The London Printing and Engraving Co.

THROUGHOUT the entire United Kingdom the social, political, and commercial progress achieved during the century that is now drawing to a close has been unparalleled in the history of our country, and presents a subject which is well worthy of consideration in its various aspects. The progress to which we refer has not been a movement in merely one or two directions; it has been the general advancement of the whole nation in everything that is of vital consequence to the satisfactory course of human life, and to the due development of the influences of refinement and the advantages of prosperity. Especially marked has been the onward march of enterprise in commerce and industry, with which we shall, in these pages, more particularly concern ourselves; and here again we note the many-sided nature of our national achievements. Every branch of trade and manufacture to which British energy, skill, and capital have been devoted, from the dawn of the nineteenth century down to the day and year in which we are living, may truly be said to have prospered and flourished in an extraordinary degree; and now, wherever we look within the limits of the British Isles we may note the evidences of this prosperity and of the splendid energy and industry that have brought it to pass.

No finer example of latter-day advancement in the useful arts and industries, and in the various departments of trade which contribute to the well-being of a nation in general or of a community in particular, can be cited than that which is afforded by the present condition of the county named at the head of this page.

Lancashire has been justly styled “the workshop of the world,” and its people have time and again proved themselves pre-eminent in the possession of those qualities and capabilities which tend to establish success and supremacy in commerce and manufacture. In magnitude of population, in volume of mercantile undertakings, and in the internal resources which contribute to the prosperity of its thousand and one enterprises in trade and production, Lancashire stands as the premier county of England to-day; and within its borders are situated some of the greatest and busiest centres of commercial activity to be met with in any quarter of the globe.

The historic county palatine and maritime shire to which we are now devoting our attention is situated in the north-western corner of England, and is bounded by Westmoreland, Cumberland, Yorkshire, Cheshire, and the Irish Sea. It has an area of 1,208,154 acres, and its greatest length is about 85 miles, the greatest breadth being 46 miles. A detached part of the county, cut off from the main portion by Morecambe Bay and southern Westmoreland, bears the name of Furness. Here iron is abundant. Other parts of the county yield various mineral products, and the Lancashire coalfield — one of the greatest in Britain — has an area of about 220 square miles. It lies between the rivers Ribble and Mersey, and its vast product of coal has contributed enormously towards the establishment of Lancashire’s world-wide industrial fame. The manufactures carried on in this county are of great variety and importance. Cotton spinning and weaving are, of course, preeminent, and the cotton industry of Lancashire is certainly without a rival in magnitude. Other textiles are also produced, and the manufacture of machinery, engines, and many other articles in general demand engages the services of thousands of workpeople of both sexes. Lancashire is intersected in every direction by a network of railways and canals, and in every respect it possesses the most ample facilities for the proper conduct of the vast undertakings of a mercantile and productive character in which the great majority of its inhabitants are employed. Under conditions of restricted space, our general review of Lancashire and its principal business centres must, of necessity, be concise in the matter of details, and it may be here appropriately inaugurated by a brief survey of the history and achievements of what has now become its largest municipal community — the second city in the United Kingdom, and one of the foremost seaports in the world.

We refer, of course, to Liverpool, the maritime metropolis of Lancashire and north-western England, whose history furnishes a most remarkable illustration of the rapid development of civic influence and mercantile organisation among an intelligent and enterprising people. It is no secret to the majority of our readers that this “queen of British ports” was once an insignificant hamlet, boasting of no greater structural importance than that embodied in the existence of a few poor huts, inhabited by the fishermen and herdsmen who plied their calling on the river and in the immediate neighbourhood. Equally familiar is the story of its wonderful modern advancement, and those who care to look up the records in such matters will find that, as recently as the year 1801, Liverpool had a population of less than 80,000. Between 1831 and 1841 the number of its inhabitants increased by nearly 100,000, viz., from 189,244 to 286,487; and the census of 1881 gave the population of the city in that year as 558,425, being an increase of nearly 60,000 over the figures for 1871. The assumption that this ratio of increase has been maintained is fully justified by the results of the census of 1891. It has been said of Liverpool that it is a city in which “there are riches overflowing, and everything that can delight a man who wishes to see the prosperity of a great community and a great empire.” For all this the place is indebted entirely to the spirited enterprise, integrity, and unflagging industry of those who have participated in its commercial affairs, and aided the development of its mercantile importance by their energy and ability as exponents of the many trades in which the city has gained universal fame.

Liverpool did not rise into prominence either as a port or as a town until the latter half of the seventeenth century; but its history may be traced back to quite a remote period, and it is believed to be mentioned in Domesday Book under the name of Esmedune. Camden, the historian, tells us that Roger of Poitiers (to whom William the Conqueror made a grant of the country between the rivers Mersey and Ribble) built a castle here about the year 1089. King John gave the place its first municipal charter, and Henry III, made it a free borough in 1225. About a hundred years later Liverpool was constituted an independent port, but this distinction does not appear to have been of much practical value, for in 1571 “the people of her Majesty’s decayed town of Liverpool” petitioned Queen Elizabeth for relief by subsidy. Leland, in 1559, refers tm the place as a “paved town,” but it continued to remain in comparative obscurity for fully a hundred years after this. Its possession was, however, a point of dispute in the Civil War, and it was besieged and captured by Prince Rupert in 1644. Ten years prior to this, Charles I. had rated the town for “ship money” in only £26; and “Haydn’s Dictionary of Dates” gives us a notable insight into what the real modern development of Liverpool has amounted to by recording the fact that in 1888 the income of the estates of the Corporation was about twelve millions and a half sterling, from renewal fines, &c., whereas in 1672 the same income stood at the paltry figure of £13!

After the restoration of Charles II., and largely in consequence of the Plague and the Great Fire, many London merchants removed to Liverpool, and soon after this the trade of the town began to flourish. William III. granted a new charter to the Corporation, the river channel was cleared and deepened for navigation up to Runcorn, and the “old dock” was constructed in 1699, the first ship to enter it being the “Marlborough” on June 8th, 1700. Subsequent records show continuous progress. Chester was superseded in the trade of the Irish Sea; and soon Bristol found for the first time a formidable rival in the trade with the West Indies, Virginia, France, Spain, and the west coast of Africa. In the latter part of the eighteenth century the manufacturing districts of South Lancashire became connected with the growing port of the Mersey by the construction of the Duke of Bridgewater’s famous canal. This great waterway opened up navigable communication between Liverpool and Manchester, and enabled the citizens of the two places to engage in a brisk traffic in foreign yarns.

The invention of the spinning jenny and the power-loom, coupled with the extensive development of the coal trade in Lancashire (by which steam engines were set to work in many parts of the county) created a revolution in local textile industries, and soon the Liverpool ship-owners found ample scope for their energy and capital in the importation of raw cotton. The progress of scientific navigation conferred immense benefit upon the port, and from the advent of the first steam vessel in the Mersey we may fairly date the modern history of Liverpool. That was in 1815, and by the year 1824 the town could boast of no less than ten thousand vessels carrying merchandise to and from all parts of the world.

From the valuable “Dictionary of Dates” above referred to we quote the following prominent events in the subsequent history of Liverpool. First it may be mentioned that the town offered a vigorous resistance to the Young Pretender in 1745; that Salthouse Dock was opened in 1753; that the town equipped and manned a very large number of privateers at the commencement of the war with France in 1778; and that the King’s and the Queen’s Docks were constructed about 1785. During all this time much progress had been made in the improvement of the town and the erection of public buildings, and this progress had only been temporarily interfered with by the occurrence of several destructive fires. In March, 1830, Blackrock Lighthouse was completed and the first light shown; and in September of that year the Clarence Dock was completed. The same year witnessed that memorable event, the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (September 15th, 1830), a line about 31 miles long, and the first grand work of its kind. Four years later the Waterloo Dock was opened, and the opening of the Victoria and Trafalgar Docks occurred in 1836. In July, 1837, the Liverpool and Birmingham (Grand Junction) Railway was opened; and in September, 1838, the railway to London (now the London and North-Western Railway) was opened its entire length. Her Majesty the Queen visited Liverpool in October, 1851; and during the following twenty-five or thirty years there transpired many events which stand as notable landmarks along the pathway of the town’s progress towards the high distinction and influence it has now achieved. One of these events, of special noteworthiness, was the establishment of the bishopric of Liverpool in March, 1880; and in the following month the town was duly nominated for elevation to the dignity of a city—an honour which it had long deserved and worthily earned. In July, 1881, operations were begun upon the new waterworks, which have their source of supply at the valley of Vyrnwy, in Wales. The month of October in the same year witnessed the opening of the Alexandra Dock by the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the University College was inaugurated by the Earl of Derby on January 14th, 1882. February 13th, 1885, was made memorable by the opening of that great piece of engineering, the Mersey Tunnel; and in May, 1886, her Majesty the Queen again visited the city for the purpose of opening the Liverpool International Exhibition of Navigation, Commerce, &c. On that occasion the honour of knighthood was bestowed upon Alderman David Radcliffe, who at that time filled the mayoral chair of the city with such conspicuous credit and distinction. Liverpool celebrated the Queen’s Jubilee year by the holding of a highly successful Royal Jubilee Exhibition, which was opened on May 16th, 1887, by Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise.

Many quaint and interesting traditions are held concerning the origin of the name of Liverpool. It is claimed by some writers that it has been derived from a species of wort found on the shore and called “liverwort.” Others surmise that the name is taken from that of a local family called Lever, but this family has not been proved to be of sufficient antiquity to justify the theory. In some-old records the town is mentioned as Lyrpool, which has led a few historians to suggest that the name simply signifies “lower pool.” Finally we have the widely-accepted story of the “liver,” a species of waterfowl which is believed to have frequented the neighbourhood in former times. This species of bird is now certainly extinct, but as a proof that it once existed the arms of the borough are brought forward, and in them we note that the crest is a bird which is supposed to be the liver. As a matter of fact it is impossible to clearly establish the identity of this heraldic bird, and, like many other armorial symbols, it might easily have been a creature of the imagination. Dr. Enfield says that the proper name of the city is distinctly Liverpool and that it was so-called in the original charter granted by King John. The pool on the borders of which the early inhabitants built up the village which has since become such a mighty centre of life and business, occupied the site of the present Custom House, the General Post Office, and the Revenue Buildings; and the tide flowed in the direction of Paradise Street.

Whatever may have been the real origin of the place or the derivation of its name, or however interesting a profound historical research might be to the curious, the enormous activity of the city to-day is still more interesting, and supplies sufficient food for reflection to all who may be in any degree absorbed in studying the progress of British commerce. The trade of Liverpool has developed into an everlasting institution, exercising an immense influence in the mercantile operations of the world, and in this one great city where people from every land and clime may be met with, the products of the whole world find a ready and convenient market. Who would think, to look upon the city to-day, that its people in the days of “good Queen Bess” could have been brought to the necessity of craving relief for “her Majesty’s poore decayed towne of Liverpool”? The Corporation of the city now ranks as one of the richest in the United Kingdom, and Liverpool itself is regarded as the second city in the Empire in commerce, wealth, and population.

Topographically, Liverpool presents many excellent features, and the plan of the city is, for the most part, of a regular character, suggesting the carrying out of many important structural improvements in modern times. The streets of the city are full of life and bustle, and must be a vast improvement upon what they were a century ago. In those olden days hackney coaches were almost unknown, sedan chairs being a favourite and general means of conveyance; the introduction of the umbrella was not anticipated; gentlemen figured in wigs and cocked hats; and every aspect of ordinary life stood out in striking contrast to its counterpart at the present day. Travelling was a matter of the greatest inconvenience. Two stage coaches performed the journey to London in two days and nights in summer and three in winter. A coach was despatched once a week to Lancaster and Kendal. Those whose means did not allow them to travel by coach were obliged to have recourse to a wagon, which was also used, for the conveyance of merchandise, and by this means the journey was performed in a week. Contrast those days with the present, when the distance between London and Liverpool is traversed in four hours, and it will be at once seen how greatly we are indebted to the advancement of modern science and the progressive character of the men who have spent their lives in contributing to the “century’s progress.”

A square mile of ground, ascending from the level of the Prince’s Landing Stage and Prince’s Dock, includes the area occupied by the principal business thoroughfares of Liverpool and the most conspicuous public buildings of the city. The leading streets in this busy district are Tithebarn Street, Water Street, and Chapel Street, noted for their great shipping, insurance, and cotton houses; Dale Street, with its stately blocks of general warehouses, and public offices of various kinds; and Victoria Street, Lord Street, Church Street, Ranelagh Street, Bold Street, Hanover Street, and Duke Street, all of which are remarkable for the extent and magnificence of their mercantile establishments. These streets are crossed at various angles by Castle Street and South Castle Street, North and South John Street, and Lime Street, opening out in a wide space around St. George’s Hall, in front of the London and North-Western Railway terminus. The architectural features of the above-named streets are most creditable to the taste of the citizens, and speak volumes for the vast wealth and enterprise which can bring so many superb edifices into existence within such a comparatively circumscribed area. Of course Liverpool stretches out far beyond the limits we are now discussing — its miles of streets and acres of houses extend over an immense expanse of ground on the rising land above the Mersey; but in the square mile or so which we have spoken of lies the great heart of the city, and the life-giving source of all its vitality and energy. Here are the colossal warehouses and trading emporia for which Lancashire’s great port is world-famous; and those who wish to view the city in its most characteristic aspects must spend most of their time in these haunts of commerce, and note with an observant eye the manifold operations carried on therein.

Passing outside of this busy, bustling pale of mercantile activity, we may take the opportunity to note that the remainder of the city, out to its remotest suburbs, is admirably laid out and well built; and the numerous parks and places of public recreation, provided for the benefit of the inhabitants by the municipal government of the city, are allowed by all who visit them to be among the finest in Great Britain. These parks, which contribute so largely to the health of the populace and to the spread of refining influences among the people, are six in number, viz., Prince’s Park, Sefton Park, Newsham Park, Shirl Park, Stanley Park, and Wavertree Park, with which is associated that highly popular resort, the Botanic Gardens, adjacent to Edge Hill Station on the London and North-Western line.

Each is a remarkable and beautiful specimen of the art of gardening upon a large scale, and Prince’s Park may take the lead among its fellows. For size, taste, and perfection of arrangement it stands in the front rank of the public parks of the kingdom. Hardly less delightful is Sefton Park, and the magnificent conservatories and extensive hothouses, surrounded by beautiful flowerbeds, illustrating equally well the skill of the gardener and the taste of the florist, lend an air of enchantment to the fine park of Wavertree, which it would indeed be difficult to surpass. Newsham Park has become famous in modern history for supplying Newsham House as a residence for her Majesty the Queen while on a visit to the city to open the International Exhibition of 1886. Apart from this fact the park is highly attractive and picturesque in itself, and forms a most popular resort for the inhabitants of the districts of Kensington, West Derby, and Tuebrook. Stanley Park, situated in the neighbourhoods of Everton and Anfield, affords a place of recreation for dwellers in the North End.

Liverpool is well furnished with places of amusement, and in this respect it lacks none of the conspicuous features of the metropolis, possessing, as it does, seven or eight theatres and six music-halls, all of which are managed with ability and energy by their respective proprietors and directors. The people of Liverpool are noted for their fondness for musical and dramatic entertainments, and their requirements in such matters are certainly well looked after by those who cater to the amusement of the public here.

We have space only for a very brief survey of the notable public edifices and places of interest in Liverpool, but even the concise review of the city would be incomplete without some mention of the many noble buildings and institutions of which every Liverpudlian is justly proud. Some of these are fine specimens of Corinthian, Renaissance, and other orders of architecture, and their ranks are headed by the superb pile known as St. George’s Hall, one of the noblest examples of Grecian architecture in Great Britain, and a structure worthy of its dedication to the patron saint of merry England. The Hall was designed by Mr. H. H. Elmes in 1838, and was erected at a cost of no less than £330,000. It is 500 feet long, with a stately colonnade, and the southern portico, with its pediment adorned with massive sculptures, representing Britannia, Mercury, Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and the English arts and sciences, rises above a flight of steps 150 feet wide. The building in its entirety consists of a central and two outlying blocks, containing respectively a Concert Room and the Assize Courts. The great hall in the central block is a magnificent chamber, provided with a superb organ and forming one of the largest and handsomest halls for musical entertainments in the United Kingdom. The organ recitals given here by Mr. Best, organist to the Corporation, are much appreciated by lovers of music in the city. The Free Library and Museum in William Brown Street are notable institutions of Liverpool; and the Walker Art Gallery, in the same quarter, is a fine building in the Corinthian, style — the gift of Sir Andrew Barclay Walker, who was mayor of Liverpool in 1873. In this establishment the city possesses an art gallery worthy of her rank and status among British communities. Close to these buildings stands the Wellington Monument, a fine column, 80 feet high, surmounted by a statue of the Iron Duke. This was erected in 1863. The Town Hall in Dale Street, fronting Castle Street, is one of the most interesting buildings in the city; and behind it is the Exchange, with an intervening paved area called “Exchange Flags,” the resort of the city merchants and commercial men in general. On these “flags” rises the Nelson Monument, a colossal statue in bronze, emblematical at once of the glorious victory and not less glorious death of the hero it commemorates.

Higher up Dale Street are situated the handsome Municipal Offices, a stately building in the Roman Corinthian style, completed in 1868 at a cost of over £100,000. The interior comprises about one hundred rooms, all devoted to the public business of the city, and all admirably adapted to their several purposes. On the opposite side of the way stand the Police Office, the Petty Sessions, and the Coroners’ Courts; while in Hatton Garden may be seen the headquarters of Liverpool’s well-organised and highly efficient fire brigade, an extensive and commodious modern building, exhibiting all the latest appliances used in the extinction of fires and the salvage of life and property. The Liverpool Custom House occupies the site of the old dock, and is a pleasing and effective piece of Ionic architecture, laid out upon a most extensive scale to accommodate the General Post Office, the Inland Revenue Department, and the Dock Offices.

Near the Custom House stands the Sailors’ Home, one of the most imposing buildings in the city. This useful institution has done a noble and invaluable work in affording help and shelter to many a weary and wandering seafarer from the ranks of the thousands of mariners whose services are of such vast importance in the maritime operations of Liverpool. The foundation-stone of the home was laid, by the late Prince Consort in 1846.

Liverpool possesses no fewer than 180 places of worship, meeting the needs of nearly every religious denomination found in England, and some of the principal, churches are large and handsome edifices, architecturally attractive and structurally commodious. The bishopric of Liverpool was established in 1880, and the fine old parish church of St. Peter, in Church Street, was appointed to be the pro-cathedral. It is a spacious and interesting fane in itself, but is not by any means adequate to maintain the episcopal dignity of such an important and, presumably, wealthy see as this. We understand that there is a scheme on foot to erect a new and magnificent cathedral for the city at a cost of something like half a million sterling, and we believe that designs for the building have already been submitted and a suitable site fixed upon. If this be so, let us hope that the necessary funds will be soon forthcoming, and that the city may ere long rejoice in the possession of a cathedral edifice that shall do credit to all concerned in its erection.

Closely allied with the work of the Church is that of school and college, and Liverpool is remarkable for the number and excellence of its educational establishments. It now has its University under distinguished patronage, and destined, no doubt, to produce some of the cleverest men of our time, and its numerous museums, art galleries, reading-rooms, libraries, &c., supply an ample fund of educational resources, the influence and effect of which cannot be other than satisfactory in an eminent degree. Charitable institutions also abound in this progressive and public-spirited community, and while liberal provision has been made for the poor and the destitute, the physical wants of afflicted humanity have not been neglected. No city in England is better equipped in the matter of hospitals, and the chief of these — the Royal Infirmary, in Ashton Street — is an institution that any community might be proud to possess. It is a magnificent edifice from a structural point of view, situated in the heart of the city, and with every desirable facility of access. No institution of the kind in Great Britain could render more valuable service to the public, and capably managed and provided with a staff of the most eminent medical and surgical practitioners in England, its operations are fully appreciated. The Northern Hospital, in Great Howard Street, is another famous institution of a similar kind; and this and the Stanley Hospital, in Stanley Road, cater to the needs of the inhabitants of the North End. Many an industrious workman, plying his vocation in one or other of the many capacities in which manual labour is called into requisition in a great seaport and seat of trade, owes his life and continued bodily vigour to the timely aid extended by these perfectly-organised headquarters of medical and surgical relief. The Southern Hospital, in Hill Street, confers a similar benefit upon the people of the South End, and there are several minor hospitals, &c., in other parts of the city which play a creditable part in the same noble work. The general organisation and system of all these establishments, and the excellence of the management in each case, cannot be too highly commended, and the hospitals of Liverpool, like the benevolent institutions of the city, reflect the highest credit upon the government under which they are conducted, and upon the liberality and charity of the citizens who support them by their contributions.

We have room for only a word or two concerning the almost unrivalled railway facilities now enjoyed by Liverpool, but it would be unpardonable to omit to acknowledge the indebtedness of the city to that potent agent and forerunner of civilisation, the “Iron Horse.” Although Liverpool is mainly a maritime city, resting its prosperity largely upon its seafaring connections, it has had much to do with the progress of railway enterprise in this country, and our readers will not need to be reminded of the fact that the first railway opened for public traffic on a large scale in England was the line inaugurated between Liverpool and Manchester in 1830. Since then the city has made vast strides in commercial expansion, constantly aided in its advancement by the railways it has ever been prominent in encouraging; and at the present day there is not a principal line in Great Britain that does not possess ready and effective communication with the great port of the Mersey.

That wonderful engineering achievement, the Mersey Tunnel, also calls for mention here, inasmuch as it has accomplished more than even the magnificent and world-famous service of ferry steamers plying between Liverpool and Birkenhead. It has overcome the geographical obstacles that intervene between the two towns, and has made these busy ports well-nigh one and indivisible, despite the sometimes boisterous protest of the broad river beneath whose bed this subterranean railway has been carried. The tunnel was first projected in 1866, and though operations were frequently suspended, the energy of Major Isaac at length secured the completion of the boring in 1884, and the first passenger train was run through on December 22nd, 1885. Designed originally to afford increased and permanent means of communication, between Liverpool and Birkenhead, the Mersey Tunnel has now assumed a position of still higher and more national importance as a notable link in the railway system of the country.

The civic and municipal government of Liverpool is vested in a Corporation consisting of forty-eight councillors, elected by the burgesses in sixteen wards, with a mayor and sixteen aldermen elected by the council. There are also a recorder, stipendiary magistrate, town clerk, and various other officials charged with the performance of important public duties; and no body of men could acquit themselves of these responsibilities with greater credit to themselves or higher advantage to the community. The lighting and general improvement of the city are under the management of the Corporation, who are also empowered to make bye-laws for the regulation of the police, hackney coachmen, porters, &c. The police force (comprising borough, dock, and fire police) is under the control of a watch committee, who instruct a head constable in the discharge of his duties, and anyone who has lived in the city will be ready to pay a well-deserved tribute of admiration to the efficiency and excellent organisation of the police force in all its departments. Political life in Liverpool has developed immense activity within the last fifty or sixty years, and the city now returns nine members to Parliament, one from each of its divisions.

The Press in Liverpool, as in all other important mercantile and political centres, exercises a most powerful influence over the lives of the citizens and the progress of their affairs; and some mention of the manner in which the “fourth estate” is here represented must find a place even in tins brief review. There are five prominent newspapers published daily in the city, and of these the “Post,” the “Mercury,” and the “Courier” may be placed in the front rank of provincial journalism. The “Liverpool Daily Post” is one of the most popular Liberal organs published in the North of England. No newspaper in the kingdom is better conducted, nor is there one whose utterances are received with more general respect and confidence. The “Courier” is the organ of the Conservative party, and is equally remarkable in this capacity, leading the Tory opinion of the city. Its general tone and character are eminently creditable to the management, and the commendable absence of political and religious intolerance is a feature that merits more than ordinary mention. The “Liverpool Mercury” has long been established, and is a commercial and political organ of first-class standing. Independent in tone, it is one of the most esteemed of northern newspapers, and as a mercantile journal it has hardly a rival out of London. The evening papers of Liverpool are also interesting, perhaps the most successful of them all being the “Echo,” an offshoot of the “Daily Post.” The “Courier” sends forth the “Evening Express,” which does good service in its particular sphere in the political arena.

It is practically impossible to enumerate here the many “weeklies” issued in this city. Suffice it to say that the “Weekly Post,” “Weekly Mercury,” and “Weekly Courier” take the lead, and form excellent and esteemed general newspapers, enjoying a wide and influential circulation. Several trade journals are also published, and the “Liverpool Journal of Commerce” is one of the best productions of its kind in the country. The “Shipping Telegraph” has an extensive maritime clientèle; the “Chronicle” is well supported by sportsmen, and lovers of wit, satire, and “smart” criticism are well advised in giving their favour and allegiance to the lively and spirited “Porcupine.” On the whole, the journalistic resources of Liverpool are great, and it is impossible to ignore the benefits which have been conferred upon the city and district by the intelligent and independent action of its well- directed local press in all matters affecting the welfare of the community, or that of the nation at large.

Many large volumes might be filled in recounting the commercial achievements of Liverpool during the last two hundred years, and in surveying the eminent position to which the port has now attained as a result of the continuous progress of those two centuries. In the course of mercantile events in the modern world there is certainly no community, at home or abroad, that has battled so earnestly or so triumphantly with a host of difficulties, or more successfully turned serious disadvantages to ultimate profit than has this great and ever-growing Lancashire city; and we may find the secret of all this success in the manner in which the people of Liverpool have availed themselves of the aid of modern science and invention. Two or three hundred years ago anybody who could survey the Mersey at this point and note the general conformation of the land and river, would have declared it impossible ever to make more than a second-rate port here. True, there were geographical advantages in the position, but the seeming and actual difficulties lying in the way of utilising those advantages would have appeared too great to have been properly overcome. Such an opinion as this might certainly have been formed by one unacquainted with the tremendous energy and industry of the Lancastrian people; but that energy and industry have proved predominant, and have made at Liverpool a port which is absolutely unsurpassed, and probably unequalled in perfection of accommodation for great masses of shipping by any other in the world.

The Liverpool docks are now an institution familiar to, and engaging the attention of, the commercial men of the globe. For miles they stretch along the banks of the Mersey, providing accommodation for ships of every country under the sun; and the towering warehouses that accompany them are packed with the products of every clime and the wares of every market. At the time of the civil war between Charles I. and the Parliament, Liverpool, with a population of about 4,000, is said to have possessed only 24 ships, of an aggregate burthen of 462 tons, and manned by 76 sailors. By the beginning of the eighteenth century the population had risen to 5,000, and the, number of ships to 102, with a total burthen of nearly 9,000 tons. The city was gaining yearly in mercantile activity, and with the growing importance of the port there came a necessity for an improvement in its commercial facilities. Accordingly, the Corporation obtained power to construct docks, and the foundation of the dock estate of Liverpool was laid, with little idea, perhaps, that it would ever assume its present magnitude and importance. From that time onward the trade of Liverpool has advanced with giant strides, and the port has never forfeited the respect and confidence of the commercial world. As the facilities of traffic — both inland and oceanic — increased, so did the demand for dock accommodation become more pressing, and in 1753 the Salthouse Dock was completed and opened. Progress then became the ruling feature of the city’s life, and each succeeding year furnished fresh proofs of continued development. The George’s Dock, the King’s Dock, and the Queen’s Dock were successfully constructed and inaugurated, and in one hundred years the number of vessels had increased from 102 to 4,518, while the population rose to 77,000. In 1800 no less than 4,746 ships entered the Mersey, and from this the Corporation derived a revenue of over £82,000, as compared with £804 4s. 3d. in 1699.

In 1814 the East India Company’s charter having broken the monopoly previously enjoyed by that powerful corporation, a fresh opportunity presented itself to Liverpool enterprise, and a new trade was opened, the subsequent expansion of which has found ample scope for the lucrative employment of a large proportion of the port’s shipping. Simultaneously with the development of this eastern trade, a further advantage was gained by the reopening of the long-suspended intercourse with France and the United States. The first American ship entered the Mersey on May 3rd, 1815, and was received with loud acclamation from the crowds who had gathered on the quays to witness her arrival. The corresponding event in New York occurred on April 5th, 1815, and was thus announced in one of the newspapers of that city:— “The regular British packet from Liverpool, after an absence of nearly three years, at length reappears in our harbour, in token of returning amity. We hail with sensations of gladness the joyful omen, and may no inauspicious event ever occur again to banish her from our waters!”

Changes were yet in progress which were destined to revolutionise the commercial methods, not alone of Liverpool, but of the world. The value of steam as a motive power had been abundantly tested, and in June, 1815, the first steamboat appeared in the Mersey. She came from the Clyde, and was fitted to carry passengers, in which capacity she plied between Liverpool and Runcorn. Soon afterwards other steamboats were built, with the object of instituting better communication between Liverpool and the Cheshire side of the Mersey; and in this way was started that most valuable and unrivalled service now known as the Birkenhead or Woodside ferry-boats. On June 20th, 1819, occurred an event ever memorable, the arrival from America of the Savannah, the first steamer to attempt and accomplish the passage of the Atlantic. It was not, however, until 1838 that any great advantages were gained by the use of steam in the transatlantic service. In that year several large steampackets began to ply between Liverpool and the United States, and soon a fleet of seventeen steamers was actively engaged in this service, accomplishing the passage in from fourteen to eighteen days. The improvements which then rapidly ensued have resulted in the constitution of those splendid fleets of steamships that sail to-day from the Mersey to all parts of the world; and the enterprise that has brought these mighty vessels into existence has given to Liverpool its proud pre-eminence among the seaports of the globe. The city’s name is inseparably associated with the building up and development of the marvellous service of swift-sailing steamships which have brought the Old and the New Worlds within a few days’ journey of each other; and Liverpool’s renown in this matter is deservedly shared by such eminent and influential shipping corporations as the Cunard Line, the White Star Line, the Allan and the Dominion Lines, the Inman and International Line and many other great concerns, to whose energy and progressive spirit the great world of travellers and merchants owes a lasting debt of gratitude.

Liverpool maintains maritime connections with every port under the sun, and controls a universal commerce, the magnitude of which is almost incomprehensible to the ordinary mind. Her imports and exports are now calculated in millions, and nearly the whole of the raw cotton imported into this country is brought to Liverpool. Almost every conceivable trade finds representation at the hands of the wholesale and retail merchants of the city; and sugar refineries, breweries, rope-works, glass-works, brass and iron foundries, soda-works and watch and jewellery factories, help to provide the population with the means of livelihood. The amount of shipping in the port increases year by year, and the short space of a decade is sufficient to effect a truly marvellous change in the activity of the docks and the streets, in the volume of trade done, and in the facilities for the conduct of that trade, as well as in the area of the city, the multitude of its population, and the prosperity of the great mass of its inhabitants.

A glance at the space at our disposal warns us that we must bring this brief sketch of the career of the great north-western mart and seaport to a close, and proceed to consider some of the sister communities that have played a worthy and honourable part in the work of placing Lancashire in the fore-front of English counties. Liverpool presents a subject so vast and so comprehensive in its different aspects at the present day that one might write upon it almost ad infinitum. To trace the growth and history of a great nineteenth-century city, and to follow up the development of its commercial and social affairs, and survey the lives of its inhabitants in the various spheres in which their lots are cast, is a labour that will always be replete with interest and attraction to the student of national progress. But in the case of Liverpool, even were the most colossal task of this kind to be fully and faithfully accomplished, it would amount to nothing more than a voluminous tribute to the purely human energies of the place. By her people has Liverpool been made what she is: and in the character of her people she will always possess a strong and unfailing assurance of continued advancement and prosperity.

MANCHESTER, the inland metropolis of Lancashire, the great headquarters of the cotton textile trade, and one of the busiest and most influential mercantile cities in Europe, has a name which is known throughout the civilised world, and a fame which has penetrated to the most distant quarters of the habitable globe. The writing of all that might legitimately be written concerning this remarkable, and in many respects unique, community of merchants and manufacturers would fill many large volumes, and as we have neither the time nor the space necessary for the compilation of such a work of history and description as this would imply, our readers must be content with a brief and unpretentious survey of the place and its people — a survey that will be amplified by the articles that follow later on, with reference to individual firms in the various lines of trade for which this city is universally renowned.

Manchester is a very ancient as well as a surpassingly interesting place, though but comparatively little of its early history can be recorded with absolute accuracy. It is well known that mention of it occurs in Domesday Book, along with Salford, Rochdale, and Radcliffe; and it is interesting to note that these are the only places named in that historic record in the district now known as South-east Lancashire, the greater portions of which were then either forest or waste lands.

Mr. W. E. A. Axon, a most competent and reliable authority, in an article contributed by him some time ago to the “Encyclopaedia Britannica,” observes in reference to Manchester:— “Nearly the only point of certainty in its history before the Conquest is that it suffered greatly from the devastations of the Danes, and that in 923 Edward, who was then at Thelwall, near Warrington, sent a number of his Mercian troops to garrison it.” The same writer remarks:— “It was probably one of the scenes of the missionary preaching of Paulinus; and it is said (although by a chronicler of comparatively late date) to have been the residence of Ina, King of Wessex, and his queen, Ethelberga, after he had defeated Ivor, somewhere about the year 689.” It would hardly serve any useful purpose now to dive deeper into the ancient history of the city, but, though briefly, some facts regarding the Manchester of more recent times must be recorded.

In the first place it may be said that Manchester is distant from London 188 miles by the London and North-Western Railway, 189 miles by the Midland route, and 188 and three-quarter mile by the Great Northern. The distance from Liverpool is 31 miles. According to the census of 1881, the population of the municipal borough was 341,414, and of the parliamentary Borough (which includes the townships of Harpurhey, Newton, Bradford, and Beswick), 393,585. In 1885 the city boundary was extended to include Rusholme, Bradford (a local township), and Harpurhey, and the population of the municipal borough was thus raised to 373,583, and of the parliamentary borough to 404,823. Although the town of Salford is, both for municipal and parliamentary purposes, separate and distinct from Manchester, it is quite impossible in a work of this kind to treat them separately, except for statistical purposes, inasmuch as they do in reality form one immense and homogeneous community, and what is applicable to one in a general and commercial sense applies equally to both. It is not, therefore, out of place to state that the population of Salford (whose municipal and parliamentary limits are identical) was (in 1881) 176,235. This gives to the combined parliamentary areas of Manchester and Salford a total population of 581,058, and as these figures apply only to 1881, it may safely be assumed that the population is now largely in excess of 600,000.

A charter of incorporation was granted to Manchester as recently as 1838. Prior to that date the municipal government was vested in a borough reeve, two constables and several other officers, elected or appointed at the Court Leet of the Lord of the Manor. The municipal government body is now composed of nineteen aldermen and fifty-seven councillors, and the city is divided into eighteen wards or electoral divisions. Manchester became a city by Royal Charter on March 29th, 1853. It will scarcely be credited by the present generation that, prior to the passing of the Reform Bill of 1832, neither Manchester nor Salford enjoyed direct Parliamentary representation, while places of the utmost insignificance, and with a mere handful of electors, returned one or more members to the House of Commons. All such anomalies as these, however, have happily disappeared, and if the recollection of them be revived by the few among the present residents who are old enough to remember those days, it is rather to provoke mirth than to arouse anger, and doubtless with the desire, too, of impressing upon the young men of this age how much their fathers and grandfathers have accomplished, both in parliamentary and other reforms, within the last sixty years.

Salford received a charter of incorporation on the 16th of April, 1844, and this borough is now governed by sixteen aldermen and forty-eight councillors, who represent the ratepayers of twelve wards. It may be of interest to note that Salford’s first charter, constituting it a free borough, was granted by Randle de Blundeville, Earl of Chester, as far back as the reign of Henry III., and that its near neighbour, Manchester, obtained a similar charter about a century later (temp. Edward I.) from its baron, Thomas Gresley, a descendant of one to whom the manor had been given by Roger of Poitou. The latter was created lord of all the land between the rivers Mersey and Ribble by William the Conqueror. Both charters are, we believe, still in existence, and rank among the most interesting historical documents of the county. The present area of the city of Manchester is 5,927 acres, and that of the borough of Salford 5,171 acres, the united areas being 11,098 acres. Manchester now returns six representatives to the House of Commons, and Salford three, so that the combined representation is a somewhat potent influence within the walls of Parliament.

In speaking of Manchester (which in this instance may be understood to embrace Salford) it is impossible to leave out of consideration the fact that it forms the metropolitan centre of a number of towns of great magnitude and importance, each returning one or two members to Parliament. Among those may be mentioned such busy and flourishing places as Stockport, Staleybridge, Oldham, Ashton-under-Lyne, Bury, Bolton, and Rochdale. Nearly every cotton spinner and manufacturer in these towns makes Manchester his business headquarters, and this circumstance adds enormously to the parliamentary and commercial influence and prestige of the city, fully entitling it to its proud position as one of the greatest communities in the Empire, and the pre-eminent seat of one of the most notable of British trades and industries. Perhaps no city in the provinces so nearly resembles the metropolis in bustle, activity, and mercantile excitement; and certainly in no other provincial centre can there be found such a striking combination of inexhaustible manufacturing facilities and vast trading resources as has been developed by the enterprising and progressive citizens of Manchester. The amount of business transacted here is stupendous in its entirety, and the merchants and manufacturers of the city maintain connections of world-wide extent and influence.

As in the case of most large cities, the approaches to Manchester, from whichever direction the traveller comes, are hardly likely to convey to him a just impression of the Capital of the North. Should he arrive from London, four routes are open to him, all of which unite at or near Stockport, and convey him thence to his destination over four miles or so of one of the busiest parts of England. On either side of the railway he will see a long low expanse of fields traversed by “cinder-paths” - paths paved, that is to say, with the clinkers from factory furnaces — and dotted with mills, weaving-sheds, and cottages for the “hands.” As the& traveller approaches the end of his journey, the houses grow thicker, the chimneys more numerous, and the atmosphere denser, all of which are indications of the presence of a vast hive of industrial activity. Much the same impression is received by anyone who approaches the city from the north, west, or south. In each case similar features present themselves, with a constantly recurring panorama of factories and iron-works, coal-pits innumerable, industrial dwellings, and other signs of the proximity of a great manufacturing centre, the whole bathed in a close and smoky atmosphere, charged to oppressiveness with the “incense of industry.” But when the heart of the city is reached the sense of monotony wears off, and one is conscious of being in the midst of a scene of activity and excitement unequalled in England anywhere outside of London itself. Those who arrive at Manchester by road meet with but a slightly varied experience. On one side, indeed, there is hardly any change until one has passed the busy town of Oldham. Other roads out of Manchester, however, take us into pleasant suburbs, but he who would reach the rural villages of Northenden, Cheadle, Didsbury, or Stretford, must first pass through the district of Old Garrett, and the lower end of Oxford Road; while Eccles and its neighbourhood are approached via the fine thoroughfare of Deansgate. Higher Broughton with its pleasant villas, Kersal Moor with its pure air, and select and attractive Cheetham Hill and Prestwich, are separated from the city by the less inviting locality of Strangeways.

As to the city itself, every black spot and unsavoury region within the, municipal boundaries is being rapidly purified and beautified. No people in England are more ready to display a really generous liberality in all matters concerning the condition of their town than those of Manchester, and this is amply proven by the internal aspect of the city, with its well-kept streets and its stately public buildings and commercial edifices. Manchester, at the same time, is a city of paradoxes. It is at once the newest and the oldest of English towns; it is the centre of a vast manufacturing district, and yet it is not itself, strictly speaking, a manufacturing town; it is one of the plainest, and at the same time one of the handsomest cities in the kingdom; it unites within itself the acme of wealth and the depth of poverty; it is a cathedral city, yet a stronghold of Nonconformity; it has an enormous Roman Catholic population, but is one of the most Protestant communities in England; and, finally, it has in proportion to its population probably more teetotallers than any other British town, and yet a vast quantity of strong liquor is consumed within its limits. The wonders of Manchester are inexhaustible, and the city stands as a mighty monument to the vigour and energy of its people.

In his preface to “The Manchester Rebels of the Fatal ’45,” the late Mr. W. Harrison Ainsworth wrote:— “Little of the old town is now left. The lover of antiquity — if any such should visit Manchester — will search in vain for those black-and-white timber habitations, with pointed gables and latticed windows, that were common enough seventy years ago. Entire streets embellished by such houses have been swept away by the course of modern improvements, but I recollect them well.” At the same time within the city of Manchester the number of factories is yearly decreasing. There is still a forest of chimneys, and the atmosphere contains a full allowance of smoke, but the fuliginous pall which overhangs the place is an indispensable accompaniment of every great and populous city, and does not now signify, as it once did, the existence of a host of manufactories in the very heart of the town itself.

The Corporation of Manchester (whose administration of local affairs is deserving of the highest commendation) have expended very large sums of money in beautifying and improving the city, while private enterprise and the public spirit of the inhabitants have done almost, if not quite, as much in the same direction. The change thus wrought within the least thirty years has been something magical. In the “sixties” the well-known Deansgate was little more than a narrow, dirty lane, not at all prepossessing, imposing, or attractive. To-day Deansgate is one of the handsomest thoroughfares in England. The old Town Hall has been replaced by a structure which is hardly surpassed in beauty and majesty among the municipal buildings of Europe. Manchester also boasts Assize Courts and Police Courts such as are to be found nowhere else in the country; and the new Royal Exchange ranks with the grandest and most imposing edifices of its kind in England.

Manchester and Salford are, as we have said, usually spoken of as one town, and this is justified by the fact that they are connected by ties of the most intimate kind. Each has its mayor and Corporation, its separate local administration, its own local rating, and its own way of managing its affairs; yet the leading men in the two places are identical. The manufacturer who has his mills or his works of any kind in Salford has his offices in Manchester, and transacts his business on the Manchester Exchange. Salford is, in fact, mainly the working-class suburb of “Cottonopolis,” and fulfils towards it much the same function as that of Southwark to London. It is also the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric. Between the two towns flows the turbid stream of the river Irwell, once a very beautiful river, but now anything but attractive owing to the prosaic and matter-of-fact nature of its surroundings. On the high ground above the Irwell stands the cathedral of Manchester, the “Old Church,” as it is still familiarly termed. The foundation of this fane is a very ancient one, and it was made a collegiate church as far back as 1422. Soon after 1830 the old collegiate foundation, governed by a warden, was abolished, and the Deanery was established, the first occupant of the decanal stall under this new constitution being the Hon. and Very Rev. W. Herbert. In 1847 the bishopric was created, and the first bishop of Manchester was Dr. Prince-Lee. His successor, the late Dr. Fraser, was a man of high scholarly attainments, and was greatly beloved in the diocese. The present bishop is the Right Rev. James Moorhouse, D.D., and the dean is the Very Rev. Edward Craig Maclure, D.D.

The cathedral in its present form dates only from a comparatively recent period and, except a portion of the walls, there is very little left of the edifice as it stood in the days of Henry VII. The beautiful tower which is an almost exact reproduction of the old one, but in better material, is new from foundation to pinnacles. New mullions have been put in the windows, many of which have been refilled with stained glass. New choir stalls have been erected, a new reredos has been set up, and a large amount of tasteful ornamental work well carried out. Altogether something like £60,000 has been expended on the restoration and beautifying of the “Old Church,” including the new tower, which was completed in 1868. Of this large sum at least £23,000 has been laid out within the last few years, and the results have been highly satisfactory, the cathedral being now in a condition worthy of so great and wealthy a diocese, though it must be said that a still larger and more magnificent edifice would accord better with the status and position of modern Manchester.

The other public buildings of this city are all remarkable for their handsome appearance and stately structure, but our space forbids a lengthened description of them. Where a full account is impracticable, a brief survey must suffice.

Of the Assize Courts it may truly be said that they are not surpassed in the kingdom for comfort, commodiousness, and excellent arrangement. Certainly, in no other courts that we have seen is there such ample provision for the accommodation of the public, as well as for the convenience of all persons having business to transact. The building consists of a centre, with two wings, and is externally about 250 feet long by 150 feet deep. The architectural effect is greatly enhanced by the wise liberality of the Corporation, who have left an open space of more than 100 feet in depth in front of the building.

The Town Hall is one of the most superb structures for the transaction of municipal business to be met with in any part of the world, and was built to replace the somewhat confined and inconvenient buildings in King Street. It was opened in 1876 by Mr. Abel Heywood, mayor of Manchester, and represents one of the noblest results of the policy of improvement so long and so effectually pursued by the modern “city fathers.” The building is from the designs of Mr. Waterhouse, an architect of eminent ability and distinction, and appears to be perfectly adapted to the purpose for which it has been erected, besides being a magnificent structural ornament to the city. It contains altogether about 350 rooms, including a host of public offices, and the reception-rooms are perhaps the finest possessed by any civic government in the United Kingdom. Directly opposite the main entrance to the Town Hall stands the Albert Memorial, a beautiful structure, completed in 1867, to commemorate the virtues of the lamented Prince Consort.

The Royal Exchange at Manchester is an edifice of great beauty and dignity, and is well worthy to be the headquarters of commercial intercourse among the merchants of the district. The building is probably the largest of its kind in Europe, and there is an enormous area of floor space provided to meet the requirements of an ever-increasing assembly of traders, who daily transact an amazing volume of business in the shelter of this stately pile. Manchester has also several other exchanges, including the Stock Exchange, Corn Exchange, Coal Exchange, and Cotton-waste Dealers’ Exchange, all of which are commodious structures, affording every convenience to those who frequent them for purposes of business.

No survey of the public buildings of Manchester (however brief) would be complete without some mention of the Free Trade Hall, in Peter Street. This massive and imposing edifice, built at a cost of £40,000, was inaugurated on October 8th, 1856, and is second only to St. George’s Hall, Liverpool, among the public halls of the north of England. In many respects, notably that of acoustic properties, it is superior to its Liverpool compeer, and it forms the favourite place of meeting for all classes of politicians on important occasions, as well as the great centre of the musical entertainments of Manchester, the concerts given here by Sir Charles Hallé and his famous “Manchester Band” being decidedly the best out of London. The great meeting-room in the Free Trade Hall is galleried all round, has a splendid organ, and can accommodate several thousands of persons. Nearby is another notable building known as the Gentlemen’s Concert Hall, the property of a society of 600 members, something after the model of the London Philharmonic Society. The concerts here given are of the very highest order of excellence, and tickets for them are in great demand. For those who are musically inclined Manchester affords abundant and excellent entertainment; and lovers of the drama will find all their tastes gratified at the several; well-conducted and enterprisingly managed theatres of which the city can boast. Club-houses are also numerous, and some of these buildings rank high among the local architectural ornaments, notably the Reform Club building in King Street. When we reflect that all these clubs form in themselves centres of thought and culture, and that many of them are engaged in furthering some good, useful, and laudable end, it cannot be wondered at that Manchester should hold politically, socially, and educationally the prominent and influential position it so well maintains among the leading cities of this great empire.

Not only are music and the drama encouraged and esteemed by the citizens of Manchester, but the sister art of painting is duly appreciated and provided with an appropriate home in the fine Art Gallery of the Corporation and the Royal Institution, in Mosley Street. Here there is a permanent gallery of works of art of various descriptions, bearing witness to the liberality and good taste of the men of Manchester, past and present. The great feature of the institution is its annual exhibition, at which the local artists exhibit, and to which a considerable number of the pictures which have adorned the walls of the Royal Academy during the preceding season are lent by the artists or purchasers. Lectures on music and other branches of art are delivered in the theatre during the winter months. The Manchester Athenaeum, built in 1837 from the plans of the late Sir Charles Barry, serves not only the usual purposes indicated by its name, but also as a club for the use of persons of all ages and of all sexes engaged in the many offices and warehouses of the neighbourhood. There is an excellent library; a reading-room of large extent affords access to the London and local newspapers and periodicals; and classes of various kinds have been established, all of which are well attended, and are doing good work in furnishing the members with valuable opportunities for self-improvement at a remarkably moderate cost. Perhaps there is no institution of the kind in England which has more fully answered the expectations and realised the intentions of its founders; and the credit for this gratifying result is shared alike by those who have managed the establishment and by those who have so sensibly availed themselves of its advantages. Manchester has a large number of public free libraries and lending libraries, and these play a grand part in the work of intellectual culture which is being so actively carried on in the city.

In educational matters the greatest advancement is apparent, and a long list of excellent institutions in this connection is headed by the magnificent and immensely useful foundation of Owens College. This great institution, which now enjoys a national renown, originated in the year 1846, when Mr. John Owens, a merchant of Manchester, died, leaving the residue of his property, after paying legacies and charitable bequests, in the hands of trustees for educational purposes. The college was opened in 1851, and has made splendid progress from the first. It is now housed in a superb block of buildings erected from the designs of Mr. Alfred Waterhouse (to whom Manchester is also indebted for its Assize Courts and new Town Hall), and it constitutes the oldest and largest college of the newly-created Victoria University. It would be impossible in the brief space at our disposal here to detail the entire curriculum of Owens College, or review its career and its remarkable advancement within the last twenty years. Suffice it to say that it is one of the most notable academical institutions of modern foundation in the United Kingdom, and a monument to the public spirit of its benevolent founder.

The Grammar School is another educational institution of which the people of Manchester are justly proud; and the many hospitals and charitable institutions of the city speak volumes for the generosity of the wealthy in this locality, who always make it one of their very first duties to provide for the needs of those who have been less fortunate than themselves in the battle of life. The Manchester Royal Infirmary is one of the most conspicuous objects seen on entering the town from London; and the enormous benefits conferred upon the community by this noble institution are abundantly indicated in the number of patients received within its walls and treated there by its skilful professional staff. The infirmary is under the patronage of Her Majesty the Queen. The medical and surgical staff is a very numerous one, and includes the most eminent physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries in Manchester and district. There are a great many other notable charities to be met with in various parts of the populous and busy region, both Manchester and Salford being equally well provided in this respect; but exigencies of space prevent an enumeration of these, and also oblige us to refrain from more than a passing mention of the well-kept public parks and open spaces of Manchester, which contribute so largely to the health and well-being of the people.

The city of Manchester was formerly supplied with water by the Manchester and Salford Waterworks Company, the water being obtained from the river Medlock, which flows through the city, and by means of pumping from a well at Gorton. These works were purchased by the Corporation in or about 1851, but being inadequate to meet the immediate and especially the future wants of the city and district, the present works at Longendale were designed and carried out by Mr. J. F. La Trobe Bateman, E.R.S., principally under the powers of Acts of Parliament passed in 1847 and 1848. The situation of the waterworks, which lie near Woodhead, in the valley between the counties of Chester and Derby, about 18 miles from Manchester, is admirable for collecting a large supply of water, and as constructed, they form the largest artificial gravitation works in the kingdom. The area of the drainage-ground is about 19,300 statute acres, and the yield is 25,000,000 gallons per day, in addition to the compensation water of about 14,000,000 gallons sent daily down the river. The present consumption of water (beyond the compensation) is upwards of 20,000,000 gallons per day.

The Manchester Corporation are the actual proprietors of the city’s gasworks. It is no mere flattery to the people of Manchester to speak of them as a thoroughly shrewd and practical race of men, because such a statement is neither more nor less than the actual truth. Not that there are not shrewd and practical men in other towns and cities also, but, somehow or other, the public men of Manchester seem to act as well as to think. In other words, when once they have satisfied themselves of the feasibility of a thing, and that its adoption would be for the benefit of the community, they at once set to work to accomplish it. One of their greatest and best achievements in this respect has been the acquiring of the gasworks by the Corporation. These gasworks, under the municipal control, have been worked to the satisfaction and advantage of the ratepayers and to the profit of the Corporation, and every year the citizens reap the benefit of the wise and far-seeing policy which prompted their “city fathers” to take the management and control of the gas supply into their own hands. The borough on Salford also enjoys the privilege of controlling its own gasworks.

Manchester and Salford have a splendid police force, admirably organised fire brigades, excellent systems of omnibuses and tramways, and an efficient service of cabs, affording every means of protection and every facility of locomotion for all classes and sections of a vast population. The postal arrangements of the city, both locally and in relation to the outer world, are unsurpassed; and no city in Britain possesses a more complete and effective railway service. The railway lines that have their termini in Manchester’s four large stations bring the city into immediate communication with all parts of England, Scotland, and Wales; and while passengers can now travel to or from Liverpool (31-and-a-half miles) in 45 minutes, they can accomplish the journey to or from London (188 miles) in 4-and-a-quarter or 4-and-a-half hours. As might naturally be expected in a place of such magnitude and importance, Manchester is well provided with market accommodation. Indeed, the local markets are said to be the finest in England, those of London alone excepted, and they present a scene of bustle and animation which, is an accurate index to the immense commercial activity of the place in all those trades which have to do with the supplying of the needs and luxuries of everyday life.

Hitherto we have said nothing of the newspaper press of Manchester, but, before concluding, it is obviously necessary to refer to a factor which exercises so important an influence over the life of the community. The various journals of the city (edited by men who are imbued with the prevailing Lancastrian belief that “life is real, life is earnest”) are written and worked with an air of conviction and fervour which seems born of a spirit of conscious power and independence; and at the same time the newspapers exhibit a commendable reticence with regard to each other. Indeed, in Manchester the Press may be fairly said to have attained a thoroughly metropolitan tone. Five daily newspapers are now published in the city, and all of them are prosperous.

The “Manchester Guardian,” which has always been a Liberal organ, is one of the foremost of English provincial journals, and is conducted with conspicuous ability and judgment. Its general information is comprehensive, its London correspondence an excellent feature, and its art criticism brilliant and interesting. The old and well-known “Manchester Courier” is the organ of the Conservative party. It had long held a more than respectable position as a weekly paper when, in 1864, the daily issue commenced. The then editor was the brother of the present proprietor, and was a member of the bar and a political speaker of no inconsiderable local celebrity. In 1867 failing health induced him to retire from the ardous duties of his post, but the prosperity of the paper, thanks to the exceedingly able management of its present proprietor, has shown no symptoms of diminution. Its commercial information is simply unrivalled — a fact which is proved by the constant quotations from its columns in the most influential organs of the London Press; the leading articles faithfully reflect, where they do not lead, the political opinion of the Conservatives of the district; the London correspondence is decidedly piquant; and the dramatic and fine-art criticism unusually excellent in quality.

The “Examiner” is a well-conducted and well-written paper in the interests of the advanced section of the Liberal party. Its leading articles are clear and vigorous in style, and display very superior talent. It has a large circulation. The “Sporting Chronicle” is a daily print whose title indicates its special mission in journalism. The “Evening News” is a half-penny sheet, which was started during the by-election of 1867, in order that Mr. Mitchell Henry, who was then an independent Liberal-Conservative candidate for the representation of the city, might obtain greater advantages of publicity than were accorded by the daily press. It was first got up in the offices of the “Manchester Guardian,” but soon became strong enough to run alone, and is now by no means an uninfluential or unprofitable property. The “Evening Mail” is a distinctly Conservative organ, and an offshoot of the “Courier.” It was established so far back as 1874, and it runs its Liberal rival hard, and, judging from the number of its advertisements, is a very thriving undertaking.

The local press of Manchester also includes 26 weekly newspapers, chief among which must be mentioned the “Manchester Weekly Times,” which claims to be, with its “Literary Supplement,” the largest penny weekly paper in the kingdom. It contains an amount of matter equal to eighty columns of the “London Times,” and gives full and accurate accounts of local and general occurrences, a digest of public events, parliamentary intelligence, commercial and market reports, foreign news, &c., whilst the “Literary Supplement” consists of original and selected articles, tales, poetry, hints for the household, ladies’ column, gardening, social topics, and copious and interesting extracts from the leading reviews, magazines &c. It enjoys an enormous circulation all over the north of England. The “Manchester City News” may be named next, and as its title implies, it devotes a considerable portion of its space to the municipal affairs of Manchester and Salford, although it contains excellent general matter. There are also many other notable journals published in Manchester and Salford, to which individual reference is impossible here; but it may certainly be said that the “fourth estate” is no less creditably represented here than in any other British community, and the pre-eminence of Manchester is equally well sustained in the field of literature and journalism as in that of commerce and manufactures.

The following list of the more important occurrences in the history of Manchester during the reign of Queen Victoria is taken from “Haydn’s Dictionary of Dates,” and may be of some interest to our readers:— The charter of incorporation was issued on October 23rd, 1838. On June 23rd, 1842, the British Association met here. Great free trade meetings were held in November, 1843; and on December 23rd, 1845, there was held a great anti-corn law meeting, at which the immense sum of £64,984 was subscribed in four hours. The Queen’s Park, Peel Park, and Philip’s Park were opened in August, 1846. Manchester was made a bishopric on August 10th, 1847. Owens College (to which Mr. John Owens bequeathed £100,000) was opened on March 10th, 1851. The Queen visited Manchester on October 7th, 1851; and on November 11th in the same year a great meeting was held in the Free Trade Hall to greet M. Kossuth. The Free Library was opened on September 2nd, 1852; and on April 16th, 1853, Manchester was declared to be a city, and formally gazetted as such. The Exhibition of Art Treasures was opened by Prince Albert on May 5th, 1857, and was visited by the Queen on June 29th and 30th. It was closed on October 17th, 1857. The British Association met here for the second time on September 4th, 1861.

The new Town Hall was founded October 26th, 1868. Alexandra Park was opened August 6th, 1860. Owens College New Buildings were founded, September 23rd, 1870; and an additional building at the Grammar School was opened by the Earl of Derby, October 25th, 1871. The new Town Hall was opened on September 13th, 1877; and Owens College was made the nucleus of Victoria University in July, 1880. The new School of Art was opened by the Earl of Derby, April 27th, 1881. The Dukes of Edinburgh and Albany visited the city on December 12th, 1881. In September, 1882, Mr. Williams’ plan for the formation of a ship canal by the junction of the Mersey and the Irwell was approved. A fine art and industrial exhibition was opened October 20th, 1882. The new fine art gallery was opened August 31st, 1883. A great Conservative demonstration took place on August 9th, 1884. By the Act passed June 25th, 1885, Manchester returns six members to Parliament. On May 3rd, 1887, the Prince and Princess of Wales opened the highly successful Royal Jubilee Exhibition of Manufactures, Science, and Art. This exhibition was visited by 4,765,137 persons, and was closed on November 10th, 1887. Prince Albert Victor opened Birchfield Recreation Grounds and Lads’ Club, October 20th, 1888. It may be added with reference to that vast undertaking, the Manchester Ship Canal, that the Act sanctioning it (with conditions) was passed in July, 1885; that the company was formed, with a proposed capital of £8,000,000, in October, 1885; that the contract for the work was taken by Messrs. Lucas & Aird for £5,750,000; and that the first sod was cut at Eastham on November 11th, 1887.

We shall not attempt to speak here of the commerce of Manchester in detail. The vast trade of the city in all its ramifications and branches will be amply illustrated in the later pages of this work by the articles dealing with individual firms of prominence therein; and the results achieved by many of the greatest of such firms will be found to constitute practically an epitome of the wonderful attainments of the community as a whole in those departments of commerce to which its immense energies and resources have been devoted during the present century. Just a word about Manchester men as a body, and then we must pass on to the consideration of other Lancashire towns whose claims to attention are pressing and indisputable.

A local proverb divides the people of southern Lancashire into four classes. There are, we are told, “Liverpool gentlemen, Manchester men, Oldham fellows, and Bolton chaps.” That there, is a certain humour in this descriptive category may at once be admitted, but that it is strictly accurate is open to a good deal of question. The merchants of Liverpool are, without doubt, cultivated, refined, and gentleman-like, but so also are the men of Manchester. A few years ago it is no doubt perfectly true that there were a good many amongst the manufacturers and merchants who still retained, to some small extent, the tradition of those days to which reference has already been made, when master, family, and apprentices sat at the same board and lived as it were en famille. But those days have vanished, and their heroes have gone with them. In a few of the outlying districts, such as the suburbs of Bolton, Oldham, or Blackburn, something of the kind may possibly yet be found, but no one is likely to think or to speak of those quiet, enterprising, and highly-educated men who may be found any day on the Manchester Exchange with other feelings than those of respect and regard. The explanation is simple enough.

The last generation of Manchester men had the practical wisdom to see that the world is daily advancing, and that no efforts of theirs were likely to prevent its progress. And so they gave to their sons that which they themselves, in many instances, had lacked. The boys were sent to good schools, if not always to public ones, and they followed up their school trainings with a residence at one or other of the Universities or a course of foreign travel — sometimes with both. It did not invariably happen, of course, that the results of the process were satisfactory. Croesus the Younger sometimes came back from Oxford little better in certain respects than he was when he went thither, and in other instances he returned from his Continental tour having acquired habits of which he would never have dreamed at home. On the whole, however, the effect has been decidedly advantageous. The new generation retains all the merits of the old — its vigour, its hospitality, kindliness, liberality, and public spirit; and upon this is superadded all the intelligence and refinement that are the result of mingling with the affairs of the outer world and learning the ways of men and the manners of society in a wider sphere than that afforded by the old home circle.

Of the public spirit and esprit de corps of the men of Manchesteï enough has probably been said, though it would be difficult to say too much in praise of such superlative qualities. It would seem, indeed, that, as regards money, it is only necessary to prove that an object is a deserving one to secure for it munificent support; while those who know the place are well aware that the time given up to public duty by the busy citizens of Manchester is simply astonishing. The consequences are manifest on all sides; The city has become world-renowned, and already it rivals the metropolis in outward beauty and dignity of appearance. It sets an example of municipal administration which Londoners can only envy, without hope of emulation. It forms the centre of a mighty system of commercial and manufacturing operations, some noticeable development of which is marked off and recorded by every tick of the clock. It is at once a home of industry and an abode of social and artistic culture, which is steadily augmented and strengthened day by day. It has a life of its own, an individuality of its own, an independence which is the birthright of its people; and all its prospects point to a magnificent future, the realisation of which will set the seal of completion upon the labours of all those who have striven so earnestly and disinterestedly to make of Manchester a great city, worthy of a great Empire,

We shall now invite the attention of our readers to a brief notice of each of the remaining towns of prominence in Lancashire, with the particulars of population, &c., as far as possible, brought up to date. Where seaports are concerned it was thought likely that some figures showing the value of exports and imports thereat during the last few years would be interesting, so these have been appended. The chief features of interest, with the industries of each place, are named, but lack of space forbids any very lengthy descriptive writing. For easy reference the towns are set down in alphabetical order.

ACCRINGTON, situated midway between Blackburn and Burnley, to the north of Haslingden, has a population of considerably over 60,000, according to recent estimates. Its chief manufactures are cotton and mousselline de laine, and there are also several important machine and print works in the vicinity. The Town Hall, which was erected in 1857 at a cost of about £8,000, the Market House, and the Mechanics’ Institute, are the principal architectural features of the town. “Hollins,” which was plundered in the time of Oliver Cromwell, and “High Riley” (the residence of the Rileys in the sixteenth century), are also objects of interest in the neighbourhood.

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE is situate east of Manchester, and south of Oldham, and stands in a good position on the river Tame. It is a remarkably busy and important town, and has an interesting history. The primary name is derived from the Saxon word, ‘aese,’ an ash; and ‘tun,’ an enclosure; the sub-title being used to avoid confusion with other Ashtons in the county — that “upon Mersey”, and “in Makerfield” for example. Its population is about 43,574, and its special manufacture is cotton; coal being also raised in the district. In the town are the parish church, founded originally in the fifteenth century, but since repaired past almost all recognition; several other churches, including St. James’s; the Town Hall, erected in 1840 and enlarged in 1878; the Oddfellows’ Hall; the Infirmary; and the Mechanics’ Institute (built 1861). Stamford Park, in the centre of which stands a handsome museum, was opened in 1873, and bequeathed by Lord Stamford to the towns of Ashton and Staleybridge.

BACUP lies about midway between Burnley and Rochdale, and is a particularly thriving place, though none too regularly situated at the foot of the moors in which the river Irwell takes its rise. The population in 1881 was 25,033, the majority of the people being employed in cotton spinning, woollen manufacture, and dye works. The town is a centre of the co-operative principle, which has developed in the Rossendale district to an enormous extent. The source of the Irwell is about three miles distant from Bacup, and the scenery in the vicinity, especially towards Burnley, is very beautiful, and eminently calculated to captivate the close attention of the lover of the picturesque.

BARROW-IN-FURNESS is remarkable for its rapid rise from comparative nothingness to a position of the first importance. Early in the present century, we are told, only one dwelling stood where now stand the many handsome buildings and busy trading and industrial establishments of the flourishing seaport of Barrow. But this solitary house seems to have formed the nucleus of a little fishing village that ultimately aspired to, and, in ,1867, deserved, the designation of a town. In 1847 the population was 325; in 1864, 10,068; in 1867, 17,000; in 1878, 40,000; in 1881, 47,259; and in 1888 (estimated) about 50,000. The secret of this progress is doubtless to be found in the valuable coal-mines of the district. In 1847 the Furness Railway was opened, and in that year it carried to the port 103,768 tons of iron ore. In 1863 the quantity conveyed for shipment was 621,525 tons. The values of the exports from Barrow in recent years are shown by the following figures:— Produce of the United Kingdom: 1884, £465,080; 1885, £439,683; 1886, £612,313; 1887; £608,968. Foreign and Colonial produce and manufactures:— 1885, £106; 1886, £4; 1887, £585. The values of the imports were:— Foreign and Colonial merchandise: 1884, £351,429; 1885, £380,629; 1886, £386,718; 1887, £388,967. The steel works of Barrow are of vast importance, and shipbuilding, railway-carriage building, steam corn-mills, flax and jute works, rope-making and brick manufacture are additional sources of commercial activity and profit. The docks of the town are very extensive and afford excellent accommodation for a large amount of shipping.

BLACKBURN, one of the first and foremost of the “cotton towns” of Lancashire, is charmingly situated in the midst of wooded heights, somewhat to the south-east of Preston. The manor was originally in the domain of Roger of Poitou, and after passing through several hands, was ultimately held by the Abbots of Whalley until the dissolution of the monasteries. Archbishop Cranmer was the first rector, and also the patron, of the living subsequently to the Reformation. As early as the seventeenth century Blackburn was famous as a manufacturing centre. In addition to the cotton industry, there are large machine and engine works, which give employment to a great number of hands. The population of the town in 1881 was no less than 104,014. John Hargreaves, of “spinning-jenny” fame, was a native of Blackburn. The churches are all modern, the parish church having been built in 1824 to replace an edifice erected in the reign of Henry VIII. The Town Hall, which cost about £40,000, is a fine building, and the public edifices also include the Market Hall, the Exchange, the Free Public Library, the Infirmary, and the Grammar School. The Corporation Park (about 50 acres in extent) and the Alexandra Meadow form excellent “breathing spaces” for the townspeople.

BLACKPOOL is a modern town, well built, and finely situated to the south-west of Lancaster. It is much more notable as a place of summer resort for sea-bathing than as an industrial centre. Its population is about 50,000, and the local authorities have been highly successful in their efforts to make it a pleasant and attractive watering-place.

BOLTON, the home of the gifted Arkwright and the ingenious Crompton, is a town holding a high position in the annals of the cotton industry. It is situated on the Croal, a tributary of the Irwell, about 12 miles north-west from Manchester. The aspect of the place has changed considerably of late years. The spirit of progress has been abroad, and in its every feature the town is now quite a model in comparison with its aspect in the seventeenth century, when Blome referred to it as “a fair-built town with broad streets.” The Town Hall is a commanding edifice with a handsome portico, surmounted by a tower 220 feet in height. It was opened by H.R.H. the Prince of Wales in 1873, and cost £170,000. The Market Hall, built in 1855, at a cost of £50,000, is extensive and of considerable architectural beauty; then there are the Library, the Museum, the Church Institution, the Grammar School (founded by Robert Lever in 1641), and the Infirmary. Bolton believes, too, in parks and pleasure-grounds: witness the Public Park, Bradford Park, the Heywood Recreation Ground, the Darbishire Recreation Ground, &c. The country around is particularly pretty, though the prospect is somewhat interfered with from a picturesque standpoint by the numerous cotton factories, the extensive machine works, brass-foundries, iron-works, steel-works, chemical works, collieries, and the other manufacturing and industrial features of the town. Population in 1881, 105,965; estimated in October, 1887, to be about 112,354, and is now no less than 115,000.

BURNLEY is a most important industrial centre, and stands at the confluence of the little river Brun with the Calder, about 22 miles north from Manchester. Around the town the natural scenery is very pretty to look upon; the town itself is more beautiful to the eye of the commercial-minded man: cotton spinning, weaving, and woollen manufacture being the staple sources of livelihood for the 70,875 inhabitants. The town possesses the usual municipal buildings, but nothing in any way very remarkable from the architect’s standpoint. The Grammar School was founded in 1650, and the parish church, though altered considerably at various intervals since, traces its origin to the time of Edward III.

BURY (on the Irwell, and 8-and-a-half miles north of Manchester) did not contain in 1793 more than 3,000 inhabitants. To-day it numbers between 50,000 and 60,000. Its history, however, goes back to the time of the Conquest. The Free School in the town was founded by Roger Kay, Prebendary of Salisbury, in 1726. In the market-place is a statue of Sir Robert Peel, to the family of which talented nobleman Bury is under a great debt of gratitude: the father of the statesman having been the owner of extensive calico-printing works here. The place primarily figures as a centre of industry in Henry VIII.’s time, when its woollens were held in great regard.

CARNFORTH, situated to the north of Lancaster, is chiefly celebrated for — we might say it has been formed by — the furnaces erected there for the smelting of hematite ore.

CHORLEY (to the south of Preston) is not very large, but it is eminently active. Cotton-mills and calico-printing afford employment to a large proportion of the population (59,384). Coal, lead, alum, flag and mill stones are found in the vicinity.

CLITHEROE stands on the river Ribble, about 30 miles by rail north-west from Manchester. In Norman times the place formed one of two ancient seats of the De Lacys (its companion being at Pontefract). The castle was dismantled during the Civil Wars, and but little remains of it to-day. The Grammar School in the town was founded in 1554 by Philip and Mary. Pendle Hill, in the vicinity, is the chief point of interest. Population, 65,476.

The thriving and populous township of COLNE, which has now a population of about 11,000, has been noted for its connection with the woollen and worsted industries from a very early period. There was a fulling mill here in the days of Edward III., and Dugdale opines that this fact contradicts the assertion that the Flemings brought an entirely new industry to the kingdom. It stands on the ridge of a hill near the Calder and on the borders of Yorkshire, and there seems no reason to doubt that it was the site of the Roman station of Colnuo. Tradition also asserts that Emmett, an adjoining village, owes its origin and its name to one Duke d’Emmet, who came over with the Conqueror and settled here. Colne is now chiefly noted for its cotton mills and factories, which are numerous and busily employed. The old Piece Hall speaks of a time when woollen goods were dealt in, but cotton has now almost entirely superseded it. The parish church dates from a very early period, so far as site is concerned. It is supposed to have been rebuilt in the time of Henry VII., and contains many mementoes of departed worthies. One of the “chapels” belongs to the Bannister family, and the other to the Towneleys of Barnside, both well-known families in the district. There are also the remains of an ancient and elaborately carved screen. The Grammar School stands under the shadow of the church, and here it was that the boy who afterwards became Archbishop Tillotson was educated, he having been born and bred in the vicinity. A number of old mansions are to be found round about, and Colne is evidently the centre of a district rich in historical associations.

CHURCH is practically a suburb of Accrington, but has a local population of between 5,000 and 6,000 persons, most of whom are engaged in industrial avocations. It is governed by a Local Board, but one of these days it will probably come under the wing of the Accrington Corporation. A number of well-known residences are in the immediate vicinity of Church, such as Rhyddings and Paddock House, together with Dunkenhaigh Park and Clayton Hall, the former dating from the time of James I., and the latter having a history extending to the days of the third Edward, when the De Claytons made it their home. Peel Fold, where the first Sir Robert Peel passed many of his early years, is at no great distance; and all around the country is of an interesting character.

DARWEN (OVER), with about 61,000 inhabitants, is situated about half a dozen miles from Blackburn, and is noted for its cotton-mills, print and bleach works, and coal-pits, and stone quarries, in all of which great activity prevails.

DENTON is a flourishing township situated at a short distance from Hyde. The principal industries of the place are connected with coal-mining and hat-making, and in these trades the greater number of the inhabitants find profitable employment. Managed by a Local Board, the affairs of Denton are carried on in a very successful manner, and it presents all the appearances of a busy and prosperous community.

