortley and Armley district.
5th, Burley Vale Wharf; telephone No. 823A; postal address, Viaduct Road, Armley, Leeds. Convenient for Kirkstall Road, Kirkstall, Burley, and Headingley district.
6th, Chadwick Road Wharf, from which some portion of the coals are supplied by the company to the large works in Hunslet.

The affairs of the company are under excellent management, the operations of the bookkeeping and accounting staff being superintended with the care necessary to ensure the proper and prompt fulfilment of all undertakings. The company transacts one of the largest coal trades in the district, the output being doubled during the last few years, and now amounts to upwards of half a million tons per annum.

The shipment at Hull exceeds that of any other colliery in the whole of the west Yorkshire district, and, in addition, large shipments for home and foreign markets are made from the port of Goole. The collieries have direct water communication by means of the Aire and Calder Navigation. The extensive and valuable plant includes three powerful locomotives, several miles of sidings, and a complete system of screening apparatus by machinery, by which the coal is distributed into the various sizes suitable for the different markets, and so arranged as to admit of being thoroughly picked by men and boys working under the most comfortable conditions, the pit bank and screening chambers being lofty, commodious, and well sheltered from the weather.

The colliery gives employment to upwards of two thousand men and boys, all told, and the whole concern, offices, sidings, pit top, screens, shops, engine-rooms and under ground are illuminated by the electric light. The offices are fitted up with all the latest improvements, electric light, telephones, private telegraph wire, &c. The company spare no expense in maintaining the high reputation they have gained, and appear likely to increase the prosperity of their large business, which may be alike traced to the popular methods employed in order to meet the exact requirements of the trading and domestic community, and the great and general favour which the merits of their coals have induced.


Any record of the representative industrial institutions of Leeds would indeed be sadly deficient without due reference to the rise and progress of the far-famed factory now under review. Organised about three decades ago by its present able and energetic proprietor, the commercial development of the concern became so rapid that Mr. Burrow found it imperative some ten years since to very considerably augment his productive resources, and accordingly entered upon the present eligible premises in Hope Street, which are in every point of character and situation exactly adapted to the requirements of a very vast business of the kind. The factory consists of a large and substantial three-storeyed building, the spacious ground floor of which is divided into the usual offices, packing department, and “rough.” warehouse. On the first floor are the commodious machine-rooms, elaborately equipped with all the latest and best machines for stitching boot tops, while the topmost storey is fully utilised as a making-up and finishing department.

Altogether a staff of no less than two hundred is busily engaged in the various departments, under the expert management of specialists, and nothing could be more commendable than the order and system which prevail in every part of the premises. A prodigious quantity of boots and shoes for all occasions, principally of the “medium” and “strong” class for men and boys, is produced, and a very substantial trade is also done in “kip” and “split” goods, all “fair” stitched and riveted. A very large stock of these goods is always held warehoused in readiness to meet large and urgent demands, and the trade is most capably and energetically promoted through the agency of travelling representatives in all parts of the United Kingdom.

About two years ago Mr. Burrow added another three-storey building at the back to his premises; these, though separate buildings, really form one large factory, as Mr. Burrow has connected the two. He is the largest manufacturer of children’s ankle-straps in the north of England. Several very ingenious machines are used, including three “heel builders and attachers,” and two “heel parers”; also nearly two sets of Grimson’s finishing machinery, consisting of two parers with fans, one heel scourer, two automatic heel burnishers, one seat wheeler, two edge setters, one bottom buffer, bottom polisher with three polishers, and one brusher with four brushes. Power is supplied by one of the celebrated Crossley’s “Otto” gas-engines. He has just added three of the most modern and improved machines used in the trade, viz., Keats’s patent high-speed lockstitch lob sewing and stitching machine, known as the “Fortunia,” and Keats’s “fair-stitch” machine.

Under the vigorous management of Mr. Burrow, this house continues to sustain itself in worthy prominence among the leading boot-manufacturing establishments of the North of England, and the marked success that has always attended its career is at once creditable to the spirit and enterprise that has governed its administration in the past, and typical of the prosperity, it is safe to assert, that will be a conspicuous feature of its history in time to come.


The business of Messrs. Shepherd, Hill & Co. was founded, at its present headquarters in Hunslet Road, as far back as the year 1844, and Mr. Hill being now deceased, the concern is continued under the above title by Mr. John Shepherd and his son, Mr. J. Shepherd. The works are of large extent, covering several acres of ground, and they comprise several spacious and well-arranged blocks of workshops and sheds, most completely equipped with the best modern machinery for economising labour, and ensuring rapid and satisfactory production. The firm give employment to about three hundred hands, the majority of whom are highly skilled workmen, and the entire industry receives the personal supervision of the principals.

Messrs. Shepherd, Hill & Co. have won their eminent reputation in the mechanical world as makers of engineers’ self-acting tools, specially adapted for use in dockyards, arsenals, and railway workshops, and for the use of locomotive and marine engine builders, general machine-makers, millwrights, contractors, &c. Their productions in this class of machinery cover a very wide field of requirements, and embrace specialities of the highest order of practical efficiency in such important tools as slotting and drilling machines, punching and boring machines, planing machines, shaping machines, slot-drilling machines, and lathes for all purposes. The best materials, the latest improvements, and the most highly finished workmanship are combined in this firm’s manufactures with admirable results, and the tools turned out at the Union Foundry have secured the favour of engineers in all quarters of the globe. They have won high honours in international competition, and Messrs. Shepherd, Hill & Co. hold medals gained in this way at the great exhibitions of London, 1851, and 1862, and Paris, 1855 and 1867.

The business in its entirety is one of much more than ordinary magnitude, and besides meeting the demands of an immense and widespread home and export trade, Messrs. Shepherd, Hill & Co. are contractors to the War Department, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and the Council of State for India, and most of the railway companies. They include among their customers the various Colonial and foreign governments, and the chief railway companies and engineers of this and other countries. The high position they hold has been attained by the most honourable methods, and no house could retain in a fuller degree the esteem and confidence of those with whom it has had dealings.


No firm in the district have done more to advance the art of photography than the one under notice, and no other establishment in Leeds affords such an opportunity of witnessing the enormous strides this fascinating occupation has made during recent years. The business was founded by Mr. Pearson in 1875, and Mr. Denham was admitted a partner in 1885. The premises occupy a capital business position, being in close proximity to the North Eastern, London and North-Western, and Midland Railway stations. The shop premises have a thoroughly attractive appearance, and are displayed to great advantage. The stock of photographic apparatus and chemicals is most valuable, and professional and amateur may here be supplied with complete outfits, from the most simple up to the most elaborate.