The thriving and populous township of ECCLES is practically a suburb of Manchester, and as such partakes to a very large extent of its distinctive characteristics. It is situate about 4 miles from the Victoria Station at Manchester, on the line from that city to Wigan; and the road between Eccles and Cross Lane, where there is a cattle market for the district, is principally occupied by the residences of large manufacturers and merchants in the city, such as the Agnews, the Heywoods, the Besleys, and others. In itself Eccles possesses a good many claims on attention, in addition to those connected with its celebrated cakes, which are known all over England. A large proportion of what are known as Manchester goods comes from the mills within the Eccles and Patricroft district, and the manufacturers are amongst the most energetic and enterprising of their class. Some other industries find a location in the district; and the retail establishments are both numerous and attractive, the proprietors vying, and successfully too, with their Manchester rivals in displaying the finest stocks of all household necessaries, clothing, drapery, furniture, provisions, &c., that one could wish to find. Large and well-built premises are occupied in the principal thoroughfares by some of the most enterprising tradesmen in Lancashire, and the annual return of trade is extensive in the extreme.

FAILSWORTH is a flourishing township with a railway station, 4-and-a-half miles north-east of Manchester, with which parish it is incorporated. Its population in 1881 was 7,912.

FARNWORTH (near Bolton) has a population of 20,708, chiefly employed in the neighbouring collieries, cotton-mills, paper- making and chemical works.

FLEETWOOD, some fifty years ago, was quite a nonenity. The populous town on the Wyre is now of considerable importance in many ways. The population in 1881 was 3,834, but this has been much augmented since then. The values of the exports from this young port during the past five years were as follows:— Produce of ,the United Kingdom: 1883, £18,429; 1884, £7,528; 1885, £18,858; 1886, £11,692: 1887, £17,220. Foreign and Colonial produce and manufactures: 1887, £280. The imports being, in value:— Foreign and Colonial merchandise: 1883, £975,756; 1884, £533,547; 1885, £772,266; 1886, £708,802; 1887, £1,000,305.

GARSTANG (on the right bank of the Wyre, about ten miles from Preston) is a place with a past, but now very dull and unimportant. A paper-mill in the vicinity and some cotton-mills give employment to the population, which is not very large.

HASLINGDEN, situated between thirty and forty miles south-east from Lancaster, has a population of 7,929, largely employed in woollen, cotton, and silk manufacture. The town has a handsome church, Town Hall, Mechanics’ Institute, and several chapels for Nonconformists.

ST. HELENS is noted for its crown, sheet, and plate glass manufacture, for which it has been a centre since 1773. The Town Hall is a handsome building, but the place as a whole has nothing architecturally to especially commend it. Still, it is undoubtedly improving. It is situated on a branch of the Mersey, some twelve miles north-east from Liverpool. The present population has been estimated at about 60,000.

HEYWOOD, which threescore years ago was little more than a village in which a number of hand-weavers had a home, is now a brisk and busy manufacturing town of more than 24,000 inhabitants, and a splendid example of the progress which has been made in all directions within the memory of the present generation. Its chief historical interest consists in the fact that Heywood Hall was for many years the residence of the Heywood family, one member of which was concerned in the discovery of the infamous Gunpowder Plot. The Hall is now the residence of Mr. W. Roberts, and is a charming ivy-covered old house, situate in a very pretty neighbourhood. It was Mr. Peel, father of the first baronet of that name, who erected the first mill in Heywood, and the success of the venture was such as to ensure that Heywood should henceforth be a busy and well-populated place. How the Peel family grew and prospered is well known in Lancashire, and it was to them that Heywood owed its initiative as a manufacturing town. Other mills followed very speedily in the wake of the Peel establishment, and as they increased in number so did the residents, and the consequent need for accommodation caused the whilom village to spread out on all sides, and to take upon itself all the semblance and importance of a town. Some of the best known manufacturers in the kingdom took up their quarters in Heywood, and the products of its mills came in time to be known far and wide as among the best the county of Lancashire could afford. The number of mills is now very large. They are extensive and well-built establishments, fitted with every improvement in the way of machinery, and give employment to a very great number of men and women. In addition to the cotton industry, Heywood folk find employment in the manufacture of machinery and railway plant, some large and important foundries being located in the town. Boiler making, brass founding, and the manufacture of chemicals also take up a considerable part of the industry of Heywood, and from end to end of the town there is the constant sound of industry, and the business-like aspect which betokens the prosperous community. Coal mines abound in the vicinity of the town, and their produce is largely availed of in the manufactories of the district. The local government of Heywood, after passing through the usual stages, is now vested in a mayor and corporation, and these functionaries carry out their duties in an efficient manner.

HYDE is situated not far from Ashton-under-Lyne, and is in the county of Cheshire, but its importance as a commercial and industrial centre, influencing this part of Lancashire considerably, entitles it to some mention here. It has for many years been noted as a great centre of the hat-making industry, and as such it has obtained a prominent position. Other industries also engage the attention of the people of Hyde, among which iron-founding and engineering are notable; and cotton spinning and weaving are also engaged in. The splendid conveniences possessed by Hyde, in the shape of coal and water supply, contribute very largely to the success of the industrial operations carried on by its inhabitants.

LANCASTER (on the Lune), the county town of Lancashire, is particularly well built, for the most part of excellent freestone, procured from the quarries in the neighbourhood. The magnificent aqueduct which crosses the river here is composed of five elliptical arches. The principal buildings are the once splendid castle, erected in the eleventh century, renewed by John of Gaunt, and converted at an enormous expense, in 1788, into a gaol, assize and county courts, &c. Contiguous to the castle is the parish church, a spacious Gothic structure, dedicated to St. Mary, and remarkably interesting in its character. There are, in addition to several other churches, chapels of ease and Nonconformists’ chapels, the Town Hall (a heavy structure of freestone), the Lunatic Asylum (with accommodation for 1,000 persons), Custom House, Assembly Rooms, Theatre, Mechanics’ Institute, a Grammar School and many other educational establishments, public baths, and washhouses, &c. The Riley’s Hospital, the principal of several other charitable institutions, was erected for the maintenance and education of orphans, by the wife of a Liverpool merchant who devoted £100,000 to this end. It is a noble-looking building of twelfth-century Pointed style. The Lancaster Canal passes close to the town, about one mile north-east from which is the great aqueduct just referred to, by which the canal is carried over the Lune. The cemetery is situated on Lancaster Moor, where the asylum is also situated, about a mile and a half from the town. The staple manufactures which occupy the time of the large and increasing population, are in connection with cabinet making, cotton spinning, railway waggon-building, linen, sailcloth, and silk. The political history of the place is remarkable. Its first delegates to Parliament were sent in 1293, but a break occurred in 1359. It resumed its privileges in 1547, and all went well until 1868, when the town was disfranchised. It is, however, again represented at Westminster. As a commercial centre Lancaster has declined somewhat since the days when it was a seaport superior to Liverpool. In those times the ancient town carried on a brisk and very important trade with the West Indies, Archangel, and the Baltic. It is still a place of considerable activity in general business affairs, and has a population of about 30,000. The following figures may be instructive:— Values of exports from Lancaster, 1885, £272; 1885, £330; 1887, £562. Values of imports of foreign and colonial merchandise: 1885, £37,797; 1886, £32,735; 1887, £51,797.

LEIGH is situate about three miles from Bolton Junction, and includes within its parochial districts many of the adjoining townships and villages. According to a return made in 1831 the area of the parish was 11,820 acres, with a population of 20,083. Included in this were the townships of East Leigh, or Astley as it is now termed, Atherton, Bedford, Pennington, or Pemnington, West Leigh, and Tyldesley, with Shaverly. The Poor Law boundaries at the present time cover an area of 24,356 acres; but in other matters of local government most of the places named have been granted Home Rule. Leigh, which is the most important part of the union, is a thriving and prosperous town which has risen into importance concurrently with the growth of Lancashire industry, and is now the scene of much activity in various branches of manufacture. Of its ancient history but few remains are traceable, albeit the immediate vicinity is rich in the possession of old churches, which prove in the most conclusive manner that the district was a favoured one even in the good old times. The parish church is perhaps the most interesting architectural feature of which Leigh can boast, this being of Tudor origin, but rebuilt to a considerable extent in 1873, when no less than £10,000 were spent on the work of restoration and renovation. The town of Leigh itself is more in consonance with the utilitarian spirit of the nineteenth century than with the romantic or historic traditions which still cling to many of the old mansions round about. The business of its inhabitants is to uphold and if possible extend the repute which it has gained for the quality and excellence of its products, and the steady hardworking capabilities of its sons and daughters. Cotton-spinning is, as a matter of course, the staple industry of the town, and has been carried on from a very early period in the history of that manufacture, many of the firms now in existence having a record which extends back to the time when the most sanguine could hardly have anticipated such greatness for Lancashire as it has since achieved.

But important as is the cotton-spinning industry to the men of Leigh, there are several others which engage their attention, and in which they carry on a large and profitable trade. The presence in the immediate vicinity of a number of coal mines leads to a considerable amount of business in connection with the supply of that necessary article of consumption, and a number of people are engaged in various branches of that industry. Ironfounding, too, is carried on to an important extent, several large and well-filled foundries being located in the town and its environs, the sound of busy toil which comes from within their walls betokening the activity which prevails and the amount of work which is being carried out. This part of Lancashire has for a good many years been identified with the glass-making industry, and it is not surprising to find that in Leigh this beautiful and useful art is still carried on.

MIDDLETON is a busy little town situated on the Irk, some six miles north-east from Manchester. The scenery all round the neighbourhood is very pretty. The church claims to have been founded in the time of Henry III. There are several other places of worship, and a Grammar School, the latter founded in the reign of Elizabeth by Alex. Nowell, Dean of St. Paul’s. The industry of the place is centred in calicoes, nankeens, ginghams, checks, and silk-weaving. Population in 1881, 10,346.

NEWTON-IN-MAKERFIELD is a manufacturing town near Manchester, having a population of 10,580.

OLDHAM, certainly one of the first of the South Lancashire cotton centres, is situated near the source of the Medlock, seven miles north-east from Manchester. The parish and other churches, the Town Hall, the Mechanics’ Institute, the Lyceum, School of Science and Art, Lunatic Asylum, the Grammar School, and the Bluecoat School, are amongst the chief features of the town. Oldham affords another striking example of that rapid spirit of progress so characteristic of the county of Lancashire. A century ago, it was only a village; now it has a population of 152,513. Formerly it was celebrated for its hat manufacture, which is still carried on. The collieries dotted so thickly in this locality have doubtless been the primary cause of the rise of Oldham, but the cotton industry has added yet more materially to its welfare. Some of the finest factories in the county are to be found here, devoted principally to the manufacture of fustians, velveteens, calicoes, cotton and woollen cords, &c. Co-operation is believed in here to a very practical extent.

ORMSKIRK is celebrated for its gingerbread and beer. It has a Town Hall, Free Grammar School, founded in 1641, and several charitable institutions. Population, 6,651.

PRESCOT, celebrated for its connection with the watch trade, is situated eight miles east from Liverpool, and has a population of about 6,000.

PRESTON is a busy and important manufacturing town, with a large population, many excellent local institutions, and an old-established renown as a prominent seat of the cotton industry. Various other trades are here carried on, and the town possesses considerable historical interest.

ROCHDALE is another important centre of co-operative working. It is situated on the Roche, eleven miles north-east from Manchester. The parish church of St. Mary was restored in 1866; there are numerous additional places of worship, a Grammar School (founded in 1565), Assembly Rooms, Guildhall, Town Hall (built in 1867), and a Literary Institution. Cottons and calicoes form a large portion of the local trade, and woollens, fustians, and friezes are made in considerable quantities. Population, 68,865.

The thriving and populous town of STALEYBRIDGE is situate partly in Cheshire, and about one mile from Ashton. The name of the town is said to have been derived from the Staley or Stavley family, the founder of which was one of the Norman gentry who came over with William at the time of the Conquest. At the latter end of last century the population of Staleybridge was less than 200, and it was about this time that the first step was taken towards making it the busy town it now is. A person named Hall, who must have been called enterprising in those days, set up a cotton-mill in the village of Staleybridge, and commenced operations on a small scale. Subsequently he introduced machinery, and those who know what the feeling of Lancashire spinners was at that time will readily believe that Mr. Hall did not make many friends thereby. But it was not long before there came a change, and from this beginning sprang up the busy circle of factories and other industrial establishments which are now the principal features of Staleybridge. With industry came population, and the 140 inhabitants of 1776 have now increased to 40,000, nearly all of whom are engaged in the staple industry of the district. Staleybridge was incorporated in the year 1857, and is governed by a municipal body, whose influence for good is seen in the broad, well-paved, and well-lighted streets, and the general arrangements for the health and well-being of the residents. Education is also well cared for, and there are a number of schools and other training establishments which do good and useful work in connection with the rising generation. In addition there are mechanics’ institutes, free libraries, evening classes, and other aids to intellectual training. In the matter of communication with the rest of the country Staleybridge is particularly well served, two lines of rail running into the town and three canals being in the vicinity, whilst its situation, about equidistant from Manchester and Oldham, places it in a favourable position for industrial progress. The mills and factories are among the finest in the neighbourhood, and the manufacturers are gentlemen who leave nothing undone to secure both the comfort and convenience of their workpeople and the reputation of Staleybridge goods in the markets of the world.

SOUTHPORT, situated at the mouth of the Ribble, fifteen miles south-west from Preston, is visited to a considerable extent for the sea-bathing to be obtained here. It has the customary architectural features — Town hall, market, park, library, assembly rooms, newsrooms, promenade, &c. Population, 57,643.

TODMORDEN is situated sixteen miles north-east from Bolton. Manufactures, cotton goods. Population, about 12,000.

WARRINGTON has the distinction of being one of the most ancient towns in the county. In spite, however, of the old-world arrangements of the streets, there are some splendid buildings in the place, the church being especially interesting. The usual municipal erections are supplemented by numerous industrial establishments. At present the trade of the district is varied: iron foundries, glass-houses, wire-works, cotton-spinning, and power-loom weaving, and brewing form the staple industries of the inhabitants, though in Warrington’s early manufacturing days cloth checks and linen cloth were the chief productions. Population, 45,233.

WIDNES, for its alkali works, is world-known. It is situated at a distance of about six miles from Warrington. Population, 63,951.

WIGAN, near the river Douglas, fifteen miles south-east from Preston, is a prettily-situated place. Its churches are worth inspection, and its official edifices are well built, the town possessing its library, museum, &c. Manufactures: woollen and cotton fabrics, cast-iron and brass goods, edge tools, nails, machinery, and implements of agriculture. Population, 51,000.

We have now almost finished the first, or introductory, part of our review of the great industries, trades, and manufacturing and mercantile concerns of Lancashire; but, before concluding, it may be well to append the following statistical particulars, which may be found convenient for reference:—

The area, number of houses, and population of the county are given as follows in the official return of 1881: Area in statute acres, 1,208,154. Houses: inhabited, 655,307; uninhabited, 68,929; building, 5,697. Population, 3,454,441: males, 1,669,864; females, 1,784,577. Average number of persons to an acre, 2.86; average number of acres to each person, 0.35. The gross rental is estimated at £21,299,477; the poor rate at £1,609,824, and the number of paupers at 83,321.

The available coal supply of Lancashire was estimated in 1885 to be 5,165,000,000 tons. The amount raised in 1852 was 8,225,000 tons; in 1871, 13,851,000 tons; but for several years it has exceeded 18,000,000 tons, and in 1880 reached 19,120,294 tons. The amount of this mineral carried from Lancashire is about ll,000,000 tons, of which about 7,600,000 tons are shipped.

The following is a classification of agricultural holdings according to size in the years 1875 and 1880:—

Number of holdings of fifty acres and under: 1875, 18,210 holdings; area, 299,109 acres; 1880, 17,423 holdings; area, 286,009 acres; Fifty to one hundred acres: 1875, 2,873 holdings; area, 202,619 acres; 1880, 3,077 holdings; area, 219,412 acres. One hundred to three hundred acres: 1875, 1,468 holdings; area, 225,184 acres: 1880, 1,552 holdings; area, 235,174 acres. Three hundred to five hundred acres: 1875, 74 holdings; area, 26,828 acres; 1880, 104 holdings; area, 31,555 acres. Five hundred to one thousand acres: 1875, 12 holdings; area, 8,070 acres; 1880, 13 holdings; area, 8,532 acres. About one thousand acres: 1875, 1 holding; area, 2,195 acres; 1880, 1 holding; area, 2,726 acres. Total: 1875,22,638 holdings; area, 704,005 acres; 1880, 22,170 holdings; area, 783,408 acres.

The county in 1872-73 was divided among 88,735 proprietors, possessing 1,011,769 acres, with an annual valuation of £13,878,277. Of the owners, 76,177 (or 87 per cent.) possessed less than one acre, and the average value, including minerals, was estimated at £13 14s. 4d. per acre. Nineteen proprietors owned upwards of 5,000 acres, the Earl of Derby possessing no less than 47,269, with an estimated rental of £156,735. Among the other large landowners figure the names of the trustees of the Duke of Bridgewater; the Duke of Devonshire, the Marquis de Casteja, the Earl of Stamford and Warrington, the Earl of Wilton, the Earl of Sefton, Lord Lilford, and Lord Skelmersdale.

The agricultural returns of 1881 showed that the total cultivated area was 787,732 acres, a percentage of 65.2, instead of 60 in 1870. The area under corn crops was 101,651 acres; under green crops, 59,971 acres; rotation grasses, 63,387 acres; permanent pasture, 560,143 acres, more than two-thirds of the whole under cultivation; 2,573 acres were fallow. Of the area under corn crops, 59,373 acres (more by a considerable quantity than the half) were occupied with oats; wheat came next with 26,492 acres; barley, 11,559 acres; 42,809 acres were under potatoes; turnips and swedes, 10,867 acres.

The total number of horses in 1881 was 38,484, 24,567 being used for agricultural purposes. Cattle numbered 222,988 (122,683 being cows), an average of 18.5 to every hundred acres under cultivation — polled Suffolks, red Yorkshires, and Leicesters predominating. Sheep numbered 284,317, an average of 23.6 to every hundred acres under cultivation, the average for England being 62.4; Cheviots on the higher grounds, Southdowns and Leicesters on the lower grounds, predominating. Pigs in 1881 numbered 37,700.

In 1850 there were in the county of Lancashire 1,235 cotton factories, 37 woollen and worsted factories, 9 flax factories, and 29 silk factories, In these factories there were about 15,000,000 spindles, and something like 185,000 power looms. The machinery was moved by a steam power equivalent to about 50,000 horse power; and by water power to the extent of 4,000 horse power. The persons employed at the 1310 factories were near 240,000 in number, 130,000 being females. As many as 12,000 of this great number of operatives were under thirteen years of age. Coming to the year 1879, we find the total number of factories to border on 2,000, and the number of persons employed to be nearly 370,000. The woollen, silk, and linen manufacturers of Lancashire employed in 1879 about 50,000 persons; and in a host of other useful industries (including a large amount of mechanical engineering) thousands of the skilled and competent workmen not otherwise engaged find regular occupation.

The attention of our readers may now be invited to the articles distributed over the following pages, in which it has been our object to review the history and progress of a large number of Lancashire houses of business, among which are to be found many eminently representative concerns, directed by men in whose possession are all those sterling qualities of energy, perseverance, and unwearying application which have been so well employed in the advancement of this greatest of English counties.


REMARKABLE alike for the rapidity of its growth in modern times, for the perfection of its municipal organisation, for its wealth of useful and beneficent local institutions, and for the energy and public spirit of its inhabitants, Manchester is at the present day one of the most interesting and noteworthy communities in Europe. Nowhere in England has more striking proof been given of the progress that has marked the affairs of this century in a degree beyond all previous ages; and no British town or city has illustrated more completely than Manchester the immense resources of our nation in social advancement as well as in matters of commercial development. The very name of Manchester is pregnant with suggestions of extraordinary business acumen, enterprise and energy, and the term, “Manchester man,” has become a synonym for one who possesses all the essential qualities and characteristics of the successful merchant or manufacturer. Thus the element of trade is pre-eminent among the constituent features of the place, and at the present moment our chief concern is with this most important factor in the prosperity of Manchester.

Earlier in this volume we have devoted some space to tracing the career of the city from the obscurity of the past up to the fame and brilliancy of the present; and we have watched the gradual development of the Mancunium of the Romans and the Manceaster of the Saxons into the busy and populous Manchester of the Victorian period — the great and influential community which shares with Liverpool the dignity of metropolitan rank in Lancashire, and which may one day dispute with the great seaport on the Mersey for the proud distinction of being termed the “second city in the Empire.” It is now our purpose, therefore, to direct the attention of our readers more particularly to the mercantile and industrial aspect of Manchester, and to invite a careful consideration of its rich resources in this connection, as they are represented by the city’s leading establishments in trade and manufacture.

Forty years ago Manchester was on the highroad to the exceptional renown and prosperity which it started out to gain as far back as the early years of the eighteenth century, and which it has now indisputably achieved. When the “Great Exhibition” of 1851 afforded to the manufacturers of England, Scotland, and Ireland an opportunity of showing how they could stand in competition with their fellow-producers in other lands, Manchester nobly upheld the national honour in her special departments of textile trade, as well as in several other highly important branches of industry; and in order to indicate the condition of the city’s leading manufacturing and trading undertakings at that time, we make the following brief quotation from Knight’s “Cyclopaedia of Industry,” 1851 edition:— “This most important town, the centre of the largest cotton-manufacturing operations in the world, is situated in a district which contains some excellent coal strata, a circumstance to which the place is in no small degree indebted for its prosperity. It has the credit of having given an impulse to our means of internal communication, and has reaped an ample reward. The achievements of Brindley were prompted by the desire which the Duke of Bridgewater had of sending his coal from Worsley to Manchester at a small expense; and Manchester now possesses the means of water communication with almost every part of the country. In the railroad enterprises Manchester has held a prominent station. It furnished its full share of the capital employed in the formation of the Manchester and Liverpool Railway, and it is now the centre of a system of railways radiating in six different directions. There are two magnificent viaducts across the town for connecting the Liverpool line with the Yorkshire and the London lines.

“The commercial spirit dates back to a very early period. At first the woollen was the only branch of trade, but since the middle of the last century the cotton business has nearly superseded the former fabric. The series of brilliant inventions applied, improved, or originated in the district of Manchester, which comprise the steam-engine, the spinning-jenny, the mule-jenny, the fly-frame, the tube-frame, the mule, &c., have proved most effective instruments in aiding the development of the cotton manufactures. Several hundred millions of pounds of cotton are brought into Manchester from Liverpool every year; and the cotton factories are by far the most important buildings in the town: there are more than two hundred of them within the precincts of the town and parish. Some of them are only spinning factories; others are both spinning and weaving. Bleach-works, dye-works, and print-works, all connected with the cotton manufacture, exist on a large scale in and near Manchester.

“The processes of throwing and weaving silk were extensively carried on at Macclesfield several years before they reached Manchester. The silk-mill of Mr. Vernon Boyle, erected in 1819-20, was the first brought into operation in the latter town. Since then the trade has rapidly increased. Printing is another branch of the silk business chiefly, if not exclusively, carried on at Manchester. Dyeing of silk is also extensively pursued, and in fact the town is becoming the centre of transactions in the silk trade. Besides the manufactures in cottons, silks and woollens, Manchester carries on large manufactures in hats, umbrellas, and small wares. Machinery of the finest kind is also made here to a large extent.

“The warehouses of Manchester are on a vast scale; they contain not only the woven products of the town’s factories, but the produce of most of the other cotton towns is brought to Manchester as a central exchange for the manufacturer and the dealer. It was calculated that in 1837, 700,000 tons of goods were carried by canal alone from Manchester to the south, yearly; besides that which passed north, east and west, and besides the railway goods traffic. In 1851 the amount is vastly greater, especially in respect to railways. Manchester as a centre of the calico-printing trade presents a fair field for the exercise of taste in designing, and a school of design is gradually producing important results in the town.”

Such is a brief report of the state of trade and industry in Manchester at the time of the International Exhibition of 1851. Since the above lines were first printed vast progress has been made, important changes have taken place, one or two old trades have declined, and been replaced by others, but everything has tended to the increased prosperity of the place, and to the continual development of its activity and influence as a trade centre. The Manchester of to-day produces an almost incalculable variety of textile fabrics, especially cottons of every conceivable description, velvets, fustians, dimities, calicoes, checks, tickings, jeans, shirtings, ginghams, quiltings, handkerchiefs, nankeens, diapers, muslins, cambrics, &c., &c. These are turned out in enormous quantities at factories situated either in the city or in the wonderfully busy district that surrounds it, and the goods are distributed to the outer world through the medium of Manchester warehouses, which for magnitude of operation and completeness of organisation are among the greatest marvels of modern commerce. Moreover, the city has become famous for its ironfounding, engineering, and many other industries; and in the articles which here follow it will be our endeavour to illustrate the extent to which all these very notable branches of trade have been developed on the banks of the Irwell by describing the works and productions of many representative firms engaged therein. It can safely be said that no English city has had a more creditable record than Manchester, with its teeming population, its giant warehouses, its huge factories, its busy streets, its noble public edifices, and its wealthy and admirable institutions of every kind; and of this great city it is specially true that all its splendid characteristics at the present day are the outcome of the magnificent public spirit of its people in every sphere of life, and of the high individual abilities of the majority of its citizens collectively and ungrudgingly devoted to the common welfare.

In the foregoing pages we have briefly reviewed the career of Manchester as a busy and populous inland city, thriving and increasing more by reason of the energy and talent of its people than because of any special natural advantages of position or surroundings. But for the future, the great metropolis of the cotton trade will have to be regarded in almost a new light — the light of hopes and aspirations realised and satisfied by the completion of one of the greatest engineering projects of modern times. Within a few months’ time Manchester will cease to, be an inland town in the commercial sense of that term, and will become to all intents and purposes a seaport having uninterrupted communication by water with all the distant markets of the world in which its varied products stand in such constantly increasing demand. The means by which this great transformation is to be wrought is


This immense undertaking has given rise to many a lengthy discussion in the governing councils of the kingdom during the past seven years, and has engaged the most earnest attention of our financial and commercial speculators. Manchester has long had navigable communication with Liverpool through the medium of the Irk and the Medlock joining the Irwell, which latter river eventually becomes a tributary of the Mersey. These are advantages worthy of consideration, and they are supplemented by an excellent system of inland navigation which, in the shape of canals, extends its facilities to all the principal towns of the Northern and Midland Counties. Beyond all this, Manchester has railway conveniences which are at least equal to those of any other British city. Thus various channels are provided by which Manchester receives from all quarters the vast supplies of raw materials required by its manifold industries, in addition to those articles of daily consumption not supplied by its own immediate neighbourhood, and by the same channels the city has hitherto been enabled to widely distribute throughout the world the products of its ingenuity, labour, and capital. All this has worked very well up to the present, but the progress and development of such a city as the “Cotton Capital” cannot be stayed for lack of means of further expansion. The means, if non-existent, must be created, and during recent years the men of Manchester have given their attention to a project which, when carried to a successful issue, will radically alter and improve the relations of their city with the great outer world, and greatly promote the commercial interests of the district. We need hardly add that this project is that for the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal.

About seven years ago the scheme was taken up in earnest by men whose energy and influence afforded a guarantee that everything possible would be done to carry it through, and eventually, after a prolonged struggle, an Act of Parliament, authorising the construction of the canal under certain conditions, was passed in July, 1885. This victory of the promoters was marked with great rejoicings by the people of Manchester and the district interested, and several important public demonstrations were made in honour of the successful result of the arduous parliamentary campaign through which the measure had passed. A great meeting of the subscribers to the Parliamentary fund of £100,000 was held in the Manchester Town Hall on August 19th, 1885. About a couple of weeks later, a most imposing demonstration took place at Eccles, the attendance being estimated at nearly 100,000 persons. In the following October there were three notable celebrations arising out of the passing of the Ship Canal Act. October 3rd witnessed the first of these in the shape of a great public procession from Albert Square, Manchester, to the Belle Vue Gardens, the procession being composed entirely of the trade societies of the district. An influential meeting of friends of the movement was held in the Free Trade Hall on October 5th, 1885. The following day was signalised by the giving of a banquet to the promoters of the enterprise by the Mayor and Corporation of Manchester, said banquet being held in the Town Hall. The private preliminary prospectus of the Manchester Ship Canal Company was issued two days later (October 8th, 1885), but owing to the company not having power to pay interest out of a capital during the construction of the canal, the subscription was insufficient to meet the requirements of the undertaking.

With a view to overcoming this difficulty a further application was made to Parliament, the result being an Act which authorised the company to pay interest at the rate of four per cent, per annum to the shareholders during the construction of the works. This Act received the Royal assent in June, 1886, and subsequently Messrs. Rothschild were authorised to receive subscriptions for the balance of the capital of the Company. The subscription lists were opened on Tuesday, July 2Qth, 1886, and closed on Friday, July 23rd. The full amount required was not, however, subscribed, and the issue was withdrawn.

This was distinctly a disappointment, and as soon as it became realised by those who had shown an inclination to support the scheme that some more earnest measures would have to be adopted to ensure its success, a thoroughly sensible course was decided upon and pursued. The first great step therein took the form of the appointment of a committee of influential gentlemen, largely identified with the trade of the district, to investigate the whole bearings of the various questions involved in the project of the Ship Canal. This committee (called the Consultative Committee) was convened under the auspices of the Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Goldschmidt) and consisted of twenty-three gentlemen of unexceptionable competency and integrity, and not a few of whom began their investigations with misgivings as to the commercial prospects of the undertaking. Every detail was thoroughly gone into and scrutinised, and eventually the Consultative Committee arrived at the conviction that within two years of its opening the Canal would pay a dividend at the rate of not less than five per cent., in addition to showing a surplus equal to an extra one per cent. It spoke well for the manifest soundness of the whole scheme that this decision was a unanimous one.

Being desirous of putting forward an estimate quite devoid of any exaggeration of the probable business and dividend of the enterprise, the Consultative Committee deducted from their estimate of traffic no less than one-fourth in order to provide for any unforeseen contingencies; and it will thus be seen that the estimate they eventually decided upon was well within the bounds of moderation. As a matter of fact the volume of business which the Committee assumed would be done, after exhaustive inquiry, was sufficient to justify anticipations of a dividend of eight per cent., or three per cent more than that set down in the report. The report of the Consultative Committee was signed on November 26th, 1886; and on December 9th, in the same year, a meeting, convened by and presided over by the Mayor of Manchester (Mr. Alderman Curtis), was held for the purpose of receiving this report.

After the reading of the report the large and influential attendance accorded an enthusiastic vote of thanks to the Consultative Committee for their arduous labours and for the valuable result thereof. The immediate effect of the report was the creation of a very favourable impression with regard to the prospects of the Canal enterprise, and public confidence in the undertaking was greatly increased. In March, 1887, the directors of the Ship Canal Company issued a private circular appealing to the inhabitants of Manchester to subscribe one-half of the required capital of £8,000,000. If the first £4,000,000 were subscribed locally, the directors were assured that the remainder would be found by London capitalists.

A great public meeting (presided over by the Mayor of Manchester) was held in the Town Hall on April 27th, 1887, to consider the best means of assisting the Manchester Ship Canal Company to raise the balance of its required capital, the bulk of the £4,000,000 asked from Manchester and its immediate locality having been subscribed. At this meeting a large committee was formed, the members of which were to exert their best endeavours to obtain subscriptions completing the necessary amount. On June 8th, 1887, the Manchester Ship Canal Preference Shares Bill was read the first time in the House of Commons. The object of this bill Was to divide the share capital of £8,000,000 into £4,000,000 of £5 per cent. perpetual preference shares, and £4,000,000 of ordinary shares, ranking for dividend after the preference shares, the preference shares not to receive five per cent. until after the construction of the canal, and both classes of shares receiving four per cent, alike until the Ship Canal should commence operations.

This Bill in due course passed through the several stages in both Houses of Parliament, and received the Royal assent on July 12th, 1887. Immediately afterwards Messrs. Baring and Messrs. Rothschild were authorised to receive subscriptions for £4,000,000 of perpetual five per cent, preference shares. The lists opened on July 19th, 1887, and closed on July 21st.

The Ship Canal Company was required by the Act to raise £5,000,000 of its share capital, in addition to £1,710,000 purchase money of the Bridgewater Canal and the Mersey and Irwell Navigation. The whole of this £6,710,000 was to be subscribed within two years of the passing of the Act. On August 4th, 1887, the Board of Trade duly certified that these conditions had been complied with by the Company.

On Friday, Nov. 11th, 1887, the actual commencement of the Manchester Ship Canal Works took place, Lord Egerton, of Tatton, in the presence of the Board, and some of the leading officials, cutting the first sod at Eastham, where the entrance locks of the Canal are situated. Some details concerning the extent and character of this great artificial waterway (which will certainly be one of the most important of its kind in the world) may be interesting. The length of the Manchester Ship Canal will be 35 miles, and it will have five sets of locks, viz., at Eastham, Latchford, Irlam, Barton, and Manchester. Each of these sets will consist of three parallel locks, designed to admit different sizes of vessels, and the largest lock in each series is to be 600 feet long by 65 feet wide. The large tidal lock at Eastham will be 80 feet wide. For small vessels it is intended to provide an intermediate lock in each set, and the smallest-sized locks will be used for small coasting vessels and barges. The minimum depth of the canal will be 26 feet. The minimum bottom width of the Suez Canal is 72 feet; that of the Manchester Ship Canal will be 120 feet, and this will be widened to 170 feet for the 3-and-a-half miles between Barton and Manchester. At Manchester, Salford, and Warrington, commodious clocks are to be provided, and the canal will afford greatly improved facilities for vessels entering or leaving the Runcorn and Western Point Docks. The Ship Canal Company also owns the Duke’s Dock at Liverpool, that being part of the interest acquired with the purchase of the Bridgewater Canal.

The first vessel specially designed and built for the Manchester Ship Canal traffic was launched at Belfast by Messrs. McIlwaine & McColl in January, 1891. This new steamer has been appropriately named the “Manchester,” and is, we believe, intended for use in a direct service between Belfast and Manchester, calling at Liverpool en route. The vessel is built of steel, and is 180 feet in length. A notable event was the opening on April 16th, 1891, of the first lock at Weston Marsh, this being to take the traffic between the river Weaver and the Ship Canal. The lock is over 300 feet long, 42-and-a-half feet broad and 16 feet deep, and has three pairs of gates, worked by hydraulic power. A still more important event took place on June 18th, 1891, when the first water was admitted into the main channel of the canal in the Eastham section, which is some four miles in length and about 170 feet wide. The lock gates here were opened for the first time on July 2nd, and the first boats passed down the canal from Ellesmere Port to the Mersey ten days later. At the half-yearly meeting of the Company in August, 1891, it was reported, that satisfactory progress was being mode with the work of construction, and some particulars were then forthcoming with regard to the Company’s financial affairs. The deputy-chairman, Sir J. C. Lee, said that after receiving the Corporation loan of £3,000,000 (which had been voted by the City Council early in the year in response to negotiations opened between the Company and the Corporation), a surplus of £700,000 then remained. On August 21st, 1891, a report was issued by the Ship Canal Committee of the Manchester Corporation, in which it was stated that £10,359,597 had been expended on the Canal up to August 1st. Towards the end of September, 1891, the water was admitted into the second section of the canal, thus completing two sections (eleven miles in all) in working order; and at the formal opening of the second section on September 29th the statement was made that the engineer, Mr. Williams, expected to have the entire canal finished by the end of 1892. There can be no doubt that the completion of this colossal piece of canal engineering will be the signal for a marked advance in the commercial activity and prosperity of one of the busiest and most popular districts in England.

The Manchester Ship Canal will be practically a continuous dock, thirty-five miles in length, and will afford the most convenient port accommodation to large ocean steamers engaged in the commerce of a region whose area is not less than 7,500 square miles, and whose population at the present time may be safely estimated at fully 9,000,000. Of course the Canal has had its antagonists, and probably still has them, but the arguments for the scheme have been immensely more weighty than those against it; and we are convinced that the time will come when even its opponents will recognise, in this laboriously constructed and cleverly planned waterway an invaluable aid to the expansion of Lancashire commerce, and an enduring monument to the energy, foresight, and sagacity of the men who have expressed and proved their confidence in its usefulness.



FEW modern industries have become so important and indispensable as that of the brewers’ engineer, and in this line of operations there is probably no English firm better known than that of Messrs. Gregory & Haynes, of St. Stephen’s Works, Salford. This house, noted for its achievements in the making of every apparatus and appliance requisite to the conduct of the brewing interest upon the most advanced lines, was founded about thirty years ago at the above address, and the original title is still retained, though the sole principal of the concern now is Mr. William Haynes, one of the founders, a gentleman possessed of great experience in brewery engineering and architecture. St. Stephen’s Works, situated in William Street, Salford, cover an area of about one thousand square yards, comprising a good four-storey building, rebuilt a few years ago, which has been most conveniently arranged for the purposes of the industry to which it is devoted. Each department is equipped with suitable plant, and the general arrangements speak well for the practical knowledge of the firm, and for the extent to which they have developed all their working resources.

Messrs. Gregory & Haynes were the first to undertake the complete equipment of breweries. Formerly the erection and fitting up of a new brewery necessitated the various classes of work being divided and given out to the different classes of tradesmen, such as coppersmiths, iron-founders, vat-makers, &c., but this firm resolved to take up the trade in its entirety, and we imagine their success has surpassed even their most hopeful expectations. All that the brewer has now to do is to give them an order for a brewery, and in due course he can step into it, and find it ready, in every respect, for the commencement of operations. In the same way exactly as Messrs. Platt, of Oldham, would do in the case of a cotton-mill, Messrs. Gregory & Haynes take everything in their own hands, and in due time they turn out a perfect modern brewery. Not only do they equip the brewery with plant of the most perfect character but they will erect the buildings also, if desired, upon the most approved structural principles, for they are brewers’ architects as well as engineers; and in the matter of fittings they make and supply every requisite of the trade, with the one exception of barrels, these last being the product of an ancient and perfectly distinct industry in itself, viz. the cooper’s.

Messrs. Gregory & Haynes have designed and fitted up breweries all over England and Ireland, and it can be fairly said that every one of these establishments, be it large or small, stands as a monument to the capabilities of the house. Amongst the most notable specimens of this firm’s work that we can at present call to mind are the breweries of Messrs. Watson & Woodhead, at Salford, and Messrs. McKenna’s, at Harpurhey. These are establishments of a particularly important character, the fitting of which reflects the highest credit on the firm. Altogether they have built and fitted about a hundred breweries, and remodelled probably two hundred more; this, we think our readers will say, is a magnificent record of thirty years’ work. It seems scarcely possible for any firm to have accomplished more.

The firm is so well known that contracts and commissions for all kinds of brewery work are sent in to them from all parts of the country, conclusively proving that it is no longer necessary for them to court publicity through the ordinary channels of advertisement: in fact, no firm could advertise less than they seem to have done. They employ draughtsmen and workmen of the highest skill and experience in every department of the business, and the utmost care is taken to ensure perfection in every portion of a brewery plant, as well as convenience in the arrangement of every part of the building in which such plant is to operate. Comparing certain old-time breweries which we can remember with some of the establishments erected and equipped by this firm, we confess to a feeling of astonishment at a degree of advancement so great. Nothing could more strikingly reveal the tendency of the modern age towards the improvement of all industrial methods; and Messrs. Gregory & Haynes have certainly done a grand work in their particular sphere of action, and rendered a service of incalculable value to the brewing trade by many of their achievements.

They have gained a most extensive and eminent reputation for their skill and ingenuity in the invention and manufacture of all kinds of machinery and appliances calculated to promote progress and improve production in the great national industry to whose requirements they cater. Some of the most useful and effective apparatus known to modern brewers have been devised by Messrs. Gregory & Haynes, who are the proprietors of a great many valuable patents in connection with brewing machinery and utensils. Among their leading specialities may be noted their Improved Malt Mills and Screens, Patent Self-Acting Mashing Machine, and Patent Frictionless Sparger. These are unsurpassed in practical efficiency, and divide the honours with several other important patents of this house, such as their Compound Action Hop Press, Compensating Yeast Press, Corrugated Surface Refrigerator, Cellular and Tubular Attemperators, Barrel Cleanser, &c. Our limited space precludes the possibility of more than the briefest reference to the productions of this firm, but we strongly recommend those of our readers who have any interest in breweries and their equipments to send for some of Messrs. Gregory & Haynes’ printed matter, among which will be found copies of many testimonials from leading brewers and lists of hundreds of breweries at which this firm’s machinery is now in constant use.

The trade controlled by them is a large one, but all its operations are directed with conspicuous skill, Mr. Haynes being a perfect master of every detail of the business. Mr. Gregory died about two years ago, but for many years past Mr. Haynes has had the entire active management of the concern in his hands. It is interesting to note that the two partners were schoolfellows and friends for many years prior to their commencement of this business. Mr. Haynes is now recognised as a leading authority on all matters appertaining to breweries, their equipment and valuation, and for twenty-five years he has held an appraiser’s licence as a valuer of breweries, public-houses, maltings, and other property of that class. He has been for more than twenty-one years a director of one of the largest collieries in Lancashire, principal in several manufacturing concerns of note, and possesses the respect and confidence of those who know him best; his great experience and sound judgment on all matters of finance or trade is much appreciated by those who can get the advantage of it. He has been one of the overseers of the Borough of Salford for many years, an executive office of trust and responsibility. In regard to the Municipal Council, however, though often solicited, he has consistently declined to enter, the office not being congenial to his tastes. From the very first his administration of the business we have briefly reviewed has been all that could be desired to maintain its reputation and prestige as one of the most distinguished concerns of. its kind in the United Kingdom. He has lately taken into partnership Mr. John Henshaw Canavan (for many years manager of the late firm of Thomas Gadd), whose experience, both in brewery work and also in that of maker and inventor of machinery for calico-printers and allied industries, is well known all over the Country.


AT the beginning of 1892 Mr. Haynes was joined by Mr. John H. Canavan, who was for many years manager of the late firm of Thomas Gadd, and the business is now carried on as Canavan, Haynes & Co. Mr. Canavan has a thorough experience in all descriptions of machinery for the printing and finishing of calicoes, woollens, linen, lawn, bookbinders’ cloth, paperhangings, oil and floor cloths, and in connection with this department they have recently delivered for the United States a four-colour duplex printing machine, the first of its description in America. An illustration of this machine is given below. They have also just completed other printing machines for Austria and France. Illustrations of two of these machines are also given. At present the work in hand includes machines for sanitary wall-paper printing, hank printing, back starching; and crabs, cranes and hoists, also form an important department, and a number of these are at present in hand. They have just completed and patented great improvements, consisting of catches for hoist doors, by the use of which all doors are locked, and cannot be opened unless the hoist cage is opposite the door and stopped. The cage cannot be started until the door is again shut and locked; this releases the starting gear; the starting of the hoist further locks the doors on all landings, making it an impossibility to open any door until the cage is stopped and opposite that particular door. The starting gear for cage is controllable from either inside the cage or from any floor or landing in the warehouse, making it the very best safety hoist in the market, and completely fulfilling all the requirements of the Factory Acts up to date. They are also makers of hydraulic presses and pumps for packing hay, cotton, or calicoes, and extracting oils, stearine; and hydraulic machines for forcing • railway wheels on and off their axles, and for forcing economiser pipes on to the connections.


IN the year 1834 the principal partner in the eminent firm named above first came to Manchester from Musselburgh, near Edinburgh, and for a few years he worked as a journeyman joiner, rising eventually to the position of a foreman. He then commenced business on his own account, starting in Sherborne Street, and adding, in 1858, a part of the property now occupied by his very extensive establishment in Broughton Lane. Thus was gradually built up by the perseverance, industry, and practical skill of one man a business which has become one of the most important concerns of its kind in the country. Mr. Neill obtained many notable contracts to carry out between the years 1846 and 1865, he himself frequently “lending a hand” in the practical departments of the trade; and in the meantime he was enabled by the success he had achieved to give his sons a good education. To further fit them for the competition of the future he insisted upon their learning the business in a thoroughly workmanlike manner, and at length (in 1865) he took his two eldest sons into partnership, their names being Robert and Joseph Skidmore Neill. The title of Robert Neill & Sons was then adopted.

At the present time Mr. Robert Neill senior has the satisfaction of seeing the third generation of his family actively engaged in the business, his grandsons being now acquiring practical experience in the mercantile department of the concern. The works of this noted firm in Broughton Lane have been gradually extended from time to time, and now cover an area of about seven acres of ground. To describe them fully would carry us far beyond the space at our disposal here, and to give a condensed account of their many features of interest would be doing very scant justice to an establishment which is not surpassed by any other of the same kind in the north of England. It will therefore suffice if we say that these immense works present a type of practically perfect organisation and appointment, all the requirements of the great trade and industry to which they are devoted being satisfied in the most complete manner as regards the plant, appliances, and general working arrangements in force; and after making a survey of these busy and interesting premises, with their large range of buildings and their constant aspect of activity, it is easy to appreciate the fact that Messrs. Robert Neill & Sons possess very exceptional facilities for all the purposes of the large and successful business they have developed.

All the departments incidental to a great timber, joinery, saw-milling, and contracting trade are fully represented here, and the firm are to be congratulated upon the superior equipment of the entire place. No detail has been overlooked, no important condition neglected; and in each of the numerous workshops ranged over this extensive property we find industrial resources the completeness and efficacy of which are manifestly the outcome of years of experiment and experience. In all cases the machinery in use is of the best modern type, and indicates the intelligent investment of a very large amount of capital. The sawmills and joinery workshops are models of their class, and vast stocks of timber of all kinds are kept in the yards and stores. The stone-working department is fully equipped and always busy — in short, everything is perfectly “ship-shape” and ready to meet the needs of the large contract orders with which this old and reliable firm are entrusted. In its entirety the establishment is certainly unsurpassed in equipment, resource, and practical organisation; and being compactly laid out and well enclosed, it forms a good-sized industrial colony in itself, populous with busy workers. The fact that Messrs. Robert Neill & Sons give employment almost constantly to about one thousand men, on and off their premises, and sometimes even as many as two thousand, speaks sufficiently for the magnitude of their business.

To mention the vast number of important works carried out by this noted firm would be to enumerate many of the most prominent building and railway contracts executed in recent years in the northern counties. Yorkshire, Lancashire, Cheshire, Wales, all exhibit numerous evidences of Messrs. Neill’s resources and capabilities as contractors for all kinds of structural works and improvements. Large buildings are the speciality of this firm, and perhaps their greatest achievement was the erection; of the vast pile of buildings for the Manchester Jubilee Exhibition. This immense affair covered no less than fourteen acres of ground, and the firm had little more than seven months to complete it in, yet everything was perfectly finished and ready for the opening day, a proof at once of Messrs. Neill’s good faith and of their working capacity. This firm also built the immense and very substantial structures for “Buffalo Bill’s” Wild West Show on the Manchester Racecourse; and concerning this work Mr. Salisbury (Colonel Cody’s manager) said he didn’t believe that even America, the land of big things, could have done it better. A mere enumeration of the churches, schools, public buildings, government offices, railway-stations, factories, warehouses, asylums, &c., &c., that have been built by Messrs. Robert Neill & Sons during the last thirty or forty years would fill a volume. They have not long since completed the Central Post Office in Brown Street, Manchester, and are now busily engaged upon the new Parcels Post Office in Strangeways.

This house enjoys a splendid reputation fur the sound quality and reliability of all its work, and cone stands higher in the esteem and confidence of municipal corporations, public companies, and the people in general. We may add that Mr. Robert Neill, the respected head of this distinguished firm, has done good public service in addition to working industriously in the building up of his vast business. Early in his career he was elected a member of the Manchester City Council, and in 1866 he was chosen mayor, which high office he held most creditably for two years in succession. Mr. Neill was High Sheriff of Rutlandshire in 1888, and has long been a Justice of the Peace, and his son, Mr. Joseph Skidmore Neill, has also been honoured by appointment to the Commission of the Peace. A third son, Mr. Alexander Renton Neill, has of late years been admitted a member of the firm, and, like his brothers, takes an active share in the management.


THE tendency of the present day is decidedly in favour of the concentration of several branches of trade, more or less akin to each other, under one proprietorship and management. This is especially true of those trades which appertain to household equipment, textiles, and articles of personal apparel or adornment; and a notable instance in point is presented by the widely-known and famous house which forms the subject of the present review. Manchester has no more perfect example of a modern furnishing and textile emporium, representing nearly every department of these trades, than that afforded by the great establishment of Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co., in Deansgate, with its auxiliary cabinet factory in Garden Lane, its upholstery works in Back Bridge Street, and its important allied drapery warehouse in St. Ann’s and Police Streets. This immense business was founded as far back as the year 1831, by the firm of S. and J. Watts and Company, who carried it on until 1835. It was then taken over by Messrs. Thomas Kendal, James Milne, and Adam Faulkner, trading as Kendal, Milne and Faulkner; and this partnership continued until 1862, when Mr. Faulkner died. The house then assumed its present title. The headquarters of the firm in Deansgate comprise a very handsome and commodious stone building, four storeys high, and arranged throughout upon a plan affording the utmost convenience for all the workings of the great furnishing trade to which it is devoted. Here, there is every facility for the proper conduct of such a business, and the establishment is one which, in its entirety, is not surpassed anywhere in England in its complete exemplification of all branches of household equipment.

The extensive show-rooms on the ground-floor contain a splendid stock of high-class furniture for the hall, library, dining and drawing rooms, office, &c., together with a beautiful selection of furniture in those specially artistic designs which have come so largely into favour in recent years. Besides this there is a wonderful assortment of specialities in bedroom furniture, brass and iron bedsteads, beautifully finished mahogany and birch bedsteads, bed and window draperies, kitchen furniture, bedding of every description, floor-cloths, carpets, curtains, and all manner of furnishing draperies. The same richly-varied and remarkably attractive display is carried out in the fine show-rooms on the first, second, and third floors, each flat affording a further revelation of the firm’s seemingly unlimited resources. The goods in all cases are of splendid quality and finish, though the range in price and style is so large as to meet almost all requirements; and we have never visited an establishment in which greater care is manifested in the arrangement of the stock, with the double object of securing a pleasing effect in the aspect of the entire display, and of making each section of the whole easy of inspection and examination.

Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co.’s show rooms are a sight worth seeing — a statement fully supported by the fact that they are visited daily by hundreds of persons, who always meet with a courteous reception and the most efficient attendance; and the several departments taken collectively constitute a permanent exhibition of everything that is new, and elegant, and fashionable in house furnishings of every description. In the matter of cabinet furniture and upholstered work, this firm’s productive facilities are unsurpassed, and they are to be credited with a constant endeavour to cultivate an improved public taste by the production and display of a vast variety of goods which are equally remarkable for artistic beauty of design and for special merit in material, workmanship, and finish. Moreover, Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co. have been singularly successful in reconciling the frequently antagonistic elements of price and quality, and by carefully considering each of these features, and not sacrificing either one to the other, they have accomplished what many other firms have failed to achieve — the production of a really high-class grade of furniture at prices which are, for the most part, within the means of that large body of the public who are too frequently compelled to purchase so-called “cheap,” goods for the sake of a temporary economy, which is really extravagance in the end.

This firm’s extensive and thoroughly practical experience in every department of the trade enables them to complete contracts for furnishing upon any scale of magnitude, in a manner calculated to afford every satisfaction. Their reputation in this respect extends all over the country, and is founded upon many successful transactions in which they have given striking proof of their great capabilities. The cabinet factory of this eminent house occupies a detached seven-storey building at the rear of the Deansgate warehouse, with entrance in Garden Lane, and is one of the largest and most perfectly-equipped works of its kind in the kingdom. It comprises sawmills and all the workshops incidental to a cabinet-making industry of the most extensive character; and here also there is a capacious timber- measuring room, where the perfectly-seasoned timber taken from the firm’s immense and well-replenished stocks is measured, cut into proper lengths, and given out to the workmen. A splendid plant of the most costly and effective modern machinery is in use in this great cabinet factory, and the general organisation of the place is unsurpassed.

Equally high praise is due to the upholstering works, which occupy a large detached, building in Back Bridge Street. About thirty skilled hands are employed here, in addition to the hundred or so engaged in the cabinet factory, and the utmost activity prevails in each department of the vigorously conducted industry. Near by, in Wood Street, is situated the timber yard, with its large and valuable stock of all the different woods required in the trade; and adjoining this there is very extensive stabling for the firm’s numerous horses. These animals (about thirty in number) are carefully classified, the heavier ones being used for the delivery of furniture in large van-loads, while those of more slender physique are employed in the delivery of drapery goods in light conveyances. Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co.’s delivery system is quite a wonderful affair, and speaks volumes for the efficient and orderly administration of this vast business. Near the upholstery works stands a four-storey brick building where all bought goods undergo a careful examination and a thorough polishing before being sent out to the purchasers. Here the female employees of the firm have a commodious dining room. Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co.’s fame as house-furnishers extends all over England, and they are constantly in receipt of orders from distinguished patrons residing a long way from Manchester. They have done a vast amount of furnishing work for the elite of society in town and country, and the splendid Grand Hotel, at Manchester, is among the numerous high-class hotels in which their services as furnishers have been exclusively employed.

Besides all this, Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co., have an extensive and select drapery and fashion business, which is carried on in a stately four-storey stone building, with a frontage of 300 feet at the corner of St. Ann’s and Police Streets. This establishment is most conveniently arranged upon an excellent departmental system, and contains one of the largest and most valuable stocks in Manchester, in dress-goods, general drapery, furs, laces, silks, fancy drapery, flowers and feathers, gloves, linens, and carpets. The lace and carpet stocks are mentionable as among the finest we have ever seen, and special attention is devoted with the greatest success to millinery, costumes, and general dressmaking, in which the latest fashions of London and Paris are exemplified to perfection. We noticed also a most attractive and recherché selection of novelties in sunshades; and another very notable speciality consists in stylish linen and flannel shirts for ladies’ wear. Concerning these latter goods, the “Lady's Pictorial,” of April 25th, 1891, wrote as follows, in a paragraph reviewing some of this firm’s most recent fashionable specialities: “There seems every prospect at present that linen and flannel shirts for ladies’ wear will be just as much in request as ever all the summer season through. Nothing is cooler, more comfortable, or more becoming than a really well-made and well-cut shirt, and those which have just been produced by Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co., of Deansgate, Manchester, answer exactly to this description, and seem to possess every necessary good quality. They are made in thoroughly good washing materials of all kinds, and are to be had at 2/11, 3/11, 4/11, and 5/11 each, with soft fronts, stiff collars, and stiff cuffs.”

Mention should be made of the fact that Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co , by special arrangement with the renowned house of Messrs. Morris & Co., of Oxford Street, London, have set apart a new show room for the exhibition of the famous class of decorative goods (wall-papers, &c.), known as “Morris Fabrics.” A splendid display is made in these unrivalled productions, and any one wishing to have the personal advice of Messrs. Morris & Co., on the decoration or furnishing of houses, may have that assistance through the agency of Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co., who will make special terms in such cases.

Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co., may fairly be said to take the leading position in the matter of dress-goods, dressmaking, and carpets, and they are famous also in connection with table and bed linen of every description. They retain the services of a specially skilful staff of embroiderers for working designs upon linens, such as monograms and crests. Another specially organised staff is constantly engaged in the execution and despatch of orders received by post, and in this very important and busy department the most minute details and instructions are attended to with scrupulous care, as well as with the utmost promptitude. The firm’s workrooms are models of neatness and sanitary perfection, and contribute very largely to the favourable conditions under which all orders in the “making up” departments are carried out.

Upwards of 500 clerks, cashiers, assistants, dressmakers, modistes, &c., are employed, and this brings the total staff in the service of the house up to about 750 hands. Altogether, the business is the largest concern of its kind in Manchester, and it stands almost unrivalled in the magnitude of its ever-increasing trade, and the eminence of its well-earned reputation. The firm issue a large amount of superior printed matter in connection with their business, to which we commend our readers’ attention. The beautifully got-up illustrated catalogue of furniture, with drawings of rooms furnished by the house to special designs, is nothing less than a work of art. The whole business is thoroughly well-organised, and it is an unquestionable fact that the house of Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co. is to-day one of the foremost of English mercantile institutions.
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed “Kenmil, Manchester.” The telephone number is 694.


MORE than a quarter of a century has elapsed since this business was established, and it has been developed with notable perseverance and ability, and at the present time the establishment occupies a leading position. The co-partners are Mr. Richard Partington and Mr. John Partington, both gentlemen of unquestionable ability in their speciality and of high commercial standing. The premises occupied in Manchester are ample in size and convenience, comprising a large suite of offices and saleroom and show-rooms, all fitted up with every requisite for the accommodation of the stocks and the successful control of the business on hand. The works are at Worsley, and are known as the Hazelhurst Mills. They consist of an extensive block of five-storey buildings, forming a solid square. The various departments are thoroughly equipped with apparatus, plant and machinery of the most modern type, the whole being dnven by two steam-engines of forty horse-power each. A force of four hundred hands is employed. An admirable system of discipline and labour organisation is maintained and the utmost efficiency is apparent everywhere, the whole being the creditable outcome of the firm’s long experience and liberal policy.

An exceedingly large trade is controlled, and everything the firm produce is of guaranteed excellence. Their goods are well known and highly appreciated in the market, where they find ready sales. For sound workmanship and variety and novelty in designs, the house deservedly occupies a high position, while prices are such as cannot be beaten. Immense stocks are held in Manchester, which have been selected with a consummate knowledge of the trade, and a word of praise is due for the really excellent manner in which they have been arranged. There are splendid supplies of nankeens, Oxfords, zephyrs, coloured cotton drills, &c., &c., which will bear favourable comparison with the best productions of any first-class house in the trade. A valuable connection has been acquired both at home and abroad — the zephyrs and coloured cotton goods manufactured here being much in demand in Australia, New Zealand, and the Cape. All orders receive prompt and careful attention, and-every effort is made to oblige patrons. The proprietors give the business the benefit of their long and valuable experience, and by their energetic control and equitable and honourable methods, they secure the confidence of all who come into business connection with them. They are well known and highly respected in private life, and they take an active interest in all public matters.


THE inception of this business dates back to 1850, when operations were commenced in Lever Street by the founders, who were possessed of large ability and great experience. The business grew at a rapid rate, upon the most substantial basis, and repeated removals to larger premises were necessitated. The premises occupied consist of a spacious and substantial block of four-storey building with basement, having a frontage of 24 feet in Newton Street and 117 feet in Little Ancoats Street. The extensive basement is used for storage and packing purposes, and the offices, private rooms, and stock-rooms are situate on the ground floor, while the remaining floors are utilized for work-rooms and stores. The different departments have been arranged with great judgment and with a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the business; the equipment is perfect, embracing all the necessary requirements for the storage of their vast manufactures, which are carried on in various districts outside the city, most suitable to their particular requirements. A thorough system of organization is enforced throughout the whole establishment, and manifestations multiply themselves on every hand of the great consideration the worthy proprietors have had for the comfort and welfare of their numerous employes.

The goods emanating from this establishment have assumed a well-recognized position in the markets, and are accepted among all classes of buyers and consumers as standards of excellence in their respective lines. In the superior character of the material, the soundness and thoroughness of the workmanship, strength and finish, the articles manufactured by Messrs. Haselgrove & Nephew cannot be surpassed. In their leading lines, ropes, twines, wicks, waste and sponge cloths, their extensive and perfect productive resources enable them to turn out some of the best quality in the trade, and in such quantities that orders of any magnitude can be despatched with exceptional promptitude. The long experience the firm have had in the business, and their intimate acquaintance with every detail, combined with their ample resources, place them in the most favourable position for manufacturing reliable goods at the Cheapest possible rate. The record of forty years of honourable commercial existence is guarantee enough that the uniform excellence of their goods will never be tampered with. Goods not in hand are made specially, samples and estimates are readily supplied free of charge, and every legitimate inducement is offered to buyers, while special terms are quoted for large quantities and shipping orders.

Immense stocks are held of the various specialities manufactured by the firm as well as of the goods they deal in belonging to the same line of business, and which they have special facilities of obtaining. Considerable judgment and knowledge of the requirements of the trade have been displayed in these selections, which embrace all leading lines and varieties, and in such quantities that orders for current kinds can be despatched by return. They include every description of rope, line, and twine, lamp wicks of all kinds, candle wick, engine waste, sponge cloths, engine packings, spun yarn, log lines, lead lines, clothes’ lines, sash lines, fishing lines, bunting and flags, mops, worsted thrums, mop yarns, cotton and woollen flocks, mill puffs, Venetian tapes, upholsterers’ trimmings, house flannels, wash leathers, gloves, &c., &c. An extensive and valuable trade, both home and foreign, has been developed, the connection lying among the largest consumers, railway companies, mill owners, manufacturers, dealers, merchants, and shippers. A numerous and efficient staff of work-people is employed to meet the constantly increasing demands upon the resources of the establishment. The proprietors are gentlemen of wide experience in their special branch of industry, and their able and energetic personal supervision is bestowed upon the business, thus insuring prompt and efficient attention to all orders and a reliable uniformity of quality. In all their transactions they are straightforward and honest, and by this creditable policy, no less than by the excellence of their manufacture, they retain the confidence and support of their widespread and influential connection. In social and commercial circles they are much respected for their personal integrity, public usefulness, and many good qualities.


THIS firm was organised by its present senior partner in the year 1875, at 38, George Street, from whence, its commercial development having been so rapid, the business was transferred, in 1883, to the more convenient and commodious premises at 86 and 88, George Street, to which the adjoining warehouse, No. 90, has recently been added. The personnel of the firm are Mr. Arthur Kaye Dyson, Justice of the Peace for Cheshire, member of the County Council for the Sale Division of Cheshire, and Director of the Union Bank of Manchester, and his son, Mr. Arthur Ernest Dyson, both of them gentlemen of experience in connection with the important branch of commerce to which their attention is now directed. The premises occupied consist of large and substantial five-storied buildings, well appointed with a suite of general and private offices, sample, stock and packing departments, and are augmented by offices at 31, Milk Street, Cheapside, London, E.C., for facilitating the carrying on of their important home trade business, an agency at 32, Gresham Street, E.C., also in the great metropolis, and agencies at Glasgow, Belfast, and Paris. The firm operates on an extensive scale in grey and white calicoes, sending large quantities of goods to all the leading continental, colonial, and foreign markets, more especially to Australia, the Cape, and the West Indian Islands.


IN tracing the annals of business enterprise in England during the first quarter of the present century there is probably no circumstance more conspicuous in itself, or more notable in effect, than the fact that the period in question gave birth to a remarkably large number of trading and manufacturing concerns whose names since then have become identified with some of the greatest achievements in our national commerce. Fruitful as was the era to which we refer in the production of mercantile and industrial undertakings which have lived, and flourished, and grown continuously in magnitude and influence down to the present day, it may be safely said that not one of these many ventures has developed into a more colossal commercial power than that in which the house of Messrs. Rylands & Sons, Limited, had its origin nearly three-quarters of a century ago. Following a rule that has been very general in the history of trade, this great concern commenced its operations upon a modest and unpretentious basis, and so great has been the force of personal character and energy brought to bear upon its subsequent movements that it has far outstripped all its competitors in the race for commercial supremacy, and stands to-day the recognised and undisputed head and leader of the cotton trade, with which, from the first, all its interests have been involved, and to which all its immense resources are still devoted.

To review seriatim the incidents in the career of this remarkable concern is simply to epitomise the history of that wonderful commercial organisation which bears the name of the “Manchester Trade”; and the proper accomplishment of such a task as this would require a volume. We have but a very brief space at our disposal here; nevertheless, it is hoped that the following history of the house, though concise, will not be found uninteresting, or entirely inadequate to its purpose. In the year 1819, from which the record of the business of Messrs. Rylands may be said to date, Joseph Rylands and his brother, John Rylands, established mills for dyeing, bleaching, and producing cotton yarns, Joseph attending to the duties of the manufacture and to the execution of orders, while John, mounted on horseback and carrying his patterns in his saddle-bags, travelled throughout Shropshire, Lancashire, Yorkshire, and parts of Cheshire and North Wales, in order to obtain customers for their goods. His journeys proved eminently successful, and a substantial connection being soon established, the brothers found it necessary to considerably increase their productive facilities.

Soon after this their father, noticing their success, invited them to join him in business at Wigan, where he had already been trading for some time. They assented, and the partnership thus formed took the title of Rylands & Sons. The vigorous energy infused into the concern by the two brothers (and especially by John Rylands, who manifested a remarkable aptitude for business affairs) contributed very greatly to the expansion of the trade done at Wigan; and before long it was proposed by John Rylands to transfer the relations of the house from St. Helens, where they had principally been centred, to Manchester, which was then rapidly rising into prominence. Small premises were accordingly taken in New High Street, Manchester, forming a portion of the site now covered by the huge pile of the company’s principal city warehouses. Thenceforward the development of the business was rapid, and in 1824 the firm purchased two important estates near Wigan, upon which they erected fine mills, equipped in the best manner of that period for the various processes of their industry. A rich vein of coal was also discovered on this property, and the mining of this proved very advantageous to the firm.

Mr. Joseph Rylands, junior, retired from the business in 1840, and seven years later Mr. Joseph Rylands, senior, died. The control of the entire concern then came into the hands of the late Mr. John Rylands, to whose splendid energies the subsequent advancement and growth of this gigantic undertaking were so largely due. As has already been written concerning the house at this period of its existence: “Mill after mill was bought, extended, or entirely erected; development followed development, departure succeeded departure; and by the year 1873 the concern had attained to such gigantic proportions as to be productive, doubtless, of no little anxiety to the one man whose sole efforts had been responsible for such a magnificent effect. Indeed, it is not difficult to believe that Mr. Rylands’ position became in some measure analogous to that of Frankenstein — both had created a ‘monster’ which became almost beyond individual control and management.”

The business had reached such a state of immensity that it was no longer possible to deny its claim to be regarded as the largest concern in the British textile industries, and to relieve himself in some degree of the heavy strain of directing an enterprise of such magnitude, Mr. Rylands, in 1874, decided to convert the house into a limited liability company. This project was carried to a completely successful issue, and “Rylands & Sons, Limited,” became an accomplished fact. The career of the company was inaugurated under the monetary auspices of an immense capital — no less, in fact, than £2,000,000 sterling, in 100,000 shares of £20 each; and of this capital £1,500,000 is paid up. Mr. Rylands was the first Governor of the Company, or Chairman of the Directorate, and with him were associated as colleagues, a number of gentlemen of the highest practical skill and administrative ability. From that time onward the records of the house of Rylands tell the tale of an industrial and commercial progress and prosperity that has had very few, if any, parallels in the history of English mercantile and manufacturing enterprise. We may note at this point that the capital of the company has recently been augmented by the sum of £900,000, in four per cent, debentures, issued to cover a liability to Mrs. Rylands and others, of that amount. At one of the recent meetings of shareholders, it was stated that the value of the company’s lands, buildings, plant, &c., was £1,047,452, while the total assets in lands, buildings, plant, stocks, and book debts amounted to £3,829,003 4s. 8d. The claims upon this vast sum, apart from the capital invested in shares and debentures, were only £748,082 12s. 8d.; and it was furthermore stated that the returns from the business in 1889 were in excess of those of any previous year.

All these facts point to the continued prosperity of the concern, and the citation of a few figures now to illustrate the actual immensity of the system of operations carried on by Messrs. Rylands & Sons, Limited, may not be without interest. The annual transactions of the house are represented in millions of pounds sterling, and the production and distribution of between 20,000 and 30,000 tons of goods (which is the average yearly output of the several works), necessitates the employment of a total force of nearly 12,000 hands. The company control no fewer than seventeen mills and factories, all of which are in constant operation, and “the unique music arising from the almost ceaseless action of the 5,000 looms and 200,000 spindles, that appertain to these immense hives of industry, is a fitting accompaniment to the progress of a trade whose yearly income is positively in excess of that of many a State of recognised standing in the political world.”. Messrs. Rylands & Sons, Limited, are importers upon an enormous scale, principally of raw cotton, which they spin and manufacture for the most part at their mills. Their imports in cotton alone range from 5,000 to 6,000 tons in weight per annum, and amount to upwards of £250,000 in value. The weight of their other imports aggregates about 2,000 tons per annum, and it is well-known that the company are merchants in the broadest sense of the word, for they draft into England from all parts of the world a well-nigh inexhaustible variety of marketable commodities, in which they have dealings of extraordinary magnitude. The map of the world may be used as a topographical chart of Messrs. Rylands’ trade, for there is no quarter of the globe into which their commercial operations do not extend, or in which they have not established a connection of some influence and importance. Despite protection tariffs they export vast quantities of goods to Canada and the United States, as well as to Australia, France, Italy, Belgium, and the Continent generally, the West Indies, South Africa, and every part of the British Empire.

In order to indicate the classes of goods which are thus distributed by this great productive agency throughout the markets of the world, we may here make a brief list of the company’s principal works and factories, with a mention of the products peculiar to each. The chief factories and mills are situate and engaged as shown in the following enumeration: Gorton Mills, near Manchester — a fine brick building enclosing three sides of a square, fitted with 1,550 looms, employing 1,350 hands, possessing engines of 2,000 horse-power, and producing the company’s noted grey Dacca calicoes, sheetings, twills, and jeannettes; Gidlow Works, Wigan — a magnificent range of modern buildings, in every respect one of the foremost industrial establishments of Lancashire, employing 1,350 hands, equipped with 1,600 looms, and engines of 2,000 horse-power, and producing about 350,000 yards weekly of superior Dacca calicoes for bleaching, twills for the celebrated finish of silesias, and cloth for printing; Mather Street Mills, Bolton, with engines of 700 horse-power, 600 Jacquard looms, and 500 employés, making a large weekly production of dimities, satin damasks, brocades, satteens, toilets, fichus, quiltings, and fancy novelties; The Swinton Mills, near Manchester, covering a great area of ground — engines of 300 horse-power, 700 looms, 600 employés, producing the well-known Bower’s regattas, Oxfords, Galateas, coloured goods, and all specialities of the house; The Heapy Bleach Works, near Chorley, Lancashire — a fine stone building, covering with the reserves, &c., forty acres of ground, used for bleaching and dyeing, with water storage — daily consumption of water about 2,500,000 gallons, engines indicating 2,000 horse-power, 600 employés.

Floor Oil Cloth Works, Chorley—lately rebuilt in part with improved facilities, engines of 250 horse-power, 200 employés, very large output of all kinds of oil-cloths for floor covering; Wadding Works, Water Street; The Longford Works, Manchester — a massive and commanding eight-storey block of great dimensions, employing 1,200 hands, devoted to the production of ready-made clothing, embroideries, aprons, pinafores, costumes, corsets, shirts, underclothing, toilet-covers, umbrellas, mantles, jackets, cloaks, dolmans, ulsters, &c., &c. Close by are works for cabinet-making, packing-case making, and other similar work, these being in Hulme Street. The Medlock Works, Manchester, form a large and commodious building of excellent equipment, devoted to the execution of letterpress and lithographic printing, and the manufacture of pattern-cards and paper boxes for the firm.

Besides all these busy establishments, the company manufacture clothing of all descriptions at works in Bethnal Green, London, E.C., and make great quantities of shirts at Commercial Road, London. At Crewe they have another factory, where they manufacture shirts, collars, men’s clothing, &c. Such another system of industrial establishments, it is safe to say, does not exist in Great Britain under the control of any one house. Messrs. Rylands & Sons, Limited, have four magnificent warehouses in Manchester, all of which are architectural and mercantile features second to none in the city; and all contain enormous stocks of goods, equally remarkable for magnitude and exhaustive variety. The warehouse in Market Street has five floors, the one in New High Street seven floors, and the other two six floors each. Collectively they cover a vast area of ground, and are arranged departmentally upon a carefully considered plan, which affords the utmost facility and convenience in the conducting of the company’s colossal business. The London warehouse is in Wood Street, E.C, with frontages to Philip Lane and London Wall. It ranks among the finest commercial edifices in the metropolis, and is an eight-storey block, covering a floor area of no less than seven acres, and embodying all the very best and most approved principles of modern warehouse architecture and organisation.