Every article is of the newest and most improved kind, and the best makers in the trade only are represented. This is the Leeds agency for Wray’s high-class photo lenses, treasured by all who depend upon good results, and which are too well known to stand in need of any remarks. Here are also Beck’s, Taylor’s, Ross’s, and Optimus lenses. Equal attention is paid to Eastman’s productions, all the latest novelties being present. There are optical and enlarging lanterns and all the best makers’ dry plates, these including Ilford’s, Thomas’s, Edward’s, Paget’s, Britannia, Mawson’s, Wratten’s, and Imperial. Amateurs will be supplied with any required information relative to photography, and there is a special dark room for the use of customers.

The partners are thoroughly conversant with all the branches of the trade, and those applying to them for instruction will have the more courteous attention shown them, and will receive the most practical advice. The workshop is managed by Mr. Pearson, a largely experienced gentleman, and the retail department is under the direction of Mr. Denham. A large and high-class business is in operation, and one which is constantly increasing.

Telegraphic Address: “Looms, Leeds.”

Although established little more than three years ago, the business has been developed with such energy, skill, and perseverance that already a large and influential connection has been secured. The founders were the present proprietors, Mr. W. Clough, and Mr. J. Ramsden, both gentlemen of large and valuable experience. Operations are conducted in large and commodious premises which have been specially adapted to meet the requirements of the business. The premises cover a large extent of ground, and comprise offices, warehouses, and weaving sheds, thoroughly equipped with plant and appliances. The town warehouses are at the White Cloth Hall, King Street. They are of ample size, and well fitted up with every requisite, and convenience for the adequate accommodation and display of the large stocks of goods they contain. A substantial and important trade is controlled in the manufacture of the firm’s specialities. All their productions are well known in the markets, and find great favour among buyers of every class. The quality can always be relied upon, while for novelty of design and fine finish the goods will bear comparison with those manufactured by the most famous houses in the trade. The manufacture is carried on under very favourable conditions, both as regards efficiency of resource and cost of production, and the firm are in a position to quote prices which cannot easily be duplicated elsewhere. The trade is chiefly of a home nature, the goods finding ready sales among the warehousemen and merchants in Leeds, Bradford, Manchester, and London. A good force of workpeople is kept constantly employed, and all orders receive prompt and careful attention. The partners give the business the full benefit of their long experience and practical ability, thereby ensuring absolute satisfaction to all customers. In their transactions they are strictly fair and honourable, and they have proved themselves eminently reliable and successful in meeting every demand made upon their resources.


This old-established and well-known firm has occupied a prominent position in this important branch of commerce for the past fourteen years. Messrs. Beckwith & Co. occupy very extensive and commodious premises, comprising a large four-storey warehouse, with well-appointed offices and packing-rooms on the ground floor. The firm hold very large and thoroughly representative stocks of all kinds of Colonial wools. They are very extensive and judicious buyers at the public sales, giving special attention to those classes suitable to the requirements of the Leeds and Bradford manufacturers. The goods received in the warehouse go through most careful examination and sorting, a large number of experienced hands being busily employed in this department. Messrs. Beckwith & Co. have a first-class connection amongst the Leeds and Bradford spinners and woollen-cloth manufacturers. Large quantities of wool are also sent to other centres of the clothing industry, where the name of the firm is well known. Mr. Beckwith is a gentleman well known and highly esteemed in business and social circles; he is well recognised as an “expert” in wool, having a thorough knowledge of the various grades and qualities best suited to his customers. With the superior facilities at command, and the large capital embarked in the business, Messrs. Beckwith & Co. are enabled to punctually execute all orders, and to compete on favourable terms both as regards quality and price with any house in the trade.


With the increase of wealth and the spread of education and refinement, an immense advance has been made of late years in the furnishing and decorating of our homes, and in nothing, perhaps, is that more distinctly shown than in the character of the wall-papers and hangings now in use. Among those who, by their enterprise and skill in manufacture, have contributed largely to this desirable result, prominent mention must be made of the celebrated firm of Messrs. Lightbown, Aspinall & Co., the Leeds branch of which was opened in 1891. This firm has been established for many years, and has always held a leading and representative position in the trade. The superior and uniform excellence of everything produced has long been known to the trade, and fully establishes its claim to be recognised as a capable and representative house. The premises are large and commodious, and well adapted to display the large and varied stocks of high-class goods kept there. The manager is a thoroughly enterprising gentleman, and well acquainted with the trade, and under his vigorous and well-directed control a valuable business has already been initiated. The articles exhibited in the show-room are of exceptionally excellent character, and will stand favourable comparison with the productions of any similar house in England.

The firm’s manufacturing premises are at Pendleton, Manchester, and known as the Hayfield Mills. As will be seen from the illustration, they cover a large area, and are equipped with the best and most improved plant and machinery procurable’ employment being found for a numerous body of skilled workpeople. The proprietors have always shown taste and enterprise in conducting their business, and have every season introduced to their patrons some of the most effective and saleable patterns to be found in the trade. Whatever they manufacture is of first-class quality, and by reason of its uniform excellence and moderate price is sure to find ready sales.

Among the bulky and high-class stocks held at the branch house3 are all kinds of paperhangings, both block and machine made, raised flocks, golds, silks, satins, micas, ingrain, early English, Renaissance, tapestry, wide friezes, and pulps. A leading line is made of the well-known “sanitary papers,” which in variety, attractiveness of design, and finish have no superiors. The firm are the sole makers of the new raised Cordovan leather papers, of which ample supplies are held, as well as of Lincrusta-Walton and Anaglypta, for which they are agents. A good business is done as varnish merchants, and a large selection of brushes, mouldings, size, tinfoil, and other goods belonging to this branch of industry is held.

The principal warehouses are at 142, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.C., 13, Pall Mail, Manchester, and 126, Ingram Street, Glasgow. Another branch has recently been opened at Newcastle. The Leeds agent is a gentleman of good knowledge and experience in his business, and courteous and straightforward in all his dealings. With such superior articles to handle, joined to his energy and ability, he cannot fail to soon convert the promising business he has already established into one of the most important of its kind in the district.
The telegraph address of the house is “Lightbown, Leeds,” and the telephone No. 570.