The limits of our space are well-nigh exhausted, and it now only remains to make some concluding reference to the present administrative body of Messrs. Rylands & Sons, Limited. As all the world of commerce knows, John Rylands, the guiding spirit of this great concern for such an exceptionally lengthened period, passed away, at his residence, Longford Hall, on December 11th, 1888, full of years and of distinction in the sphere of life in which he had played such a noble and useful part; rich, moreover, in all that should accompany old age — “honour, love, obedience, troops of friends”; and deeply and sincerely lamented by all who had the privilege of personal intimacy with him. Of John Rylands it may be said in an especial degree that his works live after him, for no man has left a deeper impression upon the commerce of his time, or achieved greater things in the trade with which he was actively associated to the last; and to anyone who stands in any of the huge establishments that now acknowledge the sway of Rylands & Sons, Limited, and seeks therein for some memorial of the departed merchant prince, there is need only to repeat the expressive inscription to the memory of Wren in St. Paul’s Cathedral — “Si monumentum quaeris, circumspice.” With the death of John Rylands a mighty figure was removed from the drama of Manchester’s trade, and a great ruler from the conduct of affairs in the city’s greatest house of business; but his mantle has fallen upon worthy shoulders, and perhaps the most gratifying circumstance connected with the present condition of the house of Messrs. Rylands & Sons, Limited, is the fact that the administration of its affairs remains in the hands of men who are eminently qualified by experience and personal ability, as well as by long association with its interests, to direct with uninterrupted success the varied operations of such a colossal concern. Our brief review of Manchester’s foremost house in commerce and industry combined is at an end, and though it is in many respects incomplete by reason of its brevity, it may, perhaps, serve the purpose of attracting further attention to those splendid qualities of energy, enterprise, and mercantile rectitude which have won for this house universal respect and confidence, and which still continue, as in time past, to influence all its dealings with the many nations among whom its name is held as a synonym for that dignity and integrity which, we trust, will never be lacking in the conduct of British trade.


THIS establishment was founded as far back as the year 1848 by Mr. William Whittaker, in partnership with a Mr. Wright, originally in Victoria Street. They subsequently removed to larger premises in Watling Street, and the partnership was dissolved in 1857. Mr. Whittaker then opened a printing establishment on his own account, attached to his dwelling at No. 41, Turner Street, and likewise had a small works in Red Lion Street. He also then added the business of Paper Merchant, and Paper Bag Maker. He was the first in Manchester to make paper sugar bags. In 1860 he built a much larger works, with dwelling-house attached, in Union Street, Lower Broughton, and still retained the house and shop in Turner Street. The paper business having largely developed, he left Turner Street and took larger premises at 25, Withy Grove. This was in the year 1867. When his eldest son, Mr. Wm. Henry, attained his majority, in 1870, the warehouse and works began to be worked as separate concerns — the paper warehouse maintaining the original name, and the printing and paper bag making taking the style of W. Whittaker and Son. The streets committee of the City Council requiring this property (Withy Grove) for street improvement, he removed in 1880 to No. 57, Shudehill. Here he opened out a considerable business in stationery and account books, and also a large connection in chromo almanacks for Christmas presentation.

Mr. Whittaker was elected a member of the Salford Borough Council in 1874, which position he retained up to the time of his death in 1880; he was well known and highly respected in Salford arid the district, and had long taken a keen and active interest in all matters connected with the welfare of the borough. Mr. Whittaker’s two sons now were appointed managers under the executors, Mr. James taking the warehouse and sales department, and Mr. William Henry the works. In 1881 larger premises had to be found for the printing and paper bag making. The extensive ground floor of a mill at Ducie Bridge was taken, and fitted up in the most careful and complete manner. Upwards of forty hands are here busily employed in general printing and the manufacture of paper bags of all sizes, the latest addition to their establishment being the extensive warehouse and shop at No. 13, Shudehill, the firm now giving employment in the aggregate to over one hundred hands. They undertake all kinds of letterpress and lithographic printing (special attention being given to printed tea-papers and flour bags), bookbinding, the manufacture of drapers and grocers check books and paper bags. Large and thoroughly representative stocks are always on hand, ready for immediate delivery, and the firm have every facility for executing the largest orders on the shortest notice, and at prices that will bear favourable comparison with any house in the trade. In addition to a large staff of clerks, w»rehousemen, and assistants, four travellers are continually on the road. The business is still rapidly developing, and is conducted with marked ability, energy, and enterprise.


IT is now some forty-eight years ago since Mr. Garside first commenced business, in humble premises, in Turner Street. From thence he removed to a larger place in Back Maynes Street, Miller Street, Manchester. After twelve years of successful trading in these premises, a further extension became necessary, and Mr. Garside purchased the site now known as German Street Mills, rebuilding the mills to suit the requirements of his now extensive business. Success still waiting on Mr. Garside’s efforts, these last-named mills became too small for the expanding business, and in the year 1889 he became proprietor of the fine Elizabeth Street Mills, Manchester, where a most comprehensive trade is carried on in the articles enumerated above, in addition to which extensive contracts are carried out with the principal British and foreign railways, both in the supply of new materials and the purchase of old stores.

The Elizabeth Street Mills are in every point of character arid situation exactly adapted to the vast business transacted. They consist of a huge seven-storied structure, splendidly appointed with well-organised offices, warehouse accommodation, and elaborately equipped works, where a very large staff of hands is actively employed in the production of the commodities for which the house has acquired an international reputation, and of which a fairly correct notion may be gathered from the following list of leading lines represented. The firm operate on a very extensive scale as manufacturers of engine waste, sponge cloths, lamp and candle wicks, cotton and woollen flocks, cotton wools, engine packing, hemp twine, ticking, sheeting, &c., and as soap, oil, and metal merchants, distributing these goods principally to the foreign markets. The firm have a very extensive and high-class connection, which is well-founded upon the eminent reputation it has so long enjoyed, being one of the oldest established and best known in the trade. Personally, Mr. Garside is a gentleman possessing the advantage of long experience and a perfect knowledge of all the intricacies of the business which he still so vigorously and successfully conducts. He devotes a large amount of time to questions of social importance, takes a deep and beneficial interest in the promotion and support of local charities, and is everywhere esteemed and respected by all those who have had the privilege of his acquaintance.


THIS well-known firm was established in 1864, by Mr. Joseph Hilton. Mr. Fred Hilton, son of the founder, is now a partner; and these gentlemen are at the head of a large and valuable connection. They occupy a large suite of handsomely furnished offices on the first floor of the extensive premises, No. 55, Market Street, and employ a staff of clerks numbering six or eight. As estate agents and valuers their reputation extends throughout the city and surrounding districts. They have the entire confidence of a number of large landed proprietors and house property owners, who have for many years entrusted their affairs in the hands of the firm. They are fine judges of the market value of property, both house and land, and undertake the buying or selling of either. Their large connection enables them to arrange mortgages on suitable terms, and they act with strict impartiality between borrower and lender. They do a large business in transferring, preparing valuations for probate, and other branches of their profession. They also act as rent collectors for a large number of property owners in Manchester and around it. Messrs. Hilton & Son are the agents for the General and Yorkshire Insurance Companies. They are connected with the Mutual Telephone, their number being 546.


AMONG the brewing businesses of the Manchester district there is probably none which, has been more successful than that which forms the subject of our present brief sketch. When Mr. Rothwell commenced this concern about twenty years ago, the premises (which had for some time previously been used for brewing purposes) were open to considerable improvement, and he at once set to work to transform them by degrees into what they now are — one of the best organised and most compact breweries in the district. Mr. Rothwell began his operations upon a comparatively small scale, but the rapid growth of his trade encouraged him to provide the best accommodation for it, which thus brought about the gradual rebuilding of the premises in a much improved style. Thus the Heath Brewery, as it is now known, came into active existence, and it has nothing to fear from comparison with the best breweries in the county, either as regards equipment or general convenience for the conduct of a large business. Mild and bitter ales, and porter of superior quality and purity, are the products of this brewery, and are evidence of the use of the best materials combined with a good arrangement of plant and a practical knowledge of the brewing art; the effect being that Mr. Rothwell maintains and steadily extends the reputation attaching to his beers, the demand for which shows a marked increase from year to year. The trade has now assumed large proportions, and the concern stands deservedly high in the esteem and confidence of an influential connection.

Besides personally supervising this steadily-extending business, Mr. Rothwell, the sole proprietor, has from the period when he considered his business to be soundly established, devoted a considerable portion of his time to public affairs. By his earnest advocacy and substantial support he has shown great confidence in the future success of the Manchester Ship Canal, and all movements of a more local character initiated for the benefit of his fellow citizens, amongst them being that for the erection of public baths, free libraries, and science and art schools, have received his hearty support. For some time Mr. Rothwell was a member the Newton Heath Local Board, but resigned when that body decided upon the amalgamation of the district with Manchester, to which he was opposed in principle. When, however, the township became part of the adjoining city, he was elected a councillor for one of the new wards then formed, and received a larger number of votes than were recorded for any of the other successful candidates. Mr. Rothwell is a Churchman and in politics a Conservative. He is strongly opposed to intemperance in any direction, and takes every opportunity of denouncing the drunkard as the brewer’s worst enemy. In the sphere of literature Mr. Rothwell takes considerable interest, and if we may judge from his own productions, he wields an effective pen. He has written several pamphlets in support of the principles of bimetallism, of which he is a strong advocate; he is a member of the Bimetallic League, the Manchester Chamber of Commerce, and the Manchester Geographical Society. Other articles of his have also attracted attention. Mr. Rothwell is possessed of an even and considerate disposition, together with an evident desire to arrive at sound conclusions. He is a Lancashire man, and is now in the prime of life, and in the fullness of his ability to follow up the various lines of study and public work with which he has identified himself. Added to all this, Mr. Rothwell is a liberal patron of many societies of all kinds which have been established for improving the social condition of the people, without distinction of party or sect.


THIS eminent house was founded in the year 1834, by Mr. John Bailey, father of the present head of the firm. The premises, which are known as the Albion Works, are very extensive, and comprise a number of departments, each of which is devoted to some special branch of the firm’s industry. Thus we find one division of the establishment turning out water motors and caloric engines, steam pumps, air compressors, hydraulic lifts, valves, &c., while another manifests equal activity in the production of injectors and ejectors, testers, and other engine-room sundries. In addition to the articles already mentioned, their long list of specialities also includes — (1) steam kettles, steam ovens, water heaters, and high-pressure filters, (2) pyrometers, or heat indicators, for boiler flues, furnaces, ovens, stoves, cooking ranges, hot-air chambers, baking and drying kilns, and for maltsters and laboratory use, (3) every description of testers and testing machinery, (4) all kinds of steam, air, and hydraulic pumps and pumping machinery, (5) hot-air engines for power and for pumping purposes, (6) turret clocks, bells, and lightning conductors, (7) autographic diagram recorders, tell-tale indicators, counters, anemometers, &c., (8) gas fittings, screwing tackle, &c., (9) general machinery, and tools in great variety, including tools, machines and appliances for all the mechanical crafts.

For all these productions Messrs. W. H. Bailey & Co., Limited, are famous at home and abroad, and in some of their principal specialities they stand unrivalled. They possess working resources of exceptional completeness, and are never at a loss for means to meet the heaviest demands of their enormous trade. Wherever the manufactures of this noted firm have been exhibited they have carried off high honours, and they were particularly successful at the recent Melbourne and Calcutta Exhibitions, where some of the Bailey specialities elicited very high commendation. The pumping machinery of this firm is unsurpassed, and the same may be said of the Bailey dynamometers, thermometers, and other delicate instruments for engineers. Their pyrometer, or heat indicator, is a particularly useful and efficient appliance, thoroughly reliable, highly sensitive, and indicating heat up to a very high temperature.

In recent years Messrs. Bailey have become famous as makers of turret clocks, and they erected a splendid specimen of their work in this department at the Manchester Exhibition of 1887. This clock was much admired for its beautiful chime of bells. The firm have also a fine clock called Bailey’s British. Empire clock, constructed in accordance with a patent taken out by Mr. W. H. Bailey, the present head of the house. This clock has a dial twelve feet in diameter, and the hours are struck upon Harrington’s patent tube chimes, producing a more musical effect than bells. The mechanical details of this patent are elaborate and highly ingenious, and render the clock extremely useful, very comprehensive information being given regarding the “time of day” in all parts of Her Majesty’s dominions.

Altogether, Messrs. W. H. Bailey & Co., Limited, are in control of one of the most interesting and noteworthy mechanical and engineering businesses in Salford or Manchester, and their influential connection takes effect in all parts of the world. In the various departments of their industry they employ between 300 and 400 highly skilled workmen. Mr. W. H. Bailey personally supervises the entire business, and also finds time to devote a good deal of attention to the public service. He is an alderman of Salford, and stands among the most prominent and respected residents of the borough.


FEW men in the district are so well and so deservedly known as Mr. Hill. As a manufacturer of over thirty years' standing in Salford, he has all along maintained that high standard of strict integrity that has made him so universally admired. If Mr. Hill is well-known personally so are his works and so are the many most useful goods manufactured there, all bearing a superior name. Mr. Hill’s specialities are numerous and valuable, and the fame of them has gone throughout the United Kingdom. Amongst the rest is his renowned rust preventer and dipping grease, a preparation most invaluable to engineers. It should be at once introduced — if not already in use — into all large engineers’ firms, for it certainly is a most wonderful and money-saving discovery. When used it preserves the bright parts of machinery from rust, and effectually resists all atmospheric influences, and when removed after twelve months’ exposure to the weather the metal remains as bright as when the rust preventer was first applied. It is not affected by salt water or the changes of climate. Just as good is his soluble disinfecting and cleansing liquid, which is non-poisonous. This valuable preparation can be put to a thousand uses: For cleansing stables, kennels, and piggeries, it cannot be equalled. For washing dogs, flushing drains, destroying weeds on garden walks, for closets, lavatories, and for laundry purposes it is admirable. His gasometer paint, specially prepared to resist the action of sulphide of hydrogen, is extensively used, as is also his famous varnish paint for lamp pillars, and his white enamel for the interior of lamps, which is a permanent white and will not change colour. Mr. Hill also makes a special paint for workhouses, hospital walls, corridors, and dormitories, which is largely used for disinfecting and beautifying. His engineers’ lead colour paints, prepared specially to dry with or without gloss, are extensively used by machine and tool makers. They are very durable and of good appearance. For this branch of trade he makes a filling-up composition for imperfect castings which sets in a few hours as hard as the metal itself, also a splendid varnish for wood patterns. His oxide paints in all colours, which are prepared in oil or in varnish, are extensively used by the gentry for painting their iron hurdles, park rails, seats, and general estate work. We must not forget to mention his railway waggon and colliery paint, which has obtained for itself the reputation of being the most durable paint in the market.

In addition to the standard preparations just mentioned, Mr. Hill manufactures countless other and valuable compounds. The list is too long to be introduced here, but the utmost reliance can be placed on his paints, colours, varnishes and size. He issues a very exhaustive list, which is well worth sending for. Mr. Hill’s connection with all kinds of machinists, wagon builders, gas companies, carriage builders, landowners, painters, &c., has for many years been most valuable. His position may be said to be unique, for he holds the entire confidence of all his clients, which is indeed a great matter in these days of competition, when articles of such inferior quality are continually being placed on the markets. The works are very extensive, and are fitted with all the latest improvements in grinding mills, paint mixers, steam boilers, tanks, vats, &c. The offices are at the entrance gates to the works, and are roomy and well fitted up. The respected proprietor is to be congratulated on the proud position he has so long and so honourably maintained in the great battle of business. He may very safely “rest on his oars.” His good, faith with all those who have for so many years done business with him is showering its reward on him, and he is now enjoying his well-won triumphs.


AMONG the many great commercial concerns associated with the production and dissemination of general and educational literature and periodical publications, we know of none whose operations are conducted upon a more extensive scale than are those of Mr. John Hey wood of Manchester. This house stands in the front rank of the British publishing, printings and stationery trades, and its many vast establishments in Manchester are among the most notable centres of industrial and mercantile activity in the city and district. The business has been established just half m century, and has been conducted during the whole of that period with such uniform success and progressive enterprise that it is now undoubtedly one of the largest and most influential undertakings of its kind in existence. For the purposes of the various departments of this vast business several huge blocks of buildings in Manchester have been specially erected and equipped, and these now comprise the bookselling and fancy stationery warehouse in Deansgate, the stationery warehouse in Ridgefield, the church and school furniture showrooms in Deansgate, the City Printing Works in Brazenose Street, the printing and book-binding works in Holme Hall Road, and the church and school furniture manufactory at Cornbrook.

Besides the above establishments (each which is of colossal size and splendid organization throughout), the firm have a London warehouse at 1, Paternoster Buildings, E.C., and the usefulness of this metropolitan depot is at once apparent when we call to mind the fact that the name of John Heywood is known throughout the English-speaking world, and that the trade carried on in that name is universal in its ramifications. In addition, to exemplify every branch of the publishing, printing, bookselling, stationery, newsagents’, and school and church furniture manufacturers’ trades, the firm of John Heywood stands among the foremost in the matter of journalistic enterprise, and publishes the “Scholars’ Magazine,” the “Textile Recorder,” the “Sporting Echo,” the “Ship Canal News,” and other well-known and successful papers and periodicals, among which John Heywood’s “Railway Guide” and “Tourists' Guides” are prominent, as being among the most useful and popular publications of their kind extant.

To adequately describe any one of this firm’s gigantic establishments in Manchester would require the space of a volume, and we shall not attempt the Quixotic task of trying to condense such an enormous mass of interesting matter into the few lines at our disposal here. John Heywood’s works and warehouses demand the fullest description if any endeavour is to be made to portray their wonderful features, and no condensed report of their construction, arrangement, equipment, and operations could do them justice. To most of our readers, however, it will be readily apparent that such a vast business as they are fully aware is carried on by this firm must have its foundation upon some peculiarly vast and effective system of practical organization. No great effect can be achieved without a sufficiency of cause, and the fact that John Heywood’s business is probably unrivalled and certainly unsurpassed among contemporary British concerns in the same line affords ample evidence of another fact — that his various establishments, in which that business finds scope for its operations, are types of perfection in their several classes.

The fine new warehouse in Deansgate is one of the architectural ornaments of the city, a notably proportioned edifice of six stories, with a frontage of sixty-four feet and a depth of one hundred and two feet, and here, in many admirably arranged departments, may be found a stock of fancy stationery such as no other house in the kingdom can surpass. The elegantly appointed book depot is a feature of this warehouse, and contains an immense array of books, embracing new and standard works in every department of literature. The stationery warehouse in Ridgefield calls for equally high commendation. It is a world of business in itself, and its many spacious show-rooms afford a revelation of the resources of the stationery trade calculated to astonish the uninitiated visitor. An enormous stock of paper of every kind is kept among the many other commodities of this branch of the business, and there is absolutely no requirement in the matter of stationery that cannot be met and satisfied here.

When we pass on to the church and school furniture showrooms in Deansgate, we are reminded of the fact that artistic taste and inventive ingenuity have been exceedingly busy in this connection during recent years. The old-fashioned high-walled pew (a sort of ecclesiastical stronghold in which worthy church members could serenely and securely slumber through the long paragraphs of a soporific sermon) has gone the way of many another institution of antiquity. It has well-nigh disappeared from our churches, and in its place we have neatly made and handsomely designed seats which beautify the building in which they are placed, and which are sufficiently comfortable without affording too seductive facilities for the wooing of the “drowsy god.” All items of church furniture have been equally improved, both as regards appearance and utility, and the newest and handsomest designs can be seen in John Heywood’s showrooms.

Similarly there has been great advancement in school furniture, and the rising generation have reason to be grateful for the ingenuity and thoughtfulness that have done so much for their comfort and convenience in the matter of desks, seats, and other requisites of a well-appointed schoolroom. A host of notable novelties in this line are displayed by the firm under notice, and all these excellent articles (as well as the church furniture already referred to) speak volumes for the productive resources of Mr. Heywood’s manufactory. This factory, by the way, is at Cornbrook, and has been expressly built and equipped with the very best modern machinery for the making of church and school furniture of every kind.

John Heywood is a sort of universal provider in the direction of education, and his school publications, maps, stationery, &c., are not less famous than his school furniture. In printing and bookbinding there are few houses in the north of England that can seriously compete with this great Manchester concern, and all branches of these trades receive splendid exemplification at the “City Printing Works” in Brazenose Street, and at the newer printing and bookbinding works at Hulme Hall Road. Both these immense establishments play parts of the highest importance in the routine of John Heywood’s business, and being provided with appliances and machinery of the highest efficiency, they produce work that is practically unsurpassable. The new premises in Hulme Hall Road are regarded by all who have seen them as forming one of the finest printing and bookbinding works in the United Kingdom. They cover an area of 16,317 square feet, rise to a height of five stories, and afford an instructive illustration of the best modern methods in almost every branch of the printers’ art and industry, besides accommodating a bookbinding department of exceptional extent and most complete equipment.

At the Excelsior Works, Hulme Hall Road, the firm carry on an extensive business as type-founders, not only making all the type for their own use, but they also supply the trade - in fact, they are prepared to thoroughly equip a printer’s office. Altogether, the various establishments that are united under the sway of this great printing and publishing house possess resources fully equal to meeting every demand made upon them by the gigantic business to which they are all devoted, and when we say this we can pay no higher tribute to their excellence of organisation. No firm in the United Kingdom handles a larger quantity of literature than the one here under notice, and at certain seasons of the year it is not uncommon for one railway company alone to deliver at Mr. John Heywood’s principal warehouse about ten tons of books in a single day, all of which are speedily distributed to the many customers of the house. The news agency department is a vast business in itself, and when we consider the firm’s trade in its entirety, the word “colossal” is the only one which can adequately indicate its magnitude.

As an example of the manner in which a vast trading concern can be built up by the industry and perseverance of resolute men, the house of John Heywood has no superior. Its founder, Mr. John Heywood, commenced his operations half a century ago in a very small way as a bookseller in Deansgate, and that modest beginning was so developed by his thrift and sterling commercial qualities that it became a substantial foundation for the immense concern to which this brief review has been devoted. The son of the founder, whom we may designate John Heywood secundus, commenced life as a solicitor’s clerk, but after a time he abandoned that calling, and decided to cast in his lot with his father. His remarkable energy and foresight caused the already rapidly growing business to increase by great leaps and bounds, and ere he had been many years in touch, the development of the concern surpassed all anticipations. It was he who, after the death of his father, carried out the organisation of the present great system of works and warehouses, and built the great establishment in Hulme Hall Road, to which we have briefly referred above.

Mr. John Heywood secundus died on May 10th, 1888, deeply regretted by the many friends he had made in all walks of life, and not less sincerely mourned by the hundreds of employees whose respect and affection he had gained. Ever at the call of duty, and always to be found in the thickest of the commercial strife, Mr. John Heywood also showed himself to be possessed of a remarkably sound practical knowledge of every branch of his trade, and he brought his own individual experience to bear upon the training of his employees, giving them valuable advice in their work, and encouraging them to act their parts in life with the earnestness and straightforwardness that had always been his own chief characteristics. Never did man set a better example to those around him, and there are few among the thirteen hundred hands employed in the several divisions of this great business who cannot trace to his influence the timely learning of some valuable and practical lesson. Since the death of John Heywood secundus, the business has been continued by his son, also named John Heywood. This gentleman’s experience fully qualifies him to direct the affairs of the house and maintain its best traditions, and the fact that he carefully and judiciously follows in the footsteps of his father is a fine feature in his highly successful administrative policy.

It is particularly worthy of note that, although the rush of business in all departments of this enormous concern is continuous and tremendously exacting, yet there is no semblance of confusion anywhere, and the whole of the great machine moves onward with a regularity that constantly proclaims the perfection of the arrangements made to ensure its systematic working. It has been our fortune to visit many a great seat of British trade, and to examine the operations of many a famous firm engaged therein, but never have we met with a business which has reflected higher credit upon the abilities of its principals than does that of Mr. John Heywood upon the practical skill and well-directed enterprise of the men who have guided it to the high position and prosperous condition it now maintains and enjoys.
For the convenience of our readers we may add that the telegraphic address of this house is “Books, Manchester,” the telephone number, 553.


THE large and influential business well represents a most important branch of industry intimately connected with the manufactures of the district. At the above address Mr. Woodall occupies very extensive and commodious premises, which comprise spacious and well-appointed offices and counting- house, sale and sample rooms, together with extensive storage accommodation, and every convenience for the successful working of a large and increasing business. Commodious as are these premises, the requirements of the business are fast outstripping the accommodation, and a removal to still more roomy quarters is in contemplation. Mr. Woodall holds a very large and comprehensive stock of chemicals and colours, including ultramarines of various shades, tannic acid, tartar emetic, dyewood extracts, albumens, albumen paste, zinc preparation, glycerine, commercial and medicinal, also special colours for paperstainers, papermakers, &c., &c. Mr. Woodall is the agent in the North of England for the Ultramarine Manufacturing Company, of Poole, Dorset, a very large industrial establishment known as the “Hamworthy Blue Works,” which was founded in 1885 by Mr. W. D. Dugdale for the manufacture of superfine ultramarine for all purposes and metal polishing paste. The works at Poole are laid out on a very extensive scale, and have been fitted up in the most careful and complete manner to ensure the effective and economical working of the various departments, the company giving regular employment to upwards of a hundred hands. Both in his own line and as agent for the Ultramarine Manufacturing Company Mr. Woodall does a very extensive and steadily increasing business, and with the superior facilities at command he is in a position to give his customers exceptional advantages, and to compete on favourable terms with any firm in the trade. Mr. Woodall has an excellent connection with dyers, bleachers, drysalters and manufacturing chemists throughout the northern and midland counties. The business is conducted with commendable energy, and no effort is spared to meet the convenience of customers in the punctual execution of orders.


THE operations of this concern were commenced at Stockport in 1887, and the push and energy displayed in the management soon carried the undertaking to a decided and substantial success. Repeated additions and enlargements have been necessary. The Pendleton factory was opened during the year 1891, and still all the capabilities of the different factories are taxed at times to keep pace with the immense increase in the demands. The superiority of the articles manufactured and the unapproachable prices at which they are offered, have secured for the company the leading position in their business; and the popularity and patronage of the firm are daily increasing.

The factories are large and thoroughly well arranged for the purposes of the trade, and have been built with special regard to the requirements of the business. The one recently opened in Cobden Street, Pendleton, is replete with every modern appliance and improvement. The premises comprise ample office accommodation for a staff of clerks, with warehouse, store-rooms, bakery, &c. There are four capacious ovens at Stockport and eight at Pendleton, all of the latest and best construction. The various processes of manufacturing are carried out by machinery which has been made specially for the purpose, and which is among the most complete of its kind that has yet been introduced to the trade; the motive power is supplied by a powerful gas engine. The factory at Stockport is devoted chiefly to biscuit baking, both fancy and plain, and is under effective control; while the Pendleton works, ably and energetically managed by Mr. Croasdale, are occupied mainly in the manufacture of cakes and fancies. Every process is carried out with the] greatest care, so that the absolute purity of the article produced may be maintained.

An enormous trade is done and one that is continually and rapidly growing. Everything produced is guaranteed of first-class quality, perfect purity, and rich and palatable in taste. The ingredients employed are chosen with the utmost care by experienced buyers. The purest cane sugar is used, obtained direct from the refiners, and all ingredients are procured from the best and most reliable sources of supply, the milk coming from the celebrated dairy belonging to Lord Vernon, at Sudbury, in Derbyshire. The surprising success of this notable company has been followed by the usual result, imitators have sprung up all round who make inferior goods after the same style and pattern, and vend them on the same lines as the original makers. This company is not connected with any other cake company in existence. It was incorporated under the Companies Acts, 1862-88, and is bound by law to trade under its registered name.

The company is known everywhere throughout Manchester and the country for many miles round. They are the makers of the original Barnum Cake, which was introduced to the trade some years ago. Its success has been exceptionally great, and to insure against imitations of this popular article, every cake has the letters P.P.P. (which is the company’s registered trade mark) printed on the bottom. This enterprising firm deal also in tea, and to promote business a two-pound Barnum Cake, either currant, seed, or Madeira, is presented to every purchaser of half a pound of their celebrated two shilling tea. The managing director (Mr. A. H. Davies) is fully alive to the necessity of keeping the company’s commodities constantly before the notice of the public, and under the direction of Mr. F. O. Bridge, a staff of boys has been formed, dressed in uniform and wearing a cap bearing (in gold letters) the well-known name “Stockport Machine Cake Company, Limited,” and who go from door to door introducing the high-class cakes, manufactured by the company. Fresh supplies of the goods are made every day, and absolute perfection of quality is always guaranteed.

The leading lines for which the company are most noted are the “Champion Cake,” the “Vernon Cake,” the “Bastin Cake,” the “Special Oval Cake,” the “Barnum Cake,” family and finest Genoa cakes, Shrewsbury biscuits, rich rice biscuits, digestive biscuits, mince pies, Eccles cakes, French rolls, currant buns and scones, tea cakes, Bath buns, &c. An immense business is controlled in these articles, extending to every part of Manchester and suburbs, and to most places within a radius of 120 miles. The large staff, consisting of clerks, bakers, confectioners, assistants, &c., is constantly engaged, to keep pace with the vast demands. Retail branches have been established at the following addresses:— 46, Swan Street, 136, Oldham Road, 173, Ashton Old Road, 180, London Road, 107, Stretford Road, 79, Moss Lane West, 153, Chester Road, 34, Regent Road, Salford, 4, Bairstow Street, Blackpool, &c. The managing director,

Mr. Arthur H. Davies (who is also the chairman and founder of the company), the secretary, Mr. Herbert E. Bridge, and the general branch manager, Mr. A. H. Bridge, are thoroughly enterprising and energetic men, who by their assiduity, ability, and tact, are building up a concern which in the extent of its operations and the value of its connection, has no equal in the north of England. A conspicuous success been achieved, and the future of the company is fully secured.


THIS eminent house is one of the oldest and most notable concerns engaged in the goldsmith’s and jeweller’s trade in Manchester. There is evidence to show that the business was in existence over a hundred years ago, and it was at that time (and until within the last few years) carried on in a well-known block at the comer of Exchange Street and St. Mary’s Gate. Those premises have since been taken down to make way for new buildings, but their long association with the local history of this neighbourhood secured for them an article in “Manchester Faces and Places,” May 10th, 1890. That interesting journal advanced a good deal of information regarding the locality of Exchange Street, and referred especially to the disappearance of Messrs. Ollivant & Botsford’s attractive shop, that firm having lately moved to their present premises in St. Ann Street. From the same source we learn that Mr. John Ollivant, one of the originators of this firm, “was one of the deputy treasurers, along. with Mr. Benjamin Joule, father of the late Dr. Joule, the eminent scientist, of St. Mary’s Hospital, established in 1709.” He was also one of the committee of the Manchester Eye Institution (established 1815), and a subscriber to the Manchester Auxiliary of the British and Foreign Bible Society. Mr. Ollivant was greatly respected in Manchester for his liberality and philanthropy. He died in 1868, and for about twelve years subsequent to that date the business of which he had been the guiding spirit was continued under the old style by the late Mr. J. W. Botsford. The latter gentleman, who also became a very prominent and esteemed member of the business community in Manchester, died in 1881, and the house then passed into the hands of his son, Mr. J. W. Botsford, who was joined two years ago by his brother, Mr. C. W. Botsford. These two gentlemen constitute the present firm, but the old title of Ollivant & Botsford is still retained.

From the first this historic firm have been high-class silversmiths, and the business is continued upon the same lines by the present principals. The premises now occupied in St. Ann Street afford increased facility for the development of a superior trade, and whatever may be lacking in historical interest is more than compensated by the many other advantages of the situation. The large and elegantly appointed showrooms (all the fittings of which are completed in the most costly and elaborate style), have six fine windows facing St. Ann Street and Police Street, and form one of the most commodious and attractive establishments of the kind in the city. Here the firm hold exceedingly large and valuable stocks of gold and silver plate, high-class jewellery, and diamonds and other gems in great variety, and we have never seen anything finer in its way than the rich assortment of toilet and fancy goods in gold and silver, and elegantly designed dinner and tea sets and general table ware, exhibited in these interesting showrooms. The firm have a most noteworthy speciality in high-class fans, painted by well-known artists, and displaying exquisitely beautiful workmanship. The designs painted on these goods are all signed by the respective artists, and each fan is a splendid work of art.

Messrs. Ollivant & Botsford hold the largest stock of hand-painted fans of this class in the north of England, and are among the very few northern firms who have any extensive dealings in these beautiful and fashionable goods. All branches of the goldsmith’s, silversmith’s, and jeweller’s trades are fully exemplified by this well-known firm on their own premises, and the shop, showrooms, workrooms — in fact the whole establishment — is illumined by the electric light, which adds greatly to its rich and attractive appearance. The power for this light is generated by an engine and dynamos on the premises, and we believe that Messrs. Ollivant & Botsford are the only firm of jewellers in Manchester who have the entire plant of an electric light installation on their own premises. All the affairs of this notable business are administered by the principals with conspicuous ability and enterprise, and the firm enjoy the support and confidence of a large circle of distinguished patrons. Their house is, par excellence, the leading one in its line in this part of England, and the entire establishment, both in appearance, stock, and general organization, is one of the finest we have had the pleasure of visiting in any quarter of the United Kingdom.


THIS immense business dates its history back as far as the year 1846. The concern was founded in Allport Town, but has occupied its present establishment for the last twenty years, and has been conducted for about six years under its present title. Prince’s Bridge Iron Works, as Messrs. Chadwick’s establishment has been named, are situated near Ordsall Lane Railway Station, and about ten minutes’ walk from the Manchester Royal Exchange. They comprise a large two-storey block of buildings, very conveniently laid out as offices, machine shops, and all the usual departments of an extensive and perfectly equipped modern engineering establishment. The principal shop is considered to be a “model” one in every respect, and contains a splendid outfit of machinery, the usefulness of which is much enhanced by the manner in which it is disposed in the different parts of the space at command. The gallery system has been largely employed in the structure of these works, and by this means each department has plenty of light and air, as well as ample space for its special operations. The pattern-shop, fitting-shop, brass-finishing shop, foundry, smithy, &c., are all replete with the best working facilities, and all present highly interesting scenes of industrial activity.

Messrs. Chadwick employ an average staff of about one hundred and fifty skilled workmen, in addition to numerous clerks and a staff of experienced draughtsmen in the drawing-offices. Their industry is a most comprehensive one, embracing all three branches of steam, hydraulic, and general engineering, and the leading specialities of the house may be briefly enumerated as follows:— High-pressure and condensing steam engines, with the latest improvements; winding engines and pumping engines of high-class quality; Cornish, vertical, and portable steam boilers; pumps and all kinds of hydraulic machinery; cranes, hoists, and crabs for steam, hydraulic, or hand power; wood-working machinery, grinding mills; calico printers’ machinery; all kinds of machinery for bleachers, dyers, and finishers; iron and brass valves and taps; and shafting and mill gearing of every description. In these important lines the productions of the firm under notice are not surpassed by those of any other house in the trade, and enjoy a splendid reputation wherever they have become known.

Engines for driving electric lighting plant receive special attention, and are turned out in very superior style, and the firm have supplied steam-engines for this purpose to several of her Majesty’s war-ships. This eminent firm are the sole makers of Harrise’s Patent Square and Flat Bottom Paper Bag Making Machinery; they are also makers of highly improved railway ticket, printing and numbering machinery, and envelope-making and folding machinery; and they enjoy great renown for their diagonal steam-engines used in connection with calico printing plant. They have large numbers of these engines in use in many of the leading works in Lancashire and elsewhere.

Altogether, the business is one of the most important concerns of its kind in Manchester, and enjoys the support of a connection of the most valuable and influential character. Mr. John Chadwick is a gentleman widely known and greatly respected in this trade, and in the general routine thereof he is very ably assisted by his son, Mr. J. A. Chadwick. The house does not, therefore, lack energetic and effective management, and its progress and prosperity in the future bid fair to be of a character fully justifying all the hopeful anticipations that its past career and present high standing naturally give rise to.


IT is a characteristic of the great manufacturing centres of England that they nearly all can claim to have given birth to some business that has become unrivalled, in its particular line of operations. Manchester, owing to the multiplicity of its industries, affords many illustrations of this fact, and probably among all the interesting examples forthcoming in this flourishing district, there is none more noteworthy than that presented in the great business which forms the subject of the present article. The house of Mr. Samuel Brooks which, with the advent of 1892, became Messrs. Brooks & Doxey, founded many years ago by the late Mr. Samuel Brooks (father of one of the present principals, Mr. Samuel H. Brooks), has won an international fame for its manufactures of cotton machinery generally, and may well claim to have taken and maintained the lead in the special branch of this industry, to which its attention has been so closely devoted for a long time past, viz., the production of “ring” spinning and twisting machinery. We do not think we exaggerate in saying that in this department the firm stands facile princeps.

In tracing the history of this celebrated concern, it may be well to follow the career of its founder, whose vigorous personality and progressive spirit have been so largely embodied in the business of which he was the originator, and for many years the guiding spirit. The late Mr. Samuel Brooks was born in the year 1826, at Middleton, near Wirksworth, in Derbyshire, and was educated at Wirksworth Grammar School. At the age of fourteen he made a start in the serious business of life, taking a situation as junior clerk with the late Mr. J. G. Bodmer, whose engineering works were near Oxford Road, Manchester. For three years he remained in Mr. Bodmer’s service, and during that time he acquired much sound practical knowledge regarding mechanics and engineering, two branches of industrial science in the study of which he showed very remarkable aptitude. Mr. Brooks then entered the employ of Messrs. Elce & Cottam, who were at that time widely and favourably known as cotton machinists. With them his energy and talent found ample scope, and such progress did he make, and ability did he manifest, that he soon came to be regarded as the leading spirit of the establishment.

The health of Mr. Elce failing about this time, the entire commercial management of the concern came into Mr. Brooks’s hands, and eventually, when Mr. Elce died, Mr. Brooks continued the management under trustees. He had now been at these works for about fifteen years, and as his knowledge of the trade was most complete in every industrial and commercial detail, he naturally began to think about starting a business of his own. He made the first step in this direction in 1859, when he took a room in Union Mills, Minshull Street, Manchester, fitted it with machinery suitable for the manufacture of loom temples and accessories, and for the general repairing of cotton machinery, and called into his service a staff of workmen numbering no more than half a dozen hands all told. This was a modest nucleus, indeed, from which to develop a great business, and probably neither the proprietor nor the most sanguine of his friends then thought that it would grow and grow until it has become one of the most extensive and notable undertakings of its kind in the country. However, Mr. Brooks speedily proved himself the possessor of all the essential qualifications of a successful trader, his business increased rapidly and prospered beyond anticipations, and before long he added to it a department for the making of engineers’ tools. He knew the value of a good tool himself, and he soon found that there were plenty of engineers and machinists who could and did appreciate the excellent appliances he turned out for their use. We have now arrived at a period which marks a great epoch in the career of this house.

The American Civil War, which began in April, 1861, brought about a crisis in the cotton trade, and stopped the supply of long-stapled cotton from the United States. The short-stapled cotton from India and elsewhere formed but a poor substitute, as the machinery then in use was not adapted to its manipulation upon a large scale. Mr. Brooks at once saw his opportunity, not only of developing a very important branch of business, but also of conferring a lasting benefit upon the English cotton industry, and this he undoubtedly did when he introduced changes in the existing cotton machinery which completely solved the problem of handling short-stapled cotton, and surmounted the serious difficulty which then beset the manufacturing interest of Lancashire. He presented to the trade his first cotton- drawing frame upon a new and improved principle, and its success was immediate and remarkable, as, indeed, it could hardly fail to be under the circumstances.

By the end of 1863 Mr. Brooks’s staff had increased to sixty hands, and he found himself almost unable to keep pace with the influx of orders he received. The encouraging prospects thus created led him to recognise the expediency of acquiring larger premises, and an opportunity soon presented itself. He secured a considerable plot of land, together with a three-storey building, in Thomas Street, West Gorton, about two and a half miles from the Manchester Exchange. These premises, having been altered and extended to meet the requirements of his business, Mr. Brooks named them the “Union Iron Works,” and at once transferred his plant and his industry thither. From that day to this the work of expansion has been steadily going on to meet the demands of a constantly-increasing trade, and as years passed on Mr. Brooks not only increased his working resources, but also added new and important features to his business, such as the making of flyer spinning and doubling frames. He invented the improved doffer comb for carding engines, and he also introduced frequent and valuable improvements into his drawing-frame, which was then the principal speciality of his trade. So greatly was this drawing-frame esteemed by all the leading cotton-spinners that, even in giving large orders for machinery to other makers, they were in the habit of expressly exempting the drawing-frames, placing these with Mr. Brooks.

In 1872 another epoch in the business was inaugurated, Mr. Brooks then constructing his first “ring” doubling-frame; and a year afterwards he brought out his famous “ring” spinning-frame, which still remains the leading and unrivalled speciality of this house. By occasional travelling on the Continent, and in America, Mr. Brooks was enabled to personally meet many of his more important customers. He thus placed himself in touch with their work and requirements, and was the better able to study and satisfy the same by his productions. The demand for his various specialities, and particularly for his “ring” spinning-frames, became so great that the works had to be much enlarged from time to time, and, to make a long story short, we may say that the process of extension has been going on ever since, and is still continuing, for we certainly have not by any means reached the limit of the development of this great business or of its interesting works.

In December, 1886, Mr. Samuel Brooks died, and his loss was deeply and sincerely deplored by the many friends he possessed in private life, and by the still larger number of business supporters who had learned to admire his practical abilities and to respect him for his sterling qualities of integrity, indomitable perseverance, and straightforwardness. The founder was succeeded by his son, Mr. Samuel H. Brooks, who on the 1st of January, 1892, took into partnership with him his brother-in-law, Mr. Richard Alexander Doxey, the two now carrying on the business under the style of Brooks & Doxey, the management and staff being as hitherto. Mr. Doxey was for many years closely associated with the late Mr. Brooks in the business, acting as chief assistant, and has frequently travelled over the various parts of the Continent, and has also visited America and India. He has thus come into personal contact with large numbers of customers, in different cotton-spinning centres of the world, and learned their requirements, which has been of no small advantage in dealing with so extensive a business.

The founder of the firm had the happy fortune of gathering round him, in the early stage of his business career, a number of skilled and reliable men to take charge of the various departments, and as the works have developed, this policy has been continued, the firm endeavouring to secure and retain at all times the best talent. There is, therefore, now a large staff of skilled and experienced managers, foremen, and workmen, many of whom have been in the service of the house for a number of years. As we have already pointed out, the late Mr. Brooks began to make a speciality of the “ring” frame in 1872, and the “ring” spinning and twisting machines still produced by this house are unsurpassable. In 1888, however, the firm purchased the whole of the business, works, plant, patterns, &c., of the Junction Iron Works Company, Limited, at Newton Heath, and these works — originally designed and erected as model machine works by the late Mr. Evan Leigh, the inventor of the loose boss roller, and the pioneer of the modern revolving flat-carding engine — are now being carried on as a branch establishment by Messrs. Brooks & Doxey.

In consequence of the increasing demand for the firm’s machinery, new buildings are at the present time in course of erection at the branch works, and large plots of land adjoining the principal works in West Gorton have recently been purchased, the total area of the two works being about fourteen acres. The branch works are devoted wholly (or very nearly wholly) to the manufacture of preparation machinery, among the productions being carding-engines, slubbing, intermediate and roving frames, which are being produced, very largely and from entirely new models. Wilkinson's patented, revolving flat-carding engine is a special product of these works, and it contains many valuable improvements which strongly commend it to the notice of cotton spinners. Although the firm only commenced to make this carding-engine two or three years ago, its principles are now being acknowledged by the trade to be of the utmost importance, and it is believed they will form the basis of all cards to be produced in time to come. Already some hundreds are at work, and a very large number are now in hand for many leading cotton-spinners. Such articles as may he required for replacements in machines sold by the late Junction Iron Works Company, are here produced and supplied by Messrs. Brooks & Doxey.

As to the chief works of the house at West Gorton, they form a wonderful industrial world. It would require a volume to properly describe this vast establishment and its splendid organisation, and even then justice would hardly be done to one of the busiest and most interesting scenes in Manchester or the district. Suffice it just now to know that these works, covering a great area of ground, possess the most extensive and elaborate facilities for all the purposes of Messrs. Brooks & Doxey’s industry, the immense plant in use being composed of the newest and most improved machinery known in the trade, a good deal of which, by the way, is of the firm’s own design and manufacture. An indication of the remarkable growth of the firm’s business is found in the augmentation of the staff. At the present time close upon two thousand workhands are engaged at the two works.

The spindle department should be mentioned as one of the most interesting features of the Union Iron Works, and it is capable of turning out spindles at the rate of about ten thousand per week. Amongst the specialities of the house we noted, in the course of our survey of these works, is the Hill & Brown’s patent winding-frame, with or without patent stop motion, to wind up on paper tubes or bobbins without heads. This machine will build the yarn any width and any diameter, either parallel or conical. Another speciality is the Kitson patent waste-picker and thread extractor, by which waste can be picked more effectually and at one-twentieth the cost of hand picking. By a characteristic stroke of enterprise the firm has become the sole licensees and makers of this highly-esteemed American machine for Great Britain, the continent of Europe, India, China, and Japan.

Summarised, the productions for which the firm are famous embrace their revolving flat-carding engines, drawing-frames, slubbing, intermediate and roving frames, ring-spinning, ring-twisting and flyer-twisting frame, Hill & Brown winding-frame, &c., and they have latterly added the making of upright spindle winding frames, cop and bobbin reels, bundling-presses, &c. They have also long enjoyed a high reputation as makers of special tools required for machinery makers, and also for the equipment of mill mechanics’ shops. They are further the sole makers of the celebrated “American Standard Ring Traveller,” for spinning and doubling, in steel or composition, and have put down a special plant for this important accessory for ring-spinning and twisting machines. Altogether, as will be readily seen, Messrs. Brooks & Doxey control a business which is far above and beyond the ordinary standard of magnitude and influence, and few firms can claim credit for such a splendid array of labour-saving and efficient textile machinery.

The connection maintained by this house is world-wide, and the trade is so large that overtime was for years the rule at the works, the ordinary working day being insufficient time in which to meet the excessive pressure of orders, but in deference to the request of the men themselves, and by reason of the extensions of the premises systematic overtime has now been abandoned. Contracts are carried out for the complete equipment of mills with spinning, weaving, and finishing plants, and also special plants for the complete manufacture of sewing cotton, from the raw cotton to the finished spool or ball of thread, and special plants for the manufacture of hosiery, and some immense works have been fitted in this way. One house alone has now upwards of one hundred and eighty thousand ring spindles at work, supplied by the firm under notice, and numerous other establishments have been equipped upon an almost equal scale of magnitude. When the extensions now in hand of both the Union and Junction Works shall have been completed this firm will give employment to considerably ever two thousand hands.

The whole business is under the personal supervision of the principals, and a most capable staff generally, and bids fair to enjoy increasing prosperity as long as the capable and far-seeing policy of administration remains in force. The management is experienced, enterprising and thoroughly practical, and well qualified to direct so vast a concern as this, and the principals are — like the late Mr. Brooks - greatly esteemed by the employes. As a member of the Manchester City Council Mr. Brooks has done good public service, well representing the ratepayers of St. Mark’s Ward, West Gorton, and he stands high in the esteem of a wide circle of friends. He is also a captain in the 4th V.B. Manchester Regiment. Besides the works at West Gorton and Newton Heath, Messrs. Brooks & Doxey have a town office at 15, Market Street; and are represented at Pillar No. 4, Royal Exchange, Manchester, on Tuesdays and Fridays, from 1 to 3 PM. We should add that this house has at the various International Exhibitions won many medals of the highest class for its manufactures, and that it has agents in almost every cotton-spinning centre in the world.
Telegrams should, be addressed “Union, Manchester;” the telephone number is 605.


THE old-established and eminently reputable firm named at the head of this article was founded, in 1832, when the business was opened under the style of Hatfield & Hall, and carried forward with considerable ability and success. It is no small compliment to the courage of the founders of the business that they should have begun their operations in a street which, sixty years ago, was entirely occupied by private residences. In 1844 Mr. Hatfield retired, and the business was carried on solely by the late Mr. John Hall for thirteen years, when he was joined by Mr. John Clapham, the title of the firm being then changed to John Hall & Co., which title it still retains. Mr. John Hall, the founder, retired in 1876, and the co-partners in this noted, house are now Mr. John Clapham, Mr. John Hall (the nephew of the founder), and Mr. George Herbert Clapham, son of the senior partner. The premises occupied are spacious and convenient, prominently situated, and admirably adapted to the special requirements of a trade of this description, and they comprise extensive double-fronted shop with spacious windows that display a splendid selection of high-class silver plate and diamond work. The remainder of the building, which extends into South King Street, is occupied from basement upwards by the workmen of the firm engaged in the various branches of the business.

A large and influential trade is controlled by the firm as gold and silver smiths, diamond merchants and watch and clock makers. This establishment has achieved a high and enviable name in the trade for the superior and intrinsic excellence of all the articles it supplies. The proprietors are thoroughly acquainted with the most desirable sources of supply, and in the matter of designs and novelty of pattern the house possesses special claims to patronage. A special feature is made of watches, and the productions of the firm are unsurpassed in excellency of work and reliable accuracy in timekeeping. A still more important feature is the gem work of Messrs. Hall. As they buy diamonds, pearls, sapphires and rubies, in large quantities direct from Amsterdam and London, and mount all stones to their own designs, they are in a specially favourable position for supplying the newest designs at the lowest prices. We were specially interested by being shown the large stock of unmounted gems, cut and polished ready for the mounter, and as we gazed at the flashing little heaps, in their tidy envelopes, we were puzzled to know whether they were more beautiful seen in this way or when the designer and setter had exercised their skill on them.

Extensive and costly stocks of mounted gems are held, which should be inspected by all intending purchasers. They include rings from £5 to £300, diamond and pearl necklets and pendants from £50 to £1,000, diamond, pearl and gold bracelets; gem and other Brooches, silver plate and electro-plate of all kinds for presentation, marble and gilt clocks, and ladies’ and gentlemen’s gold and silver watches from 50s. to £150. By the excellence of everything it handles and the honourable treatment all patrons receive, the house has acquired a connection of the most valuable kind.

The proprietors are gentlemen of large experience in their speciality, to which they devote their constant personal attention. In social circles they are everywhere respected for their sterling character and their many good personal qualities, and Mr. John Clapham, the senior partner, is an active participant in every religious and philanthropical movement in the city. He has filled many public offices with distinction, and his valuable and long continued public services have been fittingly acknowledged by his appointment to the magisterial bench.

TELEGRAPHIC ADDRESS:- Pearson, Marsden Square, Manchester.

THIS time-honoured house has been intimately associated with the trade of Manchester for more than a century. The inception of the business dates back to about the year 1770, when operations were commenced in Marsden Square by Mr. Benjamin Brierley as a manufacturer of mohair. He used to entertain John Wesley on his visits to Manchester. The founder was succeeded by his son, Mr. James Brierley, in 1791. At first he lived in the Square, as his father had done before him, but he afterwards removed to the then aristocratic quarter of Ardwick, and ultimately, in 1825, to Congleton, in Cheshire. This gentleman, having no sons, adopted two of his sister Elizabeth’s sons, John and Benjamin Pearson. Mr. James Brierley was joined in partnership by his brother, Thomas Brierley, in 1800, and they commenced business as calico printers. In this they were highly successful, and their establishment soon became recognised as a leading one. The title and personnel of the firm underwent several changes, at one time being known as Brierley & Harrison, then as Brierley, Harrison, & Pearsons, and later as Brierley & Pearsons.

Mr. James Brierley, the head of the firm, was a conspicuous figure in these stirring times. He was a Justice of the Peace for the counties of Lancaster and Chester, and in the discharge of his duties he was one of the magistrates who was alleged to have read the Riot Act on that memorable occasion, August, 1819, when the Cheshire Yeomanry charged the people on the spot now occupied by the Free Trade Hall. Some time after he was made Boroughreeve for Manchester, and in that capacity had the honour, on August 19th, 1822, of laying the foundation-stone of the Town Hall. This building still exists, though diverted from its original purpose. It is at the corner of King Street and Cross Street, and is used as the Chief Free Reference Library of the city. After a long, successful, and distinguished life, this gentleman died on the 13th January, 1842.

Meanwhile changes had been going on in the business. In 1828 the firm became Messrs. John and Benjamin Pearson (the two adopted brothers already alluded to), and the house shortly afterwards gave up the print trade and became the agents of Thos. Fox & Sons, of Wellington. Somerset, afterwards Fox Brothers & Co., the famous manufacturers of serges, worsted coatings, and pure Southdown-wool blankets, and to-day the house still conducts this agency. In 1857 Mr. Benjamin Pearson died, and his sons, George and Edward, were admitted into partnership. The deceased gentleman was an active participant in public matters, and was always to the front in every movement affecting his native city. He was a member of the local Anti-Slavery Committee when Manchester so powerfully raised its voice in the cause of negro emancipation. He was also a distinguished member of the Anti-Corn-Law League and of the Chamber of Commerce. He was intimately associated with Mr. Richard Cobden, and was in the habit of taking part in the meetings of the Anti-Corn-Law League held in the old Free Trade Hall erected for the purpose. It was to this gentleman that Mr. Cobden, being congratulated on his success in educating Sir Robert Peel, gracefully turned with the compliment, “If I have educated Sir Robert Peel, it was Mr. Benjamin Pearson who educated me.”

Mr. John Pearson, who survived till 1867, had retired in 1861, after an active business career, leaving his two nephews, the present heads of the firm, as sole proprietors. This is the only business in Manchester that has been carried on on the same spot for more than one hundred and twenty years. The old building was pulled down in 1836, but the original panels upon which John Wesley looked are still to be seen, carefully preserved, in the rebuilt warehouse. The present firm is well and favourably known in commercial circles. Mr. George Pearson is a member of the literary and archaeological societies in Manchester, and Mr. Edward Pearson is prominently connected with the United Kingdom Alliance, and took up a conspicuous and determined position in the controversy anent the bill for giving compensation to brewers and distillers, which was introduced by the Government.


THE foundation of this old-established and highly-important business was originally laid at Bury in the year 1868, when Messrs. Sedgwick and Heap commenced operations in a very small way as drapery warehousemen. They threw plenty of energy and enterprise into the management of the venture, however, and in due course they succeeded in developing a remarkably large and prosperous trade. This success encouraged them to enter into a large field, of action, and in 1886 they made their first start in Manchester, opening up an establishment in Church Street. This business, increasing very rapidly, it was transferred in 1887 to the present address in High Street, where Mr. Joseph Sedgwick took as his partner Mr. Henry Woodhead. Subsequently, Mr. Robert Beveridge, who had been linen buyer to the firm since the commencement of the Manchester business, was taken into partnership. Still the Manchester undertaking continued to develop very considerably, and in 1889 the old Bury partnership was dissolved, Messrs. Sedgwick & Woodhead retaining the Manchester business, while Mr. Heap (in partnership with his son) continues the retail establishment in Rock Street, Bury.

The headquarters of Messrs. Sedgwick & Woodhead, in High Street, Manchester, have a very advantageous situation and contain six stories, arranged in such a manner as to afford every convenience for the conduct of an immense business. The departmental plan of the warehouse is as follows: basement — greys, dyes, and packing-rooms; ground floor — linens, Oxfords, handkerchiefs and general offices; first floor — flannels, stays, corsets, lace, blinds, and curtains; second floor — dress goods, hosiery, and shirts; third floor — manufactured baby-linen, underclothing, wool shawls, &c.; fourth floor — spacious work-rooms for making-up baby-linen, shirts and underclothing. Each of these departments is most commodiously arranged, the goods being well displayed, and the general facilities excellent; and there can be no doubt that Messrs. Sedgwick & Woodhead have gathered together here one of the largest and best stocks in Manchester in the several lines of goods above referred to.

The firm have a well-appointed shirt factory and warehouse in Watling Street, and have also another warehouse at 20, Marsden Square. A large stockroom, is maintained at 13-and-a-half, Castlegate, Nottingham, and plays an important part in the general routine of the trade; and the house is ably represented “on the road” by at least seven travellers, whose journeys cover the entire country from the south midlands north to John o’ Groats. It is estimated that the stock in warehouse frequently approaches £20,000 in value, and the turnover is very large and rapid, great energy being displayed by the firm in the conduct of the business and the distribution of their goods. Messrs. Sedgwick and Woodhead are thoroughly capable and experienced business men, devoting their personal attention to all the affairs of the house; and the widespread support and confidence they have won throughout the trade is unquestionably due to the fact that they have from the first adhered closely to the sound policy of responding to their customers’ orders by the prompt despatch of the best and most reliable articles in the class of goods called for.


MANCHESTER, like other large centres of population and commerce, has been conspicuous during past years for its extensive and enterprising development of the wine and spirit trade. Among its foremost representatives must be mentioned Messrs. Murch & Everett, of Piccadilly. This well-known and highly-reputed firm of wine and spirit merchants was founded about seventeen years ago and is a continuation of the firm of M. Feeney & Co., established in 1835. The late senior partner, Mr. Murch, was formerly manager of the older firm before commencing business with Mr. Henry Thomas Everett, the present principal. The very handsome and commodious premises occupied by the firm have an excellent situation in Piccadilly.

In point of equipment and organisation the establishment is one of the finest in the city. It comprises large cellars, stores, and offices, with every facility and convenience for carrying on a very extensive and high-class trade. Few firms in Manchester hold such complete stocks as Messrs. Murch & Everett, and nowhere is to be seen a collection of wines, spirits, and kindred goods more carefully or more judiciously chosen. All the best and most highly-esteemed growths and vintages of Port, Sherry, Claret, Champagne, Burgundy, Hocks, and Moselles (still and sparkling) are fully represented, together with Australian wines (red and white), choice spirits, and all descriptions of foreign liqueurs. The character of the stock, bonded and duty paid, speaks exceedingly well for the firm’s thorough knowledge of the trade and for their intimate acquaintance with the resources of every market from which they draw their supplies. Messrs. Murch & Everett are also agents for Messrs. Allsopp & Sons, Limited, Messrs. Bass, Ratcliffe, & Gretton, Limited, and Messrs. Ind, Coope & Co., Limited, supplying the products of all these renowned brewing firms in splendid condition. Especially noteworthy is the fact that they hold the local agency in Manchester and district for Messrs. J. J. Murphy & Co., of Cork.

Messrs. Murphy are the proprietors of the cultivated Lady’s Well Brewery, of Cork, the largest and most perfectly-appointed brewery in the south of Ireland; and the fame enjoyed by their high-class, stout throughout Ireland is being rapidly supplemented by a widespread reputation in England, to which the Manchester agency in the hands of the firm here mentioned, and their representative for the north of England, is contributing in a notable degree by the energy with which its operations are conducted. In view of the rapidly-increasing popularity of this famous Irish stout in England it may not be inappropriate to describe briefly the plant and machinery of the brewery here referred to. En passant it maybe remarked that the present head of the firm, Mr. James Murphy, is the same gentleman who, a few years ago, successfully floated the Munster and Leinster Bank. The same energy, enterprise, and resource with which he conducted this national undertaking are apparent in the management of his great brewery in Cork. This brewery, founded in 1854, is erected on the site of the old Foundling Hospital. The buildings, being both spacious and lofty, were admirably suited for a brewery. It is needless to say that alterations and additions had to be undertaken even within a short time after the founding of the firm. Since then it has grown and developed to such an extent that, irrespective of clerks and travellers, the number of persons employed at the Lady’s Well Brewery and cooperages cannot be less than four hundred. Enclosed within the premises are three wells of exceedingly cold water, used for attemperating purposes.

The malt-house is an extensive block of buildings, five storeys high, constructed of stone, and of handsome elevation. Each floor measures one hundred and sixty-five feet by forty feet, three of which are used for malting purposes, the other two for storing grain, the barley being delivered thereto by elevators. The storage building for malt, which abuts on the malt-house, is capable of holding twenty thousand barrels. The metal steep is at the north end, and will wet two hundred barrels at one time. There is a lofty kiln erected at the south end of the building, measuring thirty-five feet by forty feet, the floor of which is laid with perforated Worcester tiles, and also a second kiln, twenty feet square, for drying barley. In the mill-room are malt-rollers for crushing the malt as it falls from the rollers. The malt is lifted to the room over the mill by powerful elevators and screened before it reaches the mill hopper. The screens used are of the barrel kind, and contain meshes of various sizes, and are made by Nalde & Co., of Wantage. This mill building of four storeys, measuring sixty feet by twenty-five feet, is one of several structures which have been built on to the front of the warehouse, or what was once the old hospital. Adjoining is the heating-tank room, its front being of corrugated iron, which contains three heaters, constructed of copper. The mashing-loft, the floor of which is laid with iron plates, resting on massive iron girders, contains two covered mash-tuns, constructed of metal. There is an iron grist hopper to each of the mash-tuns, and the malt is withdrawn therefrom in the following very simple manner. One man works a wheel which withdraws the sluices of the four down-feeds of each hopper, and thus the charge is sent into the tuns simultaneously. Exactly under the mash-tuns, in a sub-basement, is a circular copper underback, enclosed in a timber frame. The liquor is pumped therefrom to the wort coppers by three sets of powerful three-throw pumps. The coppers are fine vessels of immense circumference. The two hopbacks are set on a lower stage. Attached to them there is a revolving lift for raising the spent hops to the copper for a second boiling.

The brewer’s office, adjacent, is so placed as to command a view of all the proceedings below and both sides of the quadrangle. The coolers, where the wort runs from the coppers, are reached by crossing another gallery and ascending a flight of steps which leads direct to the refrigerating-room. This apartment is quadrangular in shape, with Venetian shutters all round, and measures one hundred feet by seventy feet. On the floors are two open coolers, and five of Morton’s refrigerators. Also, in a new building just erected, which is a continuation of this floor, there are two other refrigerators of the same pattern and cooling power. The tun-room, to which the wort runs from the refrigerators, is a spacious place, lighted by four very lofty windows, and its extensive floor is covered with fermenting-tuns, constructed of oak, and hooped with iron. The cleansing houses, which are four in number, abut on to John Street, and are on a level with the road. At the end of the largest of these rooms is the yeast-house, containing one of Johnson’s patent presses, driven by steam-power. The settling-tank house is situated at the opposite corner of the quadrangle, the floor of which is covered with two settling slate tanks holding each 570 barrels, close by which is placed the usual attemperator. This house, being sheltered by much larger buildings .and lighted only from the north, is always cool in summer.

The vat-house occupies a large floor over the racking department. From the settling-tanks the porter or stout is pumped to these huge vessels through large copper mains by means of three-throw pumps. This great vat-house is rather an interesting building, as it is a part of the historic old St. John’s Mill, and joins the walls of the Foundling Hospital. Below the floor of the racking-shed underneath is the junction of the three streams, now arched over, which turned the mill-wheel in times gone by. The firm were sorry to be obliged to cover up “the meeting of the waters,” but the increase of the business compelled them to build over the stream. In a small chamber, near the brew-house, has lately been put up a Tangye’s twenty-horse power horizontal engine, to work a new dynamo, which lights one half of the brewery with electricity, the other; half being lighted by a dynamo worked off the cask-engine in the lower yard. Behind the vat-houses are situated the racking and another series of malt-bins.

The principal engine-house occupies the ground floor of the mill buildings, and is floored with iron plates. It is a lofty place, and contains two engines, one vertical the other horizontal, of thirty and sixty horse-power respectively. Adjoining these is a battery of four Lancashire boilers, by West, of Cork, and the Cork Steam Packet Company. In a smaller house, near here, there is a large quadruple acting steam fire-pump, by Cameron, of Manchester, capable of throwing 12,000 gallons per hour to the most distant part of the works. In the north yard there is a freezing-house, containing two of Pontifex & Wood’s ice-engines, each freezing at the rate of nine tons every twenty-four hours. They are in close proximity to the tanks, from which the cooled water is pumped up to the refrigerators. Distributed about the premises there are as many as eight sets of three-throw vertical pumps for wort and beer, three of Cameron’s feed-pumps for the boilers, and six smaller engines for driving fans and other machinery.

The local industries connected with the brewery occupy one side of the quadrangle, and consist of fitters’, carpenters’, and coppersmiths’ shops, cooperages and copper stores. In the large yard between the porter-cellar and the malt-house, is the cask-cleaning shed, containing a large number of cradles, which will wash 1,500 casks per day. A special engine and boiler house is attached, the latter containing two steel boilers by Daniel Adamson, of Hyde, the engine being by Roby, of Lincoln. The hot-water tanks, heating apparatus, circulating boilers, economisers, blowers for supplying hot and cold air, &c., are of the most modern and perfect character, and were erected by James Roberts, St. Kevin’s Foundry, Dublin. After washing the casks go through the cooperage, at one end of the shed, and are then sent on rails by gravitation into the cellars, where they are filled.

The general offices, which are situated to the left of the public entrance, comprise — on the ground floor, cashiers’, ledger clerks’, and general offices; on the first floor, managing directors office, private apartments, and the board- room; whilst overhead are the junior brewers’ rooms and mess-rooms. Opposite this building there is a cask manufactory, built round an enclosure of half an acre in extent, containing also the wheelwrights’ shop. Last, but not least, must be mentioned the magnificent new stables, fitted and ventilated in the most approved style, every horse stalled having his name on an enamelled shield over his stall. It speaks highly for the integrity, stability and masterly management of the firm of Messrs. Murch & Everett that they should be chosen as the sole Lancashire agents for such an important and representative Irish firm as that of Messrs. J. J. Murphy & Co., of Cork.

Reverting to the wine and spirit stock held by Messrs. Murch & Everett; it may not be inappropriate to mention the source from which their supplies are drawn. The port wines are shipped to them by all the principal shippers at Oporto, particularly Messrs. Offley, Forrester & Co. of that place. Messrs. Offley’s are one of the oldest shippers of port wines. Mr. Joseph James Forrester, in a pamphlet written in 1848, entitled “A Word or Two about Port Wine,” denounced the method employed by some of the Oporto houses in the sophistication of the wines of that country, and by drawing the attention of the public to the practice then in vogue, suppressed to a great extent the evil. All wines shipped by Messrs. Offley & Co. are the produce of the Alto Douro, and the vintage wines of 1863, ’68, ’70, ’73, ’75, and ’78 of that firm are the finest of their kind, and cannot be surpassed by any known wine of their class, except the 1887 vintage of the same shipper, which promises to become the wine of the century. Their sherries are purchased from Messrs. Offley, Forrester & Co., and Messrs. B. Vergard, Robertson & Co., of Jerez de la Frontera, and comprise the finest growths of Amontillados, Montillos, Manzanilla, Vino de Pastos, Amorosas, Olorosas, and Soleros of those noted houses.

The well-known firm of Messrs. Cossort, Gordon & Co., of Madeira, the oldest shippers of Madeira wines, are fully represented in all their growths and vintages. The Hocks and Moselles, “still and sparkling,” are purchased from the most noted shippers, particular attention being given to the ages of those wines, in consequence of the amount of free tartaric acid existing in young wines of this class, which make them less agreeable and wholesome. Many fine samples of Champagne are held by the firm, particularly Theo Roederer, 1884 and 1887, Le Forestier & Fils (“Meteore”), 1884, and such well-known brands as Moet’s, George Goulet’s, Heidsieck’s “Dry Monopole,” Pommery & Greno, and Piper Heidsieck. Particular mention should be made of the large stock of Binet, Fils & Co.’s Dry Elite, 1884 vintage. Mr. Henry Thomas Everett showed remarkable Judgment in selecting this wine, it being one of the finest cuvees of its year. Of the wines grown in the Cote d’Or and supplied by this house, may be mentioned such wines as Romanee-Conti, Clos Vouget, La Tache, Volnay, and Pomard. The latter two are shipped by Messrs. Duvergey, Taboreau & Co., of the Hospice de Beaune, Meursault. The lower growths, such as Beaujolais, Macon, and Beaune are exceedingly fine wines of their class.

All the Australian wines of Messrs. P. B. Burgoyne & Co. are here kept in stock, particular attention being given to such wines as Cabernet, Sauvignon, and Tintara, the last three mentioned wines being bottled by Messrs. Murch & Everett for Messrs. P. B. Burgoyne, that firm supplying capsules and labels as a guarantee of their genuineness. Dr. Druitt, in his report to the “Medical Times,” describes Tintara as being a wine of generous quality, grown on ferruginous soil. It contains high tonic and invigorating properties, and very nutritious.

The stock of Clarets held by the firm are particularly noteworthy, these wines being a speciality with the firm. Mr. Everett informs us that in 1855 the wines of the Gironde were arranged by a syndicate of brokers into various classes, these classes comprising five growths. Wines from that portion of the department known as the Medoc produce such high-class growths as Chateau Margaux, Chateau Lafitte, Chateau Latour, Haute Brion, Ducru Beaucaillon, Cos d’Estournel, and many other of the various crus.

In point of equipment Messrs. Murch & Everett can successfully compete with any house in the north of England in these particular wines, possessing nearly all the best vintages of the above-mentioned growths. Their principal shippers are Lalonde & Co., Messrs. Schroder & Schyler, Calvey, Chantecaille & Co., and Henri Gaden of Bordeaux. A speciality of the firm is bottling for the trade, and their judgement of the qualities of the wine purchased and bottled by them for their clients has given every satisfaction in the past, causing a rapidly increasing trade in these particular wines day by day. Few firms possess more thorough technical knowledge of the subsequent treatment of wines than they do, and from an interview with its present principal, Mr. H. T. Everett, and the information obtained from that gentleman concerning the diseases that wines are sometimes subject to, we, were perfectly satisfied that he had completely mastered all the secrets of the vintner’s art.

Mr. Everett having described the wines held by his firm, promised to show us the stock of spirits held. Many samples of Irish and Scotch Whiskies being produced, samples of Taylor’s Coleraine of the 1878, 1879, and 1882 period were shown. These are the finest samples of fully matured malt whiskies we have met. This whisky obtained the highest award at the Edinburgh Exhibition in 1886. John Jamieson’s 1881 and 1886 were fine samples, and well selected. George Ross 1882 was as near perfection as it is possible to get a whisky of its class. A very fine sample of the Banagher Distilling Co.’s whisky 1887 period was shown, and we anticipate a big future for this whisky, it being a fine clean spirit, and with more maturity would be hard to match. The Scotch Whiskies comprise such high-class makes as Cragganmore, Glen Grant, Aberlour, J. & G. Smith’s, Glen Rothes, Highland Park, Ardbeg, Caol Isla, and Mackenzie’s celebrated Blair Athole. No blended whiskies are bought by this firm, all whiskies being blended by them at their bonded warehouses, and such blends are guaranteed pure malts and of the ages speciffied. A speciality of the firm is their V.O.S., a fine Highland malt ten years old.

Jamaica and Demerara rums (brown and white), also John Reid Wright’s celebrated London Gin, were samples of fully matured spirits seldom met with. The Brandies shown were Otard Dupuy’s, Pinet Castillon, Ferdinand Drouhet, Martell’s and Hennessey’s, comprising various vintages from 1865, all old bonded. A sample of Martell’s brown Brandy of the 1865 vintage, landed in 1866, submitted for our judgment, was one of the finest samples of a cognac Brandy we have ever tasted. Having completed our inspection of the stocks, we concluded that few houses are in a better position to supply the public and private trade than the firm whose name appears at the head of this article, and to its courteous and genial proprietor we wish a continuance of his success.


A VERY eminent firm of engineers, tool makers, and machinists is that of Messrs. William Ayrton & Co., whose large and handsome works are situated at Longsight, Manchester, and whose name is widely and favourably known in connection with several highly important tranches of the trade in which they are engaged. This thoroughly representative house was founded in 1870, and has become famous, during the twenty years that have elapsed since then, for its productions in all kinds of thread machinery for spooling and balling by hand or automatic machines; for polishing in the beam, hank, or bobbin, and for bobbin making. Mr. Ayrton, the head of this house, has succeeded to the proprietorship of the patents of the late Mr. Wm. Weild, whose valuable invention of an automatic spooling machine attracted so much attention and won such high approval at the great exhibitions of London (1862) and Paris (1867). This spooling machine continues to be the leading speciality of the house; and maintains its unsurpassed position as a thoroughly practical and effective apparatus. It won a gold medal at Paris in 1867, and gained a prize medal at London in 1862, “for judicious arrangement and fitness of the several parts and their adaptation to the object intended, combined with good workmanship.”

At one time the spooling of sewing cotton and silk was done exclusively by machine» requiring a great deal of hand labour in placing the spools, guiding the cotton or silk, severing the same when the spools were filled, making the notch at the end of the spool, and securing the end of the silk or cotton into the notch. But this method is being rapidly superseded by the very ingenious self-acting machines invented by Messrs. W. Weild & Co., and manufactured by Wm. Ayrton & Co., of Gorebrook Ironworks, Manchester. With these machines from six to eighteen spools can be wound at once, according to the number of spindles or heads comprised in the machine. For instance, the machines are made with 6, 8, 12, and 18 heads respectively, and the number of spools that can be wound at one time correspond with the number of heads of which the machine consists. The only hand labour requisite, is that of placing the reels in a long hopper containing a dozen bobbins, and the attendant has simply to keep these hoppers filled, and from these the bobbins are supplied automatically to the spindles. This machine presents a neat appearance, and those comprising eight heads occupy no larger amount of space than fourteen feet by three feet.

Though to a casual observer its mechanism might appear very elaborate, a close investigation would prove that such was not the case, governed as it undoubtedly is by principles and motions at once simple and ingenious. The cotton is wound on bobbins much larger than those in ordinary use, to save frequent changing, and is placed in the rear of the machine, the thread being brought over a highly polished rod to the guide, which places it on the spool. When the spool is sufficiently full, the winding movement ceases, and then begins the prettiest series of actions it is possible to suppose a machine capable of performing. The instant the winding is complete a knife makes the necessary incision into the edge of the spool; a hook seizes the thread, and, while the knife assumes such a position to the gash as to prevent the thread slipping past, adroitly secures the thread, which a second knife severs; and the spool released from the parent bobbin, falls into a recess, and is ready for a label and the market. No sooner has the finished spool fallen from the guide or spindle than another mechanically assumes its place, being picked up automatically from the hoppers, in which it has been placed by the attendant, and the operation is repeated till the thread on the large bobbins is exhausted. The duties of the attendant are but slight, and need no lengthy education or natural cleverness. They simply include the maintenance of the supply of thread on the supply bobbins or stock reels, knotting when the threads break, placing spools in the vacant hoppers, and removing the finished work. Ordinary spools are used, the only extra care required being to secure regularity of bore; any size from twenty to four thousand yards may be filled.

Messrs. William Ayrton & Co. also make a special feature of Patent Improved Jacquard Card-Cutting, Card-Lacing, and Repeating Machines, including Piano Reading-in Machines. They also intend making a speciality of oil-cloth machinery. For many years in the early portion of the worthy proprietor’s career he was connected-with this branch of industry, and it is one that he thoroughly understands in every department, and with the costly plant and machinery at his command there is no doubt that he stands in an unrivalled position for turning out first-class work; and their manufacture of Higgins’ Carding Engines is well-known and much esteemed. They invite correspondence with regard to their specialities, and furnish all particulars on applications. Telegrams should be addressed “Spooler,” Manchester.

The works at Longsight were specially erected for the industry to which they are devoted, and are equipped with every resource and facility for carrying on the same upon a very extensive scale. Over a hundred highly skilled workmen are here employed, and the place is kept in a state of constant activity by the demands of the firm’s large and ever-increasing home and export trade. Mr. Ayrton personally superintends the entire industry in every department. His attainments are of an eminent order, and he is a well-known member of the Society of Arts. His administration of this business has been in every respect worthy of the high standing of a concern which is one of the most important of its kind in England.


AS A vast manufacturing centre, calling into operation almost every form of engine and mechanical contrivance yet invented, Manchester is necessarily well provided for with practical engineers and smiths, who devote their attention to both the production of new implements and the repairing of machinery and appliances out of order, and in this connection it would be difficult to indicate a more noteworthy house than the above. This thriving concern was organised about half a «century ago by a Mr. Simcox, finally being acquired by the present firm some twenty years since. The premises occupied are very extensive, and cover a very large area of land in Hulme Street. The large and elaborately equipped works are replete with planing, boring, turning, and other machinery incidental to the industry. They have also a large and experienced staff of smiths, steam hammer, forging machinery, and other tools requisite for this department. The firm operate as engine, machine, and general smiths, undertaking every conceivable kind of work in connection therewith, such as the production of all kinds of forgings to order: turning, drilling, and boring work; the building of special machinery from specifications; practical engineering work in connection with theatres, builders, and tramway companies, collieries, and mills; and the general manufacture of packers’ tools, warehouse trucks, screws, bolts, rivets, chains, and kindred commodities. In every department of their work they have gained a well-merited renown, and there can be no doubt that their present prosperity stands not only as evidence of past energy and well-directed enterprise, but as an earnest of enhanced reputation and augmented success in days to come.


MR. NEWTON'S well-known business was established seventy years ago, Messrs. George Jeeves & Sons being the founders. Mr. Newton purchased the business, which was at that time carried on at Green Street, Tib Street, in 1869. Rapid increase of trade on every hand made a removal to larger and more suitable premises absolutely necessary, so that operations were transferred from Green Street to 60, Dantzic Street, Mr. Newton’s present address. This change was effected in 1878. The business has long ago assumed far larger proportions than in the time of the founders, and is one of the largest of its kind in the country. Travellers visit the whole of the United Kingdom and Ireland, and a heavy and increasing trade is done on the Continent and in the Colonies. Mr. Newton manufactures in various forms the bristles, horsehair, and fibre which has made him so widely known, and year after year sees the spread of his operations. The premises in Dantzic Street are of the following dimensions, viz., thirty yards by ten yards, and are four stories high. On the first floor are the offices and warehouses. The second floor is devoted to the dressed bristles department and storeroom, while on the third is the department for the dressing and preparation of hair and fibre. The basement is occupied by the bass-dressing room. Upwards of sixty hands are employed, who, under the supervision of the respected owner, are all experts in their respective departments. Part of the neighbouring warehouse is also occupied, and a separate works in Rochdale Road is used for part of the processes. Mr. Newton was a member of the City Council up to 1890, when he vacated his seat. Shrewd and fair-dealing in all his transactions, it is always a pleasure to come in contact with the I head of the large and important establishment we have been describing.


ONE of the most interesting and attractive business establishments in the city of Manchester is the well-known and flourishing house of Mr. Richard Tottie, cabinet maker, linoleum and carpet factor, general decorator, &c., 113 and 115, Strangeways, Manchester. This thriving business was established in the year 1861, and has since pursued a continuous and unbroken career of striking prosperity, being to-day one of the most prominent and representative houses in the trade. In 1886 he had the honour to supply the bedroom furniture for the use of Her Majesty the Queen at Newsham House, Liverpool, during her visit to that city. The premises consist of substantial, buildings of handsome exterior, centrally situated in an excellent business position. There are two entrances, with imposing and extensive plate-glass windows. The whole interior of four floors has been built into large and lofty rooms, and presents a very attractive, elegant and imposing appearance. There is a large and comprehensive stock of all kinds of cabinet work, upholstery and carpets, &c. Mr. Tottie has many original and special designs, which display much taste combined with good workmanship, and the whole of the stock shown has been selected with much judgment and knowledge of effect. A large staff of makers and well-chosen hands in the other branches are kept constantly and actively employed. Mr. Tottie’s business operations have witnessed an amazing development within the last few years, and the extent and scope of his transactions continue to expand and increase steadily every year, with the gratifying and noteworthy success which may be attributed to the fact that in price, style, and elegance, his goods will compare very favourably with those of the largest houses in the United Kingdom.


THIS well-known and flourishing business was originally founded about the year 1858, by Mr. John Grierson, who commenced operations in Police Street. At a later period Mr. Hall joined forces with Mr. Albert Grierson, son of the above, in 1869, They removed in 1874 to the present more commodious premises, which are better adapted and more suitable for the efficient carrying on of the business. A large proportion of the business connections of the firm belonging to the church, a special feature has always been made of the making of clerical garments, and in this connection a very fine reputation has been built up; but Mr. Hall has also a very large business in general circles, and the work sent out from his establishment is universally appreciated as unsurpassable in quality, fit, and style. The show-room, which is well lit by windows on two sides, contains a very choice and attractive selection of all kinds of the newest and most fashionable materials, skilfully and effectively displayed, and comprising goods to suit the most varying tastes of his numerous patrons. The business, which has always been conducted with much success, continues to extend and develop with markedly satisfactory results, and the success achieved is mainly due to the undoubted taste and experienced skill of Mr. Hall, as well as to his ever-watchful and unremitting personal supervision of the minutest details of the affairs of the firm. Personally, Mr. Henry Hall is very popular, not only with his business connections, but also with a wide circle of private acquaintances, by whom he is universally respected and esteemed.


THIS old-established and influential firm originated as far back as the year 1750 at Coalport, where the works are still located, and where traces of Roman pottery are said to have been found some time ago. The business was founded by a member of the Rose family, and in 1820 the then head of the house opened the Manchester branch, which has long been one of the most famous depots of its kind in the city. This establishment was formerly at 71, King Street, but was removed about six years ago to its present address, where the premises occupied are most handsome and extensive, comprising a fine block of buildings four stories high, and admirably arranged throughout to meet the requirements of the business.

The first floor forms a magnificent show-room, in which the firm make a display of high-class china. The goods here shown being of the most beautiful and recherché character, embracing all the newest and most artistic designs. Another suite of rooms of noble proportions and fine equipment are found on the next floor, filled with all the beauties of modern glass manufacture, together with a comprehensive stock of earthenware. The floors above, and also the cellars, are used as stock rooms, and contain a vast collection of superior goods. In the two lofty and spacious plate-glass windows that face upon King Street there is an exquisite display of the firm’s leading specialities, tastefully varied from time to time and not long ago one of the most attractive features of this interesting exhibit was a new toilet service entitled the “Leafage,” in which the utmost elegance of design was very happily and effectively combined with the richest and most artistic colouring.

The firm have a very large sale in this and other districts for their celebrated Coalport goods, but they also deal in the productions of other makers of high repute, and have thus built up a business of much more than ordinary magnitude. Their trade extends all over the world, and it may be said that they are still liberally patronized by customers whose families have dealt with the house for upwards of a hundred years. They have the honour of supplying the Queen and the Royal Family, as well as a great many members of the aristocracy, and their connection from first to last has been of the most eminent and distinguished character. The firm employ a numerous staff of hands, and many of the best workmen of the last fifty years have been trained at Coalport.

Many members of this firm have occupied prominent public positions at Coalport, notably as justices of the peace; and the late Mr. John Rose, besides possessing a masterful knowledge of his own trade in all its details, was regarded as a high authority on commercial matters generally, and was frequently consulted thereupon by the ministers of the day. The present head of the firm in Manchester has family connections with the founder, and has been associated with this business during a busy and active life. Under his administration the house continues to maintain its almost unrivalled position; and by his enterprise and energy the depot at Manchester has become one of the chief sources of supply in England for every description of high-class productions in china, glass, and earthenware.


THIS excellently ordered institution was opened about ten years ago, under the auspices of its present talented proprietor, Mr. Stephen E. Jupp, a gentleman of recognised ability and extended experience in connection with the important profession and trade to which he now so vigorously and successfully devotes his attention. Mr. Jupp, it may be mentioned, passed his novitiate and won his laurels in the musical world in the service of the celebrated firm of Messrs. John Broad wood & Sons, of London. His premises consist of a large and elegantly appointed shop in the Stretford Road, and a new emporium, consisting of a very handsome double-fronted shop, show-room, and basement store-rooms at 14, St. Peter’s Square, Oxford Street, adjoining Prince’s Street. The stock in both establishments comprises a most carefully chosen selection of pianofortes by all the leading English and best foreign makers of the day; superb American organs, harmoniums, and small instruments, and musicians’ requisites of every description. Mr. Jupp operates on a large scale on the hire and the three-years’ hire-purchase system, and devotes the most careful and competent attention to the tuning and repairing of instruments of all kinds, employing none but skilled and trustworthy men. He is a gentleman possessing the advantage of a long and thoroughly practical experience of his business in all its most intricate details, and is, moreover, an accomplished artist of considerable merit, having appeared as tenor vocalist at many of the leading Manchester concerts. He holds the position of musical director of the Royal Botanical Society’s concerts, and at the Society’s annual meeting of 1889 was voted a special vote of thanks for the interest he had taken in furthering the musical interest of the gardens at Old Trafford, and is everywhere esteemed by his numerous patrons, in virtue of the altogether admirable manner in which he conducts his difficult undertaking.


EVERY visitor to Manchester has seen and admired the magnificent warehouse of Messrs. S. & J. Watts & Co., in Portland Street, and few need to be informed that for nearly a century the great house whose headquarters are here situated has maintained a position of remarkable and constantly increasing prominence among the representative commercial institutions of England. At the present time no British firm enjoys greater distinction than that of Messrs. S. & J. Watts & Co., in connection with the distribution of those multifarious classes of textile goods which appertain especially to “the Manchester trade.”

As far back as the year 1796, this great business originated under the auspices of Mr. John Watts, who opened a small retail establishment in Deansgate, and subsequently removed to the “Bazaar,” on the site now occupied by Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co. He was afterwards joined in partnership by his brothers, Mr. Samuel Watts and Mr. James Watts, and the business was transferred to larger and better premises in New Brown Street. The wholesale department was now further developed, as well as the retail, and the trade grew so rapidly that the firm found it necessary to remove to Fountain Street, where they remained until they finally took up their quarters in the present warehouse, the site of which was purchased in 1855 by the late Mr. Samuel Watts. This colossal structure (of which it has been truly observed that it has more the appearance of a royal palace than of a place devoted to business) is unquestionably the finest building for commercial purposes in Manchester, and is admitted by all to be one of the city’s greatest architectural ornaments. It took two years to build and equip it, and it was first opened to the firm’s customers on the 16th March, 1858. In the year preceding this event (viz. 1857) Sir James Watts was mayor of Manchester, and he then received the honour of knighthood from Her Majesty the Queen, he having entertained H.R.H. the Prince Consort, during his visit to the “Art Treasures Exhibition,” at his residence, Abney Hall, Cheadle, where Lady Watts now resides.

To revert to the warehouse, it is hardly any exaggeration to say that it is without a rival in its class in the kingdom, and it forms the seat of a business which is proportionately vast and important. Glancing for a moment at the structural characteristics of this gigantic pile, we find it occupying an area of no less than 3,000 square yards, its greatest length being 300 feet, its greatest width 90 feet, and its height 100 feet. Above the main body of the edifice there rise at intervals four towers, which are lighted by rose windows of beautiful design; and the great expanse of roof has a series of bays filled with ground glass, and admitting an abundance of light to the interior. The style of architecture may be described as composite Italian, the Venetian element being particularly prominent, and the whole design has been boldly carried out, so that the building unites the qualities of elegance and majesty in a notable degree. There are 115 windows in the imposing facade in Portland Street, and as the windows of each storey are of a design different from the others, there is both variety and beauty in the entire aspect of this noble frontage. Solid granite forms a basement of massive strength to support the weight of the lofty superstructure, and the five upper stories are carried out in stonework which loses none of its strength and solidity by being ornamentally treated in a very rich and tasteful manner.

The following figures convey some remarkable facts in regard to this huge structure. There are 70,000 cubic feet, or about 550 tons, of stone in the building, 700 tons of iron, 40,000 cubic feet of timber, and 27,000 square feet of plate glass, exclusive of what is contained in the internal fittings. The aggregate area of the united floors is about 19,360 square yards, or, say, four acres. The land upon which the building stands cost (including the old buildings that were on it) £29,000, or close upon £10 per square yard, which is, perhaps, not too extravagant for what has now become an unrivalled site; and the warehouse itself, with its internal fittings, cost fully £80,000, so that the gross outlay on the land and building was nearly £110,000. Few firms could afford so vast an expenditure as this, but Messrs. S. and J. Watts & Co. have doubtless been amply recouped for their outlay, and by their enterprise they have added a supreme attraction to the many architectural beauties of which modern Manchester can boast, and among which the Watts warehouse was a pioneer.

For the general conduct of the business every arrangement is singularly complete and appropriate, and the systematic working of the many departments speaks volumes for the efficiency of the management in each and for the excellence of the general administration. The grand staircase, which is one of the finest structural features of the building, rises through the many floors from bottom to top, and is lighted from the dome. It is protected by a beautiful ironwork balustrade, and where it passes, as well as generally throughout the building, the several floors are supported by elegant Corinthian columns, artistically decorated. There are no less than four hoists in constant use in the warehouse. At the back of the warehouse is a strong fireproof staircase, available in any case of emergency, and at the top of the building there is a huge water cistern, while every floor is fully equipped with hose pipes and all requisite fire-extinguishing apparatus. An amateur fire brigade has been formed by the employes, and on many occasions they have rendered valuable assistance. Hydraulic presses, cranes, measuring machines, &c., form part of the necessary equipment of this great warehouse, and the steam power required for various purposes is supplied by two steam engines, situated on the premises.

Each floor of the building is filled to repletion with merchandise representing all phases of the Manchester trade, and embracing every article pertaining to the silk, mercery, millinery, outfitting, hosiery, drapery, and haberdashery businesses. Vast as the stock is, there is no semblance of confusion in handling it. The disposition of the different classes of goods is perfectly systematic and convenient, and the well-ordered departments (32 in number) are arranged as follows: on the ground floor, hosiery, linens, carpets, flannels, whites, greys, fustians; on the first floor, merinos, dresses, woollens, ready-mades, dyed goods, Scotch and muslin, worsteds, &c.; on the second floor, umbrellas, trimmings, fancy haberdashery, bags, satchels, portmanteaus, small wares, stays and corsets, waterproof goods, table oil baizes, boots and shoes, gloves; on the third floor, ribbons, bandanas, silks, skirts and underclothing, mantles and costumes, prints, and fancy flannels; on the fourth floor, flowers, millinery, lace, sewed muslins, furs and straws.

Messrs. Watts’s warehouse is a market from which are drawn the supplies of thousands of drapery and mercery establishments at home and abroad, and its reputation as such is so distinguished that no word of comment is needed concerning the quality of the goods dealt in. This firm are under no obligation to advertise their wares, and for many years their great business and its far-reaching connections have been augmented and expanded solely by the increased orders of regular customers and the unsolicited recommendation of the same. Each department has its able, experienced and responsible buyer, under whose management its individual operations are conducted, and a total force of fully 600 hands forms the assistant and working staff of the warehouse. An elaborate plan for the division of labour has been here matured to such perfection that each member of the staff has some particular thing to do, and is expected to devote all his attention thereto. This system being closely adhered to gives the most satisfactory results. All the employes of the firm are treated with a degree of kindly consideration that commands high praise and approval, and many members of the staff have been with the house for years. Among the departmental chiefs, for example, there is Mr. Cookson, of the “prints,” with a record of over thirty years in the service of this firm. Many others might be mentioned in a similar connection, such as Mr. C. J. Kelly and Mr. Thomas Johnson (of Charter Street Ragged School fame); and when we look amongst the rank and file, we find servants of thirty-five and forty years standing, while one old gentleman in the “entry department,” is the doyen of the staff, he having been in the employ of Messrs. S. and J. Watts & Co. for no less than fifty-two years. We have every reason to believe that each member of the staff, from the youngest clerk to the senior buyer, is an enthusiast as regards the progress of the business and the maintenance of its great fame and prosperity; and nothing less than a feeling of the highest esteem and respect for the principals of the house (Messrs. James & Edward Watts) could arouse and foster such a splendid spirit as this in so large a body of employés.

There is a capital choral and orchestral society in connection with the warehouse, and its success proves that the refining and elevating influences of music can make themselves felt and are fully appreciated in an establishment which is the very ideal of all that is busiest and most energetic in commercial activity. Concerts are frequently given on the premises, and in these very enjoyable events Mr. James Watts, one of the partners, always takes a most active and influential part. Employés are allowed to bring members of their families to the concerts, and various outside friends are also invited. To those who still believe that we are not such a very “unmusical nation,” in spite of all assertions to that effect, it is encouraging to find here in one of the largest and most typical of British mercantile houses a band of no less than forty instrumentalists, under the direction of an able conductor, and competent to perform good music in a highly effective and creditable manner.

The variety of goods held here is well-nigh incalculable, embracing, as it does, contributions from every manufacturing centre and noted source of production under the sun, and 384 pages of the firm’s bulky trade list are barely sufficient to convey an adequate idea of the range of textile wares of every description that Messrs. Watts are offering to their host of customers. In one magnificent room there is a stock of ribbons alone which is valued at £40,000, and over £110,000 worth of ribbons were sold during 1890. Messrs. Watts keep in stock something like 20,000 designs in prints, 10,000 dozens of ladies’ silk squares, 5,000 kinds of tape, fur capes ranging as high as £500 in price, and as low as a few shillings. No fewer than thirty-six travellers represent the firm in town and country, and the trade controlled is one of enormous volume and international influence. Messrs. S. and J. Watts & Co.’s warehouse in Silver Street (formerly used for packing purposes), was entirely rebuilt about three years ago, and now forms a substantial and commodious structure of three stories and basement. It is devoted to the ready-made clothing and shirt departments and possesses a splendid equipment of the best modern machinery and appliances for these trades, besides giving employment to upwards of 300 workpeople.

Altogether, the business of Messrs. S. and J. Watts & Co. is one of the commercial colossi of Great Britain, and the country contains no grander monument to the energy and enterprise of a mercantile firm. The present principals, Messrs. James and Edward Watts, adhere to a policy of administration which is fully calculated to sustain the house in its unrivalled position, and by their own individual qualities of sound judgment and practical skill in affairs of trade they amply preserve the traditions of proprietary capability which have always been conspicuously associated with the records of this great and world-famous firm. Branch warehouses, fully stocked and under capable management, are situated at 44, Gutter Lane, E.C., and 9, Leigh Street, Liverpool.


THE position occupied by the above house in the commercial world of Manchester and district is a very important one. It was founded previous to 1834, by the late Mr. Thomas Hudson, in the buildings now occupied by the branch of the Union Bank of Manchester, Swan Street. In 1834 Mr. J. Hull acquired the business, and carried on operations at the old address until 1855, when he removed to the present commodious premises. Mr. J. Hull died in 1865, and his two sons, Mr. J. E. Y. Hull, and Mr. W. H. W. Hull, then took charge. The partnership was dissolved in 1884, Mr. John Edmund Yates Hull becoming the sole proprietor. The convenient premises are about seven yards by thirteen yards. The well bought stock of goods is of a most miscellaneous nature, and comprises what is familiarly known as London, Birmingham, and Sheffield products, as well as French, German, and other fancy merchandise. There is an immense and superior show of clocks, watches, jewellery, silver plate, gold wedding rings, diamond and fancy rings, Albert chains, watch guards, brooches, earrings, electro-plated articles, spoons, forks, tea and coffee services, &c. These are further supplemented by cutlery, opera glasses, telescopes, pebble and other spectacles, stationery, combs, brushes, tin, metal, and japanned goods, general ironmongery, &c. Everything is in the best of order, and goods can be dispatched in large quantities at very short notice. The ground covered by the travellers is Lancashire and Yorkshire principally. Every attention is paid to customers, and the well-deserved success which has attended the efforts of Mr. Hull and the other members of his family is the direct outcome of merit.


FROM the date of its foundation, over half a century ago, down to August 1st, 1890, the concern was conducted as a private enterprise with steadily-increasing success, and at length, on the date mentioned, it was deemed advisable to form a limited liability company. The company was therefore created, under the title of John Hetherington & Sons, Limited, with a highly influential directorate and a share capital of £250,000. All the operations of the industry have been continued as heretofore, though upon an enlarged and still enlarging scale, and the house, under its new constitution, more than maintains its old-time position as one of the recognised leaders of the trade in which it is engaged.

Vulcan Works, one of the busy seats of this company’s undertakings, forms an enormous establishment, which is devoted entirely to the making of cotton-spinning machinery of all kinds. In this department alone the firm give employment to upwards of 1,600 workpeople. Messrs. Hetherington’s cotton-spinning machinery is universally famous for its many merits in design, construction, and workmanship, and the improvements introduced by the firm in the various kinds of apparatus employed in spinning factories have placed its name high among those that are most creditably associated with the advancement of the Lancashire cotton industry. At Ancoats Works, another vast establishment, adjoining the Vulcan Works, Messrs. John Hetherington & Sons devote their attention to the various branches of the engineers’, millwrights’, and tool-makers’ trades. These allied industries they carry on under highly favourable conditions, and upon an exceedingly large scale, engaging the services of 400 hands (exclusive of the counting-house and drawing-office staff), and employing an immense and costly plant of the most powerful labour-saving machinery.

The products of these works, as may be imagined, are of great variety, and include everything that comes within the scope of the trade, from a steam engine to the smallest article of mill gearing. There are numerous specialities which have been particularly successful, and of these may be mentioned the famous “Hetherington” saw, for cutting cold iron or mild steel bars, angles, tees, bulb bars, channels, girders, and “gits” from steel casting; the double-ended cam lever punching and shearing machine, which is an enormously powerful apparatus, capable of punching and shearing steel plates one and a half inch thick; Stephen & Carter’s patent swing jib countersink driller, for shipbuilders, a remarkably useful and effective machine, designed to cope with the large steel plates now used in shipbuilding, and also to save the labour employed in moving the plates for each hole. Besides the above, there are such notable apparatus as Carter’s patent saw, for cutting cold metals, Hetherington’s rope-driven power cranes, and Hetherington’s overhead hand-power travelling cranes, all of which have many advantages adapting them to a great variety of special requirements.

The company have also perfected an improved cage hoist, of great usefulness and safety in action, and their special cotton bale hoists have achieved widespread favour. Probably no engineering and mechanical firm in Manchester does a larger trade than Messrs. John Hetherington & Sons, Limited, whose connection is worldwide, and whose productions are always sure of ready acceptance in any market into which they find their way. Perhaps there is hardly a country in any part of the world in which some item of machinery from either the Vulcan or the Ancoats Works cannot be found, and there is certainly not a single industrial centre of any importance in Europe where the name of John Hetherington & Sons, Limited, is not known and respected. In all its characteristics this house presents, a splendid type of the great British engineering and machine-making concern.
Telegrams for Messrs. John Hetherington & Sons, Limited, should be addressed “Heth, Manchester.”


THIS large and successful business was founded in the year 1852 by its present proprietors, and has developed into one of the most important concerns in Manchester in the manufacture, dying and bleaching of linen, union, and cotton fabrics. The premises occupied in Faulkner Street form a commodious warehouse on the ground floor, with offices in connection, and in the sample-rooms at this address are to be found specimens of Messrs. J. & A. Stott’s much esteemed productions. These goods include linen, union, cotton, and fancy mattress ticks; sun-blind ticks, jeans, contils, nankeens, galateas, and regattas, white twills and plain calicoes (“S.” finish, imperial “R.” finish), shrunk Croydons, heavy collar cloths, lustres, sheetings and stay linings. An immense trade is also carried on in mattresses and blind tickings, which are produced in excellent quality, and supplied to all the principal shipping firms and home trade warehouses. The mills of the firm are situated at Flixton, near Manchester, and are of considerable size and splendid equipment. They afford every facility for the conduct of a large and constantly-increasing industry, and give employment to some hundreds of hands. Messrs. J. & A. Stott also have a London warehouse at 10, Foster Lane, Cheapside, E.G. Their name is well and favourably known to all the great export merchants, warehousemen, and wholesale dealers in Manchester and district, and their house is justly regarded as one of the leading concerns in the trade with which it has been so creditably associated for nearly forty years.


THIS old-established and influential house dates its history back as far as the year 1842, when it was founded in Dale Street, Manchester. In 1868 the concern was transferred to its present headquarters in Ducie Street, London Road, and for some years past it has been under the control of Mr. Alfred Giddings and Mr. George Dacre, sons of the late proprietors. These gentlemen have directed the business with conspicuous ability and energy, and the result of their administration has been a very notable development of the trade in all its departments, necessitating considerable additions to the premises and plant.

The Junction Lead and Glass Works, as the firm’s establishment is called, now comprise four large and commodious buildings — three in Ducie Street, and one in Mather Street. These are all substantial structures, admirably arranged, and equipped in a very complete manner with the best class of machinery and plant for the lead-working and other industrial processes in which the firm are engaged. We were most favourably impressed with the careful and thoroughly practical organisation of each department in these extensive works. Long experience and technical skill are exemplified in all the details of plan and equipment, and it may at once be said that Messrs. Giddings and Dacre possess unsurpassed facilities for the rapid production of all the various articles for which their house has so long maintained a distinguished reputation. A great deal of the plant in use in the Junction Lead Works appeared to us to possess several unique features, and it is well known in the trade that this establishment has specialities in a number of valuable new processes. By one of these new methods lead pipes are now made with tin linings, whereby blood-poisoning and other ailments arising from water or other liquids remaining in contact with the pure lead are prevented. This constitutes a great boon to householders and others.

Besides manufacturing upon a large scale a great variety of hot-water boilers, hot-water pipes, and fittings of every description (of which large and comprehensive stocks are always on hand), Messrs. Giddings and Dacre have for many years engaged extensively in the designing and making of sanitary appliances. In this latter department they have many specialities of a most important character, all embodying excellent improvements, and among these we may mention such well-known and highly approved articles as Twyford’s “Deluge” wash-down closet basins; Twyford’s “Unitas” combined closet basin, urinal, and slop sink; “the Crown” sanitary closet, basin and trap, which gained the highest awards in London (1883), Newcastle (1882), and Glasgow (1883); and a series of new sanitary closets of the most improved construction, produced in very elegant and artistic designs, and remarkable for beauty of finish and workmanship. We strongly advise the trade to send for Messrs. Giddings and Dacre’s illustrated sheets, which give drawings and descriptive particulars of all the above-mentioned articles. There are no better goods of the kind in the market, and they command a steadily-increasing sale everywhere, having fairly won the favour of the public.

Among the many other sanitary specialities of this noted firm special prominence must be given to the “Newport” syphon water waste preventing cistern, a high-class and thoroughly well-fitted and finished syphon cistern; the improved “Well” valve and syphon cistern, a cheap article, but one of very good value in construction, material and workmanship; the patent “Times” baths, with fittings complete, forming probably the cheapest combined bath in the market, and giving the highest satisfaction in wear and general convenience; and the patent “Torpedo” ventilator and chimney top, a distinct novelty in design, and a most efficient automatic air exhaust.

Besides the above named articles for purposes of sanitation, Messrs. Giddings and Dacre have associated their name with the Swedish patent gas-producing soldering lamp, a most valuable invention, which was awarded first prize at the Machinery Exhibition, Stockholm, 1886. The advantages of this soldering lamp are, (1) absolute safety from explosion; (2) durability, standing constant use for years; (3) no wind, however strong, will extinguish the flame, thus enabling the lamp to be used advantageously out of doors; (4) remarkable cheapness in use, about a pint of benzoline being sufficient for two hours’ work. For laboratories, machine works, gas and water-works, and for painters’, plumbers’, glaziers’, tinkers’, wire workers’, coppersmiths’ and jewellers’ use, this lamp is invaluable, and the large demand for it amply attests its merits and practical utility. The “Merritt” cork drawer and, the “Merritt” bottle rest (both of which are improved and exceedingly useful articles) may also be mentioned as having a place among the numerous specialities produced by Messrs. Giddings and Dacre. The firm have also acquired an enviable reputation for leaded light work in embossed glass. They have turned out some splendid work in this direction for the decoration of churches, banks, public buildings, and private dwelling houses, which has given universal satisfaction to their extensive clientele. In its entirety, the business of this firm is one of the most important and comprehensive concerns of its kind in the north of England, and, as large stocks are held in each department, the warehouses connected with the Junction Lead Works are particularly worthy of the inspection of buyers for wholesale and shipping houses.

An immense trade is controlled, and employment is given to a very large staff of skilled workmen, many of whom served their apprenticeship to the founders of the house, and have remained in the service ever since. Each and all of the firm’s employes appear to take a keen interest in the business — a circumstance conducive to the prosperity of the concern, and indicative of the good feeling that exists between the principals and the staff in general. Mr. Giddings takes an active part in the management of the business, and among the representative manufacturers of Manchester none are more highly esteemed than they for practical ability, enterprise, and straightforward methods. That the success of their business is fully assured, and that their connection increases continuously at home and abroad, are facts which speak eloquently for their administrative capacity and sound judgment. It is especially satisfactory to note the progressive tendencies of this firm, every effort being made to excel in all departments of the trade engaged in and to attain the highest possible standard of merit in the design, quality, and workmanship of the various goods produced.


THE origin of this business in Manchester dates back as far as 1823, when operations were commenced by Mr. S. Renn. In 1825 the partners were Messrs. Renn & Boston; in 1850, Messrs. Kirtland & Jardine; in 1874, Messrs. Jardine & Co., the proprietors being Messrs. James Alfred Thorold and Charles Woodfield Smith, the latter of whom has been connected with the firm for thirty years, and who, for the last three, has been sole proprietor. Under the able and honourable administration of this gentleman, the progress of the house has been of the most satisfactory character, and it may justly rank as second to no similar establishment in the provinces.

The premises occupied are commodious and convenient, arranged for all the purposes of the trade; they comprise private and general offices, large work-rooms, spacious erecting-room, machine-rooms, voicing-rooms, metal pipe-shop - where the metal pipes are made — storerooms for pipes, also a convenient casting-shop where the process of melting the ingots of tin and lead into sheets takes place; other material of all descriptions, and abundance of yard accommodation for timber, vehicles, &c. The various departments are well arranged and thoroughly fitted up with all the necessary plant and appliances, the motive power for the machinery being supplied by a powerful gas engine. An efficient staff of skilled workmen is engaged and a complete system of order and organization is maintained throughout the establishment.

Under circumstances so favourable, a large and important business is controlled in the building of high-class organs for church and chamber. For nearly three-quarters of a century these famous instruments have held a leading position in the country. With all the vast strides made in the manufacture of organs during this long period, the proprietors have always kept perfectly in touch, and they have been among the first to adopt all new improvements of any practical value. Every care is bestowed upon the manufacturing in every process, and none but the most experienced workmen are employed, some having been with the firm for over fifty years. Every part of the instrument is made on the premises. All timber is most carefully selected and thoroughly seasoned before being used, and every attention is given to the instrument in all details until its completion.

The organs supplied by Messrs. Jardine & Co. are noted for the superior excellence of their mechanism and solidity of construction; the tone is remarkable for purity and dignity, and the touch of the instrument for its elasticity. Among the many admirable points in these^ instruments, attention should be directed to the characteristic quality of the various reed-stops: the vox humana, for which the firm has an unsurpassed reputation, the diapasons for their fulness, and the various solo flute stops for their individual quality of tone. Messrs. Jardine & Co. introduced a special pneumatic action of their own to the sound-board pallets which produces a light and agreeable touch. This has found much favour amongst eminent organists, who have highly commended it. The firm have also introduced many practical improvements in the mechanism of organs, the most recent being the electro-pneumatic action (Hope Jones’s patent), and they have built an organ for exhibition in their factory on this principle.

An extensive and influential trade is carried on, and this has been built up by the excellent character of their work and without any of the adventitious aids of advertising, and numerous unsolicited testimonials from the highest authorities are in possession of the house. The proprietor is a gentleman of great skill in his profession, and his able and constant supervision is given to the business in its entirety, the voicing department receiving its full share of attention at his hands, and to his vigilant and careful attention much of its success and reputation may be justly attributed, and all transactions are marked by honest and honourable principles. Mr. Smith, the worthy proprietor, is much respected and esteemed in private life.


MESSRS. Walker & Carver’s immense business (the largest of its particular kind in England) presents an instance of very rapid development, for it was founded as recently as the year 1885 by Mr. J. Walker, who was soon afterwards joined by Mr. Carver. The inventive talent, practical skill, and commercial energy of these gentlemen have had ample scope in the development of the business, and their combined abilities have achieved eminently creditable results. Starting with a very small place on part of the site now occupied by the Whit Lane Works, they have steadily extended their premises until a very large area is now covered by the various departments, and the establishment thus built up is in many respects the most perfect and interesting of its kind that we have ever seen. The firm’s method of producing wall papers has revolutionised the trade, and it is a well-known fact that Mr. Walker was the first to suggest the printing of sanitary papers in multiple colours. His ideas were regarded as impracticable by many, but he was convinced of their soundness, and so energetically has he carried them into effect, with the able assistance of his partner Mr. Carver, that the firm of Walker & Carver now leads the trade in the matter of sanitary wall papers, and stands unsurpassed in the production of all kinds of artistic paperhangings.

The various departments of their works, from the room in which the rollers for printing are engraved to the machine rooms where the many beautiful and original designs in wall papers are worked off by thousands of yards, present a constant succession of interesting scenes to properly describe which would require a volume. Not alone have Messrs. Walker & Carver been content with what they have been able to gather at home, but they have gone far afield in their quest after information, and in the work of extending their connection; and the result is that their industrial processes like their productions are practically perfect, as far as modern knowledge extends, while their high-class, serviceable, and economical manufactures are known and esteemed in well-nigh all parts of the world. It is safe to say that the very latest and best developments of the paperhangings industry are all known to and fully utilised by Messrs. Walker & Carver, in addition to their own unique and valuable devices for improving and facilitating production; and no house is in a better position than theirs to meet all the requirements of the modern trade, and to introduce such attractive novelties as shall satisfy the improved taste of the public of to-day.

While this firm produce all kinds of paperhangings of an artistic character, they particularly specialise sanitary goods, and in this line they are our largest manufacturers. Their latest production is the now highly approved and recommended “Sanitum” wall paper, a patented paperhanging which, from the nature of its composition, and the manner in which it is prepared and printed (in washable, antiseptic colour, which will never decompose), possesses health properties of the very highest order. The “Sanitum” paper is produced in new and artistic designs and colourings, can be hung more quickly than ordinary paperhangings, is guaranteed to hang solid and clean, is perfectly washable, and is as cheap as watercolour hangings. It is made in all qualities, from the cheapest cottage paper to the most expensive grades, and the large sale it already commands at home and abroad speak for the favour it has secured in the eyes of the public. In this and in all their other specialities, Messrs. Walker & Carver are now doing an immense and constantly increasing trade, the routine of which is considerably facilitated by a branch warehouse at 27 and 29, Frederick Street, Edinburgh. The two principals of the firm (who are both very popular and much esteemed in the Manchester district) personally superintend the entire business, and the effect of their able and enterprising administration is visible in the steady growth of the trade from year to year.
The firm’s telegraphic addresses are, “Sanitary, Pendleton,” and “Paperhangings, Edinburgh.”


THIS business was established by Mr. Smith in the year 1870 at 159, Rochdale Road, and afterwards to Barlow Street, Sophia Street, and subsequently to the present address, Sharp Street Mill. This extensive and flourishing business quickly attained a very gratifying measure of success and has since expanded and developed with continuous and progressive increase. The premises are very large and commodious, the offices being conveniently arranged on the basement floor communicating with the principal workshops, while there are farther roomy workshops and storerooms on the floors above. The goods made include all kinds of basinettes, perambulators, invalid carriages, toy bassinettes, tricycle horses, go-carts, &c., and the trade done is entirely wholesale, large quantities being supplied to the Co-operative Wholesale Society, Balloon Street, with whom Mr. Smith has an important running contract for the delivery of a large monthly quantity of the various articles. He has also very large dealings with perambulator dealers and toy shops all over the kingdom, and does a large business in supplying the trade with bodies, springs, and ironwork. A considerable trade is also done in the execution of repairs of all kinds, this work being done with commendable promptitude, and the very best, workmanship only.

Mention must also be made of Mr. G. Smith’s patent “Run Straight,” which is applied to all bassinettes on his price list. The utility and importance of this patent cannot be over-estimated, for by this simple invention the trouble, annoyance, and difficulty which was formerly experienced, of steering a bassinette when it was always inclined to run sideways, has been overcome, and when it is remembered that nine-tenths of the complaints have arisen over the difficulty mentioned, it will be at once evident that a bassinette which will run absolutely straight, as proved by the last twelve months’ test of this patent “Run Straight,” is the success of the future. About forty skilled and competent hands are generally employed, and there is a very valuable and complete plant of tools, appliances, and machinery for the different processes of manufacture. The house has an excellent reputation for the high quality and finished style which characterise all the goods turned out, and the business done is very large indeed. Mr. George Smith is a thoroughly practical man, possessing valuable experience and considerable business capacity. He is well known in commercial circles, and is much esteemed and greatly looked up to by all with whom he comes in contact.


VERY few among the great centres of industrial activity, abounding in the environs of modern Manchester, are better known than the celebrated Lancaster Works, and none have gained more eminent renown within the brief space of a dozen years. Not that the Lancaster Works, as they are now known, have existed for even that period; they are the outcome of the more recent growth of the immense business of which they now form the headquarters. This business originated in the year 1879, and was started in a very small way, in the same street now associated with the Lancaster Works, viz., Withington Street, Broad Street, Pendleton — a locality which, we may mention, can be reached in about ten minutes by tram from the Royal Exchange. The founders of the firm were Messrs. Henry Lancaster and Richard Fletcher C. Tonge, trading under the title of Lancaster & Tonge. That title is still retained, although Mr. Lancaster died in 1887, and the concern has since that date been under the sole proprietorship of Mr. Tonge.

When the business was commenced they occupied only a very small establishment, the buildings being in the form of dwelling-houses and yards, and here for a time they continued to develop their trade and increase the extent of the premises until they had accommodation for about thirty hands. Soon, however, the business quite outgrew the facilities at their command, and they resolved to erect new premises, which soon rose up in the immediate neighbourhood and received the title of the Lancaster Works. This was in 1883, and the new place was in full working order in 1884, the original premises being devoted to various incidental departments associated with the general routine of the industry engaged in. It may here be mentioned that when the firm first started they employed four men, now the number of skilled hands numbers over one hundred, and, as a proof of the class of workmen employed, we may state that the firm pay probably the highest wages in the engineering trade; they were also the second firm in Manchester to concede the fifty-three hours per week.

We might fill many pages of this volume (had we the space at our disposal) with a description of the Lancaster Works in their present very complete and interesting form. It can truly be said that there is not a more carefully planned or a more effectively equipped establishment of the kind in Manchester, and Messrs. Lancaster & Tonge are in a position to be congratulated upon having surrounded themselves with productive facilities capable of overcoming the difficulties of any branch or department of engineering and millwrighting industry.

The works present an aspect of activity that is distinctly noticeable even in this busy quarter of the Manchester district, and the visitor is at once impressed by the magnitude of the operations carried out and by the perfect system which governs their progress. In every department of their fine establishment (the various workshops of which must be specially commended for loftiness and good light), the firm have laid down valuable plant of the most improved modern type, and all mechanical arrangements have been carried out upon a scale of the utmost completeness and adequacy. Vast advances have lately been made in this matter, and so great is the change that has been effected under Mr. Tonge’s able and progressive rule, that at the present time there is hardly a machine, in operation here which was in use when the Lancaster Works were first built, all the old appliances and tools having been replaced by new ones of the greatest possible efficiency. Yet, in addition to this immense plant, which is capable of accomplishing a vast amount of work in the most satisfactory manner, the firm give employment on the premises to fully one hundred skilled mechanics, and have many other workmen in their service outside. This abundance of working resources and improved means of production is undoubtedly the most salient characteristic of the Lancaster Works, and indicates in a striking manner the spirit of enterprise and advancement in which the affairs of this growing business are administered.

We cannot help remarking the very special machinery used by this firm for cutting the quick threaded screws for their famous “steam-traps,” thousands of which are now made and sold every year; and the splendidly-equipped foundry is also deserving of mention as one of the most important departments of the works. Here Messrs. Lancaster & Tonge prepare the special combination of cast-iron from which their celebrated piston-rings are made. The mixture in question contains a proportion of various metals, of which aluminium bears a part, the amalgamation of which produces a substance of beautiful face and extremely close texture, and from an inspection of this valuable metal we can readily understand that such a thing as a flaw in one of the “Lancaster” Piston Rings is unheard of, and practically impossible. The pattern-shop is also very interesting to anyone making a general survey of these works, and here the characteristic foresight of the firm has made provision for the rapid production of patterns in any case of urgency, every appliance for this purpose being ready to hand. A very notable feature in the splendid organisation of these, works is the fact that, if required, any particular department can be kept worked all night, at a small expense, as each one can be driven by a separate engine, this convenient arrangement thus effecting a great saving.

From first to last the visitor is deeply impressed by the energetic and “go-ahead” policy displayed in all the undertakings of the firm, and every characteristic of the Lancaster Works stands as an explanation of, and a reason for, the great reputation and widespread favour the productions of the establishment have achieved at home and abroad. Messrs. Lancaster & Tonge’s leading specialities consist in their renowned “Lancaster” Steam Traps, “Lancaster” Spiral Spring Pistons, “Lancaster” Serpent Coil, “Lancaster” Vibration and Sight-Feed Lubricators, “Lancaster” Malleable Iron Union, “Lancaster” Adjustable Bearings, and “Lancaster” Condenser and Feed-Water Heater. They also have a large staff of men for repairing and altering existing engines, and have shown us savings of over 30 per cent, effected by such. They have about ten boring bars and engines always ready. These have gained a reputation that is practically world-wide, and although all their specialities are covered by patent rights, yet they are not usually advertised as such, being amply introduced and fully protected by the simple use of the widely-known registered trade mark of the house — “The Lancaster.”

Besides producing the above-named specialities in vast and ever-increasing quantity, Messrs. Lancaster & Tonge are always largely engaged in every other branch of mechanical engineering and millwrights’ work, and make an immense variety of various machines, fittings, and appliances in connection with these very comprehensive trades. The “Lancaster” specialities are always sent out on approval, and the firm are always pleased to receive intending purchasers at the works, and there to show them their specialities in action, as well as to lay before them the many eulogistic testimonials they have received from engineers and steam users everywhere. To give a description of the varied and almost innumerable manufactures of this eminent house would be quite impracticable in this necessarily brief article; but to those of our readers who may as yet be unaware of the special merits of these widely-known articles, we recommend a careful perusal of the “Lancaster Catalogue,” a very remarkable publication, issued by Messrs. Lancaster & Tonge, and forming one of the most complete and comprehensive indexes we have ever seen to almost every appliance and requisite of the engine-room and boiler-house.

We need hardly add that Messrs. Lancaster & Tonge control an immense and far-reaching trade; the fame of their productions has won for them the support and confidence of an international connection. Mr. R. F. C. Tonge, the sole principal of the house, is a gentleman who stands very high in the esteem of all who have the privilege of knowing him. A thorough man of the world, and a traveller in many lands, he has amassed a vast store of useful knowledge, and gained a mastery over various subjects which he has turned to excellent account in the development of his great business. At the same time his personal geniality and unfailing courtesy have made him widely popular, and there is not a large employer of labour in the Manchester district who enjoys in a fuller degree the respect and goodwill of his workpeople. In every particular Mr. Tonge is eminently qualified to guide this important house upon the path of progress and prosperity it has pursued from the inception of its career.
Messrs. Lancaster & Tonge’s telegraphic address is “Pistons, Manchester,” and they use the “A.B.C.” code. Their telephone is No. 559 National and 5,001 Mutual.


THIS old and widely-known house, which takes rank among the most eminent of English concerns in the several interesting branches of art industry with which its name is associated, was founded as far back as the year 1805, by the grand-father of the present proprietors. These latter gentlemen, Messrs. J. and H. Patteson, have now been in joint control of the house for a good many years, and have always devoted their personal attention to the management of its affairs. The firm’s premises in Oxford Street, Manchester, comprise a large and handsome block of buildings with a street frontage of about 250 feet, and here there are two tiers of spacious show-rooms and galleries, splendidly lighted, and exhibiting an immense variety of Messrs. Patteson’s special designs and productions in architectural and decorative stone and marble work, sculptures of all kinds, chimney pieces in marble and wood, marble pavements, wall linings, English and foreign tiles for floors, tiles for walls and fireplaces, pedestals for busts and statuettes, and every description of high-class work in marble, granite, &c , ceramic wall and floor decorations, architectural terra-cotta and faience, enamel mosaics for walls and ceilings, marble mosaic pavements, fonts, reredoses, and all the higher grades of work incidental to their important art. The stock also embraces a number of utilitarian articles of a high order of merit, such as grates, fenders, and kitchen ranges, slate slabs, cisterns, &c.

Messrs. Patteson are fully prepared to execute any of the stonework or marble work required in the fitting-up of a house or public building of any kind, and they are equally at home in every branch of this trade, attaining the highest results in all. Their working facilities are most complete, and everything is done under the eye of the principals, who spare no effort to give continuous satisfaction to all their clients, and thus to duly maintain the high reputation their house has so long enjoyed. A few local examples may be mentioned here. (1) The main entrance to the Lancashire and Yorkshire bank, Manchester; (2) the interior of the banking chamber in the same building, and particularly the noble and unique chimney piece; (3) the new altar and reredos at St. James’s Church, Marsh Lane, Bootle; (4) the beautiful and imposing memorial to the late John Rylands, in the Manchester Southern Cemetery; (5) the main staircase and hall of the Midland Railway Hotel, Bradford; (6) the banking chamber of the Manchester and County Bank, Blackburn, and many other works. They speak for themselves in every instance, and are more eloquent than words in proclaiming the skill and resources of the firm undo* whose auspices they were completed.


A CONSPICUOUS place among the principal manufactories of Manchester is occupied by the well-known and eminently reputable establishment of Messrs. J. Smedley & Co., of Odgen’s Mill, opposite London Road Station, mantle and apron manufacturers. Operations in this line were commenced in 1874, in Temple Street, and by energy, ability and tact, the business was developed rapidly into a very important concern. The original premises becoming too small for the increased requirements, the present quarters were taken about a year ago, and with greater accommodation and facilities, the advance the house has made has been of the most satisfactory and encouraging kind. For the uniform excellence of its productions and the promptness and punctuality with which all commands are executed, the house has obtained a name in the trade; and the future of the establishment is full of promise of augmented success and prosperity.

The premises occupied are large and commodious, and are situate in the upper stories of Ogden’s Mill, a spacious, lofty and massive block of building. They comprise a well-appointed suite of offices, together with warehouses and numerous workshops. The interior arrangement of the various departments has been carried out in a very effective manner, and the workshops are thoroughly equipped with machinery of the most modern and suitable kind, and every apparatus and appliance requisite for the adequate and successful control of an important business of this character. Everything is conducted in an orderly and systematic manner, and every attention has been paid by the worthy proprietors to the comfort and sanitary condition of their numerous body of workpeople.

Here is controlled an extensive and valuable business in the manufacture of mantles and aprons. The productions of this responsible establishment are guaranteed of superior and uniform quality. They are recognised in the markets as standards of excellence, and are universal favourites among all classes of buyers. The materials employed are of the best and most select kind, nothing of an inferior or secondary quality ever being used. The workmanship is such as is seldom surpassed, being carefully done by skilled workpeople under the constant and vigilant supervision of experienced managers. The establishment is to be congratulated on the possession of special ability and talent in their cutting department, and their goods are among the best offered to the public in cut, shape, and style.

Three separate departments are maintained at this representative establishment, each of which is thoroughly provided with the best means, and is perfectly prepared to turn out (and, in fact, is turning out) high-class work in great abundance. The ladies’ jackets and dolmans are of splendid style and appearance, and are braided in the latest fashion by patent machinery belonging exclusively to the firm. In this line Messrs. Smedley have achieved a good reputation, and the demands are such as manifest unmistakably the high appreciation these goods receive from critical and judicious buyers. Plain tailor-made jackets are also a leading feature, which for shape and finish are rarely equalled. Ladies’ ulsters constitute a leading line, and the productions of the firm in the selection of all the most approved materials, and in the variety of styles and patterns, are reckoned among the best procurable. The leading feature in the productions of this house is that of braiding and embroidering, for which the firm possess the most perfect appliances, specially constructed for this class of work. The firm, too, are well and favourably known for their children’s reefers and mantles, of which they offer a wide selection, thoroughly well made, and of the most fashionable cut and appearance.

An important branch of this business is centred in the apron department. The firm produce these charming articles in great profusion, and in endless shapes, patterns and designs. All their work is of the best and most complete character, and the designs and styles are always fresh, artistic and pleasing in the highest degree. Washing aprons are made in various durable cloths, and high-class aprons (specialities blacks) are manufactured in black Italian, alpaca, grenadine, satin and silks, and are braided and embroidered in numerous quaint and beautiful devices and patterns in the most skilful and artistic manner. Stocks are held of the various excellent articles manufactured by the firm, and important orders can generally be completed in an exceedingly short time.

An exclusively wholesale trade is done, and the connection of the house is large and influential among the principal buyers throughout the kingdom, and a valuable export trade is controlled by means of the foreign merchants. A large staff of clerks, foremen and skilled workmen is employed, together with some three hundred girls, in the various departments, and the continually increasing nature of the business taxes the resources of the establishment to the utmost, and at the same time indicates the high appreciation in which the matchless productions of this representative house are held. The London office is at 37 & 38, Gutter Lane, with Mr. Henry Eccles as manager; and the Glasgow agents are Messrs. J. Gartshore & Son, of 43, Virginia Buildings.


ONE of the oldest and most considerable of the leading manufacturing houses that flourish in Manchester is the important and flourishing firm of Messrs. E. Harrison & Co., whose extensive operations have for a number of years found their headquarters at the above address. This substantial and prosperous concern was originally founded in the year 1840, and has since from year to year been developed and increased in scope and extent with gratifying and continuous success. The premises consist of a bold and commanding building of six storeys, prominently situated in an excellent business position and having a frontage of ninety feet and a depth of ninety-six feet, with a side entrance conveniently arranged for heavy goods. The basement is used as a large grey cloth stock room; the ground floor is occupied by the counting house, grey sale rooms, and packing room; the first floor contains sale and sample rooms, offices, &c., and the other floors comprise capacious warehouse and stock-rooms, the whole being connected by hoists and other time-saving apparatus. From seventy to eighty clerks, assistants, and others, are employed on the premises, and each department is under a responsible manager.

The goods for which the firm is chiefly known consist of satteens, jeans, royal ribs, jeanettes, galateas, attaleas, quiltings, welts, satins, sateen quilts, cotton drills, fancy cotton dress goods, and similar fabrics in great variety. Also white sateen cloth, which is exceedingly durable and makes the best blotting-pads. These various manufactures are produced at Messrs. Harrison & Co.’s own mills at Oldham and Todmorden, where the work is carried on upon a very extensive scale and a very large number of hands are kept in constant and busy activity. The goods are well known and have a very favourable reputation for excellence of quality and superior finish, and the connection is very widespread and influential, extending, through agents and other means, to all parts of the world. The success and prosperity which have at all times attended Messrs. E. Harrison & Co. in their multifarious transactions are mainly to be attributed to the energy, ability, and organising power displayed in the management, and the firm is a conspicuous example of sound and substantial commercial enterprise conducted with vigorous spirit and keen commercial foresight.


FEW firms in the North of England can boast of so old a relationship with the salt trade as that of Mr. Thomas Hassall, of Manchester. Indeed, this is probably the oldest concern of its kind in Lancashire, for Mr. Hassall’s great-grandfather was engaged in the business long before the introduction of railways. The canals were then the principal means of transport, and when they chanced to be frozen up every ton of salt had to be carted from the works to its destination, a proceeding both laborious and expensive. As showing the antiquity of this notable house it may be mentioned that there are still to be found in its books current accounts which were opened over half a century ago; and a thriving trade was done by this firm in the “good old days,” when salt sold at eighteen pence a pound, owing to the duty upon it, and was usually packed in baskets for the market. The business has developed very greatly since its commencement, and other associated departments have been added to it, such as minerals, chemicals, drysalteries, and spices. Thus we find that Mr. Thomas Hassall (who has directed this influential concern for a long time with conspicuous success) now deals very largely in a great variety of this class of goods, of which immense stocks are held in the large and admirably-arranged warehouses and stores now maintained by Mr. Hassall in Ducie Street, and at Canal Wharves, London Road, and most of the principal shipping ports.

The leading speciality consists in high-class salt, brought from the important works at Northwich, where every facility exists for rapid transport by rail and by water. Mr. Thomas Hassall’s table salt and household and dairy salt are very widely and favourably known, and it would be difficult to find an English household in which they are not in more or less constant use. They are remarkable for their purity and strength of saline properties, and the high standard of excellence by which they have always been distinguished is carefully maintained. Other notable specialities of this firm are freezing, fishery, crystal, chemical brine; bath, and rock salts; and these are sold daily in enormous quantities, not only in this country, but in all the leading export markets. Of the dairy salt the sale is something immense, over two hundred thousand bags having been sold in a twelvemonth, and this salt is now solely used on the Royal dairy farms, from the director of which Mr. Hassall has received flattering testimony as to its high efficacy. Saltpetre, soda crystals, alum, drysalteries, chalk, whiting, Devonshire clay, Paris white, silver sand, baker’s oil, Bath bricks, and many other articles of drysaltery, &c., are stocked and supplied by this noted house to an international connection; and the business is equally remarkable for the comprehensiveness and for the magnitude of its operations. At the Manchester Jubilee Exhibition the display of Mr. Hassall’s specialities met with much favour, and a fine salt model of the proposed aqueduct at Barton over the Manchester Ship Canal was greatly admired.

We should, before concluding this necessarily brief review of a great representative business, draw the attention of our readers in agricultural circles to the fact that Mr. Thomas Hassall can supply, upon the most favourable terms, first-class salt for manurial purposes, and we need hardly dwell upon the widely recognised efficacy of salt as a cheap fertilizer, or speak in detail of its well-known usefulness in the farmyard and in the pasture. Another important article among Mr. Hassall’s varied supplies is “Kieselguhr,” or infusorial earth, which is fireproof, acid proof, a non-conductor of heat or cold, and remarkably porous and absorbent. “Kieselguhr” can be advantageously applied to a vast number of purposes in which its peculiar properties are of benefit — from the lining of floors and cellars, or the packing of fire-proof safes, to the preservation of hides or the manufacture of glass. Its varied usefulness is extraordinary, and persons interested should send to Mr. Hassall for particulars.

The immense business we have herein briefly glanced at dates back in its history at least as far as the year 1810, and has always been a successful and progressive concern, noted for prompt payment of accounts, prompt execution of orders, and strict observance of all the rules of commercial rectitude in the administration of its affairs. At the present time it is under the sole proprietorship of Mr. Thomas Hassall, who is one of the best-known men on the Manchester, Corn, Royal, and Coal Exchanges, where his favourite blue serge suit, pilot jacket, and light necktie are familiar as details of costume from which he rarely departs. He may be seen any Tuesday at No. 5 pillar of the Corn Exchange, also Royal Exchange, as well as the Coal Exchange, where his many friends in the trade are always glad to meet him for the transaction of business.

Mr. Hassall is equally respected as a man and as a merchant, and his courteous and unassuming demeanour has won for him general esteem. In the routine of his immense trade he is ably assisted by the numerous members of his family, who are being gradually trained in every detail of the business, and also by a large staff of employes, most of whom have been for many years in his service, and are likely to continue therein to the last. Mr. Hassall has his own barges and canal boats continually running on the rivers and canals, and are a credit to him on account of the order and cleanliness they are kept in, saying nothing of the excellent teams of horses and beautifully-painted lorries and carts which are kept particularly clean for delivering salt, &c., for human consumption.
The well-known telegraphic address of this house is “Sel, Manchester”; and the telephone is No. 946. Mr. Hassall is an old resident of the ancient village of Eccles, near Manchester.


THE history of this noted house dates back to 1850, and its career since its inception has been of a continuous and highly satisfactory character. A reputation was early obtained for the uniform excellence and superiority of its productions, and a substantial connection was acquired which has gone on increasing, year by year, down to the present time, until now, in its extent and worth, it will bear comparison with that belonging to any brewery in the district. At frequent intervals enlargements in the premises were necessitated by the continued increase in the business, and, about two years ago, the whole building was remodelled in accordance with the latest and most improved methods of scientific brewing. The buildings, which form a quadrangle in shape, are four stories in height, and comprise a suite of offices and every department requisite for the expeditious and successful control of a large business of this description.

A glance at the large granaries, the malt floors, the spacious brewing houses, the extensive cellaring and the vast piles of barrels stocked about the yard, must convince the most superficial observer that a business of more than ordinary magnitude and importance is carried on here. The machinery is of the most modern and best type, and the establishment throughout commands the admiration of all interested in this important branch of business for the perfection of its equipment. An extensive trade is done both with licensed houses and private families; and wherever their ales and stouts are once introduced, they find permanent and continued favour. They are brewed from the best hops procurable, and every process is carried out on the most approved principles, and the product carefully watched and tested at every stage. The water used is of a very superior kind, and has been pronounced by skilled analysts to contain, in an eminent degree, all those special chemical qualities and ingredients necessary to the production of the very best results. The utmost neatness and cleanliness are maintained in every department, and every precaution is taken to insure the most perfect purity in all beverages emanating from this old-established house. For brilliancy, palatableness, and fine flavour these ales can be warmly recommended, and also as possessing exhilarating and tonic qualities of a very superior kind.

The popularity the house has acquired for their beverages is evidence that they have succeeded in hitting the public taste. A valuable connection is maintained, both public and private, and the firm also possess a good number of tied houses. The plant in operation is what is known as a twenty-five quarter one; about twenty-five skilled brewers are employed, and ten horses, with five single and two double drays, and various carts, are occupied in delivering orders in Manchester and the suburbs. Mr. Edward Holt, who is now sole proprietor, possesses a thoroughly practical knowledge of his business, and is an acknowledged expert and representative man in this branch. Mr. Edward Holt is a magistrate, a member of the Town Council, and Vice-President of the Brewers’ Association. He is deservedly popular with all classes of people, and in commercial circles he is held in high estimation for his personal worth, his ability, and strict business principles.


CONSPICUOUS among the establishments in Manchester engaged in its special line, and eminently noteworthy for the extent of its operations and the superiority of its productions, is the house of Mr. John Henry Lees, of the Wellington Brewery, Openshaw. This well-known brewery has been in operation for more than a quarter of a century, and since its inception it has enjoyed an uninterruptedly prosperous career. It was acquired by Mr. Lees in 1888, who brought large and sound experience and high executive ability to bear upon it, and during his control the transactions of the firm have increased very considerably both in extent and value.

Mr. Lees is related to the well-known brewers of the same name at Denton, and it was there he obtained his intimate knowledge of the trade. By his high-class beverages and fair and honourable dealings, he has already gathered round him an important connection, and there is every indication that the immediate future of the house will be one of great prosperity and success. The premises are ample in size and convenience, and in every way fully adapted to the purposes of the business carried on. When Mr. Lees took possession he reconstructed the establishment and fitted it up with the latest and most improved plant and machinery. It is now thoroughly efficient in every department. The premises comprise a suite of offices, brew-houses, and splendid cellaring. The yard is very spacious, and contains numerous sheds and outhouses, a long row of stabling, and every accommodation for a large stud of horses. The visitor to this establishment cannot fail to notice the neatness and cleanliness which pervade every department, and the strict and efficient system of discipline and organisation maintained among the employes.

A large and valuable trade is done in the brewing of mild, bitter, and strong ales, and celebrated porter and stout. All the beverages emanating from this noted brewery are of a reliable and superior character. They are well known for many miles round, and are prime favourites with all classes of buyers and customers. They are brewed entirely from malt and hops, and these of only the finest growths and such as have been carefully selected by competent judges. All the processes are conducted by competent brewers, and the results systematically tested. The water is specially suitable for brewing purposes, and it has been pronounced by eminent analysts to contain every ingredient requisite for the production of the best results. The stout and porter Mr. Lees sends out are agreeable in taste and highly nutritive in quality, and they are every day increasing in popularity. For purity, brilliancy and palatableness, his ales have few or no equals in Manchester. They please all tastes, and give entire satisfaction to every one.

From the extensive nature of the productive resources of the establishment and the magnitude of the operations, the proprietor is able to quote such terms as cannot be duplicated elsewhere, and customers will find that in both price and quality the house is hard to be beaten. The business connection covers an area of from fifteen to twenty miles round. A large force of experienced brewers is employed, and all orders of whatever magnitude receive prompt and careful attention. Mr. Lees is a thoroughly practical man, and is a recognised authority on all matters connected with his speciality. His able and energetic personal supervision is bestowed upon the concern, and he is always solicitous to maintain to the full the high and enviable reputation his house has acquired. His business methods are characterized by fairness and honesty, and by his. creditable policy he retains the esteem of all those who come into relationship with him. In private and commercial circles he is much respected for his well-deserved success, the active interest he takes in every movement that has for its object the welfare of his fellow citizens, and for his personal integrity.


MR. W. WALKER commenced business as a manufacturing dispensing family chemist and canine specialist in 1870, and for his many valuable preparations has acquired a reputation extending far beyond the limits of this city. The establishment, which is known as the “Exchange Laboratory,” is situated at 18, Market Place, and comprises a spacious and handsome shop, together with well-appointed workrooms at the rear. The shop and warehouse are well stocked with drugs and chemicals of well-attested purity, all the best known patent medicines and proprietary articles, surgical appliances of all kinds, deodorisers, disinfectants, and sanitary preparations of all kinds, a choice selection of perfumes and fancy soaps, brushes, sponges, and toilet requisites of every description.

Amongst the specialities may be mentioned “Walker’s Miraculous Cough Cure,” the “Worcester Gout and Rheumatic Mixture,” and the celebrated “S. P.” charcoal, which is specially prepared for lawns, cricket grounds, bowling greens, &c.; it annihilates worms and produces luxuriant lawn grass. Walker’s dog remedies, “The Champion Jeannie Deans Brand,” include “Ear and Canker Lotion,” “Mange Liniment,” “Aperient Pills,” “Alterative Pills,” “Condition Pills,” “Tonic Pills,” “Worm Pills,” “Antiseptic Dog Soap,” “Cough Pills,” “Jeannie Deans Fluid,” and “Distemper Mixture.” Mr. Walker has also introduced an exquisite adjunct to the toilet, called “Carbo Neroline” (for the teeth). It removes tartar and polishes the teeth without destroying the shell, a result often produced by advertised preparations of an inferior kind.

Also Walker’s Remedies for poultry and pigeons, (Welbird brand), known as the “Right-Away Pill,” a constitution pill which rectifies the liver, digestive organs, and the blood; “Pick-Me-Ups,” or tonic pills, for invigorating, strengthening, and restoring the bloom of birds; “Compound Aconite Pills,” for colds and roup, “Compound Charcoal Pills,” for sour crop, indigestion, and diarrhoea; “Copaivines,” for asthma and wheezing; “Aperients”; the “Squeaker’s Pill,” for strengthening and sustaining young pigeons and chicks from one week old and upwards; “Stimulants,” for colds; “Ointment,” for lump in wing; “Red Lotion,” for diphtheria and canker of mouth and throat; “Antiseptic Lotion,” for obstinate cases of canker of mouth and throat; “Pigment Liquid,” for external canker; “Pigment Powder,” for canker of ear; “Cod Liver Oil Capsules”; “Tonic Capsules,” for “going light,” and to assist moulting in old and young birds; “Castor Oil Capsules”; “Roup Capsules,” for obstinate cases of roup; “Anti-Feather-Rot.” Many testimonials have been received from the leading exhibitors and breeders in the United Kingdom. These are remedial agents that are undoubtedly producing the happiest results, and their increasing popularity is well attested by the continued demand upon the resources of the laboratory for their production.

Mr. Walker also gives special attention to the careful compounding of physicians’ prescriptions and family recipes, a large high-class patronage in this important department being a leading feature of the establishment. An efficient staff of duly qualified assistants is busily employed, and no effort is spared to meet the convenience of customers. Mr. William Walker, the sole proprietor of the business, possesses the advantage of long and thorough professional and practical experience. As a canine and poultry specialist Mr. Walker has achieved a marked success, and as a dispensing and family chemist he enjoys the confidence and support of a very extensive and high-class patronage.


THE important electrical industry carried on at the above address by the International Okonite Company, Limited, was founded in the year 1883 by Mr. John Shaw, who was afterwards joined as partner by Mr. Thomas Connolly. They continue to jointly direct its affairs, the former as commercial manager, the latter as manager of the works. Both gentlemen are possessed of high scientific qualifications, and their success in the line of operation they are now pursuing may clearly be traced to their earnest study and long-continued investigation of all matters connected with the transmission of electrical force, and its economical and effective insulation and protection. For six or seven years Messrs. Shaw & Connolly carried on their work and researches in what is now only a part of the extensive buildings occupied by the International Okonite Company, Limited, which company was formed by the amalgamation of the business of Messrs. Shaw & Connolly with that of the Okonite Company, of Passaic, New Jersey, U.S.A. At this latter place a most extensive trade is carried on, the works there existing being large, and the American interests of the concern increasingly important.

Since the formation of the present company in 1890 great extensions have had to be made in the premises at Newton Heath, and this interesting establishment now covers a large area, of ground, and stands in a condition of perfect organization for all the purposes of the industry in which it is engaged, there being a splendid plant of new and specially-designed machinery in operation. A large extent of canal wharfage places the Company in direct communication with the Ship Canal, and altogether about ten acres of ground are covered by the yards and buildings. At these busy works no fewer than five hundred specially trained and selected hands are employed in the manufacture of the Company’s specialities, which embrace every description of cable and wire for electrical purposes, in okonite, guttapercha, vulcanized indiarubber, &c. These goods are applicable for telegraphic, telephonic, and electric lighting uses, and are divided into three classes — (1) “Cables,” or conductors of large size; (2) “Wires,” which signify single wires and small stranded conductors; and (3) “Flexibles,” or stranded conductors made up of fine wires. The Company also specialize a compound and lead-covered cable of an anti-induction type for special purposes. It may here be mentioned that okonite is the highest insulating medium known to electricians, and is, moreover, possessed of great tensile strength.

The Company’s list of manufactures is so comprehensive and includes so many varieties of conductors for every conceivable purpose of electrical power-transmission that it would be idle to attempt an enumeration here. For the details that are unavoidably excluded, our readers are referred to the Company’s catalogue, a most exhaustive publication of its kind. As to the quality and practical usefulness of these goods, it is admitted that none better are to be found in the market for any of the numerous purposes to which they are applicable, and the large and constantly increasing trade carried on by the Company is an ample evidence of this fact. It is also noteworthy that Messrs. Shaw & Connolly were awarded a Diploma and Gold Medal at London, 1885, in recognition of the superior merits of their specialities; and the Company are on the list of contractors to the Admiralty and the War Office. Their registered telegraphic addresses are, “Exsiccant, London,” and “Dielectric, Newton Heath.” The cablegram address is “Okonco, London”; and the telephone numbers are (London) 1560, and (Manchester) 413.

The London offices are at 98 and 100, Queen Victoria Street, E.C., under the managing directorship of Mr. A. Vaughan-Stevens. Both Mr. Shaw and Mr. Connolly, the managers at Newton Heath, are gentlemen who have rendered great and valuable service to the cause of electrical science. Personally they are well known and much respected in this neighbourhood, and give active support to all movements designed to promote the welfare of the district.


THIS old-established and widely known house is one of the most prominent concerns engaged in the calico printing and spinning and manufacturing trades in Manchester. Its history dates back over a period of nearly forty years, and it was founded by the late Mr. Wm. Rumney, who died in 1882. Since then the business has been very successfully continued by his late partners, of whom Mr. G. W. Taylor and Mr. A. S. Young are the sole survivors, trading as William Rumney & Co. The business of Messrs. William Rumney & Co. is a most extensive one, and as they print immense quantities of their own cloths in every style and design, they have erected fine mills at Bury and Ramsbottom for the weaving of these goods. The yarns are also spun on their own premises, and the whole industry is a well-organised and self-contained concern, possessing a very influential and extensive connection. The bleach and print work are situated at Stubbins and at Blackford Bridge, and like the mills and factories at Bury and Ramsbottom, are splendidly equipped with the best modern plant and machinery, including several special and unique appliances of the most effective type. The firm employ a large number of hands, and in addition to their fine six-storey warehouse, Portland Street, Manchester, they have their own branches in London, Belfast, Glasgow, and Paris. Through these an immense amount of business is transacted, over and above the very large trade conducted with local merchants at Manchester. The administration of the firm’s affairs is marked by conspicuous ability and enterprise.