Among the foremost of those houses whose business undertakings have tended of late years to develop and extend the character of the leading industries and trades of the borough of Leeds, a prominent and creditable position has been rapidly attained by the concern carried on by the firm whose name heads this sketch. Originally established some fourteen years ago at Park Cross Street, Leeds, and the Albion Mill, Pudsey, it was found necessary some years later to remove the Leeds offices, &c., to No. 4, Kelsall Street, in order to cope successfully with the requirements of an ever-increasing trade.

The mill at Pudsey consists of an extensive block of buildings covering a considerable area of ground, and fully equipped with machinery and appliances of the newest and most improved type for the manufacture of carriage, cabinet, billiard and medium cloths, woollen printed table- covers, &c., &c., a large number of skilled hands being constantly employed at the looms, &c., &c. The warehouse in Kelsall Street is stocked with a large and valuable assortment of the various classes of goods manufactured by the firm. A large and flourishing trade is carried on with Bradford, London, Manchester, Glasgow, Belfast, and other important towns in the United Kingdom. The firm have a good connection, and the partners are practical business men, who give careful attention to the details of the business and the requirements of the different markets, and are well known and highly respected in the town and district.

Bainton & Co., Valuers and Surveyors, Mortgage Brokers, and Rent Collectors, &c.,
122, Wellington Street, Leeds.

This important business was first founded in 1876 at Hull, and afterwards removed to 124, Wellington Street, by the present firm, of which Mr. Henry Bainton is the active controlling head. About two years ago, however, the firm purchased those more extensive and eligible premises which are located in a contiguous street, and here, with better facilities at command, the firm continue to successfully develop and extend their influence and connections. The premises are spacious and roomy, and include handsome offices, with a large sale-room at the rear, and large storage accommodation on the higher floors. Messrs. Bainton & Co. hold constantly recurring sales in their auction-rooms of household furniture and belongings, and miscellaneous property of a movable description, and they also undertake sales at private residences and elsewhere in the town and districts, as well as all parts of Yorkshire and the Northern counties. They also undertake valuations, mortgages, and inventories. They are also house and estate agents, and in an inclusive way control a representative and important business, always having on hand eligible properties of private residences and business premises for sale. They are also insurance agents, and specially represent the Equitable Fire and Accident Insurance Company, and the West of England Life and Fire, for which they control considerable business. Mr. Bainton is much esteemed by all classes of the community, his courtesy, tact, and judgment being ever in evidence.


A very important and rapidly increasing industry has been carried on at the above address for the-past five years by Messrs. Mathieson, Wilson & Co., an enterprising firm of iron-founders who built the fine works known as the Scotch Foundry expressly to suit the requirements of their trade. This large and admirably ably organised establishment occupies a space of about three acres, two of which are covered, and comprises three spacious moulding sheds (each forty yards long by twenty-one yards wide), with large melting cupolas, and a substantial three-storey block of considerable dimensions, which latter is devoted to a variety of important purposes. On the ground floor are turning and fitting appliances and other special machinery of the newest type. The first floor forms a fine show-room for grates, umbrella stands, &c., and the top flat provides excellent storage accommodation for stock and materials. Adjoining this block is an extensive shed where castings are prepared for enamelling. Passing to the rear, we find a two-storey building, with enamelling and japanning rooms on the ground floor and modelling-rooms above. There is also an extensive range of smiths’ shops and furnaces, besides several stock-rooms for finished goods and rough castings. Finally, this important establishment includes a fine block of offices in the modern style, comprising general offices and partners’ rooms, fitted with telephones and every commercial convenience.

All the industrial departments of the works are admirably equipped with the best and most powerful modern machinery, driven by a fine engine and boiler, and the situation of the establishment, in close proximity to the railway, canal, and other means of transport, is a highly advantageous one. In their commodious show-rooms Messrs. Mathieson, Wilson & Co. display a select and varied stock of their well-known manufactures in register stoves, grates, &c., in iron, steel, and steel and copper combined. These newly designed and elegant goods are having a large and increasing sale, and are greatly esteemed for their superior workmanship and finish, as well as for their many features of improvement, in the introduction of which this firm have from the first displayed marked enterprise and inventive resource. Beautiful tiled hearths and new decorations in artistic painted ware for fireplaces are among the notable novelties here exhibited, and the display in these show-rooms is altogether one of the most complete and attractive of the kind we have recently seen.

Messrs. Mathieson, Wilson & Co. have already rendered many valuable services to the public by the production of goods which not only satisfy the modern taste for the beautiful and elegant, but which are at the same time efficient in a practical sense, and specially calculated to meet the advanced hygienic requirements of the present day. The two great desiderata just now in appliances for warming and cooking purposes are economy and cleanliness. The former is secured by the designing of stoves and ranges upon scientific principles, enabling a maximum of result to be obtained from a minimum of fuel consumption.

Cleanliness, and with it healthfulness, can be in a large measure ensured by preventing the diffusion of smoke. These matters have engaged the attention of Messrs. Mathieson, Wilson & Co. with eminently satisfactory results, and this firm have recently perfected and patented an apparatus which, we trust, will soon find a place in the majority of our homes. We refer to their new patent smokeless cooking range, which fulfils both of the requirements mentioned above, inasmuch as it is at once a preventer of smoke and an economiser of fuel. This range is without doubt one of the most perfect “cookers” in the market. It is so constructed that the flames can be directed either over the oven or under it, or they can be equally distributed at will. The fire is lighted on the top and burns downwards with a slow and steady combustion, and after a few minutes all smoke is consumed, the effect of this being that the full heating value of the fuel is obtained. When a fierce fire is not required the apparatus can be so regulated by dampers that it will keep alight for ten or twelve hours without attention. We have grown so accustomed to ingenious inventions in this progressive age that many very clever ideas are conceived and carried into practice without arousing much enthusiasm; but we shall be greatly mistaken if Messrs. Mathieson, Wilson & Co.’s new smokeless range does not create a sensation in domestic circles. It is undoubtedly one of the most useful and practical contrivances we have ever met with for saving trouble, untidiness, and discomfort in the routine of culinary work, and it will effectually banish for all time that nuisance of nuisances, a smoky kitchen. In large cities the effect of its general adoption upon the public health and comfort could not fail to be remarkably beneficial; and we do not hesitate to state that, were every household in London (for example) to adopt this smokeless range, the evil of those dense and persistent fogs which nowadays afflict the metropolis so seriously would be surprisingly abated.

It has been said that he who reforms himself has done something towards the reformation of the crowd. Every householder, therefore, who places one of these new cooking ranges in his home will have a double satisfaction: that which the daily use of the range itself affords, and that which comes of knowing that he is doing his part in the abolition of the “smoke nuisance.” Not the least noteworthy point in connection with this patent is that its vital principle can be applied to almost all existing ranges. For convenience, cleanliness, economy, efficiency, and sanitary value, the invention will be found difficult, if not impossible, to surpass; and Messrs. Mathieson, Wilson & Co. are to be congratulated upon having marked a new epoch in the history of the improvement of domestic appliances.

We must not omit to make some reference to a few other productions of this progressive firm, which have a distinct value of their own. Among these are many new and useful patterns of umbrella stands, which are sure to become general favourites. The Scotch Foundry has also achieved celebrity for its excellent work in the making of iron railings, gates, palisadings, crestings, and panels, and these now rank with the leading specialities of the business. They are produced in a great variety of elegant and artistic designs, and in sizes suited to all ordinary requirements, and are unsurpassed in finish and general appearance. Iron baths, hothouses, iron buildings, kitchen ranges, and light iron castings of every description come within the scope of the industry carried on at the Scotch Foundry, and several important products of this establishment have already gained widespread and well-merited fame and reputation.

Messrs. Mathieson, Wilson & Co. are, in short, conducting a most prosperous and flourishing business, giving employment to upwards of two hundred hands, and they have developed a wide and influential connection, extending to all parts of the United Kingdom. The principals are gentlemen of thorough practical experience and sound business training, and their honourable and straightforward methods have gained for them that confidence which is the passport to substantial and enduring prosperity.
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed: “Thistle, Armley.”


This immense business was established in the year 1856, by the late Mr. Thomas Greenwood and Mr. John Batley, and the concern then had its headquarters in comparatively small works in East Street. So rapid, however, was the growth of the business that in a short time considerable extensions of premises had to be effected, and about thirty years ago the firm came to their present well-known establishment, the Albion Works, in Armley Road. Here they now have very extensive premises, with a long and handsome frontage to Armley Road, and extending back to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal at the rear. The buildings and yards cover fully eleven acres of ground, and the floorage area of the workshops may be roughly estimated at about seven million square feet. In this vast establishment between fifteen and sixteen hundred workmen are employed, their labours being assisted by the most effective and improved modern machinery. The greatest activity prevails in every department of the works, and the whole place is systematically organised and specially equipped to afford the fullest facilities and conveniences for all branches of the industry carried on.

One of the most interesting features of the place is the principal foundry, with its powerful plant and exceptional resources for the production of castings of extraordinary size and weight. The machine-shops, erecting-sheds, forges, &c., are all upon a most extensive scale, and are splendidly appointed for their respective purposes. There are large warehouses, pattern shops, carpenters’ shops, smithies, &c., &c.; and the greater part of the establishment is lighted by electricity. Steam is the motive power used for the working of the machinery, and this power is transmitted by a large number of fine engines, including two large horizontal ones, and about a dozen Armington & Sims’ high-speed engines.

Messrs. Greenwood & Batley, Limited, conduct a most comprehensive industry, and engage in every branch of mechanical engineering, iron and brass founding, and millwrights’ work. They are machinists to the British War and Naval Departments, to the Council of State for India, and to the principal foreign governments, and a leading branch of their operations consists in the making of all kinds of highly improved machinery for the manufacture of everything in the shape of “munitions of war.” A notable speciality is the manufacture of Whitehead torpedoes, which the firm supply largely to the British Admiralty, and a special range of workshops containing an area of twenty-three thousand square feet, is devoted to this department. There is also a branch establishment at Otley for running and testing these formidable agents of destruction.

Among the many other special productions of this eminent firm may be mentioned every description of engineers, general tools and special tools for a great variety of purposes; testing machines; wood-working and cask-making machinery; the “Sun” patent platen printing machine; patent lockstitch machines for boot-making and leather work; oil-mill machinery on the most improved Anglo-American principles; cotton presses, patented machinery for treating all descriptions of waste silk, China grass, and other fibres; machinery for leather belting, and cloth-cutting machines for wholesale clothiers. Messrs. Greenwood & Batley are also sole makers of the renowned Armington-Sims and Frikart’s patent steam-engines, and sole makers of a great many other valuable and useful patents in machinery for nut, bolt, screw, and rivet making, and for various other industrial purposes. Finally, they are now doing a large amount of work as electrical engineers, in which branch they are noted for their patent dynamo electric machines for all purposes connected with the use and transmission of electrical power.

For each and every one of their numerous productions Messrs. Greenwood & Batley, Limited, enjoy an unsurpassed reputation, which they maintain with the utmost care; and in the various departments with which their name is now associated they conduct a trade which is practically world-wide in its scope and connections. This great business is managed with conspicuous energy and sound practical ability, and reflects high credit no less upon Leeds and the country in general than upon those who have been and are actively concerned in its development and administration. We may add that Messrs. Greenwood & Batley, Limited, have London offices at 16, Great George Street, Westminster, S.W.

Telephone No. 868.

This important industry was founded about fifty years ago. Successfully conducted for many years under that style, it was two years ago incorporated as a company under the Limited Liability Acts, with Mr. Henry Paterson, who has a thorough technical knowledge of the business in all its details, as managing director. Under his able management, the company has not only fully maintained the excellent prestige of the old firm, but is continually extending its connection. The business is, generally, that of hemp and flax spinners: but the company have a special reputation which extends amongst the trade all over the United Kingdom, for the production of Russian and Italian line and tow yarns, from four leas to twelve hundred pounds per bundle, reverse or ordinary twist. They also spin in very large quantities reaping twines, single and twisted rope and gaskin yarns in warps and bundles, or on winches; likewise sewing and seaming twines, &c.

The mills are large, having a well-built and commanding frontage to Joseph Street. At the entrance is a handsome suite of general and private offices, which are supplied with all the requisites of modern device for facilitating the conduct of the large amount of commercial correspondence necessitated by the numerous and important transactions of the company. The mills are equipped with the most approved spinning machinery of the latest type, driven by a powerful steam-engine of recent construction. Although the whole of the working plant is so excellent that much economy in time and labour is effected, the ordinary output is so great that from one hundred and seventy to one hundred and eighty hands — many of whom are skilled experts—are regularly employed. The connection of the company extends to all part s of the country, where the uniformly high quality of their productions has gained them a valuable reputation.