THIS widely known and important firm commenced business in Bedford Leigh about thirteen years ago in the line of industry with which their name has become so creditably associated, but, finding their original locale unsuitable, and requiring more extensive premises, they looked about them for increased accommodation. This they eventually found at their present headquarters, the Britannia Works, and as soon as they secured possession of this establishment they commenced enlargements and improvements which have nearly trebled the size of the place, and which have made it one of the most perfect works of its kind in the county. The departmental organisation of these commodious premises is practically perfect. Messrs. Bertenshaw & Turner now possess in the general arrangement of this establishment, and in the special mechanical equipment of each division thereof, the most complete facilities that can be desired for the proper conduct of their important industry. All the processes of manufacture here engaged in are carried out under conditions favourable to the attainment of the highest results in the quality of the goods produced, and the scrupulous cleanliness prevailing in all parts of the works is particularly creditable to the firm.

It was as makers of sauces and pickles that Messrs. Bertenshaw & Turner first achieved their distinguished reputation, and their “National” pickles and condiments are famous both at home and abroad. Vast supplies of onions, cauliflowers, gherkins, and the various other vegetable commodities employed in pickle manufacture are purchased by the firm in the fertile districts of Bedfordshire, others are imported from Holland, and to these are added suitable quantities of spices, fruits, &c., for flavouring and for preparing sauces. After passing through the dressing and peeling departments, the principal ingredients are carefully washed and strained, and after this they go to an immense store-room where there are nineteen huge brine-vats. In these they remain until thoroughly pickled. These vats contain about one thousand tons of vegetables — a fact illustrating the remarkable magnitude of the firm’s business, and the great demand existing for their goods. It may also be said that five hundred tons out of the above-mentioned one thousand tons consist generally of onions, which appear to be held in very high favour as pickles all over the world.

Proceeding to the bottling department, a large spice store and blending-room are passed, from which issues a pungent, aromatic odour. There is also a vinegar store with two gigantic vats, each containing 1,500 gallons of celebrated pure vinegar of the Midland Vinegar Company, Aston Cross, Birmingham. These vats are replenished daily. During the night the process of “settling” goes quietly on, and next morning the liquid comes out as clear as crystal, without a trace of sediment. After a month’s work the vats are subjected to a careful cleaning, but as the heavy matter then accumulated at the bottom of each of the huge receptacles is only about half an inch, it is quite evident that the vinegar they have contained can only be of the purest and finest quality. The packing, bottling, and filling up with vinegar are important processes, which are all carried out in a large, lofty room by a small army of bright-looking girls, who, deftly and with the expedition of long experience, place the component parts of the pickle in an ornamental position in the bottles. It is not a case of merely filling the bottle — the whole operation is performed with notable taste, and a certain degree of artistic effect is gained which greatly enhances the appearance of a goodly array of Messrs. Bertenshaw & Turner’s pickles on the grocers’ shelves. The bottles and jars used vary in size from those containing half a pound to those of fourteen pound capacity. When filled they are placed in a lift which conveys them to a department where they receive “finishing touches” in the shape of bright and attractive labels, a matter upon which this firm expend no small amount of money.

The firm recently received the following unsolicited testimonial to the purity of their pickles:— “To Messrs. Bertenshaw & Turner, Pickle and Sauce Manufacturers, Beswick, Manchester. Gentlemen, — Our Chief Constable took a bottle of your mixed pickles a month since for the Public Analyst to examine; and I am pleased to inform you they were pronounced pure and quite satisfactory. Our Chief Constable said we might make what use we thought proper of the result; he said we could advertise them as perfectly genuine, as certified by Mr. Estcourt, the Public Analyst of Manchester. No doubt you will be quite pleased with the testimony of the analyst to the genuineness of your goods. I thought that you might, perhaps, wish to know, that being my only motive in writing you. — Yours, &c., Samuel Greenwood, Branch Manager, 22, Market Street, Bacup, September 21st, 1891.”

In the sauce department Messrs. Bertenshaw & Turner prepare their famous “King of Sauces,” which they send out in bottles of various sizes, the sixpenny bottle being claimed to be the largest and best at that price in the world. The skilful combination of choice fruits and spices effected in the making of this excellent sauce has been singularly successful in producing a condiment which is not only a grand appetiser and a delicious adjunct of the table, but also a deadly foe to dyspepsia. On all these points it has received the highest commendation from the host of chefs and epicures who have used it. The firm also make a splendid “Worcester” sauce, from an original recipe, and their “National” sauce (like their “National” pickles) has become a veritable “household word,” being unrivalled as a cheap and wholesome sauce.

A few years ago Messrs. Bertenshaw & Turner gave their attention to the associated industry of preserve and marmalade manufacture, and in this branch they have achieved an unequivocal success, which is based upon the fact that they employ the very best machinery and appliances, use the best fruit and finest sugar, and conduct all the operations of the trade in a manner which cannot fail to obtain the most satisfactory results. They produce an immense variety of jams of the most delicious and wholesome character, together with superior marmalade, lemon cheese, and all kinds of candied peel, and their goods in these departments are everywhere received with a degree of favour and confidence no less marked than that which is bestowed upon their pickles and sauces.

Messrs. Bertenshaw & Turner maintain a wide and influential connection in the home and export markets, and their business is continuously increasing under the able and enterprising administration of the principals, who equally promote their own and their customers’ interests by personally supervising all the industrial and commercial operations of their house. Extensive as are the present premises, the business has outstripped their capacity, and Messrs. Bertenshaw & Turner are now engaged in building a new jam works alongside the existing premises.


THIS immense business, which, has now developed into the foremost concern of its kind in England, was founded upwards of thirty years ago by Mr. John Turner, whose numerous inventions and improvements in all kinds of hatters’ machinery have long keen highly esteemed by manufacturers throughout the world. Mr. Turner’s sons, who received from their father a sound practical training in every detail of the trade, have already manifested conspicuous ability and inventive powers, a sure proof that they have made speedy and intelligent use of the excellent instruction imparted to them by the founder of the house; and now, in the administration of a constantly increasing and highly influential business, Mr. Henry Herbert Turner, Mr. Albert Turner, and Mr. Arnold Turner find ample and congenial employment for their skill and energy. Each year they put forth increased efforts to add to the already great renown of their house, and to achieve still more notable successes for the future; and in order to allow full scope and space for the expanding tendencies of their business, Messrs. Turner have this year made very considerable additions to their premises, rebuilding the greater portion in the most perfect modern style for a large and progressive engineering and machine-making trade.

The entire works now cover about four acres of ground, the greater part of this space being occupied by buildings, of which the principal structure is the fine new three-story turning, fitting, and erecting shop, two hundred feet by sixty-five feet wide. Several of the other shops are also very large, and all are substantially built and arranged upon a most convenient plan. Each department is equipped with the most powerful and effective plant and machinery for its special purpose, and the whole establishment presents an example of perfect organisation rarely met with even in these days of industrial advancement. Years of experience and the judicious use of a large amount of capital could alone achieve such an excellent result; and undoubtedly the Messrs. Turner now possess the most complete facilities for wood-working, iron, and steel working, copper-smithing, brass-finishing, and all other processes of their great and important industry.

No small portion of the splendid outfit of machinery that may be seen in operation here is quite unique, a good many of the apparatus having been specially designed and constructed for the purposes of this trade. The firm’s offices - drawing, general, and private — form a large and handsomely appointed suite, situated at the left of the main entrance to the works. There are now upwards of one hundred highly skilled mechanics and other workmen engaged on these premises, in addition to the numerous clerical staff; and besides doing a general engineering trade of great magnitude, the firm stand second to none in the world as makers of all kind of machinery, tools, &c., for the manufacture of fur and wool hats.

Their leading speciality at present consists in their improved and patented machines for finishing and shaping, and they have effected great practical improvements in all kinds of planking machines, shaving or pouncing lathes, proof mixers and appliances, patent blocking machines, hydraulic presses and pumps, hat moulds, rounding and curling machines, ironing and flattening machines, wire twisting machines — in short, every conceivable appliance for the hatting trade. Messrs. Turner produce every kind of machine or appliance necessary for hat manufacturing, without exception. Recently they have patented several important improvements in machines for opening, cleaning, blowing, and forming fur. The Messrs. Turner give special attention to the complete equipping of hat factories with engines, boilers, gearing, and every other requisite; and for this work they supply plans, estimates, and specifications on application. An immense home and export trade is controlled, and the house stands very high in the esteem and confidence of the trade wherever hat manufacture is carried on to any important extent. The firm have large branch works at Danbury, Connecticut, U.S.A., managed by Mr. H. H. Turner.
The firm’s telegraphic address is “Machines, Denton.” National Telephone, No. 5.


FOR many years past the records of commercial advancement in Manchester have been a continuous chronicle of deeds of enterprise and steady perseverance accomplished by the energy and perceptive faculties of the city’s merchants, and during the last thirty years the eminent house whose title heads this sketch has been one of the prominent landmarks, so to speak, in this unbroken course of progress, and has held a place among the most notable of those great mercantile institutions to whose efforts Manchester owes such a large measure of its modern commercial supremacy. The vast business of Messrs. Thomas Collier & Co. was founded in the year 1857 by Messrs. Richard and Thomas Collier, who traded under the style of R. & T. Collier. In 1857 they began at 47, High Street, at a rent of £65 per annum; this was soon found too small, and in 1861 they removed to two rooms at No. 33, and here they gradually enlarged the scope of their operations until they occupied the entire building. We may say that in 1861 there were fourteen firms doing business in this same building, and when Messrs. Collier came in 1861 these were gradually pushed out, as it were, one by one, to make room for this ever-increasing business. Between 1861 and 1870 Messrs. R. & T. Collier not only acquired possession of the whole of No. 33, High Street, but also purchased Nos. 35 and 37, and rebuilt the whole block in accordance with their own requirements. In 1870 Mr. Richard Collier died, leaving the concern in the hands of the surviving partner, Mr. Thomas Collier, and the title of the house then became Thomas Collier & Co. Since that date Mr. Thomas Collier’s sons have been admitted as partners, and the firm have opened very important and successful warehouses in Sydney and Melbourne. Moreover, they have purchased Nos. 39 and 41, High Street, adding these to their original premises in this thoroughfare, and the warehouse thus formed is one of the finest in Manchester — indeed, it ranks among the mercantile Colossi of the city, and is admittedly unsurpassed in any of its details of plan and equipment.

When the Colonial houses above mentioned were first opened Messrs. Thomas Collier & Co. began to develop an export department upon a very large scale, and for this branch they obtained very suitable accommodation in Peel Street. These latter premises were formerly occupied by Sir Robert Peel, and when Messrs. Collier had acquired them they made a subway under Friday Street, connecting the new establishment with the High Street block, thus securing uninterrupted communication and all the advantages and conveniences accruing therefrom. During all this time the business was steadily growing, and in its present condition of almost unsurpassed magnitude it stands as a memorial of the untiring energy and enterprise of its present principal, Mr. Thomas Collier, who has personally directed all the operations of the concern from the first, and who is intimately acquainted with the minutest details of its manifold departments. He is ably assisted by his sons, Mr. Thomas A. Collier, Mr. Frederick Collier, and Mr. Edward Harwood Collier, and the firm have a staff of buyers whose skill and judgment are almost proverbial in the trade.

As already remarked, Messrs. Collier’s High Street warehouse (a noble and imposing block six storeys high and covering a great area of ground) is one of the largest and best-organised establishments in the Manchester trade. The firm intend before long to add to the many other advantages and conveniences here possessed the further one of the electric light, which is to be substituted for gas throughout the premises. Some idea of the extent and magnitude of these vast premises may perhaps be best formed by anyone who can conceive, beneath one great expanse of roof, an aggregate of upwards of thirty trade departments, each one of which forms a huge business in itself the like of which has, in many cases, been the work of a lifetime to build up. This gigantic congeries of mercantile undertakings takes in the entire range of the drapery and textile trades; and the warehouse is literally packed with tons upon tons of stock in the following varied branches: — Wools, trimmings, velvets, ribbons, buttons, furs, braids, lace, smallwares, haberdashery, corsets, hosiery, gloves, fancies, dyed goods, outfittings, umbrellas, dress goods, grey and white calicoes, prints, flannels, blankets, hats, caps, dress and mantle ornaments, macintoshes, and many other lines of goods of a nature akin to these or commonly associated with them in modern trade. The variety of this enormous stock, considered within its own legitimate limits, is extraordinary and inexhaustible, and in many cases Messrs. Collier seem to have fairly outstripped all their competitors in the trades they exemplify.

The stock of wools is something marvellous in its immensity, occupying as it does the whole of the great basement floor, which it fills from floor to ceiling; and in this department alone the turnover during 1890 amounted to the very remarkable sum of at least £100,000. Then again, in haberdashery and smallwares Messrs. Collier hold probably the largest and most varied stock in the world, and practically the same thing may be said of their trimmings department. In not a few other lines they stand among the acknowledged leaders, both at home and in the export markets, where their influence is well-nigh universal; and in the matter of umbrellas they are not surpassed in the city. They manufacture umbrellas at all prices, from 5s. 6d per dozen (wholesale) to 70s. each, and turn out about ten thousand gross per annum. Separate work-rooms and frame and stick factories are kept going in connection with this umbrella department, and the stock-rooms devoted to it in the High Street warehouse (fourth floor) contain as a rule a wonderful assortment of about six hundred gross of sticks, ranging in value from pennies to pounds.

Each department in this colossal business is represented by its own special staff of travellers who cover the whole country in their journeys, and who take with them samples weighing many hundredweight in boxes and skips. All the operations of the house are conducted upon a gigantic scale, yet so perfect is the system of business routine pursued that each customer of the firm, wherever he may be located, is sure of the most prompt and careful attention, and has learnt by experience that he can implicitly depend upon this old and reliable house, for the speedy and accurate execution of his orders. In Messrs. Collier’s business we have a grand illustration of what may be achieved by well-directed energy and sound personal capability, and these qualities continue at the present day, as in the past, to afford ample assurance of the firm’s uninterrupted progress in time to come. Few houses in any branch of trade in Manchester have gained such extended renown; and of Messrs. Thomas Collier & Co. it can truly be said that there is hardly a land under the sun in which their name is not known, while universal appreciation has rewarded the honourable methods and sound principles that have at all times and in all places characterised the administration of their commercial affairs.


THIS old-established and widely-known firm, dating its history back as far as the year 1865, holds a very prominent position among the representative industrial concerns of the Manchester district. The name of Messrs. Charles E. Austin & Brother is well and favourably known throughout the United Kingdom, on the Continent, and in the United States, in connection with the trade in cotton waste, engine waste, sponge cloths, lamp wicks, and other textiles of a kindred nature, and this firm’s headquarters (the Marlborough Mills at Manchester) form one of the principal sources of supply for the above-named commodities in England and abroad. The works in question are very extensive, and comprise a fine six-storey mill building of substantial construction, with three-storey warehouse, and a long range of weaving sheds adjoining, forming one immense block, bounded by four streets. The whole establishment presents an example of very complete industrial organisation, and is equipped with the most perfect machinery and appliances for the purposes of the manufacturing operations in which it is engaged. A very large staff is employed on the premises, and the general activity prevailing in all departments affords a striking indication of the magnitude of the business in its entirety.

The sponge cloth department is a perfect model, and is the most interesting of the various departments, by reason of the beautiful machinery employed in it. The weaving shed in which this portion of the business is conducted is the largest and most compact in the sponge cloth trade, and is filled with the newest and most approved machinery. The looms, which are all driven by steam power (though some firms in this trade still stick to the old-fashioned hand looms), are very intricate, weave three cloths in a width, while adding the various coloured stripes, and finish off each border with fine weft to strengthen the edges of the cloths. These superior looms cost ton times as much as a hand loom or an ordinary calico loom. The winding machinery is equally intricate and ingenious. The machines for winding from the cop on to the bobbin, and those for winding from the bobbin on to the pirn, are all supplied with an automatic action, so that when a thread breaks, that portion of the machine stops until the winder has repaired the break when it starts again. The doubling machinery is also very extensive and perfect, as also is the warping machinery, as the firm make all their own warps and perform on their own premises all the processes connected with the manufacture of sponge cloths. This firm is fully alive to the vital importance of keeping abreast with the times. In this, as in all their other departments, only the latest and newest machinery is used. A short time ago they threw out a new pirn-winding machine, which had only been working a few months, and replaced it with a newer machine which came out, and which does the work better and cheaper. This bold and enterprising spirit has placed them at the very head of the sponge cloth trade.

Perfect order and discipline prevail in every department of this immense concern. Precautions against fire meet one at every turn. Buckets filled with water, hand extincteurs, &c., are placed in every room. All shafting boxes are enclosed in sheet iron cases. In the event of fire, all the fireproof rooms simultaneously, or any one of them separately, can be filled with steam in a minute or two. A dozen of the men are trained as firemen and form one of the most efficient amateur fire brigades of the city. A few years ago this brigade put out a large fire in an adjoining street, and saved a large cotton mill. The fire was extinguished in ten minutes from the time the alarm was given, and two minutes before the arrival of the Manchester brigade.

Messrs. Austin conduct an immense trade in cotton waste and cotton, and manufacture vast quantities of sponge cloths, lamp wicks, and engine waste, which they supply to customers in all parts of the country. They fulfil many large and important contracts with Her Majesty’s Government and with leading railway companies at home and abroad; and their general connection is one of exceptional extent and influence, being well developed in all quarters of the United Kingdom and abroad. Mr. C. E. Austin is the sole surviving principal of this gigantic and thoroughly representative business, all the affairs of which receive his personal attention; and his administration of the entire concern is conspicuously marked by all the qualities of enterprise, practical ability, and sound judgment, which tend to the continuous promotion of its interests in the commercial world.


THE initiation of this noted business dates as far back as 1846, when operations were commenced by Mr. George Bradbury, who developed the concern with considerable energy and ability. In 1864, the present proprietor, the son of the founder, assumed the control of affairs, and under his spirited and skilful administration the increase in the extent and value of the business has been of the most gratifying kind. The premises occupied consist of a commodious three-storey block of building, with frontage of forty feet and depth of the same extent, comprising floor and basement, fitted up with machinery driven by a powerful steam engine, and used for general workshops, well-appointed offices and fitters’ rooms on the second floor, and store-rooms on the third floor’. The internal arrangement and equipment are of the most satisfactory kind.

The proprietor conducts a large and important business as a steam, hydraulic, and general engineer, maker of hay and straw presses, and all kinds of wood-working machinery. All the work issuing from this establishment is well known through the country for its general excellence and thoroughly reliable quality. For nearly half a century the house has occupied an honourable position in the trade, and the ability and unceasing efforts of the proprietor are devoted to the maintenance of his enviable status and the improvement, where possible, of his manufacture. No material of an inferior or faulty character is used, and none but skilled workmen are employed, their operations, too, being thoroughly supervised by competent and trustworthy foremen.

One of the great specialities of this firm for which they have gained no inconsiderable reputation, is Mr. Bradbury’s patent hay press, the cheapest, most durable, and fastest worker in the market. Another one, their latest production, is a straw-trussing machine, by which straw is received from the thresher, and by simply moving one lever, the truss is pressed, bound by automatic knots, and then thrown out of the machine automatically. The demand for these excellent machines has been very satisfactory, and it is continually increasing both at home and abroad. The Gloucestershire Agricultural Society signified their appreciation of the high merits of the former in 1889 by awarding it their medal, and the trials that were instituted by the Royal Agricultural Society at Nottingham demonstrated unmistakably the absolute superiority of these machines; in fact, wherever shown, used, or tested, it has received universal commendation. Simplicity is one of its chief recommendations, as it never gets out of order. The machine is portable; it can be used by one man, who can cut, compress, and tie from three to four tons of hay in a day.

Mr. Bradbury has effected many valuable improvements in the construction in machinery, and everything he turns out is sure to be absolutely up to date in its construction and accessories. His band-sawing machines are among the best procurable. Among other specialities for which the house is noted, we may mention Mr. Bradbury’s self-acting saw bench, with rising and falling spindle; with his latest patent apparatus for tennoning, which is almost equal to an ordinary tennoning machine and the cost about one-eighth. This has proved to be of great value to joiners and builders, especially to those in a small way of business. One great feature is that when not in use this does not interfere with the utility of the saw bench in any way. Also pendulum cross-cut saw machine, steel saw spindles, bow saw frames for cutting cold iron (a most ingenious and valuable invention), all kinds of planing and moulding irons for machines, and every other requisite for sawmills. Every article is fully guaranteed to be of superior quality, and terms are so arranged as to suit all customers.

A large and increasing connection has been acquired by the house both at home and abroad, and a large force of skilled workmen, together with competent managers, is required to meet the demands made upon the establishment, while two commercial gentlemen are occupied in representing the interests of the house on the road. Mr. Bradbury is a man of exceptional ability as a machinist and engineer, and he devotes the whole of his attention to the supervision of his business. All contracts entrusted to him are carried out in a satisfactory and conscientious manner, and by his honourable treatment he retains the support and confidence of his wide connection.


IN connection with the printing, publishing, and stationery trades in Manchester a position of special prominence has been held for many years by the well-known firm of Messrs. Abel Heywood & Son, whose extensive business originated as far back as the year 1832. The founder of this notable concern was the present senior partner, Mr. Abel Heywood, with whom is now associated his son (Mr. Abel Heywood, junior) and his grandson. From the date of its inception the business has shown a tendency towards steady and continuous development, a circumstance largely due, no doubt, to the very capable management it has always enjoyed; and at the present time it is one of the largest and leading concerns of its kind in the city. The firm’s headquarters in Oldham Street are very extensive and commodious, and the two fine shops at the front contain large and varied stocks of stationery and stationers’ fancy goods, embracing a wide range of the newest and most attractive articles in these lines.

To describe the contents of the several departments would be impossible in the limited space at our disposal here, but it may be said without hesitation that everything pertaining to the business of a wholesale or retail stationer or printer may be found in complete variety in these spacious and handsomely-appointed shops. At the rear of No. 58, Oldham Street is situated the firm’s news department, a large and well-ordered place; and adjoining this (both having frontage in Spear Street) is a commodious paper warehouse, fully stocked with every description of paper known to the stationery trade. Crossing Spear Street and entering Lever Street, we find Messrs. Heywood’s printing works, which are admirably equipped with the best modern machinery, new type, and all other requisites for the expeditious execution of first-class printing of all kinds. Very superior work is here turned out in every department of the trade, and moderate prices are the established rule.

Altogether, Messrs. Abel Heywood & Son employ about one hundred and forty hands, and an exceedingly large trade is controlled, with influential connections in all parts of the country. The principals personally supervise the entire business, and their policy of administration fully maintains its high standing and substantial prosperity. Abel Heywood, Esq., the senior partner, is a gentleman holding a very prominent position as a citizen, and greatly esteemed and respected for the duration and value of his public services. At the time when Mr. Heywood commenced business, the sale of printed matter was often a matter of considerable peril to the vendor. Every newspaper was subject to a tax of 3-and-a-half d. and every almanack to one of 1s. Newsagents who ventured to protest against these iniquitous taxes were fined and imprisoned, and two hundred and fifty men were at one time or another imprisoned, principally for the sale of a little quarto paper of eight pages called “The Poor Man's Guardian,” which was issued in spite of the legislation at a penny. Among those imprisoned was Abel Heywood, and he suffered four months’ incarceration, although the judges of the Queen’s Bench afterwards declared that the “Poor Man’s Guardian” was not a newspaper at all, according to the act. Mr. Heywood is probably the only man left who thus suffered unjustly.

Mr. Heywood is the “Father” of the Manchester Town Council, and is chairman of several committees, his interest in all municipal matters having long been of the most active and beneficial character. A recent incident in Mr. Alderman Heywood’s public career is well worthy of mention here. The Manchester City Council, at a special meeting held lately, resolved to express their recognition of Mr. Heywood’s valuable and long-continued services to the community by conferring upon him the freedom of the city — the highest honour in their power to bestow. The resolution to this effect was moved by the Mayor (Mr, Alderman Mark), seconded by Alderman Sir John Harwood, and unanimously adopted by the meeting. Mr. Alderman Heywood returned thanks for this signal mark of honour in a characteristic speech, concluding with the declaration that, “as long as his life lasted it would be his privilege to do all he could in the Council” - a promise which, as his past record shows, he will assuredly not fail to redeem.
Telegrams for Messrs Abel Heywood & Son should be addressed “Abel Heywood, Manchester.” The firm’s telephone is No. 1,009.


EARLY in the present century this business was originated in Marsden Square, Manchester, by Mr. David Bannerman, in conjunction with a partner; and so successful did the venture prove that Mr. David Bannerman’s father, Henry Bannerman, was induced to leave his home in Perthshire (where he was a prosperous farmer) and come south to Manchester with his family. He appears to have sent out his son David to act as a sort of pioneer, and that young man’s first essay in the cotton trade having turned out well, the father and three other sons (Alexander, John, and Henry) joined David, thus founding the firm of Henry Bannerman & Sons. They had their first warerooms and offices in Market Street Lane, between Cleveland Buildings and Spring Gardens. Subsequently a move was made to larger premises at the comer of Marsden Square and Cannon Street, and here the house made great progress, becoming famous, especially for Scotch, Bolton, and Blackburn muslins, and having many customers in all parts of Scotland, the North of England, Wales, and Ireland.

The death of Mr. Henry Bannerman, senior, in 1823, brought his eldest son David to the head of the concern, and under his administration the business continued its prosperous and progressive career, growing at such a rate that it became necessary to move again to a more extensive warehouse in Market Street. Mr. David Bannerman, who died in 1829, was elected Boroughreeve of Manchester, and had the distinction of being the first Scotsman and Dissenter who had been raised to that important municipal office. After his death the surviving partners continued the business successfully, and departments for printed calicoes, merinoes, Bradford stuffs, and flannels were added to the trade. The premises were extended, and land in York Street was acquired, upon which the firm erected a large and imposing block of buildings, divided at first into several warehouses. In a few years’ time, however, Messrs. Bannerman found themselves occupying the whole of this great block, and in 1844 the personnel of the firm was increased by the accession of several new partners — Mr. William Young, a grandson of the founder; Mr. James Alexander Bannerman, one of the three sons of the late Mr. David Bannerman; and Mr. Archibald Winterbottom, who had been for some time manager of the Bradford and Silesia departments of the business. Mr. Alexander Bannerman (who had been appointed one of the first borough magistrates under the Manchester Incorporation Act) died in 1846, and in 1848 Mr. Phillip Gillibrand was admitted into partnership. This latter gentleman had been with the firm since 1829, and had occupied a prominent position in the counting-house. In 1850, Mr. Henry Bannerman withdrew from active business life, and two years later Mr. David Bannerman, another son of the late Mr. David Bannerman, was taken into partnership. In the following year Mr. Archibald Winterbottom withdrew, and commenced business for himself. Meanwhile the Bannerman business had continued its course of development, many departments being added, and the Canadian trade being vigorously engaged in.

In 1864 the firm became spinners and manufacturers as well as merchants, and took over in succession a number of large mills which in 1889 were converted into a private limited liability company. These are now carried on under the style of the Bannerman Mills Company, Limited, though they are directly connected with the mercantile branch of the business. Mr. John Bannerman, in due time, withdrew from close association with the business, and took up his residence at Wyastone, Leys, in Monmouthshire, where he died in 1870. A year later, Mr. Henry Bannerman died at his residence, Hunton Court, Kent, of which county he had been High Sheriff. In 1874 Mr. David Bannerman became one of the city magistrates of Manchester. Mr. Gillibrand retired in 1879, and in 1880 several new partners were admitted, these being Mr. Charles Wright Macara, Mr David Alexander Bannerman (son of the present Mr. David Bannerman), and Mr. William Henry Young (son of Mr. William Young). Mr. Macara became the managing partner, and is now the managing director of both the mercantile and manufacturing companies. The business was then reorganised upon a plan which effected a great development of its operations in what is known as; the “Manchester trade.” By an accident at a swimming bath Mr. David Alexander Bannerman died in 1886, at the early age of twenty-nine, and this sad event deprived the house of a partner of great promise and popularity. In 1890 the concern was formed into a limited liability company of a strictly private nature, and the remaining partners (Mr. William Young, Mr. James Alexander Bannerman, Mr. David Bannerman, Mr. Charles Wright Macara, and Mr. William Henry Young) are included in the directorate. Few businesses in Manchester possess such a perfect mercantile and industrial organisation, and none can claim a more eminent or a more honourable position in the city’s trade.

At the present day Messrs. Henry Bannerman & Sons, Limited, have dealings in the following departments:— Flannels, blankets, oilcloths, greys, twills and sheets, linens from the Irish, Scotch, and Barnsley factories, silesias, dyed linings, white calicoes, scoured greys, woollens, haberdashery, velveteens (with a notable speciality in their celebrated “County ” velveteen), jeans, lambskins, cords and fustians, stuffs, French goods, fancy dresses, winceys, skirtings, quilts, toilet-covers, prints and cretonnes, oxfords, ginghams, zephyrs, cotton handkerchiefs, Turkey twills, Lancashire and Scotch muslins, lace curtains and blinds, wool covers, coloured cotton covers, &c., &c. Enormous stocks are held in the great warehouse in York Street, which is opened at 7.30 a.m., so that prompt attention may be given to urgent orders — passenger trains or other - received by letter or telegram.

The Bannerman Mills are as follows:— Brunswick Mill, Ancoats, telephone No. 61; North End Mill, Stalybridge, telephone No. 103; River Meadow Mill, Stalybridge, telephone No. 103; Old Hall Mill, Dukinfield, telephone No. 6. These great industrial establishments are splendidly equipped with the very latest and most improved modern machinery, and have efficient volunteer fire brigades and every general working resource and convenience. Some idea of their productive powers may be gathered from the fact that they consume two hundred tons of coal and one hundred and twenty thousand pounds of cotton per week. A most complete and extensive telephonic system connects these mills with the Liverpool Cotton Market, the Manchester Exchange, the York Street Warehouse (telephone No. 416), and the private residences of the managing director and the mill managers. Messrs. Henry Bannerman & Sons’ yarn office is at No. 26, Royal Exchange, Manchester (telephone No. 950); and they have branches at 2, Wood Street, London, E.C.; 31, Carr’s Lane, Birmingham; and Swan Court Long Row, Nottingham. This great business is one of the giants of Manchester commerce and industry, and stands as a monument to the energy and ability of those who in the past laid the foundations of its modern greatness, and those who at the present time are so well maintaining its prestige and reputation as a representative British mercantile concern, the connections of which extend to almost every quarter of the globe.


THE house possesses the honourable distinction of having been founded more than sixty years ago by the late Mr. John Standring, father of the present sole proprietor, and of having carried on a business, during the interim, with uninterrupted progress and prosperity. Operations were originally commenced in 1829, and the energy, ability, and skill brought to bear by the founder soon resulted in the formation of the nucleus of a good and valuable connection. They early achieved a reputation for the superior and reliable nature of their products, and the business rapidly grew in extent and solidity; repeated enlargements of the premises became necessary from time to time to keep pace with the increased demands, and at the present time in the magnitude of its transactions and the value of its connection, the house is second scarcely to any other house in the trade.

The firm possess two mills, the Livesey Street Mills and the Lion Mills, at Blackley. Both are spacious in size and ample in accommodation, the Livesey Street Mills being one of the largest and most complete works devoted to this class of business. These mills have been specially erected for the trade, and are replete with all modern conveniences and arrangements to facilitate the process of manufacture and to improve the character of the produce. The equipment is of a perfect kind, and is the outcome of the firm’s long experience in this branch of industry — it includes all the latest and best machines that science and ingenuity have supplied to the manufacturer; and steam engines of great power are in operation at both mills.

An extensive and valuable trade is here controlled in the manufacture of braids, boot laces, crinoline steel, lines and smallwares of different descriptions. The goods manufactured by this house are recognized standards of excellence in their line, and are eagerly sought after among all classes of buyers. Superiority of quality is constituted a leading feature, and customers can place implicit reliance upon the fact that nothing of a faulty or inferior character is ever offered for sale by this responsible house. Owing to the perfect nature of their productive resources together with the skilled labour employed, the firm are able to turn out goods which in soundness of workmanship, uniform excellence, and admirable finish, cannot possibly be beaten. The proprietors are thoroughly enterprising, and every new pattern or design introduced in any of their special commodities is freely adopted, while they are conspicuous for the variety and worth of the new things brought out by themselves, some of which have become the leading specialities in the trade. Everything they make is the best of its kind, and is of guaranteed superiority.

With their extensive business and vast resources the firm are able to produce goods with the minimum of cost, and patrons will always find prices of the most reasonable and satisfactory kind, and such as cannot be surpassed by any other rival establishment. The proprietors are well acquainted with the trade in every detail, and they keep well abreast with any improvement made in any of the articles in which they are interested; they are anxious to do business, and every inducement is offered to patrons, samples are freely provided, and special quotations are furnished on application for large quantities and shipping orders. Extensive stocks are held of all the leading lines, and orders of any magnitude for current kinds can generally be filled by return. This is a special feature of the house, and is highly appreciated by patrons. A large and influential connection has been developed at home and abroad, and the high-class goods manufactured by this house are known and sought for all over the world. A force of three hundred hands is kept in constant employment in filling the immense and continually increasing demands made upon the resources of the house.
The telephone number of this house is 1,266, and the telegraphic addresses “Thistle” Manchester, and “Standring, London.”


THE above institution was established in. 1865 as Messrs. Julius Allmann & Co., Consulting Engineers, and Patent Agents, &c., and has, since the retirement of Mr. Allmann, been carried on by his partner, Mr. E. T. Whitelow, C.E., who conducts the business on the same lines as previously. The premises occupy an excellent position in Deansgate (No. 70), and comprise a spacious suite of offices, general and private, a well-appointed drawing office, and all the accessories of a thoroughly organized establishment. Mr. Whitelow has an excellent practice as a civil and consulting engineer; he is well known in the profession and a recognised authority on all matters relating to patents, &c. This international patent office is authorized under the Board of Trade rules. Patents are obtained and trade marks and designs are registered in all countries. Mr. Whitelow has special agencies in all the principal foreign and colonial capitals. Searches and reports are undertaken, and opinions given on all questions relating to patents; amendments and disclaimers are made; opposition and appeal cases are personally conducted before the law officers; plans, drawings, and expert evidence are prepared, and arbitrations in patent and other technical matters are undertaken. The business in every department receives the direct personal attention of the proprietor, who possesses the advantage of long and thorough professional experience and a most intimate knowledge of the patent laws of all countries.


THIS most useful and popular firm has been established for many years. The specialities in which Messrs. Shaw & Co. excel are in paints, colours, and varnishes for decorators, coach painters, artists, and others. The firm manufacture every possible colour and tint, and their price list is of large proportions, and the prices named are exceedingly low. The varnish list is equally representative. There are all kinds made for various purposes, but their copal oak and coach varnishes, for lustre, durability, and quality cannot be excelled. Here, too, low prices are observed throughout. The firm do an enormous trade in sundries for decorators, artists, coach painters, &c., and hold a large stock of every kind of requisites connected with these trades. Their brushes (all sizes) are very greatly in favour. The stores and warehouse at 136 and 138, Chapel Street, Salford, are very large and in every way adapted for the purposes of the immense business, being the only representative establishment of its kind in the locality. The offices in Deansgate being centrally situated, are well calculated to greatly facilitate the business. The huge dealings of the firm enable them to quote very reasonable terms for large quantities, and they are well able to compete with any firm in the country. They have an agency in London, and also large branch houses at Hull and Newcastle. The members of the firm are first-rate business gentlemen, and their pleasing and most straightforward manner of doing business has won them hosts of friends. They have the satisfaction of knowing that their efforts in producing goods which cannot be excelled are being widely appreciated.

Telegraphic address, “Terry’s,” Manchester.

IT IS now upwards of twenty-seven years since Messrs. Holmes, Terry, and Bowman, three gentlemen who had all occupied responsible positions in one of the largest home-trade houses in this city, commenced business in co-partnership in premises in Market Street, which are now a part of Messrs. Ryland’s vast establishment. At the time of which we write the mantle industry in Manchester was in its infancy, and the firm of Holmes, Terry & Co were among the first (perhaps, indeed, they were the very first), to make it a leading speciality. The rapid increase of their business and the necessity of securing premises for manufacturing obliged them to remove to a larger establishment at 29, High Street. Even this increase of accommodation was not sufficient, however, for the trade soon outgrew it, and once more the firm moved, taking up their quarters in premises at the corner of Church Street and High Street. Since then they have taken the two adjoining warehouses, and now occupy the whole of the large block comprised in Nos. 34, 36, and 38, High Street. This establishment is one of the largest and best in the trade in Manchester, and will be found very conveniently situated as regards its proximity to all the leading home-trade houses; indeed, it is acknowledged to command the best position in the city.

The premises consist of a basement and five stories, all of large dimensions and excellent arrangement throughout. The basement is devoted to the storage of surplus stock, and contains also a fine plant of steam cutting-out machinery. The ground floor is set apart for the vast stock of mantle cloths, to which it affords splendid accommodation, and a portion of the space here is occupied by the busy packing department, in which may be noted many evidences of the magnitude of the firm’s trade. Upon the first floor we find the skirt, costume, and fur departments, together with the counting-house. The second floor is taken up with the children’s mantle department and the fine stock of shawls and Manchester goods for which this house is noted. The remainder of, the premises is devoted entirely to the departments for ladies’ mantles and macintoshes, in which no other firm in the trade enjoys higher repute than the one under notice. It will thus be seen that, with the exception of millinery, Messrs. Holmes, Terry & Co. cater for the entire requirements of ladies’ and children’s upper garments, from pelisses, tunics, and costumes for infants and children, to ladies’ cloaks, macintoshes, mantles, furs, and costumes; and their many novelties for each season in these different lines rank among the most elegant and stylish productions of the kind in the trade. We have nothing but the highest praise for this firm’s new and beautiful designs in beaded visites, cloth capes, dolmans, jackets, costumes, &c., all of which combine artistic elegance and perfect taste with the most complete exemplification of prevailing fashions.

During the whole of Messrs. Holmes, Terry & Co.’s career as a firm they have aimed not at increasing the number of their departments, so much as developing the volume of trade in each of them. Consequently they have been enabled to concentrate their energies upon improvement, and have introduced every new feature in machinery and appliances for their industry, besides engaging the most efficient workpeople. They are always to the front in the various changes of styles and fashions, and are well-known throughout the Kingdom for their promptitude in bringing out attractive novelties. They are ably represented in all the great centres of trade, and possess every claim to be regarded as a leading firm, unsurpassed in resources and unexcelled in quality of production. Their magnificent stocks form a sight which it is worth a journey to Manchester to see, and we place their establishment high among the most perfectly organised warehouses we have had the pleasure of visiting.

Soon after the commencement of the business Mr. Bowman retired, and the subsequent death of Mr. Holmes left the entire management of the concern in the hands of Mr. Henry Terry, who is still the sole principal. Mr. Terry has acquitted himself, in a manner almost beyond praise, of the gigantic task of organizing and developing this great business — a task the magnitude of which is simply incomprehensible to anyone who has not essayed a similar undertaking. He has had a splendid commercial experience, dating from his boyhood (some forty years ago), down to the present time; and every quality that such an experience can engender - self-reliance, enterprise, perseverance, and a perfect command of all the details of the trade — is manifested in his administration of this house at the present day. “Peace hath her victories not less renowned than war,” and few instances of able generalship and administrative capacity can be cited which are worthy of higher commendation than the skill and sound judgment with which Mr. Henry Terry has piloted his immense business to the position of influence and supremacy it maintains to-day in that important branch of Manchester’s trade with which it is now, and has been from the first, so honourably associated.


THIS leading and eminently representative concern was originally established nearly a century ago, and it is therefore one of the oldest manufacturing houses in the district. The business was formerly under the proprietorship of Mr. Joseph Bowden, and after his death was for some time carried on by his executors, until the concern was acquired by Mr. J. G. Metcalfe, who has since steadily and continuously increased the scope and extent of his operations with highly satisfactory results. The premises are very extensive and cover a considerable area of ground having a frontage of two hundred and sixteen feet and a depth of ninety feet, and containing a substantial factory of two floors with several sheds and outbuildings, the whole being admirably adapted for the manufacture and storage of chemicals, &c., upon a very large scale. There are capital and conveniently arranged offices on the ground floor, as well as extensive store-rooms and an excellent laboratory completely fitted with all necessary apparatus and appliances. The principal goods made include tin crystals; tin, iron, and copper solutions of all kinds, for cottons, wools, and silks, dye-stuffs, decoctions of every description, and numerous other chemicals used in the different manufacturing processes employed in the various industries of the district, as well as numerous drysalteries and sundry goods. A special feature is made, in particular, of the composition for sizers, dyers and manufacturers, which has been much appreciated and finds a very ready sale. An adequate staff of competent and experienced hands is employed, and the business done, both home and export, is very considerable and important. As a business man Mr. J. G. Metcalfe is very smart, capable and energetic, while in his private and personal relations he is alike respected and esteemed by all who know him.


IT appears upon an inquiry into the antecedents of this thriving institution — which is reputed to be the oldest- established boot and shoe manufactory in the city — that it took origin in the year 1783, in what was then known as a cordwainer’s shop. The business continued to prosper under the control of its founder, Thomas Manwaring, until the year 1810, when it was acquired, by the father of the present proprietor, who worked the concern to a successful issue during the thirty-nine years of his regime, wholly and solely as a result of painstaking industry. A capital story in illustration of the motto that “the industrious shall prosper,” is told by Mr. Mainwaring of his grandfather’s regular habits. It seems that the old gentleman made it a rule to rise to his work at five o’clock every morning, usually pursuing his duties during dull and dismal days by the aid of a series of several tallow candles of the “dip” order, placed in tiny tinned scallops, and he often thus worshipped at the shrine of St. Crispin till after eight at eventide. Mr. Mainwaring passed his novitiate as an apprentice at one of the largest boot manufactories in England, and thus entered upon his career of activity under peculiarly favourable auspices, being well grounded in all the practical details of a business in which he was destined ere long to rise pre-eminent. In 1855, upon the decease of his father, Mr. Henry Mainwaring, the business was continued by his mother until the subject of the present article was of sufficient age and ability to continue and still further the present splendidly-organised business.

It may be mentioned, that the old cordwainer’s shop had been abandoned in 1829 for the headquarters in Deansgate, and, as the business increased, branches were opened at 102, Stretford Road; 83, Oxford Street; 42, Stretford Road, and 64, Moss Lane West. All of these depots are large, and admirably arranged to hold and display a very select and superior stock of goods, and to provide for the comfort and convenience of both ladies and gentlemen in fitting-on, measuring, and the like. The stock held comprises a vast and varied selection of boots, shoes, slippers, gaiters, leggings, and kindred commodities, by all the leading English and Continental makers of the day — from the dainty ball-room shoe to the heavy winter boot, and the elegant boudoir or house slipper to the strong walking or riding or athletes’ boot.

In his executive department Mr. Mainwaring operates on a very large scale as a maker, by exclusively skilled labour, of bespoke goods, produced from the most reliable leathers; and he has also gained a well-merited renown as the manufacturer of the now celebrated “Waukerz” boot, which has been universally acknowledged to stand unexcelled for ease and comfort to the feet whilst walking. The Deansgate depot is under the personal supervision of the proprietor, whilst the four branches, already alluded to, are under careful and competent managers. The trade controlled is one of the largest and best of its kind in Manchester, and one visit to the Deansgate emporium would be quite enough to convince the most sceptical of those facts. Personally, Mr. Mainwaring has, by emulating the example of his worthy father, developed his business with almost phenomenal success, and in spite of his arduous business duties, he yet finds time to devote to matters of municipal importance, having for some years past taken an active and beneficial part as Councillor of the City of Manchester, for the Medlock Street Ward, and also as a Guardian of the Chorlton Union.


MR. William Harris, the head and founder of the house under notice, is a native of Hereford. After a sound practical training he removed to Birmingham, where much of his commercial experience was acquired (he is not yet by any means old, be it understood). Mr. Harris came north to Manchester in 1878, as manager for the London Printing and Publishing Company, Limited. During the several years thus engaged in this capacity, his two sons were at work in the printing rooms of a well-known fine art firm in the city; and eventually in 1886, the three united their energies in the formation of a printing business which is one of the most capably conducted concerns of its kind. The trade premises are admirably situated in Cannon Street, and possess every modern appliance and facility for the proper exposition of the “art preservative” in all its varied branches, and besides their splendid mechanical equipment they have the advantage of manual skill and artistic talent of a remarkably high order, without which it would be quite impossible to turn out anything half so beautiful and tasteful as the work which is regularly executed here day after day.

Messrs. Harris can print on anything, from a roseleaf or a piece of muslin to a wooden board, and they are downright enthusiasts on the artistic side of their industry. Moreover, they have surrounded themselves with a staff of men who are proud of their employers, zealous in the maintenance of the reputation they all share, and perfectly confident of their own ability to do anything that can be done with type at least as well as, and perhaps better than, it has ever been done by anybody else. Messrs. Harris have produced Christmas cards of the most beautiful character in type; they have produced exquisite and perfectly clear impressions from type (plain and ornamental) upon Japanese paper so thin as to be almost diaphanous; they have executed multi-coloured work and tint work in type, and borders so perfect in register and so mathematically accurate in design as to arouse astonishment in those who are perfectly familiar with the best resources of modern printing.

The “Printer's Register” (1888) said that Messrs. Harris make better use of the elaborate German borders than the Germans themselves; and nothing can be more graceful or tasteful than some of their work in ornamental brass rule, the combinations effected being exceedingly fine from every point of view. The “Paper and Printing Trades Journal” alludes to Messrs. Harris’s establishment as “an office which has turned out some of the best printing ever done in Manchester.” This opinion will be echoed by anyone who has had the pleasure of inspecting the firm’s work. All the work of this firm is of the first class essentially, and they execute every imaginable description of printing, from a poster to a portrait, or from the simplest trade circular to the most elaborate and resplendent show-card. They are “great” on programmes and menu cards, and altogether unsurpassed in any class of work calling for the exercise of real artistic talent and ingenuity. At the same time their general commercial work is produced in splendid style. A very large and valuable trade is controlled, for the firm have solved the problem of doing the finest quality of work at the most reasonably prices, and the principals of the house are well known as being among the most pushing, capable, and straightforward business men in Manchester. They are very popular with all who know them, and all that has been said in their favour is simply a case of rendering “honour to whom honour is due.”


THIS is a very thriving and important manufacturing business that has been in existence a considerable number of years, having been established by the present proprietor in 1880, and has gained a first-class reputation in a widely-extended circle, embracing Manchester, Liverpool, London, Cardiff, Bristol, Buenos Ayres, Rio de Janeiro, Monte Video, Callao. The premises consist of a large three-storied mill, admirably fitted with steam-power and appliances for driving a large number of sewing-machines, which are in constant use in the carrying on of the business. Mr. Kershaw is extensively engaged in the manufacture of all kinds of bags—cotton, linen, and calico (grey or white), for beef, mutton, hams, shoulders, flour, salt, coffee, bird seed, gunpowder, &c., &c. The firm also do printing on bags, for which special machines are used, and these are of the best and most approved type. Some idea of the extent of the operations of the house may be gathered from the fact that a force of from fifty to sixty hands are regularly and constantly engaged in their manufacture. The firm has become widely renowned for the superior excellence of their productions both in material and workmanship. A very extensive and rapidly increasing trade is controlled, the business connections extending to all parts of the United Kingdom, Argentina, Brazils, Chili, New Zealand. A very extensive export trade is carried on. The business is well developed in all its branches, and is personally conducted with enterprise and ability. The house is well known at home and abroad; the position it holds in the department of meat clothers with which its name is closely identified has been attained by faithful devotion to the observance of sound and honourable principles, and the practice of commercial methods.
The telegraphic address is “Wrappers, Manchester.”


AMONG the most notable brewing businesses in Manchester stands that conducted by Mr. James Cronshaw, of the Alexandra Brewery in Erskine Street. This important concern was founded in Mather Street, Hulme, in 1862, and was removed two years later to its present address. The brewery is one of the largest in the district and is splendidly equipped throughout. The various departments are provided with plant and appliances of the best type for their several purposes, and all the processes of a very extensive brewing industry are conducted under the most favourable conditions. The buildings occupy a great area of land, and there is very extensive cellarage beneath the establishment, affording ample storage accommodation. We have seldom seen a more effectually organised brewery, and from the air of activity prevailing in all parts of the establishment, it is evident that a trade of much more than ordinary magnitude is carried on. The weekly output of beer and stout is, indeed, no less than one thousand barrels, and the products of the Alexandra Brewery bear an eminent reputation for sound quality and purity. For many years the “Star Ale” (a mild ale of extra quality) has been one of the leading specialities of this house, and has enjoyed unsurpassed popularity.

Mr. Cronshaw owns a large number of fully licensed houses, and the trade derived from them is very large, although the firm’s tenants (unlike most others in a similar position) are not exactly “tied” to take their beers from the Alexandra Brewery. Mr. Cronshaw has always advocated freedom of trade in this matter, and his beers are always sold on their own merits. Those merits, however, are amply sufficient to keep them in great demand wherever they have become known to the public. Mr. Cronshaw also carries on a large business as a wine and spirit merchant and bottler of ale and stout; and likewise manufactures mineral waters upon a very extensive scale. For this latter industry (in which he has been highly successful), as well as for the brewing, the supply of water is obtained from a fine well on the property, which yields water of a specially suitable quality. In all departments of the firm’s business employment is given to a very numerous staff of hands, and the affairs of the house are administered with conspicuous ability and sound judgment. The principal is highly esteemed in the trade, and retains the favour and confidence of a most extensive and valuable connection.


AMONG the many noted drapery houses of Manchester, none has gained greater popularity or higher reputation than that of Mr. John Noble, whose very extensive and successful business was founded in the year 1870. From the original premises in Dale Street a move was made to more commodious quarters in Piccadilly, in 1880; but the business still increasing and demanding more accommodation, Mr. Noble removed once more, in 1891, to much larger premises at the present address in Princess Street. Here there is every desirable facility for the conduct of a steadily-developing trade, and the new establishment certainly stands among the most attractive and commodious of its kind in the city. The building is admirably situated at the corner of Princess Street and Whitworth Street, and comprises a fine six-storey warehouse, with its main entrance at the point of junction of the two thoroughfares, and a goods entrance in Whitworth Street. Internally the arrangement of the place is excellent, and the various stock and show-rooms (laid out in eight sections for the sake of greater convenience) exhibit a splendid collection of high-class goods, all of which are sold at popular prices.

Mr. Noble is still adhering to the policy he has pursued from the outset of his business, viz., that of supplying the public direct at wholesale prices. Not only has he found that this can be done at a fair profit to himself, but he has also found that the plan is an exceedingly popular one with the general public, who, naturally enough, like to make their purchases at a source of “first supply,” and thus avoid the added charges of middlemen. His method being, therefore, both beneficial to himself and agreeable to his patrons, Mr. Noble has stuck to it boldly, and has made it pay to such an extent that his business has become one of the largest of its class in the country. Of course, it is only by an enormous and rapid turnover at cash prices that any profit of a reasonable character can be made out of such a business as this; but it is exactly in this way that Mr. Noble has achieved his success. His energy and enterprise are boundless. He is constantly coming to the front with something new and worth having; and his continuous introduction of fresh and attractive goods at “bottom” prices is calculated to make one wonder where on earth all the novelties come from in the first place, and then how it is possible to place them in the market at such exceptionally low figures. But capital, experience and active enterprise can accomplish wonders in these days, and, as a matter of fact, it is hardly possible to keep from buying something at “Noble’s,” so many and so irresistible are the attractions of the vast stock held at this establishment.

Equally extraordinary is the comprehensiveness of the stock, which embraces everything that can possibly be regarded as drapery, from calicoes, linens, flannels, carpets, sheetings, and curtains, to dress-fabrics, underclothing, laces, fancy-goods, hosiery, shirts, woollen cloths, and juvenile outfittings. There is an important tailoring department, in which the best class of work is executed in first-quality materials at very moderate prices; and the house has long been famous for its manufacture of underclothing. This latter is a speciality, and goods of exquisite workmanship and finish are produced at Mr. Noble’s own factory and supplied direct to the public from the warehouse at remarkably low prices. The house has a great number of specialities with which its name is popularly associated, and Noble’s “Sovereign” and “Lily” longcloths, Noble’s “Victoria” cotton flannels, Noble’s “Natural Wool Heath Flannels” (now sold under the registered title “Ool Roi”), Noble’s “Household Linens,” and many other fabrics in which this house has an enormous trade, are familiar and esteemed in hundreds of thousands of English homes. Orders of any dimensions are executed with promptitude, from the few yards of print required to make a servant’s dress to the bales of linens, blankets, &c., required for the complete outfit of an infirmary or an Atlantic liner. Ladies residing in the remotest hamlet of the United Kingdom, may supply all their wants in the way of drapery goods, as completely to their satisfaction as if they were to undertake the most toilsome shopping expedition round the largest establishments in London, and have the further satisfaction of knowing that they are saving at least twenty percent. on their purchases.

We might fill pages in mere brief references to prominent features in Mr. Noble’s wonderful stock, but our limited space forbids the further extension of this review, and we can only, by way, of conclusion, recommend our readers to send for one of his exhaustive illustrated catalogues, containing about one hundred and thirty pages of information, forwarded post free on application, which will show how large an amount of money those may save who are wise enough to profit by it. Mr. John Noble gives employment to upwards of three hundred hands in the various departments of his immense establishment, and his influential trade connections extend largely into the export markets, as well as throughout the United Kingdom. Mr. Noble deserves unstinted praise and credit for the courageous and successful manner in which he has followed out a bold and original course of trading. His enterprise has brought goods of first-rate quality within easy reach of the great body of the people, and the public service rendered by such an establishment as his is in direct ratio to the magnitude of its operations, which, in the case under notice, is simply marvellous.


THIS important business was established in 1827, by the grandmother of the present proprietor (Elizabeth Halliday), which by the present partners has been developed and fostered with energy, until to-day it is one of the most extensive concerns of the kind in Manchester. Ample and commodious premises are occupied, consisting of handsomely appointed offices, sample room and store rooms on the ground floor, together with extensive and admirably suitable cellaring. The premises altogether are thoroughly well adapted to the special requirements of the business carried on. They are fitted up with every requisite and a noteworthy system of order, and arrangement is maintained by the worthy proprietors. The bonded stores are in Manchester and Edinburgh, and wines and spirits of the best kind, and to a large amount in value, are held there. An extensive and high-class family trade is controlled, and the house also maintains a valuable connection among the local licensed houses and hotels and restaurants.

Messrs. Halliday are acknowledged connoisseurs, and the wines they offer are of the most famous vintages. The ports and sherries are well selected, and many of them are very rare and choice. The whiskies, too, are of the most celebrated brands and thoroughly matured. They have been blended in a special manner, so as to please the palate of different judges. A speciality is made of a fine Scotch whiskey, eight years old, which is supplied in cask, jar, or bottle, at 24s. per gallon, or 48s. per dozen. This very rare and choice old whiskey has been pronounced by connoisseurs to be the finest spirit yet produced. Wherever a pure stimulant is required, nothing can be more highly recommended. The firm have been bonding this whiskey for many years, in order to enable them to keep it the same age before introducing it to the public. This whiskey is protected by a distinguishing blue capsule, and with the firm’s name branded on every cork. Single bottles are supplied at wholesale prices.

The proprietors possess some rare old brandy, which is pronounced by old patrons to be unequalled in the trade. The long and varied experience which the firm have had in every department of their business gives them a perfect knowledge of all the best sources of supply, and a considerable influence in buying, consequently they have the most favourable opportunities of selecting the choicest wines and spirits that come into the markets, and they are able, not only to offer their customers a wide range of choice, but also to give them many advantages in the way of prices. The firm are agents for Barclay, Perkins & Co.’s famous London stout, (for over sixty years) and for Bass & Co.’s no less renowned India pale ale. In these they do a large and increasing trade. The stouts and ales are well kept and are always in fine sound condition, and prices are exceedingly satisfactory.

Messrs. Halliday’s stocks comprise splendid selections of port wine, Sandeman’s, Dow’s and Graham’s special vintages, sherry, Vino de Pasto, Amontillado, and Peter Domecq’s, Clarets, such as St. Julien, Chateau Lafitte, Margaux, Mouton, and La Rose, Sauterne, Hocks, Rhenish, Liebfraumilch and Hocheimer, Moselle, Champagnes of all the most celebrated makers, Deutz & Goldermann’s, Moet & Chandon, Mumm’s Veuve Cliquot, Pommery and Greno and Louis Roederer, Marsala, Madeira, red and white Burgundy. There is a fine range and splendid selection of the best brands of brandy, rum, Scotch and Irish whiskey and gin, together with ales, porter, mineral and aerated waters and choice Havana cigars. Messrs. E. Halliday & Son are men of large and varied experience, and are acknowledged authorities on all matters connected with their business. Their best efforts are always directed to extending the area of their operations by supplying only wines and spirits of the soundest and most reliable character, and to maintain in full the esteem and confidence of their old and influential connection.


ONE of the largest English firms engaged in the manufacture of knitting yarns is that of Messrs. George Lee & Sons, Limited, whose immense business was founded in 1830, by Mr. George Lee, at Wakefield, where its industrial operations are still carried on. In the same year a Manchester house was opened in Bridgewater Place, and eventually, in 1870, a move was made to more commodious works at 81, Cannon Street. Subsequently the firm added their second Manchester warehouse, the commanding block numbered 31, 1830, High Street. This gives them great facilities for the conduct of their large trade, and affords the most complete and convenient accommodation for the vast stock held in Scotch Fingering, German Worsted, and Alloa Yams; Fleecy Petticoat, “Victoria,” “Britannia,” “Eider,” “Cable,” “Sylvia” (soft finish), “Princess” Knitting Wools; Kendal Worsted, Lamb’s Wool; Merino, Shetland, Andalusian and Berlin Wools, Machine Knittings, &c. These are all specialities of the house, produced at their works at Wakefield, where nearly one thousand hands are employed, and from our survey of the firm’s methods and arrangements we are convinced that there is not a more perfectly organised or more resourceful business in the United Kingdom.

The trade conducted is of great Volume, the manufactures of this firm having won favour and secured a large and steady demand in well-nigh every quarter of the globe. In all the varieties of Yarns and Wools with which they have identified their name, Messrs. George Lee & Sons, Limited, produce a class of goods unsurpassed in quality and finish, and their manufactures are received and treated as standard articles in every market into which they find their way. The firm have adopted the word “Leemont” as their cablegram address, and the same word should also be used in addressing telegrams to the house, either at Manchester or at Wakefield.


THE firm of Messrs. Forrest & Sym, founded originally in the year 1867 by Ezard & Co., the present partners Mr. Campbell Forrest and Mr. Alexander Sym, who took over the place from the above firm in 1883, has come very rapidly to the front in connection with the iron founding trade in Manchester. The premises occupied are of great extent and the several large workshops are departmentally arranged in a manner promoting the utmost convenience in each branch of the important industry carried on. The whole establishment is fitted with the most improved and effective plant and machinery, and the several manufacturing processes are carried out under such favourable conditions that the very best results are attained in the goods produced, in ashpans, stands, round and square, top bars, trivets, and general household light castings, together with patent gas stoves and patent Venetians. Their assortment of parlour ashpans is one of the largest and most varied in the trade, and all their leading productions; are well displayed in their spacious store-rooms.

Messrs. Forrest & Sym are very enterprising in the introduction of novelties, and among their latest new productions may be mentioned their patent double arch ashpan, which has a particularly fine appearance. The brass or steel bars which form the arches of this ashpan are so securely slotted into the three upright supports that, it is impossible for them to revolve or shake. Another novel and very useful idea is the combined ashpan and top bar. When not in use the top bar hangs down in front of the ashpan and forms quite an ornament. When required it is simply raised to a level with the top of the ashpan, and is there fixed in position by a simple but very secure attachment. It will thus bear a far greater weight than it is ever necessary to place upon it; and it forms a capital bar on which to warm plates or cook small dishes.

Another noteworthy matter is the highly artistic tile-work shown in bars, ashpans and fire-stands, some very happy effects being obtained in this way. This firm’s excellent and interesting new illustrated catalogue will be forwarded free of charge, on application. Messrs. Forrest & Sym’s trade extends all over the United Kingdom, a most valuable connection being maintained among wholesale ironmongers, &c. The business, which is rapidly increasing, gives employment at present to about sixty-five skilled workmen, under the direct personal supervision of the able and experienced principals, Mr. Forrest being a practical master of the trade, and Mr. Sym having for twelve years been traveller and part manager of the late firm of Ezard.


PROMINENT among the many important centres of chemical industry in the Manchester district stand the well-known Excelsior Chemical Works at Clayton, where for the past thirty-five years the extensive business conducted by Mr. Alfred Smith has had its headquarters. This thoroughly, representative concern was founded as far back as the year 1856 by the father of the present proprietor, and the latter gentleman succeeded to the control of it in the year 1885. Besides having had the advantage of a thoroughly practical training in the chemical trade from his father, Mr. Alfred Smith has devoted some years to special researches in chemical science on his own account, and studied for a considerable time under some of the foremost professors of the day, at Owens College, and elsewhere, and has obtained several diplomas and certificates for the thoroughness of his knowledge in the chemistry of oils and fats especially.

Being of an active and enquiring disposition, and having made many experiments of a searching character, with a view to the improvement of known results and the achievement of new ones, it is not surprising that Mr. Smith should have produced a number of excellent preparations for the public benefit; and among the various specialities with which he has identified his name in a particularly creditable manner, the following are conspicuous by reason of their merit and the success they have won:— The “Excelsior” fluid disinfectant, a non-poisonous, non-corrosive, and singularly economical and efficacious preparation, recommended by the highest medical authorities, and sanctioned by the approval of distinguished analysts. This disinfectant is unsurpassed in efficacy by any in the market, and may be employed with safety and satisfaction for all deodorizing and antiseptic purposes. It is perfectly miscible with water, in which it has advantage over carbolic acid, and it leaves no strong and unpleasant odour after use. Mr. Smith is to be congratulated upon this splendid disinfectant, and also upon those excellent developments of it which he has introduced under the names of “Excelsior” Fluid Dog Wash, and the “Excelsior” Sheep Dip, both of which have met with a most favourable reception, being non-poisonous, perfectly safe to ise, and thoroughly satisfactory in effect.

Another of Mr. Smith’s notable specialities is a new transparent varnish specially prepared for preventing oxidation or rusting in bright ironwork. This is a most valuable production, and one that commends itself at once to the consideration of machine and tool makers, locomotive builders, exporters of machinery, &c. To his enterprise and ingenuity the engineering world is also indebted for the “Excelsior” Boiler Composition, which effectually prevents incrustation and corrosion in steam boilers. Mr. Smith has published a readable and instructive little brochure on this subject, treating of the causes and the dangers of boiler-incrustation, and showing how the same may be avoided by the judicious use of the “Excelsior” composition, which has won a high reputation after long-continued practical tests. Many testimonials have been received by the firm, in which those who have used this boiler composition speak in very high terms of its efficacy.

Mr. Smith has gained renown for his carbolic powder and carbolic acid, for black varnish for steam boilers, fencing, &c., and for his “Eclipse” belting and rope composition; and among the many general products, of his admirably equipped works at Clayton we note bisulphide of carbon, chloride of sulphur, sulphite of antimony, indiarubber substitute, solvent naphtha, liquid ammonia, lamp black, caustic soda, a great variety of lubricating oils, safety and open lamp oils, and greases of every description. These are all specialities of Mr. Smith’s industry, and in them he maintains an unsurpassed standard of purity and excellence. His trade extends not only throughout the United Kingdom, but also to all the principal export markets. The house is held in the highest confidence by a widespread and valuable connection, and its energetic principal (whose years of Study, and industry have assuredly not been in vain), is respected and esteemed by all who have commercial intercourse with him.
The telegraphic address of this noted house is “Compo, Bradford, Lancs.,” and the telephone number at the works (where the offices are situated) is 5108.


AN old-established and leading house in its line is that of Messrs. James and William Lees, of the Town Lane Brewery, the well-known brewers of ales, porter, and “Invalid Stout.” This noted business was established as far back as 1848 by Messrs. James and William Lees, who soon gained a name for the superior excellence of their productions, and the fair and liberal treatment all customers received. The present proprietor is Mr. William Lees, the son of one of the founders, a gentleman whose thorough knowledge of the business, joined to sound business habits and good commercial status, places him in a position to maintain to the full the enviable reputation the house has acquired. The premises occupied are ample in size, covering some four acres of land, and there is besides a farm attached of considerable extent, which will allow any further extension of the works to be easily effected.

The buildings are large and commodious, and arranged in a manner most conducive to the successful control of the business. They comprise well-appointed offices, laboratory, capacious malt and hop stores, cooling-rooms, &c., are fitted up in a thoroughly complete style, with modern and improved appliances and machinery; and the pumps, refrigerators, attemperators, vats and boilers belonging to the establishment are of the newest principle. The establishment is furnished with what is known as a sixty-barrel plant, and it is second to none in the neighbourhood for its efficiency. The barrels are filled by gravitation in such a manner as to render their contents free from any kind of sediment. The cellars attached to this establishment are spacious and eminently suitable, and the sheds are literally packed with barrels and casks of every size, while ample accommodation is provided for the large team of horses the firm employ in the delivery of their goods. A numerous staff of skilled operatives is employed; the brewer was for many years in the service of a celebrated Burton firm. An extensive trade is controlled by the firm in the production of superior mild and bitter ales and stout. The beverages emanating from this house are widely known for their purity, flavour and excellence; they have no superiors, and few equals, in the locality. The best malt and hops only are used, and the perfection of the appliances, together with the experience brought to bear in the brewing, enables the best results possible to be obtained.

The water, too, is of the character best adapted to the brewing of good ales and stout, and the situation of the works themselves is open and healthy. The establishment is particularly famed for its “Invalid Stout,” which is highly recommended by physicians for its invigorating and nutritive qualities. A splendid connection has been developed among the leading hotels and publicans, and a large and influential family trade controlled which is growing every day. The proprietor is a gentleman of large experience in every part of his business, and his constant and earnest supervision is bestowed upon the concern to maintain the high standard of excellence for which the products of his house are so widely recognised. All his business transactions are marked by methods of strict fairness and inflexible integrity.


THIS thriving institution dates back in its foundation to the year 1860, and its commercial development has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement. The personnel of the firm are its founders, Mr. Thomas Swinburne Carr and Mr. Thomas Parker, the gentleman last named representing the house on ’Change. The firm operate on a very extensive scale as makers of every class and grade of grey sheets, sheetings, waste, twills, and kindred commodities, for the Manchester market, calling into active operation some hundred and six looms, and a very large staff of skilled and experienced workers. The town office of the house is at 17A, Rook Street, and the entire business is conducted with marked ability and spirited energy and enterprise, and no firm could have won by more honourable and legitimate means, the high reputation and eminent position which this house has so long and so worthily enjoyed.


THE history of this noted house dates back to the year 1830, when it was established by Mr. John Handley, the grandfather of the present proprietor. A reputation was soon earned for the superior quality of the goods and their thorough reliability, and the house gradually advanced in popularity and patronage. Additional enlargements have been necessitated, until at the present time the house takes a foremost position among similar local establishments. Large and commodious premises are occupied, consisting of an extensive brick and slate structure, two stories high, and comprising a suite of well-appointed offices, warehouses, storerooms and workshops, the hemp picking being carried on on the second floor. There is ample yard accommodation, containing a range of excellent stables and coach-houses, while the rope-walk is an exceptionally fine one, being one hundred and fifty yards long, with brick and slated sheds, each eight yards wide on either side.

The establishment has been well arranged for the purposes of the trade, and the plant and machinery are of the most modern and suitable kind. Under most favourable conditions, a large and important business is controlled in the manufacture of every description of rope, twine, cotton band, and printers’ and bleachers’ cotton sewing. Wherever these goods have been introduced they have obtained a ready appreciation, and among the best judges of this class of work they are immense favourites and in constant demand. They are known specially for their reliable quality, and buyers can confidently rely upon receiving exactly what they require and what they order. Every care is exercised in the proper selection of the material, and each process of manufacture is carefully watched, as the proprietor is desirous to fully maintain the high reputation the house has enjoyed for so many years. The admirable efficiency of the productive resources of the firm, and the extent and weight of the transactions they engage in, enable them to produce good articles at the least possible outlay, and to quote such prices as cannot be beaten in the trade. A speciality is made of cotton ropes, much used now for driving purposes in cotton mills, as they work very much more steadily than leather bands, last longer, and are less expensive.

Extensive and varied stocks are held of the different goods manufactured, which have been selected with due regard to the requirements of the trade, and most orders for current goods of any magnitude can be executed from their ample stores with promptitude and completeness. By the superior merits of its manufacture, the house has developed a connection of a widespread and influential kind, its patrons being found among the principal mill-owners, manufacturers, rope and twine merchants in the United Kingdom, and export shippers. A large and efficient staff of experienced hands are kept constantly employed to meet the continuously increasing demands. Mr. John Handley, the sole proprietor, has had large experience in this department of industry, and is recognised as a skilful and successful manufacturer. His personal supervision is bestowed upon the business to its manifest advantage, and every effort is made to oblige patrons and to merit their continued support. His transactions are based upon principles of strict fairness and honesty, and in social and commercial circles alike he is held in great esteem for his personal worth, his high sense of public duty, and his uprightness.


IN_connection with certain special developments of mechanical industry at Manchester, for the benefit of the cotton trade, a very prominent and widely known house is that of Mr. Joseph Stubbs, of the Mill Street Works, Ancoats. This old-established and notable concern was founded nearly half a century ago by Mr. Joseph Hetherington, uncle of the last proprietor, at premises situate in Store Street, Manchester. Mr. Joseph Stubbs succeeded to the business in 1870, and at once began to carry on a far more extensive trade. Being a man of very high inventive powers, he associated himself with a great number of novelties and improvements in the several classes of machinery for which this house has become so justly famous, and besides this he patented from time to time entirely new machines, many of which have achieved unsurpassed results in the kind of work for which they have been designed. To such an extent did the business expand under the able administration of Mr. Stubbs that it soon became necessary to find more commodious quarters than the old premises in Store Street. Accordingly, in 1883, part of the present magnificent block of buildings (which from time to time has been extended) was erected in Mill Street, and has since been the headquarters of the house.

These fine works were built at very considerable cost, and it is no exaggeration to say that they could not be surpassed for the purposes of the industry to which they are devoted. They include a large foundry (200 feet long by 100 feet wide), with two large blast furnaces, also malleable iron foundry, producing annealed and malleable iron castings of the highest quality. These castings, which are highly esteemed by a large circle of customers to whom they are supplied, are also used in the making of the various machines produced by this firm for the use of the cotton-spinning and manufacturing trades. Prominent among these machines are the following:— Winding frames, for winding from mule cops, ring and flyer throstle, or doubler bobbins; hank and new patent pirn winding frames; patent quick traverse winding frames; patent stop-motion doubler-winding frames, made from new patterns, and possessing the most simple stop-motion made; gassing frames for cotton, worsted, and silk yarns, with latest improvements; reels for mule cops, ring and flyer throstle, or doubler bobbins, all reels being now made with the new patent “Bridge” doffing motion, consisting of one piece only, and preventing any soiling with oil in doffing. In addition to the above, for which this house has an unsurpassed reputation, the list of machines includes yarn bundling presses, of all descriptions, with new lifting motion, preventing break-downs; also yarn preparing machines, warping mills, warping hecks, yarn clearers, &c., &c.

In these various productions Mr. Joseph Stubbs has presented to the trade a splendid class of machines, in which, the highest operative efficiency is attained, and any of them may be seen in operation at the show-rooms in Mill Street, where inspection is specially invited. Upwards of three hundred and fifty hands are employed at this firm’s busy works, where the greatest activity prevails as the result of the immense trade controlled, and all these skilled workmen perform their duties under the personal supervision of the present principals of the house, who are sons of the late proprietor. Mr. Joseph Stubbs died a few years ago, leaving a noble record of industry and integrity. His successors — Messrs. William T., Robert O., and Joseph H. Stubbs — have all had a sound practical training in the trade with which they are associated, and all take an active part in the administration of this very successful business. They are ably seconded by several competent foremen, some of whom have been as long as thirty years in the service of the house. The firm are represented in India by their agents, Messrs. Sorabjee, Shapurjee & Co., Bombay.
Telegrams should be addressed “Winding, Manchester.” Telephone No. 440. Attendance at No. 12 Pillar, Manchester Exchange, Tuesdays and Fridays, 1.30 to 3 p.m.