Telephone No. 35; Telegraphic Address: “Ellis, Leeds.”

The precise date of the inception of this business is 1871, when operations were begun by the present proprietor with the object of supplying raw material to woollen manufacturers. Being practically acquainted with the trade, and a man of indomitable energy and push, he soon laid the foundation of his business on sure and solid ground. During the whole of the time there has been no lack of enterprise and attention to every detail, with the consequence that every year he has added to the volume and importance of his transactions. The premises in Leeds are large and commodious, consisting of a substantial block three storeys high, and comprising a handsome suite of general and private offices, warehouses and packing-room on the ground floor, and stock-rooms on the upper floors. The works are at Holbeck and are known as the Manor Mills. They are large in extent and equipped with the best class of plant and machinery for cleaning and preparing waste and flock. Employment is found in the mills for a force of no less than one hundred hands.

Mr. Ellis controls a very large trade in mungo, shoddy, waste, and flock, and his commodities are known in the market as of reliable quality. From the amount of business done, together with the facilities of manufacture, the proprietor is in a position to fill the largest orders with promptness and to quote such prices as cannot be duplicated elsewhere. The trade extends to all the cloth-making towns in the United Kingdom. In consequence of the growth of the Scotch trade it has been found necessary to open a branch establishment at Galashiels, where samples and stocks are kept as at the headquarters. Mr. Ellis gives the business his personal attention, and spares no efforts to satisfy his customers in quality, price, and despatch. As a straightforward and honourable business man he is held in great respect among the trading community, and in private life he is well known and esteemed for his generosity and personal worth.


There is hardly a man or woman who is properly familiar with the methods of modern cookery and household management who has mot already made the acquaintance of Messrs. Goodall, Backhouse & Co. through the medium of one or another of their famous domestic specialities and culinary preparations. It is not too much to say that the makers of the far-famed “Yorkshire Relish” enjoy a worldwide renown at the present day; and the great success that has attended the development of their gigantic business affords yet another proof of the readiness with which the public recognise, and the fidelity with which they will support, really good and reliable articles, honestly and carefully prepared for their daily consumption. It was in 1853 that the business of Messrs. Goodall, Backhouse & Co. was first established by the late Mr. E. Goodall, and in its steady increase and progress from that time onward have placed it at the present time among the very largest and most notable industrial and commercial concerns of Leeds. In 1858 Mr. Backhouse and Mr. Powell joined the firm, and the latter gentleman is now sole proprietor of this unique undertaking, both Mr. Goodall and Mr. Backhouse being deceased.

The firm’s premises, greatly enlarged from time to time to meet the demands of the growing trade, are now of vast extent, and reach from White Horse Street to Wormald Yard, White Cross Yard, and Kenyon Court, where an immense wholesale and retail drug and patent medicine business is carried on. This great establishment has a floorage area of seven thousand eight hundred square yards in the aggregate, but it is not by any means all the accommodation at the command of the firm, for there are vast works and warehouses in Sovereign Street as well, having a floorage of twelve thousand square yards. Here Messrs. Goodall, Backhouse & Co. manufacture in enormous quantities their renowned household specialities, including that prince of condiments, the “Yorkshire Relish.” These premises also embrace a large factory for making all the tins used by the firm for packing their goods.

First and foremost among the specialities of this firm stands the “Yorkshire Relish” - most appetising of sauces, and most wholesome of digestive condiments. The piquancy and delicacy of this delicious preparation are universally appreciated, and gastronomes pronounce it equally good with fish, flesh, and fowl. It has had hosts of imitators, but imitation, as we know, is the sincerest flattery, and as a general rule the poverty of the counterfeits only serves to enhance the popularity of the real article. For all-round usefulness in the kitchen there is nothing to surpass Goodall’s Egg Powder. Its effects are little short of marvellous and it is the only satisfactory substitute for eggs yet discovered. Equally high praise is due to the firm’s wonderfully effective baking-powder, custard-powder, and blanc-mange powder and jelly squares, all of which have special qualities rendering them indispensable to the thrifty housewife and the judicious cook. Very popular also is Goodall’s Ginger-beer Powder, making a most wholesome drink, cooling in summer, warming in winter, and refreshing at all times, while it forms an excellent stomachic. The hard labour of blacking stoves, &c., is minimised by Goodall’s Brunswick Black, and a dozen other ways might be cited in which this enterprising firm have done good service to the homes of the people. Among the most notable of their medicinal specialities is Goodall’s Quinine Wine. This is a pure and thoroughly reliable preparation, at a price within the means of all.

It is really wonderful to note the widespread character of this firm’s reputation. It extends far beyond the boundaries of the United Kingdom. Equally wonderful is the magnitude or volume of this firm’s trade. In one year as many as six million bottles of “Yorkshire Relish” find their way down the throats of the public, and one is pretty safe in surmising that no other sauce has such a sale as this. “Judicious advertising is the keystone of success,” and Messrs. Goodall Backhouse & Co. have proved this truth to demonstration. They are among the most lavish and enterprising firm of advertisers in the kingdom, spending between £30,000 and £40,000 annually in this direction. But they have something that it is worth while to advertise, and that is the solid foundation of their enterprise, for experience has shown that this firm’s household specialities have only to become known to command a steady and permanent sale. Messrs. Goodall, Backhouse & Co. have novel methods of advertising, too. They believe in the dissemination of good literature as well as in the distribution of reliable household preparations, and during the past seven or eight years they have sent out to all parts of the world several thousand tons of printed matter in the shape of neatly-printed penny editions of the “Pickwick Papers,” “Sketches by Boz,” “Nicholas Nickleby,” &c., besides handbills, almanacs, and their excellent little cookery book, “Good Things,” which is sent post free for a penny stamp. Of course, all this is in addition to advertisements in newspapers and magazines, and vast quantities of show-cards, posters, &c. It costs money to advertise on such a colossal scale, but it pays in the end, as the success of this flourishing business amply testifies.