THE above prosperous and flourishing house was founded in 1882 in the same premises, and it has since increased by leaps and bounds. The four floors of a substantial building are fully occupied by the various departments of the business. The ground floor, lighted by large double windows, is used as a sale-room and furniture warehouse, containing pianofortes and all kinds of household furniture destined to be included in the periodical sales. A wide staircase gives access to the first floor, the whole front of which is filled by one large plate-glass window attractively displaying a splendid show of every description of furniture and the offices and other showrooms are on the second floor. Among the multifarious business matters which the firm undertake are valuation for probate duty, fire assessments and surveys, &c., this part of the business being looked after more especially by Mr. J. R. Duckworth, whilst the senior partner, Mr. Robert Anderson, undertakes the supervision of the other departments generally. Many sales are from time to time held at private houses in the neighbourhood, and the business has expanded so satisfactorily in many directions that it has become necessary to open a branch establishment at Richmond Chambers, Blackburn. The partners both devote considerable personal attention and close supervision to every detail of the varied transactions undertaken by the firm, and it is to their untiring energy and business foresight that the exemplary success of the business must be ascribed. Messrs. Anderson & Duckworth bear a very high reputation and are very highly esteemed and respected.


THE business carried on by this able and experienced mechanician was founded in quite a small way at Salford, in 1869, by a Mr. Slater. Ten years later Mr. Hans Renold became sole proprietor of the concern, and under his energetic management the business speedily began to develop at such a rate that it had to be transferred to its present address. Some idea of the manner in which this concern has advanced may be gathered from the fact that Mr. Renold now gives employment to no fewer than one hundred and fifty hands, while he has upwards of one hundred and thirty machines at work in his establishment producing his special improved chains for bicycles and tricycles, and also other kinds of steel driving chains for cotton machinery, elevators, cranes, electric traction, and other purposes. The premises, moreover, are being considerably enlarged, and when completed they will have a frontage of ninety-nine feet, and a depth of one hundred and twenty feet from front to rear, the block, containing six spacious floors, all fully equipped with steam-power machinery for the purposes of this notable industry. Another large building at the rear comprises the smithy and forge on the ground floor, with counting-house, offices, and stock-rooms on the next flat, and extra stock-rooms on the top floor.

Altogether, Mr. Renold may be said to have a thoroughly well-organised establishment, admirably adapted in every respect to the requirements of his business, and not the least notable feature of his busy workshops is the large outfit of unique and special machinery made expressly to perform the peculiar and important operations incidental to this industry. Twelve years ago Mr. Renold supplied the late Mr. James Starley with the first chains ever used on a cycle, and since then he has ever been among the foremost in the great improvement of the chain that has subsequently been made. Mr. Renold, in all his work, has constantly kept in view the three great essentials of a really good chain, as proved by his own and by cyclists’ experience:— (1) To be strong and not too heavy; (2) To give, by usage, as little stretch as possible; (3) To be of such construction, as will least waste the riders’ power. He has also considered carefully a number of secondary points:— (4) That the chain should have a neat and light-looking appearance; (5) That it can be easily taken off the machine or put on again; (6) That it should allow of being shortened or lengthened by as short a piece as possible, viz., one link.

It may be safely asserted that no one has done more than Mr. Renold in the direction of sound practical improvement, and perhaps no one has progressed so far towards the realisation of the perfect cycle chain. To the true mechanic, however, perfection is always some distance ahead; but when we examine his latest product for 1891, the “Renold” Patent Non- Stretchable Chain, with all its valuable new features “up to date,” it would be difficult to an outsider to point out in what direction improvement is necessary. Similar care is also bestowed in the production of the Humber pattern or block chain, with middle block of solid steel. This form of chain is also made in a series of larger sizes for heavy driving purposes, and we found that all the main shafting in these works was driven entirely by steel chain. Mr. Renold’s specialities in cycle chains have given him a leading position in the trade to which his attention is so successfully devoted, and have won for his productions the highest esteem among cycle makers and cycle riders throughout the kingdom.

We strongly recommend to the notice of all interested persons Mr. Renold’s descriptive pamphlet, in which he gives at ample length, and with lucid illustrations, particulars of his excellent improvements in chains, and of the principles embodied in his valuable patents. We also understand that Mr. Renold is engaged upon, and will shortly issue, a treatise dealing exhaustively with the whole subject of chain driving and chain gear, both as to the underlying principles and the purposes to which this method of driving is applicable. A very large and steadily increasing trade is controlled, and the entire business (personally administered in all its departments by Mr. Renold) must be ranked among the most flourishing and interesting of Manchester’s “younger generation” of representative modern industries.


OPERATIONS were commenced by the above firm in 1880, at the Leamington Saw-Mills, by Mr. I T. Emery, who, by application and ability, developed the business into a prosperous concern. Before long the business had outgrown its accommodation, and a removal was made to the present quarters, where the extent and importance of the business have been considerably augmented. The premises occupied are large and commodious, with a frontage of forty-six feet and a depth of one hundred and twenty-seven feet, and consist of three floors and a basement. The basement is occupied by a number of large circular saws and other plant and machinery employed in wood-cutting. On the ground floor is a suite of well-appointed offices and a range of convenient shops in which the packing-cases are made, and the second floor contains shops for the plumbers, gas and water fitters and glaziers, while the third floor is used for the manufacture of tin and zinc packing-cases and for the joinery department. Every department is fully equipped with plant and machinery of every desirable kind, and the establishment possesses in the amplitude of its accommodation and the abundance of its resources, unsurpassed facilities.

The proprietor has had much experience in the various branches of his business, and has gained a good reputation in Manchester and the district for the excellent character of the work he turns out. The leading feature of the business is as contractors for house and warehouse buildings. In box and case making he takes a leading position in the trade for soundness of material and reliability of work, while the extent of his transactions and the productive resources he possesses enable him to successfully compete in prices with all comers. The house is no less noteworthy for the superiority of its work in the tin-case department, the joinery, and in the gas and water fittings; and all orders with which Messrs. Emery may be trusted are sure to be carried out in the most satisfactory manner.

A glance at the immense stocks of timber and builders’ materials at this establishment, will convince the spectator that this is a business of no common importance, and that the firm are fully prepared to undertake the most important contracts in any of the departments in which they are so largely concerned. The stocks include good supplies of English and foreign timber, floorings, skirtings, mouldings, deals, battens, door- pieces, window-pieces, staircases, balustrades, banisters and turnings for cabinet-makers. The connection of this noted house is large and influential, extending throughout Manchester and the surrounding district. A force of from forty to fifty skilled hands is kept in constant employment in the various departments, under the superintendence of competent managers, and the firm is represented on the road by a traveller. The proprietor is an eminently practical man and well skilled in every department of his industry, and his personal supervision is given to the whole of the business, which derives undoubted benefit therefrom. His business principles are strictly fair and honourable, and he is always anxious to maintain the reputation his house has so deservedly obtained. He is much respected in private and commercial circles.


THIS old-established and eminent firm of manufacturing stationers and printers was founded as far back as the year 1840 by Mr. Gavin Hamilton, who in 1845 sold it to Mr. Thomas Booth, from whose trustees Mr. James Collins bought the business, in January, 1849. Shortly afterwards he took Mr. Frederick James Hale into partnership. In March, 1855, Mr. Hale retired through ill-health. Up to 1859 Mr. Collins remained sole proprietor. In December of that year he took into partnership Mr. Edgar Wilding, the present title of James Collins & Co. being then assumed. In 1886 Mr. Wilding died, and in 1887 Mr. Collins was joined by Mr. Joseph J. Alexander, and in 1889 by Mr. Arthur Kingston. The business in its entirety is one of great magnitude and importance, having developed continuously from the date of its foundation, and its headquarters in King Street comprise a spacious double-fronted warehouse, opposite the old Town Hall, now the Free Library, with general and private offices at the rear. This warehouse contains an immense stock of stationery of every description, and the range and variety of the goods kept show how completely the firm exemplify this department of their trade.

The paper stock is particularly large and comprehensive, and embraces a quantity of high-class writings and special papers for the making of account books, which latter branch of industry Messrs. Collins & Co. carry on upon an extensive scale. They enjoy an eminent reputation for the superior finish and durability of their ledgers and other account books, requiring great strength for long wear and tear. The firm under notice are also well known as general and artistic printers, lithographers, and engravers, and to these departments the upper floors of the premises in King Street are devoted. There is a fine plant of the best modern machinery land appliances for letterpress and lithographic printing, and the firm turn out a large quantity of first-class work, which their excellent facilities enable them to execute at moderate prices.

Upwards of one hundred skilled and experienced hands are employed in the different working departments, and the whole business is personally superintended and managed by Messrs. Alexander and Kingston, Mr. Collins having retired from active work, though he still remains at the head of the concern. A very large and steadily increasing trade is carried on, and not only do the firm enjoy the favour and confidence of a large and valuable home connection, but they are also patronised by a number m£ customers in the export markets, a particularly good business being done with India and America. The telegraphic address of this old and highly reputed house is “Index, Manchester.”

We may add that the principals are all prominent men in the trade, and Mr. James Collins is a well known and much respected Mancestrian, with a very creditable record of public services rendered in connection with various charitable institutions during the course of a long and active life. The continued increase of business requiring more room, the firm is about to remove in March to larger and more commodious premises, No. 4, Southgate, King Street, W., within three minutes’ walk of their present warehouse, February, 1892.


THIS old-established concern, originally organised by a Mr. L. Turner, was for a very long period run under the auspices of the late Messrs. John Gorton & Co., with whom the present able proprietor had remained for a period of twenty-four years prior to the time when, in 1SS7, the entire proprietary control passed into his hands. Mr. W. J. Adams has since then been the life and soul of this magnificent business, which he recently transferred from Oxford Road to its present extensive quarters, Eagle Mills, in Whitworth Street. These mills are replete with all the latest and best special machinery and appliances for the production of the wares for which the firm has acquired a world-wide celebrity. These comprise every conceivable kind of elastic goods, of the nature of cords and braids, garter webs, suspenders, girdle and corset cords, and hat guards, as well as all descriptions of non-elastic braids in silk, cotton, and worsted, and every variety of square and round cords for tailoring, millinery, and other purposes, also boot laces, window and picture cords, fines, and general smallwares. Then the firm are also makers of fishing tackle, such as plaited fishing lines in silk, flax, and other substances, suitable for both fresh and salt-water fishing.

Their great speciality, however, and one which has become almost phenomenally popular, on account of its easy manipulation, surpassing beauty, and economic price, is their Patent Flange or Insertion Trimming and Flange Elastic. These goods consist essentially of a ready-made piping or edging, in a vast variety of artistic designs, supplied with a kind of marginal flange or dvage, which permits of its being sewn without any difficulty in between the cloth and lining, or in the seams of the material to which it is attached; or it may be used for embroidering purposes; in all cases forming an essentially neat and effective trimming, which modistes and milliners ought to hail with delight. The business in all its branches is conducted, under the personal supervision of Mr. Adams, with spirited energy and enterprise; and no circumstance could more strongly accentuate the merits of the firm’s productions than the world-wide reputation they have acquired and successfully sustained for so many years.


THE above firm took origin in the year 1879, by the association in business of Mr. William A. Mitchell and Mr. Duncan T. Johnston, trading under the style and title above designated at 12, Faulkner Street. In 1886 their trade had increased to such an extent as to necessitate a transference to larger premises in 26, Princess Street, and again in 1891 to the present more commodious quarters. The premises occupied are in every particular exactly adapted to the requirements of a brisk and large business of the kind. They consist of a handsome suite of offices, augmented by capacious stock and pattern rooms, and private offices for the partners, the whole being located conveniently on the second floor, and having a separate entrance for goods. The firm operate on a very extensive scale as printers of calicoes and muslins, dealing principally with local shippers, and catering chiefly for the various oriental, colonial, home trade, and other markets. They have a branch establishment at 143, West George Street, Glasgow, and control a trade which may with every justice be said to be in the first rank of its kind in the kingdom, and which proclaims its principals to be men of experience, and “light and leading” in the difficult industry which they so faithfully represent.


THIS notable house was founded in 1864 by Mr. Richard Cunliffe, who commenced his operations in very small premises, executing only the finishing processes himself, and having all castings made outside. From this modest beginning the extensive Broughton Iron Works have grown up, and the business now possesses ample resources for all its undertakings, from the rough castings to the finished machine. Mr. Cunliffe had had valuable experience before commencing this business, and in 1879 he admitted into partnership a Mr. Croom, who died a few years ago, and since then Mr. Cunliffe has remained, as at first, sole principal of the concern. He attends daily at the works, personally supervising every operation, and his customers may rely upon a careful maintenance of the high standard of accuracy in construction and fine finish in workmanship which has so long characterized the productions of the Broughton Works. The premises, which have been greatly extended from time to time, have been enlarged in an especially notable degree during the past three years, and they now cover upwards of six thousand square yards. For the most part the work is carried on upon the ground level — a very convenient and labour-saving arrangement.

Mr. Cunliffe was at one time foreman at the works of Messrs. Sharp, Stewart & Co., formerly of Manchester, but now removed to the Clyde. He is consequently acquainted with every practical detail in the arrangement of works of this kind, and supplementing his sound experience with his own personal skill and inventive faculty, he has built up an establishment which is practically perfect in plan and equipment, while the plant and machinery in use are of the highest order of efficiency. Upwards of two hundred hands are regularly employed here, whereas, in 1864, the staff numbered only ten workmen. This fact illustrates the remarkable growth of the business.

Messrs. Cunliffe and Croom are famous for high-class lathes, planing and drilling machines, milling, shaping, and slotting machines, chucks, slide rests, surface plates, and many other important engineers’ requisites. Leading specialities of the house consist in hand and power planing machines, all sizes, foot and power lathes, and brass-finishing and milling machines, for all of which an unsurpassed reputation is enjoyed. Specially noteworthy are this firm’s improved self-acting boring and turning gap lathe, improved foot turning lathes, improved automatic turret lathes, capstan head lathe, carding-engine cylinder turning and ending out lathes, special milling machine for cotton machinists, hand and power planing machines, shaping machines, self-acting milling and grooving machine, universal milling machines and dividing heads.

Messrs. Cunliffe and Croom also devote special attention to the production of machines suitable for use in technical schools, and they have done a large amount of high-class work in this respect for the Manchester Technical School, Owen’s College, Cheetham Hospital (Blue Coat School), Bolton Technical School, and various other important institutions giving attention to technical instruction. So well has this class of work been executed by the firm that they have had the honour of supplying to Mr. William Mather, M.P., “the leading member of the House of Commons on technical education,” a number of machines for his own workshop use. Messrs. Cunliffe and Croom are also on the Admiralty list of contractors, and are doing some important work for this department at the time of writing. The whole business is a monument to the energy, perseverance, and practical skill of Mr. Cunliffe, and upon his sterling qualities the house can safely depend for the adequate maintenance of the high reputation at present enjoyed.


NO review of the many industrial pursuits, whose successful development have made Manchester famous, could claim a degree of completeness without embodying some mention of the firm which is the subject of this notice. One peculiarity is that it is the only firm engaged in the manufacture of water meters in the County of Lancashire, or indeed in this part of the country. It was established in the year 1860, on a comparatively small scale, and has gone on gradually increasing until it is now a business of considerable importance. The Company was founded to manufacture the water meters patented by Mr. H. Frost, which even at that time were allowed to be the most ingenious and mechanical instruments for the purpose. The leading mechanical journal, “The Engineer,” speaking of these meters at that time, said, “It is a very ingeniously contrived and compact machine. With regard to the main requisites of an efficient water meter, accuracy of measurement, and protection from fraud, by tampering with the register or working parts, we imagine this to be the very best working meter we have seen.” These have been succeeded by further improved patents which have been produced by its Managing Director, Mr. Frost, who by his long practical experience has acquired an exceptional mechanical knowledge of this special subject.

It may not be out of place to mention that the object of these instruments is to measure the water supplied by corporations and waterworks companies to the consumers of water, although in this country water meters are comparatively little known to the general public, being chiefly used for measuring water for trade purposes. Abroad, however, where water is scarce, and where the construction of waterworks has been a very costly and difficult matter, it is of necessity very valuable; for this reason, coupled with the vital necessity of its economy, all water is measured by meter, which is the only fair and equitable way of selling this important necessity of life. Many are the troubles arising from a deficient supply, which would have been avoided in this country, in many cases, if the same method had been adopted, as many people so little value that which comes to their hands so freely and in apparently unlimited quantity, that reckless and culpable waste is constantly going on, to meet which water companies and public bodies find it necessary to keep increasing their sources of supply and their means of storage; and even then, when an exceptionally dry season comes, the consequence is often a curtailment of the service, and great domestic inconvenience. Almost all other commodities of life are sold or distributed by weight or measure; why not water, which is at the present price, bulk for bulk, so much more costly than gas None ever think of retailing gas except by measure with a gas-meter, as it is universally sold; and yet in, say, the City of Manchester, where, if water was sold by the cubic foot the same as gas, and at its present price, it would be, we believe, more than four times the price of gas, yet, except for trade purposes, the more costly article is sold unmeasured.

Frost’s patent water meters are now in use in all parts of the globe, especially in places where water is the scarcest and the dearest — this on account of their accuracy, their durability, and special fitness for the purpose. In all public tests and exhibitions where they have been tried and seen, we believe they have always stood in the very first rank, and received the very highest commendation.
Telegraphic address, “Watermeter, Manchester.”


THIS business was initiated in 1854, and since that period its progress has been steady but highly satisfactory. The founders brought to bear large experience, skill, and industry on their new undertaking, and the superior and reliable nature of the products was recognised at an early date. A progressive policy was adopted. All the latest advances of science in this department of investigation and discovery were speedily and skilfully utilized by the enterprising proprietors. The present proprietors of this noted business are Mr. R. S. Howarth and Mr. E. B. Harlock. Operations are carried on in spacious premises specially built for the purpose of the trade; they comprise offices and laboratory and long ranges of buildings of various sizes, in which the different processes of manufacture are conducted, together with numerous store-rooms, and every requirement for the control of a large business of this description.

The vitriol chambers are three in number, and in size and capacity are not surpassed by those of any firm in the district. The fitting up and the equipment are the outcome of the proprietors’ long experience and spirited policy. An organised system of labour is maintained, under the constant personal supervision of the partners, and the management throughout reflects the highest credit on everyone concerned, while the care and consideration which have been manifested in every department for the comfort and health of the employes are deserving of the highest encomia. A large business is done in the manufacture of brown and rectified oil of vitriol, spirits of salts, salt cake, and other chemicals.

The productions of this house have acquired a well recognized position in the markets, and are everywhere looked upon as among the very best of their kind procurable. An important feature to consumers is their thoroughly reliable quality. From the care with which every process is conducted, and the skilled labour and perfect resources brought to bear during the whole time of manufacture, their articles are always of one high standard of excellence. This reliable uniformity renders them great favourites in all cases where similarity of results is indispensable in using them. All acids emanating from this responsible firm can be confidently accepted as being free from arsenic. Prompt and efficient attention is given to all orders; estimates and quotations are freely supplied on application. Prices, too, at this house will be found to be of the most satisfactory character, and such as cannot be beaten by any first-class house in the same trade, regard being had to the genuine and superior nature of the articles supplied. An extensive connection has been developed in Manchester and district, and its constantly-increasing character is adequate proof that both in quality and price the firm are giving thorough satisfaction to their patrons.


THE great reputation of this firm for the high quality of their productions has been maintained over a long series of years. Excellence of design, combined with first-class material and workmanship, has given them most deservedly a large place in the confidence of their patrons and the public. The variety of their manufactures in marble and granite is most extensive, comprising chimney pieces, memorials, fenders, slabs for lavatories, all kinds of work for interior and exterior uses, as well as embellishments of public and private buildings. They deal largely in tiles of every kind for floors, hearths, walls, and for every conceivable purpose. Kitchen-ranges and grates for drawing, dining, and other rooms, with all the latest developments and improvements, are dealt in and supplied very largely to their customers.

The present proprietor, Mr. John Bennison, has added some most valuable inventions to the business which he has patented. These inventions are of the most important nature, and of great public utility and advantage. They are for the complete cure and prevention of smoky chimneys — the “Acme Chimney Top,” and the “Imperial Ante-syphon.” The former is for the cure of simple and well-defined evils, as “blow-down.” It has been most extensively patronised and sent out in very great numbers all over the country. For cases of a complex character, the “Imperial Anti-syphon Flue” is used in combination with the “Acme Top,” which combination absolutely cures and prevents any chimney from smoking, whatever may be the state of weather, force or direction of the wind, surroundings and conditions of the building. In their application to old chimneys, the success attending has been wonderful, no failure having occurred out of many hundreds operated upon. By the complete success, Mr. Bennison has won the gratitude of numberless patrons, which has induced him to bring them prominently before the notice of the architectural profession and building constructors for introduction to new buildings while in process of erection, thus providing a complete flue that will save any chimney constructed with them from the remotest possibility of smoking. These inventions should meet with the heartiest response, and have a wide and most extensive sale. It will be readily admitted that any one providing such appliances as will save the possibility of having a smoky chimney (one of the most annoying, troublesome, and destructive evils of modern civilised life) should be considered a public benefactor. Mr. Bennison has written a scientific treatise on the causes of smoky chimneys, their cure, &c., which is most instructive and useful.


THIS successfully conducted brewery was established over thirty years ago by the late Mr. Lawrence O’Neil, and was purchased by the present proprietors about eight years ago. As a producer of the finest mild and bitter ales stouts, &c., its reputation extends far and wide, and the sale and connection is very extensive. The premises are very large and commodious, and consist of two blocks of handsome buildings, which are elaborately fitted up internally. The brewery stands in a large yard and is a well built and substantial concern. It consists of a forty-quarter plant, which can easily be converted into an eighty-quarter plant. It has been fitted throughout with the best brewing appliances for ales, also stouts, and is managed with great ability and enterprise. There are upwards of one hundred and fifty houses belonging to, and tied by, the company. Many of them are in excellent positions, doing an increasing trade and consuming a very great quantity of the firm’s productions. Ten horses, lorries, &c., are employed, and the animals are in the pink of condition. There is also a large wine and spirit business carried on, in addition to the brewery, also an extensive bottling trade, for bottling beers and stouts, Bass’s Ales and Guinness’s stouts, the output being over seven hundred dozen per week. The wine and spirit department is wholesale, and it is composed of the choicest brands, in each case, carefully blended and matured. The brewery is the property of the Weld-Blundell family, and is carried on under the above title, as a private limited company. It has achieved a great reputation, not only for the quality of its productions, but also for the honourable nature of its transactions. About seventy men are employed.


THIS business was established in 1834, and being conducted with energy and ability, from time to time enlargements of the works were necessitated, and in every department the highest standard of efficiency was maintained. Mr. Joseph M. Leigh is the sole proprietor, carrying on the business under the time-honoured and respected title of John Tomkinson & Co. The premises in Oxford Street consist of a substantial and attractive block of three-storey building, with fine, capacious plate-glass windows, and a commanding frontage of twenty-five yards in extent; they comprise offices and extensive and admirably fitted up show-rooms on the first and second floors. The works are situated at the rear of these premises, with entrance from No. 1, Angle Street. They are conveniently built to form, with the offices and show-rooms, three sides of a hollow square. They comprise large and lofty warehouses, and a number of well-arranged workshops; one side of the premises is occupied exclusively by the timber sheds, and the central space affords ample yard accommodation. The works are thoroughly equipped, and a splendid plant is in operation, which includes all the latest productions of mechanical ingenuity for facilitating and improving the processes of manufacture in this branch of industry.

The firm conduct a large and valuable trade in the manufacture of wheels and coach and railway carriage ironmongery. In this department their reputation is secured, their goods being recognised in the markets as standard productions, and as being unsurpassed in quality, material, finish, and uniform and general excellence. Nothing but superior and well- seasoned woods are used, especial care being taken in procuring them from the best growths, and they are all subjected to the severest tests before being used in the manufacture, while equal attention is bestowed upon all other materials to insure their being of the best and most suitable kind. A staff of from forty to fifty skilled hands is employed in the several departments. Ample stocks are held of the various goods manufactured, including wheels of every description, coach bodies, under carriages, Collinge’s axles, mail axles, lancewood shafts, lamps, door handles, carriage poles, springs, and plated hames; and also all kinds of coach and railway carriage ironmongery and sundries, such as silver and brass beading, whips, coach bolts, carriage trimmings, wool mats, varnishes, &c. A special feature is made of repairing in all its branches. This business is of a large and important character, the connection lying among the best and oldest wholesale buyers in Lancashire and the surrounding counties.


FORTY years have now elapsed since Mr. Henry J Bond organised this flourishing concern, which in due course came under the control of his sons, Messrs. Walter and John Thomas Bond, and assumed its present style and title. The Manchester headquarters of the house were formerly located in Calender Street, Palace Square, but the present splendid premises were entered upon about a year ago, and here every accommodation is afforded for a grand display of the goods for which the house has become world-famous. The magnificent factory of the firm is known as the Milton Mills at Bolton, and calls into requisition the active services of a very large staff of skilled operatives, whose labours are assisted by a valuable plant of the most modern special machinery and appliances, in the production of the following distinct lines of goods:— toilet quilts of every description, class, and grade; patent Milton quilts, which may be described as wonderful imitations of quilting by a peculiar process of weaving; rich tapestry quilts, for which special awards have been won; honeycomb, Alhambra, and Novelty quilts, &c., specimens of which have gained for the firm a well-merited renown at numerous exhibitions, notably at Melbourne, in 1889, when a Certificate of the First Order of Merit was obtained. The trade is a large one and extends all over Great Britain, and to the foreign markets through shippers; and the business, under the capable and energetic administration of its joint proprietors, is conducted with a skill and judgment that prove their value and good effect in the manner in which the firm has, during an age of keen competition, been enabled to hold its own.


A LEADING position has long been held by the eminent firm of Messrs. Parry, Sons and Hanson, of Mosley Street, who also have branches at Liverpool, Birmingham, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and Glasgow. This old-established and most extensive concern originated upwards of half a century ago, under the style of Jones and Parry, and so continued until about the year 1860, when the present title of Parry, Sons and Hanson was adopted. Mr. Thomas Hanson is now the head of the house, and with him is associated in partnership Mr. D. W. W. Parry, one of the sons of the late Mr. Parry.. Mr. Hanson has been associated with the house for fully forty-five-years, first as an assistant, and eventually as a partner. He continues to personally superintend the entire concern, and is indefatigable in his exertions to ensure its proper management. In the routine work his very large and competent staff (numbering in all about one hundred and twenty persons) affords valuable assistance, and everything combines to keep this noted house in the front rank of the trade it so well exemplifies.

The premises occupied in Mosley Street form an immense five-storey warehouse, imposing in its outward aspect, and remarkable for the handsome character of its interior appointments. In this commodious and finely equipped establishment Messrs. Parry, Sons and Hanson hold one of the finest and most extensive stocks of outfittings of various kinds to be found in the United Kingdom. The departments contain really wonderful array of novelties in ties, scarfs, handkerchiefs, braces, belts, mufflers, umbrellas, travelling rugs, hosiery, and gloves, Cardigan jackets, jerseys, and jersey suits, collars, cuffs, fronts, shirts, studs, solitaires, and other jewellery, linen threads, and an immense variety of tailors’ trimmings and buttons, gent’s cashmere summer vests, black and coloured Italians, serges, satteens, and dyed goods. A little novelty, in the shape of a fine steel spring for keeping the collars and lapels of coats always in shape, is also among this firm’s many specialities, and is undoubtedly a most useful idea. Altogether, Messrs. Parry, Sons and Hanson’s warehouse presents a complete illustration of the outfitting trade in all its features, and in every one of the many departments here so well represented the firm do an immense wholesale business, supplying the trade with the best classes of goods on the most favourable terms, and maintaining a most valuable and influential connection in all the principal markets. The requirements of the export trade are carefully considered, and a very large business is done in this department through the medium of shipping houses. Messrs. Parry, Sons and Hanson’s warehouse is opened every morning at eight o’clock, and immediate attention is then given to all urgent letters, the prompt execution of orders received in this way being greatly appreciated by the firm’s many customers in all parts of the country. The trade controlled is entirely wholesale, the connection being developed among hosiers and outfitters in nearly every quarter of the kingdom. The firm’s branches are as follows: 3, Williamson Street, Liverpool; St. John Street, Grainger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne; 10, Dr. Johnson’s Passage, Bull Street, Birmingham; and 179, Trongate, Glasgow.
Telegrams should be addressed, “Cravat, Manchester.”


FROM an inquiry into the antecedents of this thriving concern, it may be fairly said that it was originally projected in the year 1860 by a Mr. Muller, in Lower King Street. It was afterwards transferred by him to premises in Blackfriars Street, and was there continued by him, and after his decease by his executors till the year 1887. On the then proprietors in that year leaving the business, Mr. Wm. Fell and Mr. Wm. Edmund Greenhough, who constitute the personnel of the present firm, and both of whom are gentleman of recognised ability, and the former of whom was associated with the early management of the business for many years, took up the old connection; and under their fostering care it has been developed to its present proud proportions. The premises now occupied are in every point of character and situation exactly adapted to the wants of a brisk, first-class wholesale concern of the kind. The firm operate on a very large scale as importers and bonders of all the leading growths and blends of wines and spirits; and are the sole proprietors of the celebrated “Crown Special Blend” of Scotch whisky. The trade controlled is one of considerable volume, and extends throughout the United Kingdom, being actively promoted through the agency of a staff of travellers under the direct guidance of Mr. Fell, while the mercantile department receives the personal attention of Mr. Greenhough at headquarters. Thus judiciously organised the business has attained a foremost position in the trade, and it is manifestly the resolution of the proprietors that the prestige of their house shall not only be consistently maintained but steadily enhanced and developed in days to come.


MR. WILLCOCK occupies the most spacious and prominent range of premises in the above market, at which he conducts the largest business of its kind in the provinces. The present Fish Market is comparatively a new building, having been erected about twenty years ago. It was preceded by the Strangeways Fish Market, and still earlier by the Old Shambles Fish Market, which was the first market established in Manchester for gathering the wholesale fish-dealers to one centre. The two latter markets are now extinct. The tenants and trade formerly attached thereto were transferred to the present handsome structure and more appropriate Smithfield Market. Mr. Willcock’s early history extends back to the days when these former markets flourished in the early part of this century, and his interests and business career were closely connected with them. During the time when the Old Shambles Market held sway, the railway communication with Manchester was in a very imperfect state, and fish from Scarborough, Southport, and other distant places were conveyed the whole distance by horse and cart. Notwithstanding the difficulties of transmission, soles, salmon, and turbot, that are now so dear, were then exceedingly cheap, and could be obtained at prices that would bring gladness to the hearts of the community were it possible now — as it was then — to buy the choicest soles, salmon, and turbot at threepence to fourpence per pound, which we are assured by Mr. Willcock was the case in the good old days referred to. Many tons of fish are disposed of by Mr. Willcock daily at his premises in the Smithfield Market to the fishmongers and dealers residing within a radius of twenty miles from his place of business.

An important contribution to the food supply of Manchester is the large and continuous consignments of rabbits which Mr. Willcock, after much difficulty, is enabled to place on the market by a well-devised system in connection with the landowners and rabbit-dealers residing in distant parts of Scotland, Ireland, and other places, who are furnished with all appliances by Mr. Willcock for quick despatch and conveyance by passenger trains of the rabbits to secure their early arrival in Manchester whilst perfectly fresh, which is now accomplished daily to the entire satisfaction of all concerned, and thus many thousands of couples of rabbits reach Manchester that otherwise could not do so but for the facilities and appliances furnished by Mr. Willcock.

In the game and poultry departments we find every species of bird in profusion, enough and sufficient for all. Fish, game, poultry and rabbits from Holland, Sweden, Norway, France, Italy, Austria, Germany, Russia, Canada, America and Australia, anxiously cared for by a courteous salesman awaiting the arrival of customers, who, being tempted by the favourable prices at which the goods are offered, are induced to benefit themselves by snapping up the bargains to their hearts’ content. In this way the business in each department proceeds vigorously and without hitch, amidst noise and bustle, from six until ten o’clock each morning, when the din of business is replaced by a calmness of a market partially deserted, the customers having suddenly left at the last-named hour for their respective establishments to make the best of their bargains, returning again next morning when a similar cycle of operations is repeated.

The efforts made by Mr. Willcock to obtain large and regular supplies of the goods in which he vends has greatly augmented the food supply of Manchester, and these efforts are not undertaken by him solely for the purpose of acquiring money or profit, but to benefit the working classes, and to place within their reach a cheap meal of the best fish, game, and poultry obtainable, at the most reasonable prices. To a great extent he has succeeded in doing this, and he hopes that in the near future, when the trade is more in touch with the consumers, that fish, game, and poultry will reach hundreds of householders who are now indifferent to the advantages, of a cheap food supply lying at their own door, and who rarely or never patronise the fishmonger and game-dealer.

Mr. Willcock’s is the oldest established house in the trade. About thirty hands — chiefly salesmen and clerks — are employed at his Smithfield Market, establishment. He has a warehouse in Tortworth Street, standing On two thousand square yards or thereabouts. These premises are set apart for stabling fifteen horses, and provide cover for a large number of carts and vehicles used in his trade, and include, besides three fish-curing houses, a fishing-net manufactory, a steam sawmill, a blacksmith’s and joiner’s shop, and extensive stores for boxes. Mr. Willcock is the owner of a fine steam trawler, named Kingfisher, built on most modern principles, provided with ice stores, &c., and propelled by compound surface condensing engine, indicating up to three hundred horse-power. This ship proceeds to sea, three and four hundred miles, in all states of weather, returning to harbour after an absence of eight or nine days with her catch of fish weighing many tons. He has also two smaller steam fishing vessels, built expressly for the herring and mackerel fishings. They are the only steam-fishing vessels on British waters engaged solely in the herring and mackerel fishings; each of the two latter boats is provided with a herring or mackerel net two miles long, and it does not surprise Mr. Willcock to hear that one of these boats has landed fifteen tons of herring or mackerel at one haul.

If we take a glimpse at Mr. Willcock’s leading characteristics, or the qualifications that he is possessed of, and which have contributed to his success in life, we find him to be a man of great mental force and physical strength, above the medium height and weight. It is natural to him to make business a pleasure, and he never looks down upon it as drudgery. His attitude or bearing towards customers or friends, and in particular to his employes, is characterised by strong social and benevolent qualities and sympathetic ties. His servants never leave him until death severs the connection; above all, Mr. Willcock is a man of unflinching perseverance, and devotes most scrupulous care and attention to all matters great or small that pass through his hands or demand his consideration. He is a man of tact and ability, daring and enthusiastic in his undertakings. The erection of the Manchester Patent Ice Works seventeen years ago, on a large and costly scale, was mainly due to him, and at that time the manufacture of artificial ice was not developed beyond the bounds of an experiment, and had not been tested on a commercial scale. The adventure, however, fully justified Mr. Willcock’s prognostications, and proved a great success. Scientific men from all parts of the world have visited it. Success has in no way spoiled Mr. Willcock, and his numerous friends hope that he may long be spared to push on the enterprising business of which he or any man might justly be proud.


IT would be a matter of impossibility to ignore the claims of this well-known establishment to be classed among the leading concerns of its kind in the city. The extent and the superiority of the connection alone renders it eligible for the distinction. The very best class of customers are attracted to it, and have become to recognise it in connection with all that is new, novel, and beautiful in the particular branches to which attention is directed. This is essentially an establishment for ladies, whose principal delight is to see their children comfortably, as well as prettily, dressed. Here the mistake so often made of making children’s clothing too tight is obviated, by allowing as much room as is compatible with style in all garments for children’s wear. Baby-linen is the great feature of the house, and every requisite that can possibly be required can be supplied in one day. A complete range of goods to suit all purchasers, from medium qualities to finest goods, being always in stock. Cots, bassinettes and baskets are all made and fitted in the very lightest and prettiest style, the drapery being arranged to take on and off for washing; and their reputation for success in this branch of their business is unrivalled. All kinds of ladies’ outfitting is undertaken, and the articles — either in stock or to order — are of the finest material and workmanship. The very latest patterns are regularly received. All orders are executed under the direct supervision of the firm. The selection on view is more than enough to satisfy the wants of the most exacting, and it speaks volumes for the taste and ability of the lady principals of this concern, that though the business was only founded about the year 1884, and on its real merit has enjoyed a large measure of prosperity.

The proprietors are Miss Emily Scown and Miss Clara Newling. These ladies have made themselves popular with their aristocratic customers, by the ready way in which they have met their wants and requirements, and by the skill with which they have conducted their establishment. Nor has the commendable enterprise of the ladies escaped observation. It is appreciated and supported by all who visit the premises. These consist of a handsome single-fronted shop, well furnished and fitted, &c. The stock-rooms are on the basement floor. The whole place is conducted in that refined manner which betokens the cultured tastes of the principals, and we recommend ladies to take their friends there, where at any time goods will be shown and estimates given; even if the lady does not require to purchase at the time.


AMONG the notable houses whose names have become closely and creditably identified with the development of the Wholesale Provision trade in Manchester, a place of prominence must unquestionably be accorded to the old-established and well-known business, which, organised some forty years ago, is to-day presided over by Mr. George Little. The premises occupied consist of a large and substantial five-storied building. The well-appointed offices are situated on the first floor, while the whole of the remaining accommodation is fully utilised for the storage of an enormous stock of provisions, fresh consignments being received every week from the Continent and America, and twice weekly, or even daily, from Ireland. Mr. Little operates on a very extensive scale as an Importer of Irish, American, and Danish bacon of the best brands; Kiel, French, and Irish Butters; Margarines; Canned goods; and the freshest of Irish and Continental Eggs. These goods are promptly distributed to dealers in all parts of the country, and the entire business, which entails the full employment of a very large staff, receives the careful personal supervision of the proprietor, in conjunction with his eldest son, Mr. Geo. W. Little, and is conducted in the best possible manner, upon principles which have gained for him a high reputation and widespread patronage.
His telephone number is 1,160, and his telegraphic address, “Zeta, Manchester.”


THIS notable business was founded in the year 1865 by the present principal, Mr. Samuel McLardy, and was for a long time carried on at Nos. 14 and 16, Miller Street. In March, 1890 the concern was transferred to its present headquarters in Shudehill, a large and very handsome five-storey warehouse, the general plan and organisation of which is conducive to the utmost, convenience in the administration of the immense business engaged in. Here the system pursued allows each department to deal exclusively in its own special line, and although the entire concern is under the one proprietorship, this great warehouse may be said to accommodate six large and important businesses, each engaged in operations of the most extensive character within the scope of its own particular constitution. These several busy departments may be enumerated as follows:— (1) jewellery, comprising gold and silver watches, and all manner of jewellery and jewellers’ sundries, electro-plate in full variety, marble clocks, bronzes, regulators, barometers, combs, brushes, &c., &c., table cutlery of all classes; (2) leather, cabinet, and fancy goods, with carved wood brackets, Japanese and papier mache goods, ladies’ companions, work-boxes, plush brackets and mirrors, writing desks and jewel cases in wood and leather, ladies’ and gentlemen’s hand and travelling bags, fitted bags, school bags, portmanteaux and travelling trunks, fire screens, and all manner of fancy novelties, together with a specially fine array of purses, albums, and photo frames in all the newest designs; (3) hardware and furnishing goods, including coal vases in wood and iron, brass and iron bedsteads, fenders and fire-irons, tinware, hollow ware, enamelled ware, household brushes, toilet and chimney glasses, wood and nickel clocks, door mats, galvanised goods, &c., &c.; (4) glass and china, comprising all the newest and choicest productions in Bohemian vases and lustres, French and German china in figures and vases, English cut and ornamental glass, Parian figures, birds, fruits, flowers, shades in all styles and sizes, and other kindred articles; (5) toys and dolls, a department containing a wondrous variety of goods of all classes. The selection here is made from all the best English, continental, and American markets, and as Messrs. McLardy are constantly in direct communication with the various manufacturers, they are always in a position to secure the first consignment of bona fide novelties.

In each of the departments named above the stocks held are of a thoroughly representative character, and the extent of the firm’s trade enables them to offer their goods at prices which command the instant attention of retail dealers everywhere. A word of special commendation is due to the efficient manner in which each department is worked by its own special staff, an arrangement which ensures the careful execution and quick despatch of every order received. The whole routine of this great business is facilitated to a very notable extent by the internal plan of the premises, which has been specially designed and erected to suit the purposes of this particular trade. In 1877 Mr. McLardy added the above named departments to his original trade in pipes and tobacconists’ requisites. In this latter branch (which dates from the foundation of the house in 1865) he has attained an almost pre-eminent position, both as a merchant and a manufacturer. Indeed, there is probably no other house in the British Isles doing a larger trade in everything that appertains to the use of tobacco; and at Newton Heath Mr. McLardy has a wonderfully interesting factory, where clay pipes are turned out at the rate of about twenty millions per annum. Mr. McLardy has built up an enormous trade in all kinds of smokers’ fancy goods, and holds in this department a stock which cannot be surpassed in interest and variety. His goods always sell well, having been before the public for a quarter of a century, and he has from the first pursued the sound policy of considering the interests of his customers as in a large measure identical with his own. A tobacconist starting business can have his establishment equipped and stocked with absolutely everything essential to his trade, by simply placing himself in communication with Mr. McLardy and stating the extent of his requirements. This fact will serve as an illustration of the magnitude and comprehensiveness of the business controlled by this great Manchester house.

Mr. Samuel McLardy is a Scotchman by birth, and has all the shrewdness and keen commercial instincts of the North Briton. At the same time he is esteemed and respected by all who know him for his kindliness and manly, straightforward methods. He is a hard worker, never sparing himself any labour in the affairs of his business; and years of persevering industry and fair dealing have placed him at the head of a concern which takes high rank at the present day among the foremost English houses of its kind.


THE origin of this prominent business dates back for some fifteen years, when operations were commenced in Moss Lane East. Under the able and vigorous control of the founder the business rapidly developed, and, the premises becoming too small for the increased requirements, a removal was made to the present quarters in 1885. The premises are spacious and commodious, consisting of private and general offices, warehouses, packing-room, stores, drying-rooms, and the departments in which the various processes of manufacture and preparation are earned on, together with a large covered yard. The whole of the establishment has been arranged in a manner most convenient for the despatch of the business, and fitted up with the most improved machinery and appliances of every description, including an eight-horse power gas-enginë, silk siftings for rice, pepper, gingers, and spice; French burr stone mill for grinding pepper; Edge roller mill for acids, &c., and six various makes of mills for grinding spices, &c. A force of nine hands is employed, and orders of any magnitude receive prompt and efficient attention.

Everything emanating from this noted firm is of thoroughly reliable quality and of guaranteed superiority. The proprietor’s long experience and skill in his business, combined with the perfection of his resources, enable him to produce the best of everything he manufactures, and to offer his commodities at prices which cannot be equalled elsewhere. In peppers of every kind, herbs, both dried, rubbed, and ground, and spices, the house offers an unequalled variety, while in rice, essences, and seeds it can hardly be beaten. Crampton’s Meat Preservative is widely known and appreciated in the trade, and Crampton’s Milk Preservative (used also for gravies, jellies, soups, wines, and beer) is having an increased demand among farmers, dairymen, and dining-room keepers, &c. Another important line with this house is its rusk and biscuit powders, which are largely used in the manufacture of sausages, polonies, saveloys, German sausages, &c., by the chief makers in the country, and are giving every satisfaction both to the users and their customers. Large and well-selected stocks are kept of all kinds of seasonings and spices for pork butchers, sauces, rice, and varied selections of drysaltery goods. Mr. Crampton is a man of acknowledged ability in his craft, and his constant attention is bestowed upon the business in its entirety. All his dealings are marked by fairness and strict honesty, and by his creditable and liberal policy he retains the support and confidence of all who once come into business relations with him.
Telegrams for the firm should be addressed, “Signapore, Manchester.”


THE company alcove named plays a very important part in connection with electric lighting in the provinces, and holds a unique position in England, being the only company out of London which owns the patents for its lamps, holders, and dynamos. The concern was founded in 1882, and in that year the valuable Edison patents were purchased. Subsequently the Edison and Swan Companies were amalgamated under the title which heads this article, the Swan patents thus becoming the property of the company as well as those of Edison. These two important sets of patents cover all incandescent lamps and their holders, together with many forms of dynamos and fittings. Thus, Edison and Swan lamps can only be obtained wholesale, within the Manchester district, at this company’s stores in St. Ann’s Square and Barton Square, or at the works, Little John Street. Dynamos, holders, &c., under the Edison, Swan, and other patents are constructed only under the licence of the company.

These particulars indicate the important character of the concern under notice and the great influence it exercises upon all matters connected with electric lighting. When the company commenced operations in 1882, its headquarters were in Victoria Buildings, but shortly afterwards a move was made to St. Mary’s Gate, and about four years ago the present premises in St. Ann’s Square were secured. This establishment is admirably adapted to the requirements of the business, and comprises an extensive and well-appointed show-room, extending through to Barton Square, end having commodious offices on the first floor, with board room, &c. So largely, however, is the business of the company increasing that it is shortly intended to move to much larger premises.

In the show-room there is a very large and interesting display of the company’s standard specialities for electric lighting, and in surveying these productions we observe that many of them are produced under patents which are the company’s own property, such, for example, as the following:- All kinds of incandescent lamps on the Edison and Edison-Swan patents, the Edison-Hopkinson dynamo, and the Fawcus-Cowan slow-speed dynamo, a great variety of lamps, holders, safety fuses, ceiling roses, main and branch switches, and various other electric light fittings which are indispensable to a complete and effective installation. Besides the above-named articles the company supply a great number of other apparatus for electric lighting, among which we note the excellent Manchester and Lancashire dynamos, accumulators and portable batteries, fancy shades and globes, ship and colliery fittings, brackets, electroliers and standards in polished brass and wrought-iron, ammeters, voltmeters, and other electrical testing instruments, wood casings and coverings, arc lamps, &c. In many cases the fittings show great beauty and elegance of design, and in every instance they are of the highest excellence in material and finish. The company also supply gas, petroleum, and steam engines, boilers, shafting, pulleys, belting, and other mechanical accessories of a character specially adapted for use in electric lighting, and we need hardly say that they have always on hand supplies of electric light wires and cables, of special quality, ready for any demand. In fact, this company maintains a complete emporium of supply for every article required in an electric light installation. They are at all times prepared to give estimates free of charge for complete installations of electric light and motive power.

The company’s works are situated in Little John Street, where a large staff of skilled mechanics and electricians and a plant of the most improved and effective modern machinery afford superior facilities for the production of the highest class of work. During the past nine years this company have carried out a large number of installations on the premises of leading manufacturers and merchants in the north of England, as well as in theatres, hotels, private houses, ships, yachts, &c., and the trade controlled is constantly increasing as the public more fully recognises the immense usefulness and advantage, as well as the economy and healthfulness of electricity as an illuminating agent. There is no necessity for us to dwell upon these advantages here, as they have been so very generally admitted by this time; but, should there be any of our readers who have not as yet thoroughly convinced themselves of the value of the benefits conferred upon humanity by the “good fairy, Electra,” in the matter of light, we strongly recommend to their consideration a little pamphlet issued by the company here under notice, the purpose of which is to act as a guide to intending users of the electric light, showing the cost they will incur in fitting their houses, factories, &c., with the light, and also pointing out by means of figures and comparisons the advantages they may expect to reap from its use. The electric light is no longer the “light of the future” merely, it is the light of the present, and everything points to the fact that it has “come to stay.” Its economy and superior efficiency have been repeatedly proven, and wherever it is now in use it is recognised as a most valuable acquisition and a distinct improvement in every respect upon all other methods of illumination. Its high place in public favour can no longer be questioned, and its popularity is shown to be constantly augmenting by the continuous growth of the great business we have briefly reviewed above.

The Manchester Edison Swan Co., Limited, has an influential directorate, consisting of Mr. V. K. Armitage, Manchester Chairman; Sir J. C. Lee, Bowdon; Mr. F. B. Ross, Alderly; Major Flood Page, London; Mr. J. C. Waterhouse, Prestbury; Mr. W. P. James Fawcus, C.E., Manchester, Managing Director; and the secretarial office is filled by Mr. John E. Sharpies.
The company’s telegraphic address is “Edison, Manchester,” and their telephone is No. 532.


FEW decorative ideas have been so extensively studied, or have produced more satisfactory results on the whole, than the application of artistic designs in various ways to glass, and in this connection a new and very noteworthy departure is that which is now being so successfully developed by the Rossendale Glass and Wood Decorating Company. This important concern, which has its headquarters at 53, Portland Street, Manchester, and its works at Stubbins, was founded a few years ago for the purpose of working upon a large and practical scale the valuable patents of Messrs. A. S. & J. Young. Mr. A. S. Young is a member of the firm of William Rumny & Co. The glass is printed upon by the Messrs. Young’s patent process, and the work thus produced in very artistic designs and in all effective colours, is designed to take the place of coloured enamel, embossed glass, &c. Of course, in addition to its beauty of appearance, this new form of decoration has the merit of great economy, and the price is brought down so low that it can be made applicable to almost any purpose with distinct advantage. The material is found to be specially suitable for glazing partitions, offices, warehouses, &c.; and it may also be used with the very best effect for the permanent decoration of ceilings, wall panels, dadoes, pilasters, friezes, facias, and in all positions, where cleanliness and permanency are desirable. Thus nothing could be better for use in restaurants, public rooms, smoking rooms, billiard rooms, and on steamships, as the glass thus prepared needs only occasional wiping with a damp cloth or leather to keep it perfectly clean, and it effectually withstands the action of smoke and vapours. Its durability has been amply proven, and its lightness, extreme cleanliness, and general adaptability to the covering of extensive surfaces, all strongly recommend it as an exceedingly useful and valuable decorative material.

This printed glass is made in sheets of any shape or size up to 60 inches by 38 inches. In ornamental effect there are very few decorations in the market that can compare with it, and the Company exhibit at their showrooms in Portland Street a large variety of designs of very great beauty, novelty, and artistic elegance. These were shown with much success at the Manchester Arts and Crafts Exhibition, held a few months ago. “The Plumber and Decorator and Journal of Gas and Sanitary Engineering” reviewed this direct glass printing process about a year ago, and concluded its remarks in the following terms: “Of all the various substitutes for flashed, embossed plate, stained, pot metal, and pictorial glass decorative work, we can with confidence say that none have been put on the market with really greater hope of a big success — if it is properly worked — than that invented and introduced by the Rossendale Glass and Wood Decorating Company.” From what we have seen of the Company’s work thus far we can fully endorse the above competent opinion, and as the affairs of the concern are in able and experienced hands, there is no doubt that the invention will be “ properly worked” in every respect essential to its ultimate and complete success.

It should also be noted that wood for doors, blinds, window frames, &c., as well as glass, can be printed by this valuable process in a great variety of designs and colours, to suit any apartment. Architects, builders, and other persons interested should send for designs and estimates to the Company, who are already doing a large and progressive trade, and building up an influential and widespread connection. One striking feature in this new industry is the adaptability of the process for advertising tablets, and from the specimens shown is sure to lead to a very extensive business. The artistic beauty and catching effect cannot be described unless seen, and for advertisers wishing to bring their articles effectually before the public at a moderate cost this process stands unrivalled.


THE large and flourishing tobacco manufactory of Messrs. Willis & Roberts, in Mark Lane, was established in 1846. In that year Mr. Edward Robinson commenced the business, at the corner of Garden Street, Withy Grove. Messrs. Willis & Roberts acquired the business, and launched out as manufacturers in l860. The firm continued for some few years in this manner, when Mr. Willis retired, and Mr. John Robinson joined Mr. Roberts, the firm still trading under the title of Willis and Roberts. On the death of Mr. Roberts, Mr. John Robinson acquired the business. The original buildings being required for improvements, were pulled down, and the business was transferred to the present fine premises, which were specially constructed for the purpose of manufacturing tobacco on the highest and most scientific principles. Mr. Robinson died in 1883, and the present proprietors, his two sons, Henry and John Edward, succeeded him.

The firm hold a great name for the excellence of their goods, and have long had the confidence of the entire district of Manchester, as is evidenced by their immense and widespread trade. They possess every facility for producing tobaccos of the highest possible standard, and turn out many specialities, their blended flakes (Storm Cloud and Tiger’s Head brands), Smoking Mixture, Golden Navy Cut, Golden Bar, Golden Flakes, Black Flakes, in various qualities and every kind of roll, pressed, and cut tobaccos, being greatly praised for their purity and flavour. The eighty hands employed are kept constantly going to supply the orders which pour in from every quarter, and the firm’s travellers have a rich connection all through the north and midland counties.

The manufactory stands on about 380 square yards of ground, and is of a three-storey elevation, together with basement. The latter is used for storing leaf tobacco, cutting, stoving, and preparation rooms. The engine and boilers are also fixed here. The ground floor is devoted to the offices and warehouse and sale-room. On the first floor are located the spinning room, and general works; and the second floor contains the ovens for baking tobacco and the pressing and general finishing room. A visit paid at any time to these splendid works reveals the same uniform activity and evidence of prosperity and good management. The members of the firm give their personal attention to every detail of the business, and are most agreeable and obliging in their manners and dealing.


THIS important and widely-known firm of engineers was founded in 1873 at Wilburn Iron Works, Salford, by Mr. Robert Hulme, who was soon afterwards joined by Mr. Edward Lund. Subsequently the firm removed to Egerton Street Iron Works, Chester Road, Manchester; in 1890 they purchased land and built new and commodious works at the present address in Cornbrook, and to these the business has been transferred. Mr. Hulme has had over thirty years, and Mr. Lund some twenty-five years’ practical experience in general steam and hydraulic engineering, and the firm of Hulme & Lund has achieved widespread renown for its numerous patents and valuable productions in such plant and machinery as the following:—automatic long-stroke double-acting horizontal and vertical steam pumps; hydraulic dip pumps; all kinds of vertical donkey pumps, mining pumps to work by steam (simple, compound or condensing), compressed air, endless rope, or horse power, pumps and boilers combined on one bedplate; stationary steam fire-engines for mills; air compressors and vacuum pumps driven by steam or belt, capstan engines and steam-engines in general; independent air-pump condensers, pumps for tar and semi-fluids, bilge and water ballast pumps, special pumps for chemicals; Lund’s patent pulsating pumps for sewage, coal washing, &c., sinking pumps, water-engines, hydraulic rams, and all kinds of steam and water valves.

The Patent Automatic Horizontal and Vertical Direct-acting Steam-Pumps, and Lund’s Patent Pulsating Pumps are leading specialities, and the many merits of these two important patents are proven by a large number of testimonials. The steam pumps of this firm are particularly high-class productions, thoroughly reliable and of great working capacity, and they gained a special silver medal at the Royal Pomona Palace Exhibition, 1874. At their works in Cornbrook (conveniently adjacent to the new Manchester Ship Canal Docks) Messrs. Hulme & Lund possess every facility for meeting the demands of their extensive and influential connection in the home and export markets. The works are splendidly equipped and systematically organised, and all the operations of the industry are supervised by the principals in person.
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed, “Pulsating, Manchester.”


AN industry very closely and influentially associated with the great textile trades of Manchester and the north of England is ably and energetically conducted at the above establishment by Mr. Henry Tetlow, who, during the last twenty-five years, has effected immense improvements in the manufacture of reeds and healds for cotton, woollen, linen, silk, and other fabrics. In this class of machinery, as it formerly existed, Mr. Tetlow detected many faults and flaws which he set himself to remedy; and so great has been his success that his business as a reed and heald maker has now become the largest and most important concern of its kind in the world. His self-acting loop and mail heald machine, and his self-acting reed machine (three hundred dent per minute) embody his most notable improvements, and these are in themselves sufficient to establish the fame of any house. They are now made in very large numbers for the home and export trade, and experience a constantly increasing demand, which is the natural and inevitable outcome of their conspicuous merit.

Besides these valuable machines, however, Mr. Tetlow has identified his name with a number of other celebrated apparatus, among which must be mentioned his patent spacing motion for heald machine, heald brushing machines for varnishing or sizing, wire polishing and rolling machines, dent cutting machines, steam chests for heating pitch or varnish, polished wire or rims (or in coils or cut dents), reed ends, reed ribs, &c. All these productions bear signs of Mr. Tetlow’s improving hand, and his energy and progressive efforts have certainly placed the trade largely in his debt for some of the best appliances now at their disposal. Another highly important branch of Mr. Tetlow’s business consists in the doubling of all kinds of cotton yarn for making healds. This is done with the aid of his own improved machinery, and large quantities of yarn thus doubled is supplied to other heald makers in various parts of the country. Mr. Tetlow’s works in Varley Street are very extensive and are equipped and organised to perfection for all the purposes of the industry to which they are devoted. Every process of this industry and all the operations of the widespread trade resulting therefrom are personally superintended and directed by Mr. Tetlow himself, who is a highly popular man in this busy locality, and who has for some time been the chosen representative of the district in the Manchester Town Council.
Telegrams for this house should be addressed “Esperance, Manchester.” Mr. Tetlow’s telephone is No. 1733.


THIS well-known brewing business was founded as long ago as the year 1840 by the firm of Messrs. Barber & Co., and in 1868 it was acquired by the present proprietor, Mr. Daniel J. Flattely, who has since conducted it under his own name with conspicuous success. The brewery is a fine one, with a 25-barrel plant, and the extensive and admirably organised buildings contain a full equipment of the best modern machinery and appliances known in the trade. The premises also include spacious yards, stables, and large well-stocked stores, where the beer undergoes that passive but highly important process of “getting into condition”; and here it may be remarked that no beer is ever sent from this establishment until it has got into condition, and perfect condition at that. On this point Mr. Flattely has a strict rule which it never departed from under any circumstances, and herein we can discern one at least of the causes which have contributed to the great and continued success of his business.

The Longsight Brewery in its entirety covers a large area of ground, and in all its features of equipment and working organisation it is likely to favourably impress any visitor. In the matter of its products an equally favourable impression may be anticipated. The porter brewed here is of very superior quality indeed, and is held in the highest esteem by those who know what a really good article of this kind should be. Other beers brewed at the Longsight Brewery also maintain an excellent reputation, and Mr. Flattely is to be congratulated upon the high and uniform standard of merit preserved in all his productions. A very large trade is controlled, and the house enjoys the support of a wide and influential connection.

Mr. Daniel J. Flattely is a very popular local man, and has always manifested a deep interest in the welfare of this district. He is a magistrate, and was County Councillor for Longsight prior to its amalgamation with Manchester. A liberal supporter of deserving charities, and a prominent figure in every movement tending to advance the general interests of the neighbourhood, Mr. Flattely has won and retained the esteem of a widely extended circle of friends, who will join us in wishing him a continuance of the prosperity he enjoys in business life.


THIS business was founded upwards of sixty years ago by Mr. W. Crossley, who was succeeded by Mr. H. B. Jackson. This gentleman continued the business up to the year 1861, when the firm became Jackson, Brierley and Briggs, and it was converted into a limited company, as Messrs. Brierley & Co., in the year 1889. This may be justly described as a thoroughly representative Manchester house, its history during the last sixty years having been most intimately associated with the progress and development of the shipping trade of the city. At the above address the company occupy a large and commodious stone and brick building, of five storeys, with a frontage of fully eighty feet and running back a depth of seventy feet. The basement is utilised for packing; on the ground floor is the room for grey cotton goods and making-up room. A spacious and handsome suite of well-appointed offices and counting house, together with sale and pattern rooms, occupy the first floor. The second floor is chiefly devoted to prints and fancy goods, another making-up room is located on the third floor, whilst the remaining rooms are devoted to warehouse purposes.

The various departments are completely stocked with goods of a quality and character admirably suited to the trade, including cottons, woollens, prints, stuffs, dress fabrics, and in fact, all articles known as Manchester goods. These stocks represent the best productions of the leading manufacturers, and are selected with that great care and sound judgment which are acquired only by long practical experience and a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the markets for which they are intended. A staff of warehousemen, packers, and assistants is regularly employed, the trade being of a widespread and steadily-growing character. The company ship goods direct to the principal ports on the West Coast of Africa, the Brazils, Central and South America, and the West Indies. These extensive business relations are well founded on the eminent reputation so long enjoyed, and the high commercial standing of the house. Mr. R. B. Brierley, the managing director, is a gentleman well known and highly esteemed in mercantile circles. The business in every department receives his direct personal supervision, and is conducted throughout with a vigour and energy worthy of the best traditions of Manchester enterprise.


INVENTION has of late years been remarkably busy in respect to lamps, and the public has been necessarily bewildered in its choice when seeking the best attainable article. An invention, however, has recently been perfected which entirely alters these conditions and places before the public generally, a lamp which they will find in every way a real boon, while it combines in itself so many advantages without any of the usual drawbacks to lamps, that those who have tried its capabilities are unanimous in the belief $hat it has only to be known to come into universal use — we allude to the Patent Oil Gas Lamp (Flood’s Patent, No. 2372).

The lamp consists of two compartments, an air chamber and an oil holder. As soon as the lamp is filled with oil it is ready for use; the heat of a match is more than sufficient to light it. The action is as follows — by means of perforations below the oil holder and an air-tube going through the lamp into the air-chamber the light thus receives a permanent supply of air; the air thus admitted acts partly as atmospheric pressure upon the oil through perforations in the air-chamber. Another current of air finds its way into the top of the fitting or burner, which forms a vacuum. The nitrogen and oxygen are thus continually being mixed with the vapour of the oil, producing a brilliant white and harmless gas light at a surprisingly low price. There is no mechanical contrivance or complication about these lamps and the greatest care is taken in their construction so that they cannot possibly get out of order; moreover, the patent Oil Gas Lamps, unlike all others, require no trimming, no replacing of wicks, no chimneys, and they are absolutely safe, inexplosive, smokeless and odourless. In fact, with their latest improvements the combustion is perfect, an achievement that cannot be claimed for any other lamp. They can be carried about or upset with perfect safety and they will stand considerable draught.

At No. 226, Stretford Road, the company occupy a spacious and well-appointed shop and warehouse, well stocked with a large assortment of their Patent Oil Gas Lamps in various forms. A very extensive and rapidly-increasing business is in operation, and among other firms using the company’s hand lamps may be mentioned the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich; the Manchester Ship Canal Co.; the L. & N. W. Ry. Co.; Messrs. Hicks Hargraves & Co., Bolton; Messrs. Platt Bros. & Co., Limited, Oldham; Ley’s Malleable Coasting Co., Limited, Derby, and many similar leading concerns, to which they have given every satisfaction; they are also used and recommended by the medical profession. The works are located at No. 64, Grosvenor Street, Charlton-on-Medlock, and the increasing popularity of the Patent Oil Gas Lamps is well attested by the continual demand upon the resources of this establishment for their production.

In these popular lamps simplicity has been the golden rule observed in their construction, and as all the parts are made in the most durable manner, there, can be no doubt whatever that the Patent Oil Gas Lamps will be preferred to every other kind wherever their many and substantial merits are once really known. It should be the first study of every intending purchaser to find an inexplosive lamp, and such are those of the Patent Oil Gas Lamp Co. (Flood’s Patent No. 2372), and the terrible lamp accident in Liverpool, where three lives were sacrificed, should be a sad but wholesome lesson.

Telegraphic address “Ladles, Manchester.”

THIS firm, who commenced business some twenty years ago on a very small scale, have by the exercise of an enterprising spirit and the general excellence of their goods, succeeded in raising themselves to the front rank, and are now doing a very large business both at home and abroad. They manufacture foundry requisites of every description, and the quality of the work, and careful finish of all articles turned out from their premises, has made them so much in request that they have been able to extend their foreign business to America on the one hand, and Australia, China and New Zealand on the other, with the result that they now have an almost universal reputation. Their works, which cover a large area, are liberally fitted with excellent machinery and steam-power; and they purchase their material from the very best producers, being most particular on this point. Although they employ a large number of hands, the extensive resources of their works are taxed to the utmost at the present time with the large number of home and foreign orders they have in. These gentlemen are much to be congratulated on their success, the result of hard work and good management, and must reap their reward in seeing their efforts so highly appreciated as well as in the fact that they bear the goodwill of clients and workmen alike.


IT was in the year 1856 that Mr. William Hadfield Bowers entered upon his career of activity by forming the nucleus of his now prosperous concern. Mr. Bowers operates on a very extensive scale as a manufacturer of red liquor, iron liquor, acetic acid, wood acid, charcoal, and kindred commodities, for the use of dyers, calico printers and others, and for each and every one of his products has gained a well-merited renown; but more especially for his acetic acid, for use in the manufacture of white lead, in which he stands practically unrivalled. Mr. Bowers is the inventor and sole patentee of a most useful and ingenious retort for carbonising waste wood. His works, the Brookfield Chemical Works, hard by the monastery of West Gorton, are of great magnitude, and elaborately equipped with a splendid plant of the most modern machinery and appliances, calling into requisition the services of a large staff of skilled hands. Enormous quantities of each preparation are produced to meet the large home and export demands, and the entire business is conducted with rare energy and ability in both its executive and mercantile departments. Personally, Mr. Bowers is a gentleman possessing the advantage of a long and thoroughly sound experience in every branch of his business, and is everywhere esteemed, both in business and social circles, for his well-known integrity, and the deep and beneficial interest he takes as an ex-member of the Gorton Local Board in the promotion of the welfare of the community in which he lives.


FOR considerably over half a century the well-known house of Messrs. S. Moore & Son has held a prominent place in connection with the printing and stationery trades in Manchester. Founded in the year 1837 by a Mr. Hatton (who speedily built up a first-class trade), this notable concern was acquired in 1872 by the present senior principal, Mr. S. Moore, who then became proprietor of the premises and the business in all its branches. Mr. Moore admitted his son into partnership in 1887 thus forming the firm of S. Moore & Son, and under this proprietorship the business continues its successful career. The principal establishment of the house is admirably situated in New Brown Street, and comprises large and well-equipped works (with offices), in a fine six-storey building. This block is very spacious, and has been laid out and arranged upon a most convenient plan, yet we understand that it now hardly affords sufficient accommodation, so largely has the business grown during recent years.

The various workrooms present a scene of great interest and activity, and are all equipped with the best modern machinery and appliances for their several purposes, Messrs. S. Moore & Son having at all times shown unmistakable enterprise in keeping the resources of their works up to a high standard of efficiency. They are now, therefore, in a position to execute first-class work at moderate prices in all branches of letterpress and lithographic printing, account-book making and stationery manufacture, and in these departments they effect an immense annual output for customers both at home and abroad. In account-book making and bookbinding the firm have a leading speciality, and Mr. Moore gained the First-class Prize at the London Exhibition of 1873 for the excellent workmanship and finish of his binding. As regards the printing, lithographing, and engraving departments, we were most favourably impressed with all that we saw therein on the occasion of our visit, and wherever we have met with Messrs. Moore’s work, either in ordinary letterpress or mercantile printing, or in elaborate lithography for artistic or commercial purposes, we have found it to be excellent in every detail of design, execution, and general appearance.

The principals of this house are masters of their trade in all its departments, and have brought their long experience and practical knowledge to bear upon the organisation of their works in such a manner as to develop an establishment which might be taken as a model of its class. With the aid of the most effective machinery and of the most skilful labour a very superior order of work can be produced at such an establishment, and Messrs. S. Moore & Son are careful that the standard shall be fully maintained. Those who remember the beautiful work shown by this firm at the Jubilee Exhibition at Old Trafford will be able to compare the work done to-day by Messrs. Moore, and will not fail to notice that in many instances advancement still continues to be made.

The firm hold vast stocks of mercantile and general stationery of all kinds, besides materials for printing, binding, &c., and they carry on their entire business upon a scale that is not only very large, but also remarkably complete in every requirement. Success has attended this house from the first, and everything points to the fact that it has been honestly and worthily achieved. Especially noteworthy is the consideration shown to the employes, whose health and comfort are carefully studied, and the workpeople manifestly appreciate this, their duties being performed all the more satisfactorily by reason of the good feeling existing between them and their employers. The staff engaged at these works numbers upwards of one hundred and fifty hands.

We have alluded to the fact that Messrs. Moore’s trade is of a most comprehensive nature, including every branch of the printing, lithographing, bookbinding, and stationery industries. Very high finish and excellent general appearance appear as the main characteristics of all Messrs. Moore’s productions, and an immense trade is controlled, extending all over the United Kingdom, and also taking effect in the Continental and Colonial markets. An important branch establishment has been opened at 62, Portland Street, for the convenience of the firm’s many customers in the heart of Manchester, and this is connected with the New Brown Street house by Telephone No. 216, and Mutual No. 861. Either Mr. S. Moore or his son, Mr. Harry Moore, may be seen in person at one or other of the establishments daily. Both are active and painstaking business men, well known and well liked in the city, and fully qualified to-carry on with uninterrupted success the important and representative concern over which they jointly preside.

130, 132, & 134, DEANSGATE, MANCHESTER.

ONE of Manchester’s most notable and successful high-class furnishing houses is that conducted in Deansgate by Mr. J. Tobias. This large, important, and very select business was founded in 1865 at the above address under its present title and proprietorship, and during the quarter of a century that has elapsed since then it has played a very prominent and creditable part in the trade with which it is associated. The premises occupied in Deansgate are of large extent and very fine appearance, and besides these spacious and elegantly appointed showrooms, with their rich and varied displays of superior cabinet and upholstered furniture of every description, there are commodious workshops in Southgate Street, where the facilities existing for manufacturing operations are of the most complete character, and where employment is given to a large staff of skilled workmen.

Mr. Tobias has developed his business upon the most comprehensive plan, and there is no department of it which is not fully and creditably represented in the Deansgate warehouse. The fact that he supplies every furnishing requisite affords the purchaser a valuable opportunity of seeing the various articles placed together whilst buying — an advantage very rarely obtained elsewhere, and at the same time a saving of at least 25 per cent, (to say nothing of the economy of time and trouble) can generally be effected by furnishing throughout at this establishment, where every article is marked at the lowest price consistent with its real intrinsic worth. The business, moreover, is conducted upon that safest and best of all principles, the “cash system,” the benefits of which are equally shared by the house and its patrons, and estimates are given by Mr. Tobias for the complete furnishing of a house of any size, from six to fifteen or more rooms. By “complete furnishing” we mean the supplying of every requisite for the proper appointment of the different parts of the house, from the suite for the drawing-room to the outfit for the kitchen, and comprising carpets, hardware and ironmongery, fenders and fire-irons, floorcloths, clocks, bronzes and ornaments, cutlery, bedsteads and bedding, pianofortes — in fact everything that is essential to the furnishing of the house in any style upon any scale and richness or expensiveness that may be desired by the purchaser.

Mr. Tobias holds one of the largest and finest stocks of furniture in Manchester, and his showrooms present a magnificent appearance. All goods are sold at the lowest possible prices for cash on or before delivery. We need not stop now to point out to our readers the benefits of the “cash system” here pursued, its advantages will be readily apparent to every judicious or woman who will pay a visit to Mr. Tobias’s establishment and compare his prices with those of the general run of furnishing houses. His idea is to secure the largest possible turnover, and to divide the profits of an immense business with the patrons who have helped him to build it up. He does this by producing the best goods it is possible to obtain by the superior manufacturing resources at his command, and selling them at prices which would be disastrous to a smaller or less perfectly-equipped house. Herein lies the whole secret of this firm’s conspicuous success.

The showrooms and works cover an area of 10,000 square yards, which allows the goods to be well laid out in separate departments, easy of access for inspection, and every article sold is thoroughly examined by competent persons before being sent to the purchaser, thereby ensuring its arrival in perfect condition at its ultimate destination. We may add that Mr. Tobias is also prepared to undertake and carry out in the best style and on moderate terms the furnishing of merchants’, bankers’, assurance, railway, barristers’, solicitors’, and every description of counting-houses and offices, a special department in his establishment being devoted to this class of furniture. To anyone who contemplates the furnishing of a house or office we can cordially and confidently recommend the establishment of Mr. J. Tobias, which enjoys a reputation of more than twenty-five years’ honourable duration, and we also strongly advise a careful perusal of the excellent “Furnishing Guide,” published by this house, from which householders will glean a vast amount of valuable counsel and information as to prices, styles of goods, &c., all of which will tend to lighten their labours in the work of furnishing and at the same time to prevent any excessive lightening of their pockets in the course of the transaction.

A department for the supply of second-hand furniture has been added by this firm within the last few years. In this branch none but furniture of the highest class is kept. Mr. Tobias spares neither trouble nor expense to secure the best specimens, made by some of the most eminent makers in England. Every visitor to this excellent establishment must be very favourably impressed by the display of unique and uncommon specimens of antique oak sideboards, bookcases, hall tables, &c., elegantly designed Chippendale cabinets, writing escritoires, chairs, and various tables; also massive oak, mahogany, and walnut dining-room furniture, amounting in value to some thousands of pounds. Mr. J. Tobias personally conducts all the operations of this extensive business, of which he remains sole proprietor; and all who have had dealings with him will, we are quite sure, be ready to speak favourably of his courtesy, his straightforward methods, and the sound quality and economical prices of his goods.


IT IS an undeniable fact that in every great commercial centre, a most important and responsible duty falls to the lot of the modern auctioneer and valuer to perform, and a notable House in this line in Manchester is that which, organised in the year 1874 under the style and title above designated, is now under the sole proprietary control of Mr. John Hind, a gentleman possessing the advantage of twenty-six years’ experience of the business in all its highest phases. The premises occupied are in every particular of situation and accommodation exactly adapted to the requirements of a brisk and substantial business of the kind. They comprise a splendid suite of spacious sale rooms, with offices adjoining, commodious rooms at the rear, for the storage of goods entrusted to the firm for disposal, and a large basement for sales of stock and horticultural products, the whole being lighted throughout by electricity. The firm operate on an extensive scale as auctioneers of high-class furniture, works of art, antiques, valuable goods, wines, and all kinds of household effects, their name being well-known throughout Lancashire and the Northern counties as disposers to the best advantage of household appointments and general merchandise. The business is under the personal supervision of the principal, assisted by his son, and an efficient staff, and their reputed high characters as business men, added to the principle they have adopted, to care scrupulously for the best interests of their clients, have materially helped to raise them to the high position they hold in the profession.


ABOUT the year 1869 Mr. John Booth became a partner in a small firm of manufacturers, at the Walkden Mills, Walkden, Worsley, near Bolton, then the property of Mr. William Walker, and met with such signal success, that having turned the tide of its prosperity, he endeavoured to secure a part of the mill for himself. Unable to do this, however, he retired from the business, and with assistance, in 1877, built the now celebrated Bridgwater Mills, in Sandwich Street, Walkden, near Bolton, and then, in association with his brother, Simeon and Mr. Richard Boardman, commenced operations, trading under the style and title of J. & S. Booth & Co., at the same time opening a small office at 6, Palace Street, Manchester, which in 1880 he removed to 9, Marsden Square, and finally, in 1885, to its present more convenient quarters in High Street. The city premises are principally offices, the bulk of the stock being stored in the mill warehouses near Bolton. These efficient works are provided with one hundred and twelve looms, and all the latest and best preparatory machinery for the production of jeans, grandrills, ticks, florentines, coutills, shirtings and kindred commodities, and call into active requisition the services of a staff of upwards of a hundred operatives, the entire property being taken over in 1883 by Mr. John Booth, assisted in his onerous duties by his two sons, both of whom possess the advantage of a thoroughly sound practical training in every department of technical weaving.

In the year 1890 Mr. Booth, sen., relinquished the more active control of the undertaking, retiring to a villa which he had purchased at Southport, leaving the active management in the able hands of his sons, Mr. W. A. Booth and Mr. F. Handel, both the former gentlemen officiating at the mills, the latter at the Manchester warehouse. In 1891 Mr. Booth very considerably augmented his concern, by purchasing the Walkden Mills and business of Mr. Walker, of Walkden, and 42, Cannon Street, Manchester, this undertaking having been founded in 1860. These extensive mills are furnished with four hundred and forty looms, and preparation room for six hundred and Mr. Booth has, moreover, already built the foundations for doubling the resources of the Bridgwater Mills. Needless to say, the trade controlled is exclusively wholesale amongst warehousemen and shippers.

Personally, Mr. Booth’s whole career has been one of unremitting activity, and by his constant energy, enterprise, and sound principles he has firmly established under his name a business which extends its present operations Over a universal field of action, and enjoys the full confidence of an extensive connection.


THE distinction of being at once the oldest pottery in Lancashire and the only one in the Manchester district belongs to the famous Beswick Pottery, conducted under the able and energetic proprietorship of Mr. Hugo Shaw. This notable establishment was founded in quite a small way in the year 1831 by Mr. Robert Edwards, from whose executors it was purchased twenty-five years ago by Mr. Shaw, the present owner. Under his administration the Beswick Pottery has become renowned for certain classes of products in which it stands admittedly unsurpassed, and for all manner of yellow and brown domestic earthenware, seakale pots, rhubarb and flower pots, and colour mugs for calico printers, it enjoys a reputation which is international. The “Beswick yellow glaze” is a leading speciality of the establishment, and this class of ware has been turned out here in enormous quantities. The works are situated between Newton Heath and Bradford, near Phillip’s Park, and in a thoroughfare appropriately named Pottery Row.

In the old days very primitive methods were pursued in the making of Beswick ware, and though excellent results were obtained in the matter of quality, the output could hardly have been overwhelming in quantity. Since Mr. Shaw assumed command here the very best and most effective modern appliances have been brought into requisition with excellent effect. The famous colour mugs for calico printers, with which the name of this pottery is inseparably identified, are now produced at the rate of two hundred and fifty a day by one machine alone; and flower-pots are turned out at about three thousand five hundred a day by another machine, which forms only one item in the outfit of the place. In addition to the several productions already referred to, and for which the house is especially famous, there is always on hand a large and superior stock of fire-bricks and tiles, chimney pots, sanitary pipes, ground fire-clay, and garden edging tiles. The business in its entirety is one of great magnitude and importance, and is conducted with conspicuous ability and judgment under the personal supervision of the sole proprietor. Telegrams should be addressed “Pottery, Manchester,”

Mr. Hugo Shaw is a very prominent figure in the public life of this busy district, and is one of the oldest of Manchester’s civic representatives, having served the ratepayers as councillor and alderman for upwards of twenty years, and he is a magistrate of the city. Besides numerous other social and economical questions Mr. Alderman Shaw takes a deep and practical interest in the subject of popular education, and is at the present time actively associated in a ruling capacity with the work of two large and useful National Schools - those of St. Mark’s, Newton, and St. Philip’s, Bradford Road. Mr. Alderman Shaw is greatly respected by all who have the privilege of knowing him, and in his public, private, and commercial life he has set an example of industry, honesty, and integrity which the young man of to-day would do well to emulate.


THIS highly important business was established in 1871, and its course has been signalized by a large measure of success. To the esteemed proprietor, Mr. John Quilliam, belongs most of the credit of bringing things to so successful an issue. Possessed of considerable ability, he has turned it to the best possible account, and has won the confidence of a large section of the community with which he is surrounded. The premises are conveniently situate, and are within three minutes’ walk from Victoria station. They consist of a large three-storied building, with spacious offices and warehouse, with workshops at the rear. The business also combines that of Messrs. J. J. Watts & Co., in the adjoining warehouse. Messrs. Watts & Co.’s homoeopathic medicines have a very high reputation, and have an extremely extensive sale. The list of articles includes everything connected with homoeopathy. This valuable wholesale business was recently purchased by Mr. Quilliam, and added to his own.

In his warehouse is a most superior and costly stock of all kinds of drugs and chemicals, all of the best and most pure description. Various chemicals are manufactured on the premises. Both establishments are well fitted throughout with all the necessary appliances for the various processes carried on, and these are of the most recently improved kind. A very heavy stock of homoeopathic medicines is constantly on hand. Quite a large branch of this very useful place is the manufacturing of surgical plaster, the department employing several expert hands. The business is entirely wholesale, and is the sole property of Mr. John Quilliam - trading as John Quilliam & Co. Throughout the whole place there is ample evidence of careful and capable management. All the routine of the various sections is gone through without hesitation. Speaking of long and large experience, the respected proprietor occupies a prominent place in the good wishes of his numerous customers, and is admired for his genial and kindly disposition.


THIS widely-known business was established in 1863 by Mr. L. S. Knight, and succeeded to by Messrs. J. Hall & Co., the present proprietors, in 1868. It occupies the whole of 50, Shudehill, and rooms over Nos. 52 & 54. The building is of four floors and basement, and has a frontage of twenty-four by sixty feet. The basement is used for stock-room and packing, the ground floor for show, sale, and stock rooms, and the remaining rooms are stock and show-rooms. The firm have won great fame as importers of French, German, and other foreign merchandise, jewellers’, London, Birmingham and Sheffield warehousemen, &c. They constantly hold an enormous stock of the goods peculiar to the productions of the above manufactories, and the whole present a costly, useful and well bought selection. Toys of all kinds are represented by dolls, games, dissections, puzzles, German, French, and English productions; glass by lustres and vases, jugs, figures, English and foreign flint glass, &c. Hardware and cabinet ware has trays, waiters, coal vases, looking glasses, photo frames, accordions and concertinas, electro-plate tea and coffee services, &c. The handsome stock of jewellery includes gold and silver watches, chains and alberts, gold and silver brooches, lockets, seals, signet rings, ladies’ companions, albums, pipes, combs, hair and cloth brushes, is of a large and varied description, and wonderfully cheap. There is cutlery, clocks, pocket knives, razors, and a well-nigh countless miscellaneous stock of goods of every-day use. The trade is wholesale and for exportation. Travellers cover the home, northern and midland counties. The firm for the energy and enterprise they display are a power in the trade, and command an ever-increasing connection. The house is well known for its upright character, and for the care taken in the execution of all orders.


THE Albert Iron Works are large, commodious, and admirably adapted to the requirements of an industry of this land, and are equipped with a splendid plant of improved machinery, much of which has been designed and made by Mr. Butterworth expressly for the purposes of this trade. The show room attached affords excellent facilities for the display of goods, and here we find an interesting assortment of Mr. Butterworth’s noted manufactures, among which are improved sliding, surfacing and screw-cutting lathes, planing machines, drilling and boring machines, screwing machines, single and double-geared hand turning lathes, slide rests, jaw chucks, and numerous other mechanical appliances of the highest order of merit in design and workmanship. Mr. Butterworth’s productions have been received with great favour by engineers and machinists everywhere, being esteemed for their many valuable improvements, and superior construction. He has been particularly fortunate with a new small-power steam engine, a beautiful little production, neat in design, faultless in finish, and thoroughly self-contained. This admirable speciality embodies a great many new features that make it quite unique, and in matters of economy, convenience, and efficiency it rivals the gas engine, besides being capable of being used where a gas engine should be out of the question. This new engine contains as few parts as is consistent with efficiency, and has great strength and durability throughout. It has been favourably spoken of in the mechanical press, and for small power users we know of no engine that is likely to give greater satisfaction. The excellence of the firm’s manufactures has become a matter of widespread repute, and has brought them into demand both at home and abroad. At the present day the house controls a very large and influential trade, extending all over the United Kingdom, with considerable export to India and other parts of the world. All the affairs of the business are personally administered by the able and experienced manager, Mr. Jos. Howard, to whose skill and energy the concern owes its continued success and the high position it has so long enjoyed in the esteem and confidence of a valuable connection.


THIS representative concern was organised as long ago as the year 1820, by Mr. John Hudson, at No. 78, Shudehill, on a comparatively small scale, and by him developed with such rapidity that it was in 1874 transferred to the more commodious premises at 61 and 63, Shudehill. In 1876, upon the decease of the founder, the business was continued by his son, Mr. Thomas Hudson, and still further developed for a period of ten years, until his death, since when it has been carried on under able management by his executors at 17, 59, 61, 63. The premises occupied are very extensive, and most methodically arranged to hold and display a vast, varied, and valuable stock of superior wares, of which a tolerably accurate notion may be gathered from the following list of leading lines which represent the different departments: screws, nails, castings, locks, latches, bolts, hinges of all kinds, roofing felt, glue, emery, emery cloth, glass paper, scales, weights, trucks, safes, wringing, mangling, and chaff-cutting machines, skates, buckets, coal-boxes, brass and iron bedsteads, spring mattresses, cutlery, electroplate, japanned goods, coal- vases, trays, baths, oil-stoves (cooking and heating), brushes of all descriptions, woodware, such as dolly-tubs, paste-pins, and chopping-boards, bassinettes, mailcarts, tricycles and bicycles. Tool department, comprising engineers’, millwrights’, electric and joiners’ tools, and warranted tools of every description for all trades. Brassfoundry of all descriptions, cabinet and builders’.

At No. 17, Shudehill there are kitchen ranges and cooking appliances of every description, marble, slate, and enamelled iron mantelpieces, register stoves, mantel shams, tiles of all kinds, chandeliers, lamps and brackets, baths, cylinders, cisterns, and all kinds of plumbers’ fittings, hot-water and rain-water pipes — in fact, every requisite for the building and furnishing ironmongery. This department is under the management of Mr. G. W. Henshall, who has been most successful in its development and extension. Altogether a staff of five travellers and about eighty hands is fully and regularly employed, and nothing could be more commendable than the order and the system which prevail in every part of the premises. Mr. J. W. Hall, the able manager and buyer at the 63 department, who has been with the firm for a period of twenty-five years, has contributed very considerably to the success of the business; his long experience and high abilities have gained the entire confidence of the proprietors, and have been productive of the best results.


FOR upwards of a quarter of a century the well-known house of Messrs. Forsyth Brothers has held a prominent and very creditable position in connection with the trade in music and musical instruments in Manchester. This notable firm occupy spacious and very commodious premises at the above address in Deansgate, where they have a fine four-storey warehouse, the front part of which forms a remarkably handsome pair of double-fronted shops, elegantly appointed, and having spacious and finely fitted show-rooms extending a long distance to the rear. There are additional show-rooms on the first and second floors, and these, altogether, afford the best accommodation for an exceptionally large and comprehensive stock of instruments. Messrs. Forsyth Brothers rarely hold less than four hundred instruments in stock, and their immense assortment includes pianofortes by all the leading makers, “Dominion” organs, harmoniums, and many other musical instruments in modern use, from the violin or the violoncello to the banjo, guitar, or concertina. This firm are the sole agents for the United Kingdom for the “Dominion” organs, and in Manchester for the Bechstein, Becker, and Squire’s pianofortes, all of which instruments have become very famous in the musical world. An enormous stock of sheet music is held, embracing all popular and classical compositions, both vocal and instrumental; and the latest issues are received daily from the London publishers. Messrs. Forsyth Brothers are the keepers of the box offices for the Palace of Varieties; and they contract largely for concerts during the season, including Sir Charles Halle’s concerts and Mr. Barrett’s concerts at the Free Trade Hall and St. James’s Hall, Manchester.

The business in its entirety is one of the best of its kind in Manchester, and the house has an important branch establishment in London (No. 267, Regent Street, W.), which plays a prominent part in the routine of the trade. A large “hire-purchase” business is done, and the most reliable and superior instruments are supplied on the lowest terms with easy and equitable arrangements for payment. All the affairs of this house are conducted with conspicuous ability and sound judgment by the principals, Mr. James Forsyth and his son, Mr. Algernon Forsyth, and his nephew, Mr. James A. Forsyth. These gentlemen retain the title of Forsyth Brothers, and the manner in which they conduct their business in all its departments proves their thoroughly practical experience, and secures the full confidence and continued support of an old, widespread, and most valuable connection.


IT has hitherto been erroneously supposed that that favoured spot, the Vuelta Abajo, or Low Valley, in the neighbourhood of Havana, possessed the only soil on earth capable, in virtue of certain vegetable alkalies, of producing the fragrant weed to perfection. But of late years certain tracts of land in the Mexican States of Vera Cruz and Oaxaca, and on the peninsula of Zehuantepec, have been discovered to possess soil identical with that of the Vuelta Abajo, and a climate in all respects like that of Havana; and best of all, it has been found that the tobacco plant can there be cultivated to yield leaf equal if not superior to the famous Cuban produce, so much so, indeed, that a very large quantity of Mexican tobacco has found its way into the market and been sold as genuine Havana, without any possibility of detection, even at the hands of experts.

In proof of the fame of Mexican tobacco, one need not go any farther than Manchester, to the notable house of Mr. Richard Meredith, 39, Piccadilly, who in 1887 organised his business, with a view to supply the trade exclusively with all the finest brands, qualities, and sizes of both Mexican and Cuban cigars. His premises comprise the usual suites of offices, sample and packing rooms, in which one of the largest and most carefully selected stocks of cigars in the city will be found, comprising all the leading Havana and Mexican brands, to which new brands and sizes are constantly being added, and for which exceptionally favourable quotations, either in bond or duty paid may be obtained. It may be mentioned in this connection, that it was Mr. Meredith who made the “El Destino” cigar such a success, his imports of this cigar being enormous. His great speciality in Mexican cigars, however, is the “Don Ricardo,” which is gradually but surely making headway, and becoming very popular, seeing that the cigars, which smoke every whit as well as first grade Havanas, are available at astonishingly low figures.

Naturally Mr. Meredith’s trade connection is already a very large and rapidly-growing one; in fact, judging from the Manchester Bonding Co.’s monthly statement, he must be the largest direct importer out of London. Mr. Meredith, having had a long acquaintance with Cuba and Mexico, is in direct touch with all the leading manufacturers in these countries. The business in all its branches is conducted upon principles which have won for him the esteem and respect of all those who have come into commercial contact with him.


ONE of the oldest and best-known furniture warehouses in Manchester is that of Mr. James Lamb, whose large and representative business has been in existence upwards of half a century. The premises occupied by this notable concern have a fine situation in John Dalton Street, and comprise a large five-storey block with a handsome frontage of fully one hundred and forty feet. In the centre of this frontage is the main entrance, on each side of which there are two immense plate-glass windows, affording exceptionally good facilities for the attractive display of goods. The ground floor forms one enormous saloon, lofty, well-lighted, and very conveniently-arranged to accommodate the carpet, general furniture, antique furniture, upholstery, wall-paper and decorative departments, each of which is replete with new and attractive goods of the most elegant design and workmanship. The large and well-appointed offices of the firm are at the back of the ground floor, which extends from front to rear, a distance of fully three hundred feet, and has another entrance in Mulberry Street.

We have never seen anything finer in the same line than the stocks of carpets, cabinet furniture, upholstered goods, antique oak furniture, furnishing drapery, and wall decorations exhibited by Mr. James Lamb in his ground-floor show rooms, and the many beauties and interesting features of these high-class goods are reproduced still further in those displayed in the galleries on the upper floors of the premises, reached from the ground floor by a fine staircase. On the first floor the visitor will be particularly impressed by the splendid stock of sideboards and cabinets of the choicest designs, besides suites and single pieces of furniture for drawing dining, and morning rooms, halls, libraries, &c., all characterized by the highest excellence of workmanship and finish. These superb goods are produced in a great variety of beautiful and costly woods, and the upholstered articles are in the richest of fabrics, Genoa silks, and stamped and embroidered velvets being frequently met with. A more magnificent display it would be difficult to imagine, and this first floor affords an illustration of the artistic and general resources of the cabinet makers’ and upholsterers’ trade which must be seen to be properly appreciated. The second floor is similar to the first in the variety of its contents, differing only in degree of quality and price; and the third floor contains a splendid stock of everything requisite for the complete equipment of a bed chamber or dressing room. Exquisite suites are here shown in many new and elegant designs, and there is an immense assortment of brass and iron bedsteads of every kind and size, all of which have been specially made for this firm. On the top floor upholstering is carried on under the most favourable conditions.

The cabinet-making works are located at Knott Mill, and are known as the Cattle Field Works. They are very extensive and splendidly equipped throughout, and possess every facility and convenience for the manufacture of the high-class goods for which this house is noted. Large stocks of the best timber and choicest fancy woods are held, and employment is given to a very numerous staff of workmen of the highest skill and experience. A special feature consists in supplying the celebrated “Angus Desk,” which is certainly the most convenient and useful piece of furniture for a business office that we have ever seen. No business man who appreciates order and comfort in his office should be without one of these splendid desks. The article is a veritable multum in parvo, saving a vast amount of space and trouble, and quickly paying for itself by greatly economising that most costly of all commodities - “worry.” Another speciality of this house is found in house painting and decorating, a very superior and artistic class of work being executed in this department, and Mr. Lamb also employs a number of talented draughtsmen, who produce beautiful designs for cabinet work and for the decoration of public buildings, churches, mansions, and private residences generally. Two medals have been gained by Mr. Lamb, “for excellence of design and workmanship.” - one at the London International Exhibition of 1862, the other at the Paris Exhibition of 1867, also gold medal, Paris, 1878.

The reputation of the house is admirably maintained in all respects by the founder and sole proprietor, Mr. James Lamb, who still takes a most active part in the administration of the business, assisted by several capable managers and a large number of clerks and warehousemen. Mr. Lamb, who is extensively known and greatly respected in Manchester and the North of England generally, started his business half a century ago on the opposite side of John Dalton Street, and the stately premises now occupied were subsequently erected in accordance with his own plans and specifications. They form one of the finest furniture warehouses in Lancashire, and of the concern in its entirety it may truly be said that all its characteristics — its immense trade, widespread connection, eminent reputation — entitle it to prominent mention in a - review of Manchester’s leading commercial and industrial houses.


A LEADING and eminently reputable house in its line in Manchester is that of Mr. A. G. Thornton, of 109, Deansgate, practical manufacturer of drawing and surveying instruments and materials, also photographic materials, &c. Mr. Thornton has been connected with the business for twenty-five years, and commenced operations on his own account in 1878. The founder was a thoroughly practical man, and brought such ability and energy to bear upon the new concern that a good beginning was soon made, and the foundation laid, broad and deep, of what has since become such a powerful factor in this branch of industrial activity. In addition to the home trade a very extensive export business is carried on with all parts of the world. The premises occupied are large and convenient, and consist of a handsome single fronted shop on the ground floor of an extensive block of attractive building, together with show-rooms, warehouses, and workshops at the rear, and additional workshops in the basement. The various departments have been capitally arranged, and are thoroughly equipped with every convenience and contrivance for the effective discharge of the business, the adequate accommodation of the stock, and the comfort of visitors.

The manufacturing premises proper are situate in John Dalton Street, and are ample in size and perfect in their equipment and convenience of arrangement. A large and high-class trade is controlled by the firm in their specialities and the general goods they handle, which include every description of drawing and surveying instruments and materials required by engineers, contractors, architects, shipbuilders, surveyors, corporations, railway companies, and schools. Everything emanating from this noted house is of superior and guaranteed excellence. All articles are of the best material, finish, and workmanship, and embody all the latest discoveries and improvements. Mr. Thornton’s wide and valuable experience in this business gives him great advantages in the selection of his stocks; and all the best productions of every kind will be found included in his comprehensive and splendid collections. As a practical manufacturer he takes a high and well-acknowledged position. The special facilities and advantages possessed by the house enable it to quote prices, in every department of its business, which cannot be surpassed by any other house, even if they can be equalled.

The proprietor’s specialities comprise valuable improvements in nearly every kind of goods handled. These include the following, of which he is the sole maker:— large pen and pencil compasses, superseding half sets; improved needle points to compasses, bows, &c.; twin-nib drawing pen, two pens in one handle; “Premier” surveyor’s level; patent mining dial; patent tension press for copying tracings by photography (no glass): this is a new and much improved apparatus for printing tracings by photography — it is more effective and not half so cumbersome or so costly as the old glazed frames; unique drawing boards for stretching paper on surface without glue or any other adhesive substance; improved levelling staves and poles, improved steel scale spring tape; pocket rules; and quite recently introduced pellucid (transparent) set squares, curves, and protractors. Waterproof liquid colours — black, red, and blue. Also the royal series of English drawing instruments for students in colleges, technical schools, &c., superseding in make, quality, arrangement and price, anything of the kind that has hitherto been sold.

Immense and varied stocks are held by the house, including, in addition to the articles previously mentioned, large and high-class supplies of water-colours and all artists’ materials from the best makers — Rowney, Winsor & Newton, Beeves, &c.; Whatman’s papers, tracing papers and cloths, mounted papers, sketch books, bows, brushes, drainage levels, field books, optical squares, pantographs, photographic colours and all material, planimeters, quantity papers, ship and railway curves, scales of every kind, set squares, sectors, sextants, wheel pens, theodolites, stylo pens, stencil plates, &c., &c. A large staff of skilled hands is kept employed, and repairs of every description are satisfactorily and economically executed.

Mr. Thornton has been appointed contractor to Her Majesty’s Government and to many principal engineering and shipbuilding establishments, corporations, science and art academies, schools, &c. The proprietor is a man of great practical and sterling ability in his liner and his inventions in various branches of his business entitle him to rank among the leading representatives of this department of scientific activity. His personal supervision is given to the business as a whole, and no effort is wanting on his part to maintain the high standard of excellence which has always characterised the productions of this famous house. All his commercial transactions are conducted with strict fairness and integrity, and in private life he is everywhere respected for his personal worth, his active and disinterested public services and his uprightness.
The registered telegraphic address of the house is “Drawing, Manchester.”


A RECORD of the progress made in Lancashire would be incomplete without some reference to the old-established firm of William Birch, Jun., & Co., who can be placed in the front rank of Manchester shippers trading to the chief Eastern markets. Established early in the present century, they and their predecessors have carried on a large business in piece-goods, yarns, and the like to India, Zanzibar, China, Japan, Penang, and Singapore, and the minor miscellaneous outlets for Manchester productions. The late head of the concern, Mr. William Birch, was one of the best known figures on the Manchester Exchange, and who, whilst taking a keen interest in business, earned for himself considerable respect by his liberality and active work amongst the poor of his native town. The headquarters of the house — originally situate in St. Peter’s Square and Chepstow Street — were in 1889 transferred to its present more central position in Princess Street, where the arrangements for the conduct of the business is most complete. The present members of the firm have adapted themselves thoroughly to the altered conditions of trading, and, dispensing with a cumbrous palatial warehouse and its attendant expenses, have cut themselves out to reduce the laying-down cost of goods abroad to a minimum compatible with efficiency.

Telegraphic address, “Cooper, Ancoats.”

ALTHOUGH established not more than six years, the enterprise and ability with which its affairs have been directed have already brought the above establishment into the forefront of houses engaged in this branch of industrial activity. Year by year the business has increased in volume and value, and repeated enlargements of the premises have been necessitated to keep pace with the continually-growing demands. Operations are conducted in premises covering an area of 105 feet by
120 feet, and commodious offices, storerooms, moulding shops, foundry, furnaces, &c. The various departments have been arranged in the most convenient manner for the expeditious and successful control of the business. They are thoroughly equipped with apparatus, plant and machinery of the latest and best type, and motive power is supplied by a steam engine. An extensive trade is controlled by the firm as general iron-founders, special attention being paid to engineers’ and machinists’ castings, whilst great care is used in the mixtures of metals suitable for turning and boring purposes. The work emanating from this house is well known and highly appreciated in the trade and among local consumers of all classes; only skilled workpeople are employed, and every process of manufacture is carefully supervised by competent and responsible managers. Every article turned out here is the best of its kind that skill and enterprise can produce, and consumers and buyers look upon them as standards of a thoroughly excellent character. A comparison will show that their prices will compare favourably with those asked by similar first-class houses, while the uniform excellence of the work is vouched for by the high reputation the firm have enjoyed during the whole of their career, and the constantly increasing nature of their business. The connection is large and valuable.

A force of about thirty skilled lands is constantly employed, and this is augmented considerably at busy seasons. The machinery and plant are kept in the most perfect state of efficiency, and a spirited and liberal policy is exercised in every department of the concern. Orders of any magnitude receive immediate attention, and estimates and sketches are promptly supplied, while all contracts placed in their hands are sure to be carried to completion in a perfectly satisfactory and honourable manner. Mr. F. S. Cooper, the senior partner, is a thorough master of every branch of the business, and his constant, personal attention is bestowed upon the concern. The house has achieved note for its manufacture of open and high-pressure kiers, tanks, steam-cased pans, steaming boxes, logwood stills, girders, and this class of work generally. These articles are second to none, and never fail to give satisfaction to buyers. By his straightforward methods he retains the esteem and confidence of all who come into business contact with him, and he is eminently deserving of the high measure of success which has attended his energetic and honourable efforts in this important branch of industry.


MR. KIRBY originally established himself in the year 1876, and having quickly raised himself to a position of consideration in the trade, he has since steadily and continuously developed the scope and extent of his operations, with the most highly satisfactory results. He occupies commanding corner premises, situated in an excellent business position opposite the Talbot Hotel, the shop being well fitted and excellently stocked with all kinds of gas and water fittings, and other materials, &c., required for the different branches of the work. Mr. Henry Kirby is a practical sanitary plumber, certified by the City and Guilds of London Institute, and he undertakes plumbing work of every description, testing drains by the smoke test, with patented appliances, and making sanitary inspections, with full descriptive written reports, on very moderate terms. In this seriously important department he has earned a very considerable reputation as a practical man of exceptional capacity and clearness of perception. Mr. Kirby is also an authorised gas and water fitter, and licentiate in sanitary practice to the Manchester Corporation and Moss Side Local authorities. He has a very large and influential connection, and bears an excellent reputation for the first-rate quality of materials and sound and efficient workmanship which distinguish the execution of all orders entrusted to him. Personally Mr. Henry Kirby is an active and energetic business man, who devotes constant and unremitting attention to the supervision of all the details of his business, and he is exceedingly popular and greatly esteemed and respected in the locality.


ESTABLISHED nearly a century ago, the well-known house of Messrs. Watson & Woodhead ranks among the oldest and most notable concerns in the brewing trade in Manchester and Salford. It has always been known under the name either of Watson & Woodhead or Woodhead & Watson, and has borne its present title for the past ten years. The active management of the business is in the hands of Mr. Walter Woodhead, great-grandson of the founder of the house, whose sound practical experience in all departments of the industry enables him to maintain the high repute and prosperous condition this concern has so long enjoyed. The premises occupied by the firm are most extensive, and comprise two breweries, the older of which forms a handsome four-storey block of buildings in Bolton Street, its boundaries extending to three other streets in this neighbourhood. Here the firm have a splendid brewing plant in operation, and we were particularly impressed with the evident fact that the place has been kept “up to date” in all practical matters, the machinery and appliances in use being of the best and most improved modern type. The other brewery, situate in Irwell Street, has been in operation since 1878, and was one of the first breweries erected on the “tower system” in this district. The tower is about eighty or ninety feet high, and the whole block presents a handsome and imposing appearance. Internally it is arranged and equipped in the most effective manner, and at both breweries there exist the most complete facilities for the conduct of an exceptionally large trade.

Messrs. Watson & Woodhead brew all kinds of ales and porter, for which they enjoy a very high and well-merited reputation; and their trade is developed chiefly in the supplying of publicans and of their own numerous and valuable houses. The connection thus maintained is a widespread one, extending all over Manchester, Salford, and the smaller towns in this part of Lancashire, and no house stands higher in public confidence. It is one of the few old-established brewing concerns that remain still in the hands of the founder’s family, and its operations are conducted with a very careful regard for the maintenance of the creditable position it has so worthily gained and preserved. Everything about the two breweries of Messrs. Watson & Woodhead is a model of cleanliness, efficiency and good organisation; and the firm deservedly rank among the most respected concerns in the trade in Lancashire, their ales being widely and favourably known for their perfect purity, fine character, and the splendid condition in which they are sent out.


IN THE manufacture of preserves no house in Manchester or the vicinity bears a better reputation than that of Mr. Frederick Duerr, of Guide Bridge. After many years of varied and valuable experience in the business, Mr. Duerr erected the works he occupies in 1884. They are admirably situated in a fine open stretch of country, between Manchester and Ashton, and they rank among the most complete works of the kind in the country. The principal building is of ample size, and every part is filled up in a thorough style, with plant and apparatus of the latest and most improved description. A large number of hands are employed. The basement is used mainly as a store-room for prepared “stock,” which is made from fresh fruit when in season. In all, there are about thirty-five thousand capacious jars filled with various kinds of fruit essence, which are kept for consumption in the winter months. Mr. Duerr’s preserves are made by a new and scientific method of fruit preserving, perfected by Mr. Duerr himself, the result of several years of careful observation and experience. He claims by his method that the fruit is thoroughly preserved, and under ordinary conditions will keep good for a greater length of time than by the old method.

The boiling-house is on the first floor, and is a spacious and well-appointed department in which a number of copper preserve pans are in constant use. After each boiling the result is carefully tested, and then forwarded by a species of miniature tram service to the making-up and labelling rooms. Here a score or so of cleanly-dressed girls are busily employed in filling the jars with the required quantity and then labelling them and making them up into parcels. An extensive business is controlled by the firm in the manufacture of its various specialities, and its constantly increasing character is ample evidence that the articles are giving every satisfaction and admirably meeting the requirements and tastes of the people.

Mr. Duerr is well known for his superior skill in selecting fruit of the proper nature, and for sound judgment as to the precise time when the fruit is at its best for preserving. All the fruit is chosen by the proprietor — it is hand-picked and is of the most suitable quality only. Every process is carefully watched and is carried out by experienced persons with the best possible appliances. No jellies are made here, and the whole juice and essence of the fruits are retained in the jams. The manager of the works is a thoroughly capable man with a sound and large experience in every department of the business extending over sixteen years. Mr. Duerr himself is chiefly occupied with the commercial branch of the business and is a prominent member of the Corn Exchange, where his genial presence is well known. He is a thorough master of his craft, and the success of the concern may in no small degree be attributed to his all-round ability and his special knowledge of fruit selection. He is fair and honourable in all his dealings, and enjoys the respect and esteem of all who know him, whether in private life or as the representative of this important branch of industrial activity.
The telegraph address of the house is “Duerr, Droylsden.”


IN the minds of all there is a never-ceasing desire to learn the histories of those who, by the fact of their own intrinsic abilities, have made themselves conspicuous in the branch of industry they have adopted as a career. The life histories of many of these show what can be won by self-reliance and perseverance and the exact management of business in its most insignificant details. John McDonough was born in Manchester in the year 1829. Like most successful men, he commenced life with few material advantages, but was endowed with the more valuable possessions of health, energy, fixity of purpose, and that shrewd acumen and native ability which has advanced him to his present position. From early boyhood he has been connected with the special branch of industry in which he now occupies such a distinguished place. He was only eight years of age when he went to learn the business with the firm of Messrs. Gill & Skevington, of Salford, and when, at Mr. Gill’s death, Mr. Skevington also retired, he determined to commence for himself. It was a brave step, for he was then only sixteen years of age, and it must have necessitated qualities of no mean order to have led him to embark on such an undertaking. He is the architect of his own fortune, the founder of a business, which, though not readily adapted to popular, description, is one of considerable magnitude, and the most representative of its class.

The manufacture of hair seating, otherwise hair cloth, also curled hair and the general preparation of this article for such various purposes as councillor’s wigs and toothbrushes, formed, in the first instance, the scope of Mr. McDonough’s efforts. It may be interesting to state that at present the hair used in the manufacture of hair seating is chiefly got from the tails and manes of horses, and is imported in large quantities from South Russia, America, and Australia. It arrives in a greasy, dirty, and entangled state, mixed frequently with the grossest impurities, and it has to be sorted, purified, and dyed before it can be utilized by the upholsterers. Heavy bales of the hair may be thus seen in Mr. McDonough’s warehouse, for he imports it direct, and has therefore to do so in large quantities.

The first treatment it receives, after being sorted, is in the washing-house, where it is immersed in vats constantly supplied with fresh water, in the centre of which mechanical appliances are arranged to keep the hair in the water continually moving. Other arrangements are provided for feeding the hair into the vats, and for taking it out again, thereby not only diminishing the amount of labour required, but doing away with the danger of accident to any operative engaged in such work. The water, which has its action stimulated by certain efficient additions, is wrung out of the hair as the latter leaves the vat. The dyeing process follows, the hair being spread upon a specially made floor, in order that the hot air may act with more effect upon the moisture. When thoroughly dry, if intended to be made into curled hair, it is again cleaned and teased, and spun into ropes much in the way that ordinary ropes are made. These ropes are then steamed, baked, and packed into bundles, a state in which they require to be kept several weeks, to give the hair that permanent curl and elasticity which is such a necessity for mattress or couch. In addition to these processes, if intended for manipulation into hair cloth, it is also necessary that the hair be dyed and very carefully teased and sorted into bundles.

The weaving department is certainly that which presents the most striking appearance. The looms, which are an American invention, are a marvel of ingenuity, and what is of more importance in the eye of the manufacturer, are as efficient as ingenious. Formerly the old hand-looms took two persons to work one of them, while now, one girl is sufficient to attend eight of these steam-looms, thus doing, thanks to our American cousins, the work of sixteen persons. The work, too, is of very superior quality, and certain looms are kept in constant employment to supply the demands of the Government, who put a high value on the cloth for its good colour and wearing capabilities. We were shown one specially fine piece of seating in process of manufacture, the ultimate destination of which is her Majesty’s yacht.

Another very large department of Mr. McDonough’s business is that connected with the purifying and cleansing processes which feathers and down have to undergo before they can safely be put into bedding or articles of clothing. Small particles of skin and other animal matter, germs, perhaps of disease, and certainly often of insects, such as moths, harbour in the feathers in a way that makes its thorough purification a sine qua non of its value. The use of feathers or down, unless well purified and treated by special apparatus to destroy all germs and to free it from all impurities, is both unpleasant and frequently dangerous, and it is very important where these goods are concerned, that intending purchasers should buy from a responsible house, well supplied with the best apparatus for purifying, and with a reputation of nearly half a century, for turning out reliable goods. As a matter of fact, we believe that Mr. McDonough is the only manufacturer in Lancashire, if not in the north of England, who has the machinery and facilities for thoroughly cleansing and purifying these goods.

Twenty-five years ago a further department was added to this business by the importation from South America of Piassava and Mexican fibre, which are now very largely used by brush makers in the manufacture of their goods; but the fibres have to be sorted, combed, and cut before they can be of any use for this purpose, and in connection with this Mr. McDonough has taken advantage of his evident mechanical genius to invent several special machines which economise labour and improve the quality of the work. This is also noticeable in the hair seating department, where there is a very ingenious labour-saving machine for polishing the cloth after it comes from the loom, and which tedious process had, formerly to Mr. McDonough’s invention, to be done by hand.

Manufacturing feather beds, hair mattresses, down quilts, and all kinds of bedding, it was only natural that the business should move with the popular taste and add still another branch by manufacturing wire and spiral spring mattresses. These goods now form a large and increasing department of this extensive business, and are well known, and in considerable favour with the medical faculty for the excellent construction and good workmanship which is their invariable characteristic. Mr. John McDonough is emphatically a self-made man, and perhaps the most cogent tribute to his business ability is to be found in the large commercial concern we have attempted to describe. Success has come, but not without intense work, steady perseverance, and a manly determination not to allow the little incidents of life to discourage or dishearten him.


THIS extensive business was founded in the year 1854 upon a comparatively small scale, but the business steadily increasing from year to year, necessitated several successive enlargements of the premises. The works in Oldham Road, as they now stand, are very compact and commodious, being laid out upon a plan which Mr. Brown’s experience has taught him is the best for the purposes of his trade; and the entire establishment is splendidly equipped, possessing a most complete plant of machinery and appliances for the manufacture of various kinds of soaps, chemicals, and drysalters’ specialities for industrial and commercial uses. Mr. William Brown is a large manufacturer of a great variety of chemicals and drysalteries, and his long list of supplies includes articles of as widely diverse natures as black varnish, asbestos packing, petroleum jelly, various kinds of grease, and the usual forms of zinc, these being only a few prominent items in a great array of products for many different purposes.

Mr. Brown is also the inventor and sole maker of a number of important specialities, which are clearly the result of diligent study and long-continued experiment. Among these we may single out for special commendation a carefully prepared paint washer, for improving the colours on old work, wood or iron; an oil and grease killer, for thoroughly cleaning all kinds of locomotive work, sponge cloths, etc.; Brown’s Paint Killer, for effectually removing old paint from wood or iron, no matter how many coats have been applied; white soft soap, free from smell, for cleaning floors, and made from refined oil only; an excellent water softener, for locomotive and stationary boilers and laundry-work; first-class glycerine, old brown Windsor, and marble soaps; silk soaps for silk throwsters, dyers, and silk spinners; soaps for fulling woollen cloths, and scouring roller cloths, printers’ and other blankets, worsted and other yarns; and a new ink-killer or type-cleaner which will prove a great boon to printers, saving time and money, and leaving the type as clean as new. This latter article will kill all colours of ink, and will clean type from hard ink, even if a month old.

Mr. Brown’s specialities enjoy a conspicuous degree of favour, having proved themselves to be thoroughly useful and economical articles, well suited to their several purposes. Consequently a large and important trade is carried on, and this business is in a highly prosperous condition, under the able personal management of the principal, whose practical knowledge of chemistry is very extensive. Besides developing a large and flourishing business, with ramifications extending to all parts of the world, Mr. Brown has devoted much valuable time to the public service, and his work as a Town Councillor and as an Alderman has been greatly and justly appreciated. At the present time Mr. Brown has two able coadjutors in his sons, who, in addition to their business qualifications, are well-known in the best athletic circles. Both are highly popular, and Mr. Harry Brown is quite a noted cricketer, while his brother, Mr. William Alfred Brown, is an expert in the ancient and historic game of bowls.


THIS extensive and widely known brewery, enjoying an eminent reputation for the excellent quality of its productions in mild and bitter ales and porters, was for many years in private hands. In 1890 it was taken over by the present limited liability company, and under this proprietary its operations have been considerably developed in scope and magnitude. The buildings are three stories in height, and occupy three sides of a large square, with a total frontage of about two hundred and fifty feet. They comprise malt and hop stores, mashing rooms, fermenting and cooling rooms, and all the usual departments of a first-class modern brewery. The plant in operation is a fifty-barrel one, and the appliances and machinery throughout are of the most improved and effective description. There are also large stables and a well-equipped cooperage to the right of the main entrance, while the commodious offices are situated on the left of this gateway. The Company employ an efficient staff, and produce all kinds of mild and bitter ales, as well as a splendid class of porter; and in each of these beers they continue to maintain a remarkably high standard of purity and fine quality. Their output is distributed throughout the Manchester district and over a wide area of the surrounding country, and no beers produced in this neighbourhood enjoy greater favour with the general public. Under the able and energetic management of Mr. James Pollitt (who is also proprietor of the Church Hotel, Ashton Old Road, Openshaw, since 1874) and Mr. George J. Robinson, secretary (who has been closely connected with the establishment since its formation), this Company has made very notable progress since its inauguration nine years ago, and all present indications point to the prospect of its continued success and advancement.


IT IS a characteristic of the industrial aspect of Manchester that almost every great manufacturing trade that has been successfully developed by British enterprise finds exemplification here. Though the textile trades of the district still retain their place of pre-eminence, there are now many other local industries which claim special consideration — particularly those which bear some relationship to the textile trades aforesaid. One of these is the manufacture of chemicals of various kinds for the purposes of bleaching, sizing, dyeing, and finishing the many fabrics incidental to the Manchester trade, and in this important line a leading concern is the East Lancashire Chemical Company, whose extensive works are at Fairfield, and whose city offices are at 43, Market Street, which are connected with their works by private telephone wire. They are also in communication with the National Telephone Company’s Exchange, by which means they are enabled to speak with subscribers in most of the principal towns in Great Britain.

This large and representative business was founded about half a century ago, and has steadily developed from the first, until, at the present time, it stands among the principal exponents of its special branch of industry in Lancashire. Under the direction of Mr. Barratt C. Sellars, who personally administers the business in all its operations, the home and foreign connections of the house have been so greatly expanded during recent years, and the trade in general has increased to such an extent that an enlargement of the manufacturing departments became imperatively necessary. In meeting this requirement the Company have been very fortunate, inasmuch as they have secured a valuable plot of land upon the canal bank at Fairfield, and in close proximity to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway line. Upon this conveniently situated property, containing no less than eleven thousand square yards, entirely new works have been erected upon a plan sanctioned by the long practical experience of the firm, and these works have now been brought into full operation, the enlarged plant and greatly improved facilities enabling the Company to execute all orders with a promptitude and despatch that indicate the complete and effective manner in which the new establishment has been organised.

We need hardly insist upon the fact that the works have been provided with the best modern machinery known in the trade. The heavy demands of the business make it indispensable that all the manufacturing resources should be of the most ample and efficient character, and each department now possesses an equipment which is in every respect adequate for the performance of its special part in the industry carried on. We had an opportunity of viewing these works some time ago, and were very pleased with our visit. In addition to the manufacture of chemicals, this firm has on the ground a large mechanics’ shop in which they make and repair a great portion of their own machinery. The cooperage also, in which they make the casks for packing their products, is a fine building fitted up with circular and band saws, in fact every convenience for the cheap production of casks. The smithy, too, was not forgotten, in which we saw some of the firm’s valuable horses being shod. Employment is given to a numerous staff of hands, who work under thoroughly satisfactory military and general conditions.

The company manufacture chemical reparations required by bleachers, sizers, finishers, and dyers under Her Majesty’s royal letters patent, as well as specialities for calico printers and cotton and woollen goods manufacturers. In all these productions a high standard of quality is carefully maintained, and the East Lancashire Chemical Company’s goods are widely and favourably known throughout the trade. They are guaranteed pure and free from injurious ingredients, and are especially esteemed for their uniformity of excellence. The registered trade mark is a compass, as shown. As may be readily understood, the large scale upon which this Company’s operations are conducted enables the various specialities to be produced at a minimum outlay, and the Company’s price list consequently offers special inducements to buyers of chemicals who appreciate a really first-class and reliable article at a moderate cost. Stocks are held to meet urgent orders, and under Mr. Sellars’ watchful supervision the routine work of the business is kept well “up to date,” leaving customers no ground for complaint on the score of delay or inattention.

A well-conducted business is always a subject for admiration, and we cannot refrain from complimenting Mr. Sellars upon the excellent results of his managing directorship in the case of the concern under notice. Personal attention to every detail of the business is undoubtedly the secret of success here as elsewhere, and Mr. Sellars’ active energy and enterprise seem to have awakened in all the members of the Company’s staff a spirit of careful industry that operates greatly to the advantage of the house and of its clientele. An immense and still increasing trade is controlled, and the Company's connections extend to almost every market in which there is a demand for the class of chemicals they produce.
Telegrams should be addressed “Chimiques, Manchester,” and the Company’s telephone is No. 554.


MR. WILLIAM WHITTAM entered upon his distinguished career of industry in the year 1860 at 25, Islington Street, Salford, where so vigorously did he develop his business that he found it necessary ten years ago to remove to the present more convenient and commodious quarters. The premises occupied consist of a capitally-appointed shop and show-room on the ground floor, holding a very full stock of specimens of some of Mr. Whittam’s more minute work, such as sectors for the gauging and cutting of worms and teeth, slide gauges, and pitchometers for exportation. The commodious workrooms located on the first floor are replete with all the most modern and improved machinery for planing, cutting, and accurately marking steel; and here a full staff of skilled workmen is constantly engaged in producing the superior goods for which the firm has become so justly famous, and which include all kinds of steel rules, accurately marked and superbly finished in every detail; engineers’ mechanical and mathematical tools, centre T and L squares, compasses, callipers, and spring dividers; slide gauges with or without vernier, divided into any measurement that may be required; moulders’ tools of every description, spirit levels, letters, figures, and name stamps, brands and stencil plates, wood and ivory rules, and so forth. The firm, moreover, make a speciality of engraving names, inscriptions, monograms, crests, mottoes, &c., on gold and silver plate, jewellery and ivory. Door and window plates, &c., in brass, zinc, and copper; also coffin plates.

Every kind of steel and other metal scales for drawing, contraction, and standard measuring purposes; squares, indices, &c., are made and marked with English or any foreign measurements, or broken number, or to sketches supplied, worked out and corrected if desired, with a fidelity which cannot be surpassed. It may be mentioned in this connection that Messrs. Whittam’s steel rules and standards are in use at all the principal engineering and mechanical establishments and Government yards both at home and abroad, and they have received extensive English and foreign patronage for special measuring and gauging instruments. Personally, Mr. Whittam’s whole career has been one of unremitting activity; and by his constant energy, enterprise, and sound principles he has firmly established a business which extends its present operations over a universal field of action, and enjoys the full confidence of a world-wide connection.


THE Harpurhey Brewery, as this fine establishment is called, was erected in the year 1868 at great expense, the object of the proprietors being to exemplify the various processes of the brewing industry upon the most improved and scientific principles. Under the direct control of its founders, Messrs. Bernard and John McKenna, the brewery has had a very prosperous career from the first, and though Mr. John McKenna died about twelve months ago, the business continues under the very able administration of Mr. Bernard McKenna, the surviving partner. This gentleman has had great experience in the trade, and his long-continued enterprise and capable management have very largely influenced the progress and development of the concern, and made it notable among its contemporaries in the Lancashire brewing trade.

At the present time the firm under notice owns a large number of valuable and important public-house properties in Manchester and elsewhere, and the success of these establishments amply attests the popularity of the beers produced. Besides the splendidly-equipped and admirably-organised brewery itself — which is of fine proportions and forms an architectural ornament to Harpurhey — there is a large wine and spirit department of two storeys with spacious cellars, and here the firm hold immense stocks of choice wines and spirits, the former imported direct from the growers, and the latter obtained from the best distilleries in England, Scotland and Ireland. With the obvious exception of sparkling wines, all liquors (including spirits) are bottled on the premises, and the blending of whiskies is also carried out hereunder the most careful supervision.

Messrs. McKenna’s ales and stouts have a great reputation throughout Lancashire and the northern counties generally, and are always in large demand. They are produced from the best malt and hops only, all the processes of brewing being conducted under the most favourable conditions, and, as a consequence, these ales and stouts are of the very finest possible quality. Altogether, a splendid business is done by this old-established and well-known firm, who have always kept perfect faith with the public, and who continue to retain the respect and confidence of a large and influential connection. Both departments of the business are conducted with conspicuous ability and judicious enterprise, and both are marked by substantial success and steady increase from year to year.


THE proprietor of this enterprising business has had a long, valuable, and practical acquaintance with the trade, having been for twenty-two years in an important and responsible position with the late firm of Messrs. Henry Odgen & Son. On their retirement, in 1882, Mr. Ashworth commenced to trade on his own account, and by his matured experience, energy, and tact he managed to establish himself as one of the first furnishing houses in Manchester. Business is conducted in an attractive, substantial and commodious block of buildings, possessing every accommodation and convenience for an extensive and high-class trade of this description. The premises comprise a capacious and splendid show-room on the ground floor, with fine plate-glass windows, extending in length from floor to ceiling and in which at the present time is exhibited, as a specimen of the firm’s exquisite workmanship, a dainty suite of bed-room furniture in enamelled white wood, with artistic brass bedsteads having tapestry hangings.

A wide staircase leads into the basement, which is lofty and perfectly lighted; the front portion is occupied by the drapery cutter and for making curtains and hangings, and at the rear is a superb show-room of colossal proportions — thirty-seven feet by forty-five feet in extent — and supported on iron pillars (which have, recently been added). This is probably the largest apartment of the kind in the district, and it holds a number of bedroom, dining and drawing-room suites of furniture in complete array, and an almost innumerable quantity of single articles as well. Farther rearward are the store-rooms and goods receiving and dispatching rooms, and the upper floors of the building are utilised as workshops for the upholsterers, upholsteresses, polishers, cabinet fitters, carpet planners, and bedding department. The vast interior has been thoroughly well arranged and is perfectly fitted for convenience for facilitating the despatch of business. For amplitude of accommodation and absolute convenience of arrangement for display and sale, this establishment is pre-eminently noteworthy, and the judgment, taste, and organising ability of the proprietor cannot be too highly commended. An extensive and valuable business is here conducted in the manufacture of furniture of every description. As standards of excellence the firm’s productions are everywhere recognised by the best class of dealers and the more influential private buyers. In material, workmanship, elegance and novelty of design, and general finish he has few equals and no superiors; while in matters of price the proprietor is so situated, owing to his practical knowledge and premises at a moderate rent, as to be able to offer inducements which cannot fail to draw patrons.

Among the many notable articles manufactured by the firm special mention must be made of a novelty in the shape of a writing desk invented by Mr. Ashworth. It is no less handsome in appearance than ingenious in its usefulness. Its speciality is that, in locking the centre drawer all the other drawers become locked as well, also locking folding fall that encloses top part, and it is so contrived that it is impossible for any drawer to be left unintentionally open. There is also a patent fan-shaped ledge attached to each end of the desk, which revolves automatically, and serves very conveniently to rest books and letters on whilst in use. The desk is made in various woods and is an exceedingly useful article and highly serviceable for presentation. A large and influential business is done in Manchester and the suburbs among the principal families, hotels, and public institutions. Mr. Ashworth is thorough master of his business, and every effort is used by him to give entire satisfaction to his customers. His commercial transactions are all marked by strict fairness and honesty, and in private life he is much respected for his ability, public spirit, and many sterling qualities.


ALTHOUGH this firm was established so lately as 1888, it has at its head two gentlemen of wide experience and rare mechanical skill, whose research has given to the world an invention which is bound to make the names of Hodder and Bullock famous. This useful invention is Hodder and Swain’s Patent Coir Yarn Mat Loom, the first machine of its kind that has been made. The great advantage given by this machine is that it saves the labour of twenty hands. It has eighteen different motions, and works with marvellous perfection. Far-seeing and enterprising men from all parts have offered immense sums of money for the right of using the invention, but the owners are refusing every one, as they intend keeping the right exclusively to themselves. A very large sum is expected for the patent right on the Continent, also for America and other parts. J Messrs. Hodder & Bullock have spent a great deal of study and money in perfecting and making their patent, but their reward is sure, and the return is bound to be great. The business is at present chiefly confined to the home trade, but the spirited proprietors are expecting to open out a trade with the Continent and other parts of the world very shortly. They are also makers of wire machinery cables, twisting wire-for wire cloth, machines for wire netting, mat binding machines, &c., &c. The works are of two floors, and are fitted with steam power and an expensive plant of machinery. The whole place bears evidence of skilful management, everything moving like clockwork. Between twenty and thirty selected workmen are employed. The respected proprietors are on the high road to prosperity. They are bound to succeed, and richly do they deserve all the honour which will be bestowed on them.


IN point of antiquity the brewing of ale and beer ranks with the oldest and most important of our national industries; yet, nevertheless, the strides that have been made in modern times in the direction of perfected processes and mechanical aids to the swift production of superior liquors are simply marvellous. In illustration of this, no better example, perhaps, could be afforded than the one which furnishes the theme of the present review. It was about forty-two years ago that this house was founded by Messrs. Hargreaves Bros., and the business was carried on by them on a comparatively small scale until the year 1876, when Messrs. Renshaw & Cardwell, two gentlemen of recognised ability in the brewing world, acquired the concern, infused new life into it, rebuilt the premises, fitted them throughout with a magnificent modern plant, and gave the old business such a decided impetus that it soon took a leading place among the industrial hives of Hulme. On the death of Mr. Renshaw some ten years ago, Mr. Cardwell became the sole proprietor, but he still carries on the business under the old style of the firm.

The brewery as it now stands is fitted with a forty-quarter plant, and calls into active requisition the services of a staff of fifty well-trained hands. It is self-contained, and derives a supply of excellent water from a splendid well situated upon the premises. All kinds of ales, porters, and stouts are produced, and their distinctive characters are such as to have led to a very large and constantly increasing demand amongst the working public and private families of the district. The distribution of these wholesome and palatable liquors is, to a large extent, effected through the agency; of “tied” houses, of which the firm hold a goodly number, and a very large free trade has also resulted in virtue of the uniformly sound quality of the brews. Mr. Cardwell occupies a prominent and influential position in social and mercantile circles, and in this connection it may be mentioned that he is also a valued member of the Municipal Council of the city of Manchester, having been elected unopposed in the year 1890. The business tells its own story of honourable principles faithfully observed; and its history, under the present regime, is a record of success achieved that is creditable alike to the principal of the house and to the true dignity of national trade.


THE proprietor of this, the largest, most reliable, and eminently reputable house in its line in Manchester, was born at Halstead, in Essex, where he learned the business of watch-making. He removed to Lancashire soon after he had come out of his time, and almost immediately started in business for himself. In 1851 he was established at a small shop in Oldham Street, and his establishment was at the time reckoned the second house in the trade in the north of England. He removed afterwards to 98, Shudehill, and later on to much larger premises on the opposite side of the road. Subsequently he disposed of his business and retired into private life, but not finding private life altogether to his satisfaction, he soon began business again, this time in the Bull Ring at Birmingham; and finding that his principal trade was being done with Manchester, he decided to remove there, and so took a portion of the premises he now occupies. These have been from time to time altered and enlarged to meet the ever-increasing nature of the business, until, at the present time, they cover an area of about seven hundred square yards, and are bounded by Oak Street, Scholes Street, and Foundry Lane, with main entrance in Oak Street and goods entrance in Scholes Street.

The various departments have been admirably arranged, and the whole establishment is fitted up with every necessary convenience for the expeditious and successful control of a business of this diversity and magnitude. The basement is occupied, as a packing room, and the show and sale rooms are on the ground floor, with offices at the back; the principal, general, and private offices are on the first floor. There are in all some twelve separate departments, each containing goods enough to stock a first-class shop. The jewellery, watches, clocks, electro-plated goods, and cutlery are on the ground floor, and include gold, silver, aluminium, Swiss, and English watches in immense variety, every kind of costly and novel jewellery, tea services, liqueur frames, table and dessert knives, &c. The tobacconists’ sundries and leather goods are also on the ground floor. On the first floor is a magnificent collection of high-class Bohemian and flint-glass and china and-Parisian goods. The second floor is occupied with hardware of every description and papier-mache and japanned goods, and, on the other floor, which is known as the dolls’ room, is an immense collection of dolls and toys, such as can be hardly matched in any other establishment in the country.

Mr. Knight is thoroughly conversant with his business in all its numerous ramifications, and his selections have been made with a consummate knowledge of the buyers and the public generally. The house is an eminently representative one, and the proprietor is looked upon as the best buyer and salesman in Manchester in this department of industry. In his management he is ably seconded by Mr. A. Davies, the cashier, who has been in his employ for more than twenty-one years. Mr. Knight occupies a good commercial status, and commands the respect and esteem of all who come into business connection with him. He is a member of the Society of Friends, and is well known and highly respected for his public usefulness and benevolence.


NO city in the United Kingdom possesses such extensive and capable engineering establishments as Manchester, and foremost among these stands the house of Messrs. Frank Pearn & Co., of West Gorton, the eminent pumping machinery manufacturers. The house has taken the lead in this important branch of industry ever since its foundation in 1870, at which date operations on a large scale were commenced by Mr. Frank Pearn. Mr. Sinclair Pearn and Mr. Thomas Addyman subsequently joined the firm, and under their able and energetic control the establishment has enjoyed a career of notable prosperity and success. The works are ample in their spaciousness. The equipment is the outcome of the firm’s long experience and progressive policy, and embraces the best and most improved appliances, and machinery, drilling, slotting, planing, boring and turning, &c, &c. – in fact everything that a thorough knowledge of the trade could suggest or money supply.

An extensive and well-appointed suite of offices is on the ground floor, including private offices for each of the partners, drawing and engineering offices, and general offices with accommodation for a large staff of clerks. Every department is kept in a state of perfect efficiency, and an admirable system of discipline is maintained among the workmen, whose comfort and welfare are specially looked after by worthy proprietors. A large and high-class trade is here controlled in the manufacture of the firm’s specialities and patents. Their productions have obtained a world-wide reputation, and are unsurpassed in their efficiency, durability, and perfect finish. The high position these goods have held for so many years among the best judges is evidence of the intrinsic merits they possess, and the constantly increasing demands for them in every quarter show they still defy successful rivalry.

In the manufacture of hydraulic and pumping machinery the house has no equals. Among their great specialities, we can only find room to mention a few of the most important:— The “Manchester” air compressor or vacuum pump, which has many advantages over anything of the kind yet introduced, and is in extensive demand in chemical works, breweries, &c.; the Manchester donkey or wall pump, single and double acting; “patent” double acting pumps: these are made in over a hundred sizes, and in price and capability will compare favourably with pumps without flywheels. There are numerous others equally important and serviceable, to which we cannot refer, but special mention should be made of the “Manchester” pumping engine, which for its simplicity in construction and accessibility to all the working parts has gained a high reputation in the largest iron and steel works, collieries, chemical works, breweries, mills, and everywhere where machinery of this description is wanted. The firm are also manufacturers of Pearn’s vertical engine. Their celebrated compound and horizontal pumping engines have been supplied to many well-known firms, among which are the following: The Bridgewater Trustees, Worsley; the Dowlais Iron Co., Dowlais; the Dukinfield Colliery Co., Dukinfield; the Ebbw Yale Steel, Iron, and Coal Company, Limited; Messrs. A. Guinness, Son & Co., Dublin; Hitchin Local Board Waterworks, Hitchin; Messrs. Walkers, Parker, & Co., London; Messrs. Wilcock & Co., Burmantofts, Leeds.

From the superiority of its manufacture and honourable methods of doing business, the house has acquired a connection of great value in every part of the United Kingdom, and an extensive shipping trade is controlled with Russia, Spain, Sweden, Norway, South America, the Cape, India, and all the British Colonies. Prize medals have been obtained at Sydney, Adelaide, and Philadelphia Exhibitions. A force of two hundred skilled hands is kept constantly employed in meeting the demands, the whole of the business being carried on under the active supervision of all the partners, who are gentlemen of exceptional ability in their line, and occupy a high position in business and commercial circles. They are respected by all who come into contact with them, whether as the representatives of this important industry or as prominent citizens.
The telegraphic address of the firm is “Pumps,” Manchester. Telephone 1021.


THIS eminent firm of engineers and ironfounders was founded in the year 1866 by Mr. S. S. Stott and Mr. Richard Birtwistle. The latter gentleman is now sole proprietor of the concern, Mr. Stott having died in the year 1889. The Laneside Works and foundry cover a large area, and are very substantially built and commodiously laid out. They comprise (1) the large iron foundry, with two cupolas and two powerful travelling cranes; also patent wheel-moulding machinery and other moulding appliances, and a brass foundry adjoining; (2) several spacious and convenient turning and fitting shops, equipped with very superior modern machinery; (3) two very large erecting shops, with travelling cranes for hand and power; (4) two large pattern-making shops, with the necessary drawing offices in close proximity; (5) a large joiners’ shop, provided with saws, planing machines, and much other woodworking machinery of a labour-saving type; (6) a large and well-designed smiths’ shop, with powerful steam hammer and other modern tools. The whole establishment, which employs a large number of hands, and is splendidly organised throughout, reflects the highest credit upon Mr. Birtwistle.

Messrs. S. S. Stott & Co. are very large manufacturers of all kinds of engineers’ iron and brass work, machinery castings, and millwrights’ work, and the following are some of their principal productions:— steam engines of all kinds, double-cylinder, horizontal, pumping, and winding engines, air compressors for collieries, metallic pistons and air pump buckets of an improved type, hydraulic presses and pumps, horizontal and vertical three-throw pumps, steam and water valves of various descriptions, waterwheels, turbines, centrifugal pumps, fulling-mill machinery, ore-crushing machines, cast and wrought iron roofs, cranes and hoists, gas apparatus of all kinds, every description of millwright work, machine-made wheels, machinery for boring cylinders and air pumps in their places, calenders, mangles, squeezers, drying cylinders, &c., &c. Among the firm’s specialities we note patent portable grain elevators, special elevators for unloading bulk grain from ships, steamers, barges, floats, &c., patent floating elevators, elevators of the most improved construction for corn mills, oil mills, granaries, gas works, sugar works, &c., &c.; patent seamless elevator buckets, constructed on scientific principles in a great variety of designs and sizes, and many other requisites of a kindred nature for the equipment of mills and works of various kinds. For all these productions Messrs. S. S. Stott & Co. have long been famous, and have gained a great reputation for valuable improvements. The business in its entirety is one of the largest of its kind in this district, and is administered with marked ability and enterprise by Mr. Birtwistle, who is a thorough master of the industry in all its details. A most extensive home and export trade is controlled, and the house stands high in the esteem and confidence of a connection which may justly be termed international.
The firm’s telegraphic address is “Elevator, Haslingden.”


THE reviewer of the trades and industries of Manchester is constantly being brought into contact with very remarkable instances of rapid business advancement, in connection with which the special abilities and energies of some member of this great city’s commercial fraternity are strikingly manifested. It would be difficult to name a business that has more fully exemplified this local peculiarity than that of Mr. John Hutt, the well-known manufacturing clothier, of Ashton New Road, Bradford, and Ashton-under-Lyne, Oldham, and Rochdale. One can hardly realise that this great concern, with its widespread ramifications, its many employes, and its large and busy factories and warehouses is all the result of fifteen years’ work on the part of its sole proprietor; yet such is the case.

It was in the year 1876 that Mr. John Hutt, the sole principal of this business, commenced his operations in the clothing trade; and as an encouragement to those whose chief capital is energy and a willingness to work, we may say that Mr. Hutt started with about £100 in cash, and had his first headquarters in a shop for which he paid 7s. 6d. per week in rent. The secret of all that he has accomplished since then may be summed up in the one word, Work. The spirit of industry and the ability to make good use of every offered opportunity have been his, and he has employed them to such purpose that he now controls one of the largest and most successful wholesale clothing trades in the Manchester district. His chief establishment in Ashton New Road stands upon a site about one hundred yards higher up, and comprises a fine three-storey brick building, the internal arrangement of which is as follows:- Ground floor, ready-made clothing, order department, general outfitting; first floor, juvenile department, ladies’ mantles and jackets, dresses, furs, ulsters, boots, hats; second floor and basement used as supplementary stock-rooms. Each, of the above-named departments contains a most complete and varied assortment of goods in its particular line, all being the produce of Mr. Hutt’s own admirably-equipped factories; and these productions are in every case characterised by a very high standard of quality in material, workmanship, and finish, as well as by conspicuous merit in design. The newest fashions are faithfully exemplified; and whether it be in gentlemen's, ladies’, or juvenile garments, Mr. Hutt is uniformly successful in meeting the requirements of the day.

About a year ago Mr. Hutt increased his resources of production by erecting a large new factory at the rear of his establishment in Ashton New Road. This factory, which has been planned and constructed upon the very best modern principles as regards sanitation and general convenience, affords very superior accommodation for the two hundred and fifty workpeople and one hundred and sixty-five sewing machines now kept busy by Mr. Hutt’s large and growing trade; and every process of clothing manufacture is here carried out under conditions ensuring the most satisfactory results. Dining-rooms, lavatories, and cloak-rooms are among the many conveniences of this fine factory, and Mr. Hutt’s employes are certainly to be congratulated upon being in the service of so considerate a master. The vast output of these works not only supplies the shop in Ashton New Road, but also replenishes Mr. Hutt’s very successful branches at The Avenue, Ashton-under- Lyne, 61, Manchester Street, Oldham, 5, Oldham Road, Rochdale, 46, Market Street, Hyde, and 79, Bridge Street, Warrington. Altogether a stock valued at upwards of £30,000 is now constantly on hand to meet the demands of a connection which extends all over the country for many miles round Manchester. Uniforms are a speciality, and Mr. Hutt contracts largely for the supplying of volunteer corps, institutions, &c. His goods enjoy a splendid reputation, and are held in high confidence by the general public.

Mr. Hutt is distinctly a self-made man, and has every reason to be proud of the success he has achieved by his own unaided and unremitting efforts. His capacity for work is immense, and he is always to be found at his post in the warehouse or the factory, except during such time as he snatches from business to devote to public affairs. Mr. Hutt looks after the interests of the people of Bradford, Beswick, and Clayton in a most assiduous manner, and he has represented the ward of Bradford in the Manchester City Council continuously since 1885. Few employers are more popular among their workpeople, and none set a better example of industry, punctuality, and straightforward principle to those around them. Mr. John Hutt is essentially a “man of the times,” and from what he has thus far accomplished it is safe to draw the conclusion that he has not yet by "any means reached the limit of his advancement either in commercial or in civic life. In addition to the immense home trade, shippers are supplied on the most reasonable terms.


HE is said to have been a brave man who first ate an oyster, and while we do not for a moment gainsay the assertion, we are inclined to claim an equal share of credit for the man who first carried an umbrella in public. It must have needed a stout heart and sturdy independence to withstand the gibes and jeers of the irrepressible street urchins, backed by the more serious hostility of the hackney coachmen and Sedan chairmen, who foresaw in this new method of defying the elements a large diminution in their trade. Men have faced death on the battlefield who would not dare to exploit a new fashion or lead the way with a new and extraordinary custom; and if worthy Jonas Hanway really did (as many believe) first carry an umbrella in the streets of London, he is assuredly entitled to all the renown that such a hazardous achievement can bestow upon his name. The “whirligig of Time” has wrought changes in this as in other matters, and nowadays he is the man of courage (and of foolhardiness forsooth) who dares to go far without an umbrella in the marvellous climatic conditions under which our land exists at the present day. To the man and the woman of the modern age, the umbrella (and with it its dainty offspring, the sunshade) is as indispensable as any established article of personal attire, and as umbrellas and sunshades have undoubtedly “come to stay,” it follows that those who engage extensively in their manufacture hold a very important place in the industrial community, and exercise no small influence in the social world besides. As an example in point we may mention the well-known Manchester house of Messrs. William Mason & Co.

No firm of umbrella and sunshade manufacturers is more widely or more favourably known, and none has gained more honourable renown by its efforts to make the umbrella of to-day a vast improvement upon its ungainly prototype of a hundred years ago. This house, although founded as recently as the year 1887 by its present esteemed principal, has made wonderful advance strides since then, and has established itself among the leaders of the trade in Manchester. Its progress was greatly aided at the very first by the prompt introduction of a genuine and interesting novelty — a waterproof or rain-repellent parapluie, which bears the appropriate name of the “Augur Rain-Repellent Umbrella.” This umbrella (which Messrs. Mason have protected by registration) is made in a variety of qualities, the coverings being in alpacas, dagmars, and glorias; and the material is rendered waterproof by a peculiar preparation and process by which the outward appearance of the fabric is unaltered. In this waterproofing lies the special feature of the new umbrella, and it certainly, meets a requirement that has long been urgent, for now we can be entirely freed from the inconvenience of having to enter trains or trams (or, to be more emphatic, of having other people enter such public conveyances), armed with a dripping umbrella that is a menace to everyone in its vicinity. On giving the “Augur” umbrella a slight shake the rain-drops fall off it immediately, like water off the proverbial duck’s back, and the result is satisfactory alike to the bearer of the umbrella and to those whose lot it is to sit or stand in close proximity to him.

Mr. Mason deserves the thanks of the public for this really excellent invention (which, by the way, has already been favoured with the sincere flattery of imitation), and we are not in- the least surprised that the introduction of the “Augur” umbrella should have greatly promoted the growth of this flourishing business. During the short period the new umbrella has been before the public a large and increasing demand for it has arisen, and we have no doubt whatever that this demand will be fully maintained, for the article only needs to become known to secure lasting popularity. Let it be distinctly understood that there is nothing at all in the appearance of the “Augur” umbrella to mark it as a new departure, so that no one need fear attracting undue attention by adopting it. The change is in the substance, not in the aspect, and the new umbrella is simply our old and well-tried friend, with all his merits enhanced by the evanishment of his defects.

Messrs. William Mason & Co. have now developed an immense business in every department of the umbrella and sunshade trade, and at the above address they occupy spacious and admirably appointed premises, where they employ upwards of one hundred hands in the various processes of a highly interesting industry. Here we find the best methods and materials in use, and goods of splendid value are turned out in all grades and at all prices. Wonderful indeed is the variety of “sticks” called into requisition, from the elegant cane of Malacca to the pimento-wood of the West Indies, while orange and olive sticks from Spain and Algiers, cherry-wood of delicious scent from the Danube, and bamboo from the Flowery Land apparently retain the favour they have so long enjoyed in the fashionable world. As to the handles and heads with which the sticks are ornamented, their variety is well-nigh infinite, and all the skill and ingenuity of French, German, and English designers and artizans seem to be concentrated in an especial degree upon the production of novelties in this line.