All Messrs. Goodall, Backhouse & Co.’s affairs are administered with consummate ability and sound judgment; and in the routine of management Mr. Powell, the sole principal, is ably assisted by his nephew, Mr. W. P. Bowman. Both these gentlemen are well known and much respected in Leeds, and are types of the class of business men to whose powers and energies the prosperity of this great industrial town is due. We ought to add that Messrs. Goodall, Backhouse & Co. are large employers of labour, having in their service no fewer than five hundred hands, among whom are mechanics, joiners, plumbers, painters, and all sorts of craftsmen whose assistance is likely to be of value in ensuring the smooth working of so vast and complex a concern.


Fifty years ago Messrs. T. & H. Briscall & Co. commenced business at Parr Street, Liverpool, and a few years later opened a branch at Leeds for the purpose of consolidating a connection in Yorkshire and the adjoining Northern counties. The Leeds branch is conducted under the close personal supervision of resident partners. The premises comprise well-built and capacious offices, together with ample warehouse accommodation, also large yards and ample wharf age space on the adjoining canal. Messrs. Briscall are both large importers and refiners of different classes of oil for woollen, worsted, and leather manufactures, as also for lubricating and burning purposes, and transact a very extensive trade throughout the manufacturing districts with merchants, factors, and wholesale dealers. The firm are the agents in the British Isles of the well-known Naples house of A. Auveray & Co., exporters of Gallipoli and Gioja oils; also for De Stearine Kaarsenfabrick, “Gouda” Oleine, stearine; they are also leading importers of Newfoundland cod oil.

The telephonic system of Leeds is admirably conducted and greatly facilitates the transaction of business. Messrs. Briscall & Co.’s number is 725, and their telegraphic address: “Briscall, Leeds.”

Telephone No. 754; Telegraphic Address: “Premier, Leeds.”

Throughout the leather trades all over the United Kingdom the reputation of Messrs. Joseph Hall & Co., of the Burley Engine Works, Leeds, stands very high. This will be best explained by a brief description of their works. This successful and enterprising firm was established about twenty-one years ago, on the same commodious premises as they now occupy, by Mr. Joseph Hall, who continues to be the sole proprietor and general manager. To cope with the gradual expansion of the business, Mr. Hall has, from time to time, added to the working space by building new worksheds. The works are very extensive, with well-built sheds and roomy yards occupying about one and a quarter acre. The sheds are fitted throughout with engines, cranes, drilling, slotting, and planing machines, turning machinery, and every modern requisite in the way of mechanical “tools.”

About fifty to sixty skilled and experienced workmen find constant employment in these works. The firm have numerous and substantial business connections with the leather trades throughout the world on account of their numerous specialities, which are covered by about thirty patents. These include patent setting and patent scouring machines, patent bark mills and breakers, patent striking machines, patent fleshing machines, mat beaters, hair-washing machines, hydraulic presses, steam hammers, steam cranes, and stone machinery, &c.

We find they have just completed a large contract for an overhead railway for one of the largest corporations in the country. The firm does a large business in second-hand machinery of all kinds, of which they have always large stocks on hand. This important and extensive business has been created entirely by the energy and ability of Mr. Hall, who is personally well known and highly esteemed throughout all the Yorkshire districts of the leather trades.


Among the several firms whose energy and enterprise have contributed to the marked development of the engineering industries at Leeds, a position of special prominence and distinction is held by that of Messrs. Tannett Walker & Co., who have their extensive works at Hunslet. This notable house was founded upwards of thirty years ago by the late Mr. Benjamin Walker. Mr. Tannett and other partners retired from the business many years ago, and in April, 1891, Mr. Benjamin Walker himself died, he being at that time a magistrate of the borough of Leeds, and greatly respected by all who knew him. The principals of the house now are the founder’s two sons, Mr. Arthur Tannett Walker, Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, on whom the King of Italy has lately conferred the honour of a knighthood of the Order of the Crown of Italy, and Major Frederick William Walker, J.P., Member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, who jointly conduct this large and successful business with marked ability under the style of Tannett Walker & Co.

The works at Hunslet cover several acres of ground, and rank among the largest and best-organised establishments in this busy quarter of Leeds. They possess a very extensive and valuable plant of the most powerful modern machinery, calculated to economise time and labour, and to improve production in each department of the industry here carried on, and all the working resources of the place have been raised to a high level of completeness and efficiency. Between nine hundred and one thousand hands are employed, a fact testifying to the magnitude of the firm’s operations, and the best facilities exist for turning out all work with that promptitude which is rendered imperative by the exigencies of modern business. Each department of the works is under thoroughly competent managerial control, and the principals are untiring in their general supervision of the whole establishment, their practical knowledge and extensive experience serving them well in these administrative duties.

It may safely be said that no firm of engineers in Yorkshire enjoys a better reputation for sound work than Messrs. Tannett Walker & Co. Their industry is a comprehensive one, and their productions are varied, but, perhaps, they are particularly famous as makers of large hydraulic forging presses. They produced the largest apparatus of this type ever made, for the great Krupp works at Essen, Germany; and they have also made the largest forging press in England, for the noted Sheffield firm, Messrs. John Brown & Co., Limited.

Messrs. Tannett Walker' & Co. have erected a vast amount of powerful machinery in the principal iron and steel works in Great Britain, and also in similar works in Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, and other countries. Their Bessemer and Siemens-Martin steel plant is regarded as unsurpassed, if not unequalled; and they stand in the very front rank as makers of such important plant as rail, plate, cogging, and corrugating mills; also tyre machines and engines; shearing and punching machines; straightening, bending and blocking machines for rails, plates, tyres, &c.; bar mills, forge cranes, and machinery for rolling and bending armour plates. Many of these gigantic apparatus are among the wonders of the modern industrial world, embodying stupendou3 power, and yet so perfectly under control by reason of their improved principles of construction that they are worked and managed with the utmost nicety and facility.

For steam hammers of a highly improved and efficacious type this great firm have an international reputation, and they have supplied hammers of various kinds and sizes to Her Majesty’s Government and many large industrial concerns. The largest steam hammers in the United States were made by them. Their hydraulic machinery is another speciality for which Messrs. Tannett & Walker & Co. have gained notoriety. In this department they turn out compound pumping engines, accumulators, portable and fixed cranes, capstans, dock gate machinery, &c , and fine examples of their work may be met with at the principal docks pf the kingdom, and at Her Majesty’s dockyards, and in the works of the leading railway companies. Patent three-cylinder blowers for cupolas, foundries, forges, and smiths’ fires are also made by this firm, and have been supplied to the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich, to several of the great railway works, and to such famous concerns as those of Messrs. Bolckow, Vaughan & Co., Middlesbrough; the Leeds Forge Company; Messrs. Payne & Sons, Otley; the Darlington Forge Company; Messrs. Platt Brothers & Co., Oldham; MM.Caramin et Cie., Thy-le-Chateau, Belgium; Messrs. Charles Cammell & Co., Sheffield and Workington, &c., &c. Flanging machinery and hydraulic riveting machinery are among the remaining specialities with which the name of Messrs. Tannett Walker & Co. is creditably identified.

We commend to the notice of interested readers the beautifully printed sheets issued by this firm, illustrating the character of their chief manufactures, and showing the construction and capabilities of the same. Messrs. Tannett Walker & Co. have, won the confidence of an international connection by the excellence of their productions, the straightforward business methods to which they adhere, and the satisfactory manner in which they fulfil all their undertakings. They control a widespread trade, of great and increasing magnitude, and their house stands among those representative concerns which are typical of the enterprise of Leeds in particular, and of the progress of our national industries in general.


This notable house was founded over a century ago by the late Mr. George Walker, and on his taking his son into partnership the concern assumed the title of George Walker & Son, by which it has been known ever since. Mr. Walker, son of the founder, was succeeded in the business over thirty years ago by the present esteemed proprietor, Alderman Boothroyd, Mayor of Leeds (1892). The Grove Mills cover an area of an acre of ground, and comprise several substantial blocks of buildings, the largest of which have been added by the present proprietor. The main block is three storeys high, and has on the ground floor six modern doubling machines of the best type, by Messrs. Prince Smith & Co., of Keighley. On the upper floors are improved modern carding, scribbling, condensing, and self-acting machines, by Messrs. Houghton, Knowles, & Co.; also on this floor are a pair of self-acting mules for drawing yarns.

Another well-built three-storey structure is devoted to heavy stocks of wool and yarns, and there is also a spacious building fitted with a valuable plant of wool-separating and cleaning machinery. Power for driving the machinery throughout the mills is derived from a fine steam-engine, fed by two boilers. At the rear of the premises are the modern-built offices, providing good accommodation for the clerical staff, and for the commercial routine generally. Altogether, the establishment possesses the best possible facilities for the industry to which it is devoted, and affords employment to upwards of sixty hands, in addition to the fine plant of labour-saving machinery in operation.

Messrs. George Walker & Son’s manufacture is almost entirely in yarns suitable for carpet-weaving, and their products in this class — enjoying a high reputation in the market — are sent out in very large consignments to the principal carpet-weaving centres, the bulk of the trade being done with Scotland. Mr. Alderman Boothroyd is one of the most prominent and best-known citizens of Leeds, and his long career in connection with the municipal life of the place has been fitly crowned by his attainment to mayoral honours. He has served the borough as Town Councillor for twenty years, and as Alderman for fourteen years, always with a disinterested zeal that has won the good opinion of all sections of the community; and he fills his present high office with equal dignity and satisfaction. Mr. Boothroyd is especially well known for the active part he has long taken in Sunday-school work in Leeds and the district, and for the liberality he has displayed in his support of many charitable and philanthropic institutions. As a business man he possesses sound practical qualifications which are not without a certain special usefulness in public life, and his straightforward methods and integrity of purpose have grained for him a high place in the confidence of all with whom he has dealings.

Telegraphic Address: “Preserve, Leeds;” Telephone No. 847.

We have it on the authority of one of England’s most eminent living statesmen that the future of the agricultural interests of the country is bound up in the cultivation of fruit for preserving, and that this advice has been largely adopted is proved by the great increase which has attended the development of this branch of industry. Among the leading firms engaged in the trade in this district may be indicated the one named above. A visit to the extensive works in Whitehall Road will afford many features of interest to those fortunate enough to obtain an introduction to the firm. The history of the business dates back nearly thirty years ago, when it was established by the present sole proprietor, Mr. John Hudson, who has since the commencement by his energy and enterprise raised the concern to its eminent position in the trade, and secured a substantial and well-established commercial success.

The works in Whitehall Road are of commodious proportions, with suite of offices fronting the street, and at the rear a lofty building of four storeys, forming the factory, is conveniently arranged for the operations of the business. The establishment is fully equipped with plant and machinery of the newest and most improved type for producing the various specialities manufactured by the firm, and a large number of hands are constantly employed in the several processes of preserve and marmalade making. The ingredients from which these are prepared consist of the choicest fruits selected with the greatest care from the soundest and freshest growths in the market, and pure sugar, no substitutes of any kind being used in the manufactory. Mr. Hudson is also a large grower of gooseberries, raspberries, and strawberries, and the remainder of the fruit is brought direct from growers, in preference to buying in the open market, long experience having proved that fruits thus coming direct are much better for the purpose of preserving.

A special feature of the arrangements of the works is the perfect cleanliness prevailing in every detail of the processes, the vessels shining like burnished silver, and the surroundings being notable for their scrupulous purity. The various productions of the old firm are widely known and appreciated in the leading home markets, under the old trade title of the North of England Preserve and Marmalade Company. All the partners of this concern have now retired from the firm except Mr. Hudson, who is now carrying on the business under his own name; and there is no doubt that Mr. Hudson will be able not only to maintain the present extensive connection, but also to largely extend his business, as the demand for preserves and marmalade is yearly increasing.


Though established but a little over a year ago, this business has advanced to the front rank of the trade, and has become one of the most notable concerns of its kind in the northern counties. The founders of the house were Messrs. Robert Shaw and James McColl, and these gentlemen have since been joined by Mr. Andrew McLaren, the original title of Shaw & McColl being then changed to the present one of Shaw, McColl & Co. Messrs. Shaw, McColl & Co. have built up a large trade in supplying colour printers and lithographers with special paper for printing chromo work, and this, we may remark, is quite a new branch of business in Yorkshire, despite the fact that a very extensive colour printing and chromo-lithographic industry has been developed in the town and district.

Messrs. Shaw, McColl & Co. have fine premises in St. James’s Street, and the works at this address have been built expressly for them. They are splendidly organised throughout, and are equipped with a very valuable and interesting plant of improved machinery designed to meet the requirements of this firm’s special trade. The mixing of colours for the preparing of enamelled papers, &c., is carried on in the basement, where there is effective machinery for the purpose. On the ground floor of the works are two remarkably fine machines, which are constantly at work on preparing chromo and surface paper. There are also on the second floor gumming and art paper machines with all the latest improvements. These machines are a most valuable invention, performing the work of colouring and gumming with great rapidity and precision, and ensuring a large and satisfactory output. A considerable amount of hand work is also done on the premises by girls in the preparation of gummed and surface papers. The firm have added a large building adjoining to their works, which is fitted with a lot of additional machinery of a labour-saving character which has greatly increased their productive resources.

Unquestionably this is one of the most enterprising and progressive firms in the Leeds district; and its prospects are certainly very encouraging, for there is no other business of the same kind in Yorkshire or the north-east counties. A wide and valuable connection has been formed, and Messrs. Shaw, McColl & Co. are represented by travellers whose journeys extend over the three kingdoms. Their goods are characterised by a very high degree of excellence and finish, and have gained great favour in the printing, lithographing, and stationery trades. British colour printers, lithographers, &c., ought not to be slow in patronising a home firm which can so successfully compete with foreign manufacturers in every essential feature of quality, finish, and price. The partners all take an active part in the affairs of the business, with the various details of which they are thoroughly and practically conversant; and the most careful attention is given to the prompt fulfilment and despatch of all orders received.
Telegrams for Messrs. Shaw, McColl & Co. should be addressed: “Chromo, Leeds.” The firm’s: telephone is No. 810.


Among the most important houses connected with the building trade in Yorkshire is that of Messrs. W. H. Casebourne & Co., Builders’ Merchants. This highly important business was founded about seven years ago by Mr. W. H. Casebourne, of the firm of Casebourne & Co., Limited, West Hartlepool. The Leeds premises comprise well-appointed offices, with commodious stores at the rear, and owing to the great increase of business it has been found necessary to open a branch establishment at City Road, Bradford. There are heavy stocks constantly arriving and departing, an extremely brisk trade being in operation. All kinds of building materials are dealt in, and the agency is held for the following well-known houses:- Messrs. Casebourne- & Co , Limited, West Hartlepool, for Portland cement; Messrs. I. Howe & Co., Parian and plaster of Paris manufacturers, Carlisle.

Messrs. W. H. Casebourne & Co. have formed an excellent connection both in Leeds and Bradford, principally among builders and contractors. Nearly eighty tons of Messrs. I. Howe & Co.’s fine Parian cement was lately supplied through Messrs. W. H Casebourne & Co. for the extension wing of the Leeds Infirmary, which was opened in 1892. The Portland cement supplied by them is of splendid quality, being made from the finest Thames chalk, imported direct, and is equal in quality to the best brands of London cement. It is manufactured to stand a tensile strain of four hundred pounds to the square inch after seven days’ immersion in water, and to weigh one hundred and twelve pounds to the imperial striked bushel. As it is now universally acknowledged by all experts that the finer Portland cement is ground the better it is, Messrs. Casebourne & Co., Limited, have given this their most special attention, and they are now grinding their cement to pass through a sieve of two thousand five hundred meshes to the square inch, leaving a residue of not more than two per cent. It is largely specified by the leading architects and engineers in Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the north.


Undoubtedly one of the most popular industries of modern times is that of the tobacco manufacturer. The votaries of “the weed” increase from day to day at a rate which must carry consternation to the hearts of its not very numerous opponents, and he who can supply the wants of this vast and growing multitude in a satisfactory manner is sure of commercial success and public favour. Among Yorkshire firms of prominence and celebrity in the wholesale tobacco trade none is better known than that of Messrs. E. & T. Hebblethwaite, of Exeter Street, Leeds, whose manufactures have gained a great reputation for purity and excellence. This notable house was founded upwards of half a century ago by Messrs. E. & T. Hebblethwaite, who developed a large business, and retired in 1869. The concern was then purchased by Messrs. Hattersley and Scott, who continued it very successfully under the original style — a title which is still retained. Mr. Hattersley died in 1885, and since then the sole proprietor of this flourishing business has been Mr. Mark Scott, a gentleman whose large experience and sound practical knowledge of the trade have enabled him to sustain the house in its high position, and to preserve the good name that has so long attached to its manufactures.

The premises occupied in Exeter Street are spacious, commodious, and very completely equipped for the purposes of tobacco manufacture upon a large scale. The several departments are admirably arranged, and all the manufacturing processes are carried out under the most favourable conditions, the best machinery and appliances being in use. Between thirty and forty hands are constantly employed here, in addition to the large amount of machinery in operation, and the completeness with which the firm exemplify the trade may be understood when we say that their manufactures embrace every description of tobacco in demand at the present day. Under the head of “Loose Cut Tobaccos” they turn out no less than nine kinds of shag, besides brown and black “rough cut,” pale “rough cut,” best Cuba, fine Virginia super, Virginia “Returns,” Virginia and Kentucky “Stripts,” Turkey “Returns,” Black Cut Cake “Cavendish,” Smoking Mixture, Turkey “rough cut,” Gold Flake, Latakia, bright “birdseye,” cut navy plug, &c., &c. In addition to the above, Messrs. E. & T. Hebblethwaite make a great variety of roll and twist tobaccos, and also a large number of packet tobaccos, which are exceedingly popular, and in great demand among all classes of smokers.

All Messrs. Hebblethwaite’s tobaccos are prepared with the greatest care and skill. They are excellent in quality, without exception, and are manufactured only from the best, most carefully selected, and fully matured leaf. Dealers thoroughly appreciate the sound principles upon which the business has always been conducted, and know that they can place full confidence in its well-tried integrity. It is also important to retailers to know that all tobaccos sent out from Messrs. E. & T. Hebblethwaite’s factory are guaranteed to be safely within the thirty-five per cent, of moisture limit prescribed by the “Customs and Inland Revenue Act” of 1887, and strictly in accordance with the new Excise regulations. In all parts of the midlands and the north of England the manufactures of this old-established firm are prime favourites with the smoking public, and enjoy a large and steady sale.

Messrs. E. & T. Hebblethwaite supply an extensive and increasing connection in these districts, and Mr. Scott, the painstaking principal, spares no effort to ensure the complete satisfaction of customers, both in the quality of the goods supplied, and in the promptitude with which all orders are executed. The telegraphic address of the firm is, “Asiatic, Leeds.”