Messrs. Mason’s stock of umbrellas and sunshades is representative of every new idea and every standard type known in the trade, and one might fill a volume in describing the multitude of different styles and qualities displayed in their spacious show-rooms. One great point is ever prominent, and that is superiority of workmanship and finish. This we find in all the goods, not excepting the cheapest, and there can be no doubt that to this characteristic of their manufactures, the firm owe a very large measure of the success they have so rapidly achieved. There is always room for really good and reliable articles in every department of trade, and Messrs. Mason’s productions are finding a market in every quarter of the globe — a proof at once of the truth of this assertion and of the merit of these goods. Wholesale houses and shippers are supplied upon the most advantageous terms with every product of Messrs. Mason’s comprehensive industry, from the daintiest of fashionable sunshades or the costliest of ivory-handled and gold-mounted umbrellas down to the plainest and most utilitarian member of the multitudinous “Gamp” family; and the firm are displaying exemplary enterprise in the management of their steadily-increasing trade, the routine of which is facilitated by agencies in London, and also Ireland and Scotland. Every effort is made to give genuine satisfaction to the trade, both at home and abroad, and frequent and regular “repeat” orders from all parts show that patronage once bestowed upon this thoroughly reliable and well-conducted house has a tendency to be continuous. Mr. William Mason personally superintends the entire concern, and its conspicuous success stands as a high practical tribute to his ability, enterprise, and sound judgment.


THIS gigantic organisation, which dates back in its foundation to about a quarter of a century ago, is to-day managed by a syndicate of gentlemen trading under the above title. The premises occupied consist of a large five-storied block of buildings, admirably appointed as a warehouse, in Miller Street, Manchester, and of a mammoth five-storied factory at Heywood, known as the Hooley Bridge Factory, where a staff of from five hundred to six hundred hands is fully engaged in producing all kinds of boots, shoes, and slippers. The company have also upwards of one hundred retail shops in England and Ireland, where their own goods are extensively sold. Their principal retail branch in Manchester is at 16, Oldham Street, and is one of the largest and most superbly-fitted boot stores in the country. The company, moreover, do a very extensive business as leather merchants and importers, and are noted throughout the kingdom for the uniform excellence and reliability of all their goods, and the liberality of the terms upon which they trade.

An enormous business has been secured and is carried on in the most capable and energetic manner, upon a thoroughly sound basis of honourable mercantile principle, which reflects nothing but the highest credit upon all those who are in any way concerned with the administration of its affairs.


A THOROUGHLY efficient and reliable house in Manchester, in its special line of business, is that carried on as above. Operations were originally commenced at No. 2, Bedford Street, in 1871, by the present proprietor, who, being a man of wide experience and much practical skill, developed the connection with notable rapidity. The superior efficiency of all the work done by the firm was soon recognised, and the house obtained a widespread popularity and patronage. Every year since then has seen an increase in the extent of its operations and fresh improvements in its specialities, until at the present day the house occupies a position of conspicuous prominence among cognate establishments. Enlargements of the premises from time to time have been necessitated by the increased demands upon the business, and ultimately fresh quarters had to be acquired, and in 1889 a removal was made to the site now occupied. These premises consist of a spacious and substantial block of three-storey buildings with basement, with an extensive frontage of one hundred and sixty-five feet by thirty-nine feet, and having commodious entrances both in Mount Street and Sackville Street. The ground floor contains a suite of handsomely-appointed offices, showroom and workshops, and the remaining floors are occupied by other workshops and stock-rooms, the basement being utilised for storage purposes. The show-room is a fine capacious department, admirably lighted and fitted up, and in every way thoroughly adapted to properly display the many excellent goods on view, while the works, by their general convenience and perfect equipment, evince great judgment and knowledge on the part of the proprietor. A force of between thirty and forty skilled hands is kept employed, under the constant supervision of experienced managers.

With surroundings so conducive to good results, a large trade is carried on in the manufacture of superior and special appliances for the efficacious lighting, ventilating, and heating of private residences and public buildings of every description. Mr. Hatton is a recognised leader in this difficult and important department of industry. All his productions are of sound material, thoroughly good workmanship and eminently efficacious in accomplishing the objects for which they are intended. All his specialities are commanding a steadily-increasing sale, and testimonials are being received continually from the most important sources testifying to the entire and perfect satisfaction they are giving. In addition to the absolute reliability of everything manufactured by this responsible firm, prices will be found of the most favourable kind, and such as cannot be beaten by any first-class house in the trade.

A leading line with the house is Hatton’s patent self-sustaining and self-adjusting “Valve” ventilator, which possesses considerable advantages over anything of the kind hitherto introduced in the admission and diffusion of fresh air. They can be opened to any area, and will remain closed, open or part open, when fixed in any position, either vertical, horizontal, sideways or upside down. They are, moreover, noiseless in use and simple in construction, and are not liable to get out of order. In this invention the nearest approach yet obtained in perfection of ventilation is reached — namely, free circulation of air and no draughts. Thousands are in use throughout the country, and their efficacy has been thoroughly established by the severest tests. Other specialities of this enterprising house are Hatton’s patent draughtless hopper window ventilator, with automatic brush and gauze cover: this ventilator is absolutely weather-tight, and intercepts all smuts and dirt; the patent draughtless ventilator, which insures a much larger area of circulation at less cost than any other ventilator, and may be left open in almost all weathers, without inconvenience to persons sitting close to it; the “Shadowless” ventilating gas pendants, which combine perfect ventilation with the highest illuminating power; the “Kew” ventilator, the result of twenty years’ experience with every kind of roof ventilators; and the “Inducer” ventilator, a simple but perfect apparatus for securing powerful exhaust in ventilating shafts; also Hatton’s patent “ Soleil” light, suitable for any situation requiring a strong steady light free from shadows on wall or ceiling. They are self-cleaning and highly reflective, and are made in a great variety of forms, to suit any kind of room or building. By the use of Hatton’s patent “Soleil” ventilating light great economy of gas is secured, with a high illuminating power and a perfect ventilation. By the use of this light the products of combustion are entirely removed, and walls and ceilings are kept perfectly clean. The ventilating “Soleil” is made in a variety of highly ornamental styles and patterns, suitable for the drawing-room or for public buildings.

The firm also manufacture largely Hatton’s improved appliances for opening and regulating casements, frames, louvres, skylights, decklights, fanlights and all kinds of ventilators, &c. An inspection of the various admirable contrivances and apparatus made by the ingenious proprietor cannot fail to be highly interesting and instructive to every householder and property owner, and especially to builders, contractors, architects and ship-owners. An extensive trade is controlled, both home and export in its nature.

Mr. Hatton is a man of wide experience and of sound practical knowledge of his business, to which he devotes his constant and energetic attention. His dealings are always marked by a fair and liberal policy, and all contracts placed in his hands are sure to be carried to completion in a satisfactory and conscientious manner. He is well known in private life, and everywhere esteemed for his personal rectitude, ability, and the able and efficient manner in which ha discharges the duties devolving on him as a prominent citizen of Cottonopolis.


THE above company has only recently been formed to work the patents and business formerly belonging to Mr. Andrew Howat. They comprise offices and store-rooms, together with various workshops equipped with plant and machinery of the most modern description, driven by a powerful gas-engine. From forty to fifty skilled hands are employed, and every department is kept in a high state of efficiency. A valuable business is controlled in the manufacture of Mr. Howat’s patents and specialities, the most important of which is the Patent Deflector Miner’s Safety Lamp. The lamp has been tested in a current of explosive gaseous mixture, travelling at a velocity of thirty-five feet per second, without being exploded. It will burn wherever a candle or Davy lamp will burn, and gives double the light of the ordinary Mueseler or Marsant lamp. The utmost care is exercised in making these lamps, and for workmanship and finish they will bear favourable comparison with those of any maker; while in point of efficiency they have no successful rivals. Upwards of fifty thousand patent deflector lamps are now in use among the largest and most important firms, and are giving every satisfaction, and the demand for them is not only continuous but largely increasing.

Another highly successful lamp manufactured by this company is Howat’s Patent “Petro-Glow” Lamp. This lamp is absolutely safe, being entirely free from danger of explosion, and is self-extinguishing if upset. By its use perfect combustion is secured, with a most pure and brilliant white light, resembling that given by an incandescent electric light. The light can be regulated to a nicety, and is entirely free from smoke or smell, and a low-class oil can be used with the best results. The lamp burns for seventy hours at a cost of one penny, with a light exceeding five standard candle power. It is thus the best lamp for household use, for hotels, for use in the workshop, &c. It is a splendid substitute for candles in the bedroom. Another leading line of the firm is Howat’s Patent “Pharaoh” Fare-Collecting Boxes, for use by tramcar and omnibus companies. It is strong and perfectly secure, and its merits are well attested by the favour with which it has been received. The firm are also largely occupied as brass founders and finishers, engineers, and machine-makers. A speciality is made of phosphor-bronze and gun-metal steps and castings of all kinds. Stocks are kept of the various articles manufactured by the firm, including deflector safety lamps, Marsant lamps, “Rub-a-dub” lamp cleaners, lamp fittings of every description, patent roadway lamps, the lamp trimmers’ friend, gauges, glasses, oils, and every colliery requisite, as well as patent fare-collecting boxes, taps, valves, unions, and other finished brasswork.

An extensive connection has been acquired among colliery proprietors and others throughout the entire kingdom. All orders receive prompt and careful attention, and the company have specially laid themselves out for repairing lamps of all kinds. Mr. Howat, who is managing director for the company, is a man of wide experience and conspicuous ability in his field of scientific industry. His able and constant personal attention is given to the affairs of the company, and under his control its permanent success is guaranteed. He is well known in business and social circles, and is everywhere respected for his well-merited success, his public usefulness and strict integrity.


THIS fine undertaking totally eclipses any other in the district in point of magnitude, and is a monument to the energy and enterprise of the proprietor. Although operations were only commenced ten years ago, the house has a connection all over the British Isles, and is known for its superior products in numerous different trades. It was founded in 1881, at Cobden Street, by Messrs. Whitaker & Duggan. After continuing there for some time, the partnership was dissolved, and a removal made to the present premises, which are known as St. Mary’s Oil and Grease Works. They are of great extent, and occupy about five hundred yards of ground. In 1890, additional premises were taken in a street adjoining, of like size. The business is now carried on under the title of Messrs. Whitaker & Co., Mr. James Whitaker being the sole proprietor.

Grease is made in enormous quantities for cog wheels, colliery, and locomotive purposes, and is known throughout the trade for its purity and lubricating powers. Vaseline tallow is also largely made and is justly famous for its superior quality. As a dealer in petroleum Mr. Whitaker is without an equal in the district. He has large quantities stored on his works and employs his own boat in bringing it from Liverpool. Shellac and varnish is also heavily dealt in, and great attention is devoted to refining and blending oils. The premises recently acquired are used for storing purposes, and the fine stables are here. A large number of hands are employed, and several commercial travellers.

The head of this enterprise is a gentleman enjoying the universal respect of his fellow citizens, who are the first to recognise worth and ability. Mr. Whitaker is pardonably proud of the exalted position to which he has attained by his own industry. Utterly devoid of any ostentation, and considerate to those around him, Mr. Whitaker is the beau ideal of a British merchant. His works are well supplied with modern machinery and appliances, and the latest conveniences. Altogether the works rank worthily among the leading ones of the important Manchester centre.


THE produce and provision supply of a large city, or of a nation in general, is manifestly of the greatest importance, and many influential firms are engaged in this indispensable branch of commercial enterprise. In Manchester, a very prominent house in the line of trade referred to is that of Messrs. Heywood. & Son, who are favourably known in all parts of the United Kingdom as extensive produce and provision importers and merchants. Their business, indeed, is one of the oldest, and largest concerns of its kind in the north of England, and has a history dating back over a period of nearly a hundred years. It was founded by the late Mr. Heywood, than whom no man was better known in the chief markets of the provision trade, and by him and his capable successors it has been most energetically and prosperously developed.

Very early in the career of this firm a good name was acquired for the uniform excellence of all goods supplied; and as that reputation has never been allowed to lapse, the house has advanced continuously in popularity and patronage. Its prosperity has been maintained during the whole period of its existence, and at the present time it stands among the recognised leaders of the trade, second to no other Manchester house in the same line of operations. Few firms control a produce and provision business so extensive in its ramifications, and none can boast of a more honourable commercial reputation.

The present proprietors are grandsons of the founder, Mr. Frank Heywood and Mr. Alfred Heywood by name, and they trade under the old and well-known style of Heywood & Son. Manchester has the original headquarters of the firm; and the premises here occupied in Fennell Street are those in which the business was originated. They are extensive and commodious, and comprise sample rooms on the basement and ground floors, and offices on the first floor of a three-storied building, with spacious salerooms on the ground floor. The entire establishment has been admirably arranged to facilitate the routine of the business, and is fitted with every convenience for showing samples and attending to the requirements of visiting customers. A word of special praise is due to the management for the extreme neatness and cleanliness that prevail throughout the premises. Messrs. Heywood & Son, as we have already indicated, control a remarkably large and comprehensive trade, and one of the chief secrets of their success, in addition to the sustained excellence of quality for which they are noted, is that every article is exactly what it is represented to be, and all orders are executed precisely according to sample.

Messrs. Heywood’s long experience in the trade gives them many advantages, and they possess a thorough acquaintance with the best and most reliable sources of supply. Their specialities always command ready sales and good prices, and they are noted in all centres of the trade for their American bacon, hams, shoulders, &c., in specially selected qualities of the “Ohio,” “Royal,” “National,” and other famous brands. These goods form the chief feature of the firm’s trade at Liverpool, where they have large fire-proof warehouses for the receipt of American produce, to be subsequently distributed all over the British Isles. At London and Manchester Messrs. Heywood & Son devote a large amount of attention to Irish and Danish singed Wiltshire cut bacon (extra quality “J. H.” and “O.A.S.” brands), also to Irish butter, King’s and Queen’s brands being especially noticeable, and margarine of the finest quality. They are English agents for the original Aug. Pellerin, Fils & Co.’s margarine mixtures, which gained a gold medal in 1891. This margarine is said to be equal in make and flavour to the best Danish butter, and is warranted to contain 21.5 per cent, of pure butter, as certified by the analysis of the Royal Agricultural Academy in 1885. Danish butter is also largely imported by the firm under notice, and forms a speciality of their trade at Manchester.

Everything supplied by Messrs. Heywood & Son may be relied upon as being of the best quality obtainable, and fresh shipments are received daily and placed on the market at once. An enormous turnover is effected, and this fact is largely instrumental in enabling Messrs. Heywood & Son to offer their patrons and the trade generally a selection of choice goods, which cannot be surpassed for high quality and favourable prices. The business done is exclusively wholesale, and extends to all the principal towns of the United Kingdom, its operations being greatly assisted by the branches at Liverpool, London, Limerick, and Chicago, and by agencies at other convenient centres. Employment is given to a large staff of clerks and other assistants, and the whole concern is personally supervised by the principals, who are men of wide and practical experience in the trade and active and energetic in their methods. Both partners are well known in private and commercial life, and in all their trade dealings they pursue a straightforward policy, which has won the approval and confidence of a most extensive and valuable connection.
Telegraphic address: “Hyson,” Manchester; national telephone, No. 1,372; mutual telephone, No. 799.


IN every great centre of industry the modern engineer and machinist necessarily plays a most important part in the everyday economy of things, and in this connection it would be difficult to indicate a more noteworthy house than the one here indicated. Looking backwards, it appears that this rising institution was organised in the year 1882, by the association in business of the two brothers, Messrs. James and Edward Whittle — both of them gentlemen of recognised ability and vast practical experience in connection with the important branch of industry to which their attention is now so vigorously and successfully directed. The premises occupied are very compact, and in every way adapted to the requirements of the business. They consist of an elaborately equipped workshop, ninety feet by forty-five feet in area, fully provided with planing, drilling, boring, turning, and other machinery driven by steam-power, and calling into active requisition a staff of skilled and experienced mechanics, and others, in the production of steam-engines, wood-working machinery, and repairs of every kind. The trade controlled is already one of the soundest and best of its kind in the district, and is conducted in all its branches with sound judgment and marked ability upon a thoroughly firm basis of honourable mercantile principle; and it is manifestly the resolution of Messrs. Whittle that the high reputation they have won shall not only be well, sustained but steadily enhanced in time to come.


THIS splendid example of commercial enterprise has been in active operation for about half a century. It was founded at Park Mills, Stockport, by the late Mr. Henry Pearson, and in 1843 at Heaton Mersey, the warehouse being at 45, Brown Street, now the premises of the Liberal Club; and was located at Stockport again in 1864. Mr. Pearson senior died in 1877, and was succeeded by his son, the present owner. The works are of considerable extent, and are fitted throughout with everything which experience and ingenuity can suggest or capital procure, and are well qualified to turn out the most satisfactory results. There are between four and five hundred hands employed. The works are called the Square Mills, and are among the most conspicuous and familiar objects of the neighbourhood. The trade is manufacturing grey cloths, domestics, twills, sheetings, &c., for home and shipping houses for the various markets, and is purely a local one. The Manchester house, established to meet the convenience of
customers, was, after several changes of location, finally removed in 1890 to the present premises in Faulkner Street. These consist of offices on the basement floor, and there is a large warehouse and sample-room, where specimens may be seen, and orders left. Mr. Pearson personally takes an interest in the business, which throughout is splendidly conducted. Both in Manchester and Stockport he is a great favourite, and is in every way worthy of the estimation in which he is held.


MR. SHAW commenced this important business about the year 1884, but he had previously had twelve years’ practical experience in very extensive rubber works, having been seven years with Messrs. Charles Macintosh & Co., and five years with Messrs. Broadhurst & Co. Consequently, in commencing the manufacture of rubber machinery generally, Mr. Shaw was possessed of a very large amount of sound practical knowledge, which he has utilised to such advantage that he now stands in the front rank among English rubber machinists and engineers. His works in Corbett Street cover an area of about two thousand square yards, and are at present being extended to meet the increased requirements of the large trade Mr. Shaw has developed. The entire establishment proclaims its proprietor’s skill and experience, the several departments of the works being all laid out in the most convenient manner and perfectly equipped for all the purposes of the industry engaged in. Every facility exists for the manufacture of special machinery upon a very large scale, and employment is given to upwards of seventy hands, all of whom are workmen of the highest practical, ability.

Mr. Shaw is prepared to produce in the most improved style any and every machine required in the manufacture of India rubber and dermatine, and he makes a special feature of supplying complete plant for rubber works, including all the latest and best appliances known in the trade for economising time and labour and improving production. In all machinery of this class he embodies the best workmanship and materials as well as the highest excellence of design and practical efficiency. Mr. Shaw has recently introduced, and is the sole maker of, Wood and Robinson’s patent spreader, a machine calculated to effect quite a revolution in the waterproofing trade. This valuable apparatus has been proved capable of turning out superior work in 25 per cent. less time than the ordinary machines in use. It can be stopped and started from either end, and the cloth is spread from both ends, the drying being effected by two steam cylinders placed between the spreading rollers. The distance from the spreading rollers to the steam cylinders is 4 ft. 3 in., so that all danger of fire is obviated. The machine being duplex, not only spreads considerably faster than ordinary machines, but produces another very notable effect, in that when the cloth has once passed through, and the proofing has been laid on one way, instead of having to remove the piece to the other end of the machine for the repetition of the process, the action of the machine is simply reversed, and the cloth goes back to the original roller with the proofing laid on another way. This ensures greater strength and durability in the proofing, and also imparts a decidedly superior finish. Although introduced only a few months ago, four of these machines have already been fitted up near Paris, besides one at Riga and one at Milan. Several others are now in course of construction to order, and doubtless every waterproofer who inspects this ingenious and highly-efficient machine, and acquaints himself with its notable improvements, will be irresistibly tempted to give it a trial.

In the manufacture of all his machinery Mr. Shaw gives his personal attention to the work, and this fact has largely promoted the success of his business, for it insures the sound workmanship and reliability of every machine turned out. An extensive and rapidly increasing home and export trade is controlled, and it is easy to foresee that this enterprising and well-managed firm will continue to exercise a growing influence upon the rubber and waterproofing industries both at home and abroad, since manufacturers cannot fail to recognise the merit of its specialities and the advantages accruing from their use and adoption.


THIS old-established and widely-known firm, whose city offices are in Albert Chambers, Albert Square, Manchester, originated in the year 1858, the founders being the present proprietors, Messrs John and Thomas L. Ormerod. Operations were commenced at Snig Hole Mill, Helmshore, in the year above mentioned, and this mill was carried on for some time. It is now, however, dismantled, and Messrs. Ormerod have occupied the large and substantial stone Mill at Clough End since 1865. Here there are seven hundred and ten looms in operation, and the work done embraces the manufacture of shirtings, T-cloths, twills, printing-cloths, madapollams, jaconetts, and umbrella cloths, for all of which the house enjoys an eminent reputation of many years’ standing. Messrs. Ormerod also occupy the Albion Mill at Helmshore, where they manufacture the same class of goods, employing four hundred and twenty-four looms and a large number of hands. This latter mill was acquired in 1879. At the Laneside Sizing Works, Haslingden, is a third establishment of this busy firm, where, under the name of Ormerod Brothers, they do a large and important business as sizers. In its entirety the trade of this house is one of great magnitude and influence, and very few names are better known in the Manchester market than that of Ormerod — a name, moreover, which has always been identified with the soundest commercial principles. Mr. John Ormerod lives at Haslingden, and Mr. Thomas L. Ormerod at Bury, and both are well known and greatly respected in these localities. Mr. John Ormerod and his son, Mr. John Henry Ormerod, attend the Manchester Exchange in the interests of the house, and are familiar figures in that busy scene.


THIS large and influential business was established in 1877, and recently taken over by the present proprietor, who was previously for sixteen years in business at Ash Street, Oldham Road. The establishment, which is so well and widely known as the “Queen’s Park Bakery,” occupies a commanding corner position. The spacious and handsome double shop is fitted up in a very superior style, admirably appointed and well arranged for the display and storage of the large and varied stock. The premises also contain extensive warehouse accommodation, a well equipped bakehouse, fitted with all modern machinery and appliances, and every convenience for the effective and economical working of a large and increasing business. Mr. King has always on hand a liberal supply of plain and fancy bread, biscuits, cakes, &c. He is keenly alive to the fact, that the best goods can only be made from the best materials, the greatest care therefore is exercised in the selection of ingredients only of the best quality. Mr. King also does a large trade in flour, holding large stocks of the best brands of English, American, and continental, notably the finest Austrian flour, as well as pure wheat meal, Haney’s Scotch oatmeal, best marrowfat peas, bird, fowl and pigeon food, hay, straw and fodder. Mr. King is enabled to give his customers exceptional advantages, both in quality and price. The trade, which is both wholesale and retail, is of a widespread, influential, and steadily growing character. The proprietor’s own vans deliver goods over an extended area, and no effort is spared to meet the convenience of customers. The business in every department receives the strict personal attention of the proprietor, who is well known and highly respected in the district.


PERHAPS nothing could tend more effectually to refute the aspersion so frequently cast upon Englishmen of being unmusical than the fact that, in a thoroughly representative English city like Manchester, there exists and flourishes such a number of large and old-established emporiums of musical instruments. Were there not a demand, and a large demand at that, the existence of such establishments as this would be impossible; and we think it is very fair logic to add that were the people of this country devoid of musical taste and sensibility no such demand would be apparent. As a matter of fact England was, two or three hundred years ago, one of the pre-eminent nations in musical culture, and there is very little indeed to justify the belief that the art has been allowed to degenerate within her borders. In view of all these circumstances, it is very difficult for the honest and unbiassed mind to understand the nonsense, and worse than nonsense, that is nowadays spoken and written in some quarters concerning “unmusical England.”

Happily we have only to walk through the principal streets of our towns and cities, and note the activity prevailing in the music trade generally, to be reassured as to our very creditable condition in relation to the “divine art.” Nowhere, we venture to think, can a finer example of a successful, high-class, and capably conducted musical instrument warehouse be found than that which forms the subject of this brief sketch. “Howard’s” is a household word among musicians in Lancashire and many other parts of the kingdom, and the name is associated with a business which was founded as far back as the year 1869, in Rochdale Road. In 1883 the business was transferred to its present address at New Cross, a historic locality famous as a scene of many notable events in the history of old Manchester, and here, in one of the handsomest and most commodious blocks, of buildings in this district, “Howard’s” is provided with accommodation worthy of its great reputation, and suited to the requirements of its remarkably large and high-class trade.

The establishment is splendidly appointed throughout, and is arranged upon a most systematic and convenient plan. The ground floor is devoted to every description of musical accessories and small goods, such as fittings for all manner of instruments, and this department (which has a superb frontage of lofty plate glass windows, with a broad and handsome main entrance) forms quite a museum of goods of this important class. It differs from a museum proper in one respect, however, inasmuch as there are here no antiquarian relics or old-fashioned products. Everything is “up to date,” embodying the most notable improvements, and at the same time maintaining the best traditions of the art. On the first floor we find the pianoforte showrooms, with a magnificent display of these pre-eminently popular instruments, the “household orchestra,” as they have been not inaptly termed. The second floor forms the showroom for American organs and harmoniums, of which there is an unsurpassed assortment, by all the most noted makers on both sides of the Atlantic; and the top flat is arranged as workshops, with every appliance for the purposes of the trade. Here all manner of repairs to musical instruments, as well as actual manufacture, receive due attention.

At this remarkably comprehensive establishment the stock in hand is considered small if it falls below one hundred as the total number of pianofortes, organs, and harmoniums. Indeed, Mr. Howard makes it a point to keep as nearly as possible one hundred and fifty instruments in these three classes; while his stock of band and orchestral instruments is a vast one, embracing everything in this line from the arcadian oboe or the shrill piccolo to the sonorous trombone and the indispensable “tympani.” Of course the great family of stringed instruments receives due attention, and few houses can show a finer stock in the violin family, or a better assortment of guitars, mandolines, banjos, &c. That charming instrument the zither (the modern representative of the ancient psaltery) is prominent here in several varieties; and of course the popular and pleasing concertina has a place of honour.

Besides all this the firm hold a splendid stock of musical boxes and other musical automata, and time and space would fail us ere we had told of a hundredth part of the stock kept in fittings and accessories of every kind. Mr. Howard’s establishment contains a really remarkable array of musical instruments relating to every department of the art, and the very best makers, British and foreign, and admirably represented by their most satisfactory productions. The house has developed a system of “easy payments” which we candidly confess cannot be improved upon, and for all punctual payments in the Small Goods Department they allow a bonus of one shilling and sixpence in the pound to purchases under five pounds, and two shillings in the pound to purchases over five pounds. Goods under two pounds in value are, however, net.

A very large trade, both wholesale and retail, is controlled, and customers are always sure of being treated fairly and honestly at this reliable establishment, the motto of which, bluntly expressed in sturdy straightforward English, is “Good Value and no Humbug.” Telegrams should be addressed, “Howard’s, Swan Street, Manchester.”

In conclusion, we are glad to have the opportunity of paying a well-merited tribute to Mr. Samuel Howard for the able and enterprising manner in which he conducts this notable establishment, and for the consequent good service he is rendering to the cause of musical progress in England. It is also very gratifying to note that he treats his numerous assistants with every consideration, and, being a believer in the half-holiday for assistants, he has the courage of his convictions, and closes his establishment every Wednesday at one o’clock, a commendable course of action which, we are quite sure, will result advantageously to the business and to the public patronizing it, no less than to the employes in whose special interest it has been instituted.


ORGANISED in the year 1886, this notable house has from the very first proved to be a pronounced success, so much so that the firm found it necessary eighteen months ago to remove from their original premises at York Chambers, and take up their quarters in the present more commodious premises, which comprise an excellently ordered office and well appointed showroom facing Upper Jackson Street, and large works to the rear at 3, Chapman Street, elaborately equipped with a gas engine, dynamos, and special appliances for the production of the goods for which the house has become so justly famous. A staff of skilled and experienced hands, varying in numbers from twelve to as many as thirty, is here busily engaged under the personal supervision of the talented principals, Messrs. H. A. Henderson & A. Brier; and the firm operate on a large scale as electrical and general engineers, making a speciality of the production of machine tools for electricians, and many electrical specialities, including self-contained bells, in which all the working parts are covered in such a way as to effectually exclude dust and dirt, and prevent their being tampered with, also telephones, dry cells and scientific instruments. The firm have gained an unsurpassed name for the excellence of all their productions, the entire business being conducted with marked ability and enterprise, upon a thoroughly sound basis of honourable mercantile principle.


ALTHOUGH this business was only established in 1889, it has already taken a well-recognised position in the trade. The partners are both men of large experience in the higher plane of this industry, Mr. W. Jones having been for several years with the well-known firm of Messrs. Kendal, Milne & Co., of Manchester, while the other partner, Mr. T. Jones, was for a long period in the celebrated house of Messrs. Maple & Co., London, during which time he took the first prize for proficiency in high-class drapery cutting, at the Polytechnic. Operations are carried on in large and suitable premises with spacious shop, fine show-rooms, capacious ware-houses and ample store-rooms. The works are situate at the rear, and are well-arranged and thoroughly equipped with apparatus, plant and machinery of the most modern kinds.

A large and sound business is being controlled here by the firm as high-class cabinet makers, upholsterers, decorators, and general house, office, and steam-ship furnishers. In the latter capacity the firm, being in the heart of a manufacturing district, are in a position to offer special advantages in the matter of prices, &c., to ship-owners, and it may be added that they have satisfactorily completed many important contracts for the great steamship companies. The choicest kinds of mahogany, rosewood, maple, walnut, oak, and other woods only, are used, and every care is taken that they are perfectly matured and dried before they are employed in the manufacture. Skilled hands alone are engaged in the work, and these are under the constant superintendence of the principals and experienced foremen, and the articles they turn out are unsurpassed in soundness of material, durability and thoroughness of work, elegance, beauty and appropriateness of designs and perfection of finish. The house is noted for the variety and novelty of its designs, and for the rich, elaborate, and tasteful manner in which all its upholstery work is completed. In the matter of prices, the firm offers every inducement to customers, and relations with this firm are bound to be of a pleasant and satisfactory character.

Messrs. Jones are complete house furnishers, and they undertake to make all furniture necessary for a private residence, hotel or mansion, fit up its interior and fully decorate it, on a true conception of what is needed to secure perfect harmony in style, colour, and tone. For this class of work they have special facilities and resources, and already they have completely fitted up seven large hotels in the locality in a manner that has elicited the greatest satisfaction and commendation. Every kind of artistic decoration and art furnishing receive their best attention, and estimates and designs are willingly supplied, and terms are such as cannot be matched with due regard to the superior quality of the work. Dining and drawing-room suites, bedding, &c., are made to order or from sketches supplied, and suites are re-upholstered and re-polished, bedding re-made, and draperies cleaned, re-dyed and made up in French designs. Carpets, poles, cornices, blinds, and curtains are re-fitted and new supplied where required, and the house is well prepared to do everything in the best, the most expeditious, and the most economical manner to oblige its patrons.

Ample and well-selected stocks are kept of their splendid productions, including dining, drawing, and breakfast room suites, bed-room suites, magnificent sideboards, massive library, hall and office furniture, &c. A valuable connection has been formed among the leading families and firms, and the principal hotels and public institutions of Manchester, and the surrounding district, and a force of thirty skilled artisans is fully employed. All orders receive prompt and efficient attention, and all contracts intrusted to this firm are carried to completion in a conscientious and honourable manner, and in such a style of workmanship as cannot fail to give perfect and entire satisfaction. The proprietors are men of large and varied experience in the upper walks of high-class cabinet-making, and are pre-eminently practical, and they are much respected for their courtesy and ability, and the interest they take in every movement affecting the interest and welfare of the community at large.

Telegrams, “Ivy, Manchester.”
Pay-day, last Friday in the month.

THE above works, not yet established ten years, have put many old firms completely in the shade by the superiority of the goods supplied, and by the business tact of the management. Goods from these works go out in quantities to the Continent, to the colonies, to America, and to all parts of the world. They have been found to be suited to all climates, and to be all that is claimed for them. There may be said to be two branches of the business, the one the rubber works, and the other the rubber substitutes works. The former was established in 1889, the latter in 1882. The premises consist of a large three-storey building, capitally fitted up with the very latest improvements in the way of machinery, &c. The first floor is devoted to the machinery, moulding and vulcanizing; the second to drilling and packing; also packing and storing occupies the third floor. Everything throughout the establishment is conducted with commendable order. There are day and night shifts employing about twenty-two hands. The principal branches of the business are making of cushion and solid tyres for cycles, bassinettes, and invalid carriages, buffers for railway and other waggons, gas-tubing, &c. Some of the best makers of cycles prefer the tyres manufactured by Messrs. Thomas to any other. The respected proprietors, Thomas & Co., are greatly to be commended for bringing their works to such perfection. By letters patent the firm have secured a method of covering wheels for cycles, bassinettes, mail-carts, cabs, carriages, and all other vehicles that it is impossible to get off or take off.


OPERATIONS were commenced by the proprietor of the above firm in this direction in 1880, and were conducted with such ability and perseverance that the foundation of a good business was soon laid, until at the present time no house engaged in this line of business can boast of a larger or more important body of patrons. Premises are occupied in a portion of the well-known and advantageously situated Newton Street Mills, consisting of a basement and first and second floors, with an extensive frontage of one hundred and eleven feet by fifty-four feet. They comprise a suite of well-appointed offices and general warehouses, and numerous workshops and store rooms on the first and second floors. The interior has been eminently well arranged and shows in an unmistakable manner that the proprietor is thoroughly master of the minutiae of his business. The work-rooms are large and convenient in size, well-lighted and ventilated, and equipped with all appliances, plant and machinery, of the best and most modern description, the motive power being furnished by a powerful steam engine.

The superior character of all goods emanating from this noteworthy house has long been recognised among all better-class buyers, and the productions are universally regarded as the perfection of art in this line. The most skilled and experienced workpeople are employed, and everything turned out is guaranteed to be perfect in workmanship and unsurpassable in material. For shape, style and fit, the house remains unequalled, and at prices which cannot fail to induce custom. His wide knowledge of the trade, and the extent and value of his transactions, give him advantages in the selection of new materials and patterns possessed by few other manufacturers, and the perfect nature of his resources enables him to turn out the most superior and finished goods. Extensive stocks are held of all kinds, sizes, and styles of stays and corsets, and the great variety the proprietor shows, with their attractive and charming appearance, will be highly appreciated by all interested in the trade. A superior home and foreign trade is controlled, and its continuous increase speaks volumes for the value which is set upon these admirable goods by the best judges. A force of two hundred skilled hands is employed upon the premises, and all orders receive prompt and efficient attention. The proprietor is pre-eminently a practical man, and he has had long and sound experience in every department of his speciality. The business is personally conducted by him and it derives undoubted benefit from his ability, judgment and taste. All his transactions are characterised by equity and integrity and in private life he is respected and esteemed for his personal virtues and his high sense of public duties, and also as a representative manufacturer in this important branch of industry.


NO detailed account of the brewing industries of Manchester would be complete without Reference to the Chorlton Road Brewery, Hulme, which is now being carried on by the trustees of the late Mr. Titus Smalley, with Mr. William Dockray as manager. This is one of the oldest and most reputable establishments of the kind in Manchester, the date of its foundation being 1850. It soon acquired a name for the reliable excellence of its productions, and throughout its long career its reputation has kept on steadily increasing. The premises are extensive in size and ample in their convenience of arrangement. They comprise offices, laboratory, hop and malt rooms, mash-room, boiling and cooling rooms, large stores and cellarage, cooperage, stables, &c. The various departments are fully equipped, with the latest improved apparatus, machinery, and appliances known to the trade. The utmost efficiency is maintained, and the whole of the processes carried out in a scientific manner, and with scrupulous care and cleanliness. The plant is what is known as an eight quarter one, and ten skilled men and a number of horses and drays are kept constantly employed. A free and high-class trade is cultivated. The beer brewed here is of superior flavour and excellence, and is preferred in many cases to any beer brewed in Manchester. Only the most choice malt and hops are used, and these, combined with the perfection of their appliances, give the firm every advantage in producing superior and reliable ales — both mild and bitter — and first-class porter. The firm own the Chorlton Road Hotel which adjoins the brewery, and also several other full licensed houses. Everything sent out is of guaranteed excellence, and orders intrusted to the firm are attended to with care and dispatch.


THE specialisation of functions in connection with the hardware industries of Great Britain is no-where perhaps more strikingly manifested than at our great distributing centres, and in Manchester, at the present day, manufacturers are admirably catered for by many old-established houses of high repute, prominent amongst which stands the prosperous firm whose rise and progress furnishes the theme of the present brief historical review. Upwards of forty years have elapsed since the foundation of this concern by Mr. John C. Barrow, who successfully developed its resources until five years ago, when it passed into the hands of its present proprietors, who have still further extended its proportions with marked success; and doubtless the most effectual way in which to indicate its character, scope, and aims would be to give a concise outline of the business as it at present obtains. The premises occupied are in every point of character and situation exactly adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business of the kind. They consist of the two vast floors of a large five-storeyed block of buildings replete with every modern contrivance for the handling of the heavy wares dealt in, the leading lines of which consist of tin plates, tinned sheets, galvanised iron, sheet iron, rod wire, cotton can sheets, cotton can rings, sheet brass, copper and zinc, and mild steel lead-coated sheets and terne sheets, hoop-iron, and the like. Messrs. Barrow Hope & Co. have a first-class business connection amongst manufacturers of hardware goods, not only in Manchester, but throughout the United Kingdom, and their extensive trade relations are well founded upon the eminent reputation so long enjoyed, the high commercial standing of the house, and the well-known high quality of all the goods they supply.


FOUNDED in 1869 by the present proprietor originally in Sydney Street, the business was removed about ten years ago to the more commodious premises now occupied at No. 164, Chapel Street. These comprise a spacious and well-appointed shop, together with extensive storage accommodation and well-equipped workshops. Mr. Anderson is a thoroughly practical man and employs a staff of experienced hands in the manufacture of saws, files, guillotine, perforating, chaff and chipped potato knives, &c.; he also does a large business as a dealer in coachmakers’, joiners’, and mechanics’ tools and cutlery. A large and thoroughly representative stock of these goods is held ready for immediate delivery, and by economical manufacture and prudent buying Mr. Anderson is enabled to give his customers exceptional advantages in quality and price. A special department is set apart for repairing, &c.; large circular saws are gulleted and hammered, band saws brazed, files are re-cut, and guillotine knives ground; all the work is carried out in the very best style, and at prices that will compare favourably with any other establishment. The business in every department receives the direct personal attention of the proprietor, and is conducted throughout with marked ability. Mr. J. Anderson is well known; his well-known practical skill and courteous attention to all the requirements of his customers has secured him the confidence and respect of a very extensive and well-established connection.


THIS well-known firm of stone and flag merchants and manufacturers of all kinds of sanitary ware commenced operations in Hope Street in 1878, and removed three years later to their present headquarters, the Oldfield Road Wharf. Here they occupy very extensive premises, comprising an immense yard, heavily stocked with the various specialities of the trade, and those who are familiar with this neighbourhood will understand how extensive the establishment is when we say that it is bounded by Hulme Street, Gaythorn Street, and Upper Wharf Street. Messrs. Isherwood Brothers conduct a trade of great magnitude in stones and flags of all dimensions and descriptions, glazed stoneware, drain pipes, architectural terra cotta, chimney tops, trusses, blue Staffordshire goods, sanitary ware of all kinds, cement, and fireclay goods in the greatest variety. These commodities they send out to all parts of the kingdom, having an exceptionally widespread connection; and they are sole agents for two firms of national renown in their several lines, viz., Messrs. J. & M. Craig, Kilmarnock, manufacturers of white and coloured enamelled bricks; Skelsey’s Adamant Cement Company, Limited, of Hull, whose “Adamant Cement” has gained great favour among builders and contractors.

The business done by this house in Staffordshire blue and other bricks is very large, and Messrs. Isherwood have also another very important speciality in their stone flags and sawn stone. They have supplied the Manchester Ship Canal with cement to a very large extent, probably up to between 20,000 and 30,000 tons. In sanitary pipes another very notable branch of the business has been developed, and for some years past the firm have supplied numerous corporations with large quantities of goods of this class. In addition to the contracts already referred to, they have supplied glazed bricks for the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway extension, and for the London and North-Western Railway extension; as well as for a great many large buildings in Manchester, the Gartside Buildings in Fountain Street and Bindloss Buildings in Chapel Walks. They are also noted for their Blue Lias Lime, from the Rugby district, a substance famous for its valuable hydraulic propensities; the cement for the fine mosaic paving and steps at the New Palace of Varieties, Manchester, was supplied by Messrs. Isherwood. These facts show how large and important a business the firm have succeeded in building up, and the far-reaching and influential character of the connection established in various parts of the kingdom.


THIS brewery has no desire to lay claim to larger dimensions, but is thoroughly justified in claiming to turn out ales, bitters and stout, second to none in the district. The quality is admitted on all sides, by those competent to judge, to be of the first order, pure, wholesome, and of particularly agreeable flavour, and in particular their bitter ale, which is undoubtedly of a very superior quality for brilliancy and delicacy of flavour, we have rarely seen or tasted its equal. Much time and attention is evidently bestowed on this product, and we are pleased to learn that their efforts have been rewarded by a widespread reputation. The departments of the brewery are under experienced management, and appliances and ingredients are the best. Cleanliness is an important feature here, and it is no wonder that this enterprising firm are so rapidly making headway in Salford. The brewery, which is known as the Adelphi brewery, was established in 1879 by the present proprietors, Messrs. Armitage & Co. Although of somewhat limited extent, the place exceedingly compact and well planned out. The arrangements are of the most complete kind for securing satisfactory results, and may be described as “multum in parvo.” The plant, which is an excellent one, is ten quarter brew. It contains all the latest improvements, and is by a noted maker. There is the brewhouse, malthouse, and tonhouse, &c. The water on the premises is very pure, and it would appear that nothing has been left undone to ensure real quality. There are handsome offices, storerooms, &c. The brewery stands on a large area of land, leaving ample room for contemplated enlargement, which, judging by the popularity of the firm, must be made at an early date. At the present time they have a very efficient staff of competent workmen employed, and their horses, drays, floats, &c. are in every respect fully equipped for their rapidly increasing business. The proprietors have made themselves much respected in the district, not only by their courtesy, but also by the honourable way in which they conduct their business. Managed as it is at present, there is nothing to prevent it assuming very large proportions.


THE extensive and important rubber and leather industry with which the name of Mr. Isidor Frankenburg is so creditably associated was founded by that gentleman in the year 1867, and furnishes a very notable example of steady and continuous progress. Operations were commenced on the second floor of a building in Hanging Ditch, and when the start was made Mr. Frankenburg had no more than a dozen hands in his service. Three years later the business had increased to such an extent that he was obliged to take larger premises in Dantzic Street, where a further impetus was given to the trade by the receipt of an order from the French Government (during the progress of the Franco-Prussian war) for a large quantity of waterproof army knapsacks. Mr. Frankenburg had manufactured his goods from material which he purchased ready waterproofed, but his operations increased to such an extent that the proofing of the cloth for his own use became alone a large business, and he therefore undertook this himself. This necessitated much greater space, and in due course he removed to his present site into premises which were formerly in the occupation of Messrs. Eveleigh & Sons, hat manufacturers. Mr. Frankenburg’s establishment, situated in Greengate, in the most historical part of old Salford, is now very extensive, and under his able and enterprising administration it has become one of the busiest and most perfectly equipped rubber and waterproofing works in Lancashire.

Of course great changes and improvements have been made here by the present proprietor (Mr. Frankenburg having purchased the place and added very considerably to the buildings), and these improvements are noticeable in everything associated with the property. Since Mr. Frankenburg became owner he has done away with two of the lowest public-houses or drinking-shops in Salford, and allowed their licences to drop entirely, preferring to sweep them away altogether. Much of the adjoining property also came into his ownership, and this he converted into a commodious warehouse in connection with his works. Pursuing this energetic policy throughout, Mr. Frankenburg purchased nearly the whole site of Birtle Square, which was once known to be the haunt of many of the most daring and incorrigible members of the light-fingered fraternity that have ever troubled the local police; and upon the ground, thus reclaimed from a purpose that was worse than useless, he has erected large chemical works for the purification of the materials and liquids used in the waterproofing of cloth. This purification, we may add, has the very laudable object of doing away entirely with the disagreeable odour that has long characterised waterproof garments, and Mr. Frankenburg is be commended for striking at the root of this difficulty. He does not, some other manufacturers seem to do, merely “kill the smell,” but destroys the cause of the smell, and thus prevents it coming into existence at all. Perfectly odourless waterproof garments are an inestimable boon to all dwellers in this singularly moist climate of ours, and the long-looked-for desideratum will now be found in the manufactures of the house under notice.

Mr. Isidor Frankenburg’s works are now in a state of very advanced organisation, and are capable of dealing with every process of the rubber and waterproof industry. They are splendidly equipped and carefully supervised by the experienced and energetic head of the house, and are turning out great quantities of goods which are produced under the most favourable conditions that skill, capital, and plenty of progressive enterprise cam create. These goods have already won a most creditable reputation at home and abroad, and an increased recognition of their genuine merit, which is the strongest characteristic, will bring them before long into universal demand, for the truism that really good articles will always find their market is not, and cannot be, affected by any amount of competition.

The specialities, of this house comprise all kinds of waterproof cloths, ladies’ and gentlemen’s waterproof garments, imperial mantles, tennis shoes, leggings, and ladies’ and. gentlemen’s gaiters. No house in the trade is in position to offer better value in these lines than Mr. Frankenburg, who, be it noted, confines himself entirely to wholesale and export operations, and regards the whole world as his market. Indeed, his goods are quite as well and favourably known abroad as in this country, and are exported in ever-increasing quantity. The trade mark of the firm is “THE DISTINGUE,” with which all their goods are stamped.

Mr. Frankenburg has now in his employ at the Greengate Works upwards of eight hundred hands, and all the operations of the industry are carried out in a capable and systematic manner which excited the highest admiration on the occasion of our visit to this very interesting establishment. The Irwell Rubber Works, situate in Ordsall Lane, on the opposite side of the town, are also the property of Mr. Frankenburg, and are almost entirely devoted to the production of rubber for mechanical and other purposes, garden hose, rubber tubing, rubber balls, &c., &c. These works, which possess a very complete equipment of all plant and machinery essential to their purpose, are nearly as large as the Greengate Works, but the nature of the industry does not call for so much manual labour, and, consequently, the staff is not so numerous as at Greengate, though it is none the less a large one in itself, and fully adequate for the performance of the immense amount of work done. Altogether, this is one of the most notable businesses of Manchester, conducted with all the spirited enterprise that seems inseparable from the undertakings of this great city, and standing well to the front as a thoroughly representative, influential, and prosperous concern in its particular line. The house stands deservedly high in the esteem and confidence of its connections, and owes all its success to the industry and application of its sole proprietor.

Mr. Frankenburg is a distinctly popular and much respected gentleman, and has for some time been a prominent and useful member of the Council of the busy borough in which he has for nearly a quarter of a century conducted his constantly growing industry. That Mr. Frankenburg has been successful in business is probably quite true, but he has never allowed himself to find in that circumstance a reason for sitting down quietly and letting his less prosperous fellow-citizens “shift for themselves.” His careful and disinterested attention to public affairs has not been without beneficial] effect to the community, and his example, both as a business man and as a citizen, we should like to see universally imitated. Mr. Frankenburg has, as we have already shown, swept away a good many haunts of iniquity and mischief, and reared in their place establishments which provide employment and a means of livelihood for scores of industrious and needy workpeople. These, and other good works to which he has lent the aid and encouragement of practical support and personal influence, will assuredly not be forgotten or overlooked by the community when it comes to reckon up the individual instances of beneficence that have contributed to the common weal. Mr. Frankenburg is an active and thoughtful member of several local committees in connection with the municipality of Salford, and both in public and private life and in the affairs of business he enjoys the respect and esteem that are due to the honourable and straightforward principles he has always upheld. Citizens of this type cannot well be spared, and we trust Mr. Frankenburg will long continue to occupy his present prominent and well-earned position as an industrial leader and an energetic public man in the borough of Salford.


PROMINENT amongst the notable houses engaged in the engineering trade stands the well-known though comparatively newly organised firm here named. It was in the year 1889 that Messrs. William Pickup and William Knowles associated themselves by building the present well-ordered works in Orchard Street, which they have had elaborately equipped with every modern contrivance for the execution of all kinds of superior work incidental to the industry. The firm operate on a large scale as makers and repairers of all kinds of machinery for calico-printers, bleachers, dyers, finishers, paper-stainers, and others, and are, moreover, prepared to execute any kind or class of mechanical work to order, or to project and carry out designs for the same. Their premises consist of a splendidly fitted pattern-shop in a gallery surrounding the turning and fitting department, and are on the eve of being added to by a complete foundry, so that all the work produced may be completed from the initial stage to the finish under the personal direction of the proprietors, both of whom are gentlemen of recognised ability and extended experience in connection with the important industry to which their attention is now so vigorously and successfully directed.

Flannelettes a specialite, 33, FAULKNER STREET, MANCHESTER, with branches in London and Glasgow, where their productions are extensively known, both in the home trade and shipping. This is a young but rising firm, and they have already succeeded in securing a large and increasing business, which is the best test of the value of their productions.


IT was the good fortune of Mr. J. H. Greenhow, the head of the above firm, to succeed to an old-established concern, which for a number of years had held a prominent position in Manchester. On assuming possession in 1884 Mr. J. H. Greenhow brought his well-known energy and enterprise to bear on the already valuable connection, with the result that the business has steadily in- creased. The founder, Mr. James Pidduck, now deceased, was noted for his business ability, and his mantle has fallen on worthy shoulders. The firm are manufacturers of Grey Cloths, suitable for printing and dyeing, such as fine twills, sateens, serges, brocades, fancies and printers, and also of goods for selling grey, such as wigans, domestics, and T-cloths. The premises at the above address are in every way suited to the requirements of the trade, being in the main street of the city, and in the midst of the principal shipping and home trade firms. Mr. Greenhow is a well-known member of the Manchester Royal Exchange, and represents the Oxford Ward, in which his business is situated, on the City Council.


THIS important business has been in existence for upwards of half a century, and was founded originally under the title of Dixon, Son, & Co., afterwards being changed to Dixon & Nightingale, and later to Dixon, Son, & Evans. From the first the firm have been very extensively engaged as timber merchants, steam saw-millers and joiners, and in addition to this, they were the pioneers of the match-making industry in Lancashire. In 1880, however, the match business was disposed of to the Bell & Black Company, Limited, and was finally absorbed by Bryant & May, Limited, in 1885. The timber trade was continued as a separate concern, and is still carried on with conspicuous success under the title of Geo. Evans & Sons. The works at Newton Heath cover about five acres of land, including the yards, and are most completely organised and equipped for all the purposes of the trade engaged in. Here an immense stock is held in every description of Baltic and American timber, besides a great variety of hard woods. The sawn timber is kept in extensive steers for seasoning, and as one steer becomes depleted, it is at once replenished with freshly-cut wood.

In manufactured timber of all kinds, Messrs. Geo. Evans & Sons do a great business with builders and contractors in town and country, and their large two-storey works are replete with the best modern sawing, planing, moulding, mortising, and tenoning machinery. Vast quantities of perfectly made and finely-finished doors, sashes, window frames, mouldings, spoutings, &c., are turned out and distributed among users of these goods in all parts of the country. Lapping boards, rolling pegs, calender boxes, and many other articles of woodwork are also included in the output of these busy works, and the firm maintain a splendid reputation for the solidity and fine quality of all their productions.

Owing to the great advances recently made in the application of electricity, and particularly in installations for illuminating purposes, Messrs. Geo. Evans & Sons have devoted a considerable amount of attention to the production of mouldings for electrical wire casings, and have placed in the market a large number of beautiful and artistic patterns, designed to suit every style of architecture. In this department they are well supported by the principal electrical engineers throughout the kingdom. Although the stock of timber held at the firm’s yard is necessarily a very large one, it does not represent their entire resources in this respect, for there are always large quantities of different qualities held to the account of this house at the various railway and canal depots.

The present principals of the firm are the four sons of the late Mr. George Evans, who founded the timber business in connection with the before-mentioned firms, viz., Messrs. William Thomas, George, James, and Excelsior Evans, who trade in co-partnership, and conduct this immense business with marked ability and judgment. Mr. W. T. Evans is a member of the Prestwich Board of Guardians, in whose district Newton Heath is included, and he is well known and respected, for his constant interest in local affairs. Mr. George Evans is also a prominent local man, and was elected to a councillorship in connection with the new ward of Newton Heath, on its amalgamation with the city of Manchester in 1890. He was soon afterwards chosen first alderman of the same ward, and continues to hold that position with great credit. Mr. George Evans is also a very useful member of the City Corporation, and serves diligently on several committees, including those associated with improvements, paving and highway, finance, and technical instruction, as well as on the parliamentary sub-committee. Mr. James Evans and Mr. E. Evans, the remaining partners, are both young gentlemen who have hitherto devoted themselves entirely to business, and in this field they have found ample and congenial scope for the exercise of their energies.

Messrs. Geo. Evans & Sons, are also proprietors of the large and flourishing wood, tin, and zinc packing Case works at Victoria Saw Mills, Granby Row, Manchester, which concern has been known for over twenty-two years under the name of Thos. Roebuck & Co., and is still carried on under that title by Messrs. Evans. This extensive and important branch of the firm’s undertakings receives the personal attention and management of Mr. W. T. Evans, who possesses a thorough practical knowledge of all its details. Messrs. Geo. Evans & Sons’ telegraphic address is “Sawmills, Newton Heath,” and their telephone is No. 1080; and Thos. Roebuck & Co., telephone No. 134.


THE principals of the above firm are gentlemen of recognised ability and extended experience in connection with the important industrial branch to which their attention is now so vigorously and successfully directed; and they have been especially fortunate in the choice of their premises. These consist of a large and commodious building, which was formerly used as a weaving shed, and covers an area of over 3,000 square feet, forming a one-storied structure, which is loftier than the ordinary run of weaving sheds, and is divided appropriately into a series of special departments, where each section of the work is carried out in its integrity by skilled specialists. All the departments are elaborately equipped with the best and latest machinery and appliances, calling into requisition the services of a powerful steam engine and two large boilers, and a numerous staff of picked and experienced hands under the practical personal supervision of the principals. The goods mostly consist of Oxfords, Harvards, ginghams, zephyrs, lustres and shirtings, dyed and printed flannelettes (this is a speciality); but Messrs. Wagstaff are prepared to dye and finish any other class of fabrics in any desired style, so perfect are the means at their command, and so varied has their experience been. The whole business is conducted with conspicuous ability and sound judgment by the principals, and no firm could have won by more honourable and legitimate means the eminent reputation and widespread business connections which this notable house already enjoys.


THIS most useful and largely-patronised establishment was founded in 1884, by Mr. Henry Baker, for the sole manufacture of his two celebrated specialities. These are Baker & Co.’s Excelsior Solution for Splicing Cycle Tyres, and Baker & Co.’s Special Quality Tyre Cement. The perfecting of these splendid productions cost the inventor much valuable time and money. The solution for splicing tyres is now in great request. In these days of cycle-riding it is simply invaluable, as it is easily carried and simply administered. No heat whatever is required in applying it, and it is thoroughly effectual. It is equally successful for repairing cut lawn-tennis shoes, or any kind of india-rubber goods. The tyre cement is for fixing tyres to all kinds of cycles, bicycles, bassinettes, &c., and is just as simple in its application. Both have largely been taken up by the leading cyclists, and are doing much to reduce to a minimum the discomforts and inconveniences hitherto existing on the road. The premises consist of a large two-storied building, with a fine frontage of twenty feet. A large stock is on hand, and orders can be met without delay, although the demand is constantly increasing. The worthy proprietors are very attentive to all orders, conduct their transactions in an honourable and straightforward manner, and by their pleasant bearing have won the friendship and esteem of hosts around them.


THE Ardwick Ales have, ever since their introduction twenty years ago by Mr. George Bentley, been noted for their purity, wholesomeness, and excellent flavour. Mr. Bentley still carries on his business with vigour in Viaduct Street, where his commanding premises form quite a landmark, They comprise a modern brewery of the most approved type, replete with all the best machinery and appliances, and supplemented by a fine cooperage, hop-house, and ample stable accommodation. In addition to this Mr. Bentley operates on a very large scale as a bottler of his own ales, stout, and porter; maturing the liquors thoroughly in an admirably-appointed store previous to distribution. His ales and beers have gained for him an enormous circle of good customers amongst large consumers, as well as private families, who knowhow to judge of and thoroughly appreciate well-brewed, unsophisticated liquors, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not merely be consistently maintained, but steadily developed in days to come.


THIS important business, founded in 1879 by Messrs. J. McIntyre & Co., has for some time past been continued with great success by its present proprietor, Mr. S. Saunders, whose name has become very creditably identified with improved and highly effective methods of warming by means of hot-water apparatus. Mr. Saunders has directed his attention in this matter to the requirements of mansions and residences (large and small), and also of churches, chapels, schools, shops, offices, warehouses, and public buildings. He is prepared to undertake contracts for heating, in a thoroughly efficient and sanitary manner, any description of building in which a uniformly warm temperature is desirable under any conditions; and as the result of his long-continued and exhaustive experiments, he has perfected and patented improvements in his “small-bore” system of heating. This unique apparatus possesses a host of material advantages, which do away entirely with all the objections that have hitherto been advanced against heating by hot water, and it is undoubtedly one of the very best and most thoroughly, scientific ideas of the kind. We strongly commend to our readers’ attention and consideration the neat little illustrated pamphlet, in which Mr. Saunders sets forth the characteristics and the merits of his valuable invention. Mr. Saunders’ new system has already gained a great deal of public favour, and a large number of letters from persons who have adopted it testify to the complete satisfaction it has given.

Mr. Saunders has compact and well-appointed premises at the above address, with every facility for carrying on his rapidly-growing business, and he enjoys the support and confidence of a large and widespread town and county connection. It should be noted that he has been particularly successful in the matter of steam heating for mills, while a great reputation attaches to his patent sectional and tubular boilers, also the wrought-iron hot water boilers, for conservatories, greenhouses, churches, residences, public buildings, shown in his catalogue, &c. His hot water or steam radiators are both cleanly and ornamental in appearance. They dispense with the old arrangement of coils and coil cases, and afford a large amount of heating surface in a very small space. Mr. Saunders is a heating and ventilating engineer of large practical and scientific experience, and his success in this trade has been worthily achieved by the real merit of his productions.


A VERY useful and convenient institution is placed at the disposal of Manchester engineering and shipping firms having business relations abroad by Mr. Johana Thiel, a clever and enterprising foreign printer, whose speciality lies in the execution of commercial work in foreign languages from original copy in English, the translation of which is undertaken by the printer. The principal work done in Mr. Thiel’s establishment consists of German, French, Italian and Spanish, and most of these languages are spoken in his office. It is equally facilitating to commercial gentlemen of foreign nationality, who may not know English very well. Mr. Thiel, who only established himself last year in Manchester, is already becoming well known in the city, and is fast consolidating an influential connection, by whom the facilities he offers, and the accuracy, neatness, and despatch with which the work entrusted to him is executed, are warmly recognised and appreciated. Mr. Johann Thiel is not only an experienced and practical craftsman, having been for some years a reader or corrector of the press in one of the large printing offices in Manchester, and a linguist of unusual attainments, but he is also a pushing and energetic man of considerable business capacity, who is much liked and esteemed by all with whom his business brings him in contact.


FOR thirty years the above-named business has been carried on, increasing in the extent and importance of its transactions year by year, until at the present time the establishment occupies an assured position among kindred houses. Operations are conducted on large and commodious premises, comprising general and private offices, together with extensive yards containing work-sheds, smithy, stabling accommodation for several horses, and cart sheds. A glance round is sufficient to show that the business conducted here is one of no common kind, and that Messrs. Naylor are fully prepared at the shortest notice to undertake contracts of magnitude. There is also a mortar mill for supplying the trade generally. The firm have gained an honourable name for the successful manner in which many important contracts for corporation work, sewering, road-making, pond-making, and similar jobs have been executed. The resources of the house are equal to all demands, and as a force of men and horses is constantly employed, prompt execution of all commands and entire satisfaction can be guaranteed. The proprietors are gentlemen of wide and valuable experience in every department of their business. They devote their personal attention to the concern in its entirety, and every contract entrusted to them is sure to be carried to completion in a thoroughly satisfactory and conscientious manner. By their honourable methods they have gained the confidence of a large circle of patrons, and the continued increase in the business shows how well their efforts are appreciated. In commercial and social circles they are well known and respected for their personal worth and ability.


FEW names are better known among the machinists and patentees of Manchester than that of Mr. William Crosland, of New Street, Miles Platting, the inventor of the “Advance” self-clamp silent guillotine, and numerous other notable and useful machines. This gentleman commenced business as far back as 1854 in a very small way. Employment is now found for more than thirty skilled hands, and special works have been erected, consisting of an extensive three-storey building, one hundred feet by sixty feet, and equipped with plant and machinery of the most modern and improved kind. The works embody the proprietor’s long experience in this department of industry, and they are kept in an admirable state of efficiency. A large and valuable business is done in the manufacture of the patent guillotine. This machine now occupies an unrivalled position in the trade. The “Advance” possesses many special advantages, and the continually increasing demand for it shows unmistakably how it is growing in popularity and appreciation with users. It is noiseless in its action, cuts perfectly true top and bottom alike, and is so simple in construction that the knife, or the cutting stick, can be changed in one minute. It causes no vibration, and can be stopped in any part of the cut.

Mr. Crosland, who is assisted in his business by his four sons, makes a large number of superior machines for different purposes, especially those used for making paper boxes, all of which are well known and largely in demand. Among these are hand guillotine paper-cutting machines, rotary scoring machines, punching machines for cutting oval, round, or other fancy shapes, lever screw presses, lithographic stone grinding and polishing machines, and last, but by no means least, Crosland’s new patent automatic pressing machine. This machine is intended to take the place of hydraulic or screw presses. The machine is started with an ordinary strap-fork, and brings down the platen until sufficient pressure is obtained. A number of strong springs are then brought into action. When these springs have stretched a certain amount, they liberate a weight which at once moves the strap on to the loose pulley, and brings into operation a break which holds the machine in its position. The pressure can be left on as long as required, when, by lifting a lever, the platen rises to its original position. Its advantages are — the machine is automatic: when the strap is put on, it can be left to put the required pressure without further attention, and will stop without fear of any breakage. By the use of springs each lot will get a uniform amount of pressure, yet this pressure can be varied for different classes of work. No water, no valves or packing-leathers to get out of order. Any amount of pressure can be obtained.

A connection has been developed in every part of the United Kingdom, and an extensive trade is being carried on with the Colonies. The leading machines are kept in stock in various sizes, and orders receive careful and prompt attention. Mr. Crosland is everywhere esteemed for his ability, energy and upright methods, both as a business man and an active participant in public affairs. He has for a long time sat as a guardian of the poor for Newton Heath in the Prestwick Union, and he is prominently identified with every movement for the good of his fellow-citizens.


THIS business is one of the most important concerns of its kind in the neighbourhood, of Manchester, and was founded as far back as the year 1835, by Mr. James Taylor, father of Mr. W. H. Taylor, the present principal. This latter gentleman succeeded to the control of the business in 1875, and since then he has considerably extended it by his energetic and enterprising management. The works at Failsworth are of large extent and suitable appointment for an industry of this kind, possessing all the requisite appliances and machinery of the best modern type, and here Mr. Taylor employs a very numerous staff of hands in the manufacture of felt hats in fine fur and wool, “pullovers,” shells, &c., &c. The principal output of Ike establishment, however, is in silk hats, for which this house has long enjoyed a high-merited reputation. Several of Mr. Taylor’s specialities have met with great favour and have become popular in the best circles at home and abroad. Among these may be mentioned the “Improved Zephyr silk hat,” which, as its name implies, is one of the lightest hats in the market, and is at the same time remarkable for its strength and good wearing qualities. Recently introduced, and protected by two patents, is Mr. Taylor’s “Conformo” silk hat, which instantly conforms to the shape of the wearer’s head, fitting as accurately and easily as a glove, and causing no pressure on the forehead. The most practical experts in the trade have all agreed in pronouncing this hat perfection, and the highest medical testimony favours its principles and special hygienic qualities. This really excellent invention is a distinct boon to the public. The “Conformo” silk hat can be had of all first-class hatters and gentlemen’s outfitters. Such an invention as this is not an occurrence of every day, and Mr. Taylor is fully entitled to congratulation and reward for his- happy discovery. The general trade of this old-established house is wide and influential in both the home and export markets, and the volume of business done increases continuously. Several travellers are kept “on the road” in the United Kingdom, and Mr. Taylor’s wholesale and shipping agents in London and the south are Messrs. Hope, Townend & Co., 26, Milton Street, London, E.C.
Telegrams — “Taylor, Hatter, Failsworth.”


THE immense business owned by Mr. Harrop was established by him in 1876. The head offices and warehouse are at 55, Tib Street; the splendidly constructed and complete works at Bury Street Mills, Stockport, near Manchester, and the several important branches are at 89, 91 and 93, Piccadilly, Manchester; 109, Broad Street, Pendleton; 5, High Street, Oldham; 13, Drake Street, Rochdale; Market Place, Hyde; and 32, Lower Hillgate, Stockport. The business carried on is that of a manufacturer of bassinettes, mail carts, perambulators, bath chairs, &c. An immense stock of picture frames and mouldings is imported from Germany and America. The depots and warehouses are packed with all kinds of articles of foreign manufacture, as clocks, bronzes, watches, organs, pianos, musical and floral albums, &c., and form at once a valuable and useful collection.

The great speciality, however, is the manufacture of bassinettes, mail carts, &c. For the purpose of making them the most perfect in the market, the spirited proprietor has laid down at his works a large plant for making his own wheels and rubbers, to save another manufacturer’s profit, and to enable him to possess wheels worthy of the other high-class parts of his mail carts, &c. There is also an extensive plant for the special purpose of building landau and barouche carriages, and bath chairs. This plant enables Mr. Harrop to come to the front as a manufacturer in design, workmanship, and finish. He has no fewer than sixty original and elegant designs in bath chairs, mail carts, and perambulators. Each is entirely distinct, and for real worth and solidity of construction they can challenge the whole country to produce better. These are for the wholesale and retail trade, and also for the hire-purchase system. In the latter the number of transactions is enormous. Competent managers preside over each branch establishment, but the whole come under the personal control of the indefatigable proprietor. Considerably over two hundred hands are employed, at the works, and in the various depots. Mounting and publishing pictures is a further feature of this gigantic undertaking. All is managed with the strictest order, and every customer has full attention paid them. Mr. Harrop is a Manchester man, and is proud of the fact. Manchester, in return, is proud to own one who, by his industry, enterprise, and ability has formed a business of such magnitude and usefulness.


ONE of the most popular factors in mercantile life is, without doubt, the auctioneer and valuer. A leading house in this line is that of Mr. Joseph Hill, which deservedly controls a large amount of the better class of custom. The premises occupied consist of a spacious suite of handsomely appointed offices at the above address, in which an efficient staff of clerks and correspondents is constantly engaged. Mr. Hill evinces admirable energy and activity in his profession. All kinds of auctions are conducted by him in Manchester and the surrounding country districts. Properties, household furniture, live stock, crops, stocks in trade, plant, &c., hotels, spirit shops, licensed groceries, and businesses of every description are sold as going concerns by private treaty or public auction. He is agent for the Queen Insurance Company, and also agent for the Ocean Accident and Guarantee Corporation, Limited. He is a fellow of the Auctioneer’s Institute of the United Kingdom and also a member of its council. The business was established a quarter of a century ago, and ever since has been rapidly increasing both in extent and importance. The proprietor is also a valuer for all kinds of probate duty, transfers, and similar purposes. All transactions are carried out in a thoroughly business-like manner, and commendable promptitude and despatch are shown in everything undertaken. Mr. Hill also holds the very important position of sheriff’s officer for the city of Manchester. The business is very ably conducted and ranks among the foremost in the profession.


DATING back in its foundation to the year 1851, the business was established by the father of the present proprietor, the latter succeeding in 1868. The works are laid out on an extensive scale, and are replete in the various departments with machinery and appliances of the most improved description, with every facility for the effective and economical working of the business. Mr. Sutton gives regular employment to upwards of twenty skilled and experienced workmen in the manufacture of patent suction and sight feed lubricators, improved valve oil cans, tin bobbins for woollen, cotton, flax, and silk, improved steel, tin, wire, eyelet, and curled wire cotton guides, special guides for ring throstles, &c.; also Sutton’s Patent Suction Lubricator and Sutton’s Patent Elevator Bucket, for corn mills. These goods are well and favourably known in the trade, and exhibit in every detail of their construction that marvellous excellence of material and workmanship which has made the productions of these works famous through-out the district. Mr. Sutton has an excellent connection amongst mill owners and manufacturers throughout Lancashire and adjoining counties, which is well founded upon the eminent reputation so long enjoyed, and the well-known quality, character, and utility of all the articles manufactured. Mr. John Sutton, who is the sole proprietor, is a thoroughly practical man, with an experience extending over many years. He has most successfully introduced several valuable and useful patents, which have a large and increasing sale, and is widely recognised as a courteous, and enterprising business man.


SINCE their establishment in 1873, these works have gradually extended until they have become a very great power in the calico printing trade. They were originally in Carnarvon Street, where they were founded by the present proprietor, and removed to the well-known Ducie Engraving Works in 1887. These works are specially adapted for carrying on the extensive operations in connection1 with the trade, and are well and liberally fitted with machinery throughout. On the first floor are superior engraving machines, &c.; on the second are a number of etching, pentagraph, and other machines. Hand engraving is carried on on the third floor, and on the fourth are the rooms for the sketch-makers, die-sinkers, plate-cutters, &c. In the various departments upwards of fifty superior hands are constantly employed. The whole attention is given to cotton-printers, paper stainers. &c., who supply the rolls to be engraved. Mr. McInnes employs artists and designers of great skill, and turns out many striking and original specimens of art engraving. The thorough manner in which every detail is worked out reflects the highest credit upon the organising powers of the highly-respected proprietor. The works are kept fully employed, and are in a most flourishing condition. Apart from the unmistakable superiority of his workmanship, Mr. McInnes is esteemed for his genial manner, and for the very straightforward nature of his commercial dealings.


FOR many year» previous to 1882 Mr. Edward Issott occupied an old-established brewery in Heaton Chapel, and in consequence of the rapid development of his business, and the necessity for increased accommodation, he built the large and handsome premises now so well and widely known as the Ardwick Place Brewery. Situated in the Stockport Road, the brewery, which is well recognised as one of the most complete of its kind in the district, with the stables, sheds, outbuildings, cooperage, &c., covers upwards of an acre of ground. The plant is equal to fifty-five barrels per brew, and can easily be adapted to produce double that quantity, and is equipped with all the most improved machinery and appliances. Mr. Issott brews both mild and bitter ale, stout and porter, which enjoy an unsurpassed reputation for purity, strength, and fine flavour. The greatest care is exercised in the selection of the ingredients, and the various operations are conducted on the most approved principles, with the additional advantage of long practical experience. A large staff of skilled and experienced men are employed under the immediate supervision of the proprietor, and the trade is of a widespread and steadily-growing character. Mr. Issott has a first-class connection throughout Lancashire, Cheshire, and adjoining counties, and is well known and highly respected in the district as a courteous and enterprising business man


THIS old-established and reputable business was initiated in 1860, and the foundation of a good business was soon laid and a substantial connection acquired. The founder afterwards identified his son, Mr. George Ashton Brookes, with the concern, and under their joint control the success of their establishment has left nothing to be desired. The premises are of ample size and are provided with every modern appliance and improvement for the successful carrying on of the business. They comprise a large suite of well-appointed offices — including general offices, counting-house, and manager’s and private offices — spacious granaries, and brew-houses equipped with the latest apparatus and machinery to form what is known as a twenty-quarter plant. Here is controlled a large trade in mild and bitter ales and stout. These beverages are of the best quality and such as cannot fail to recommend themselves to judges. They are brewed from pure malt and hops according to the best system, and every process is carefully watched to insure the best possible results. The water at the brewery is of exceptionally good quality, containing all the necessary elements for producing the finest ales, which, cannot be surpassed in the district for their brightness, purity, and flavour.

A wholesale and retail wine and spirit trade is done by the firm, and the stocks they hold are very choice and well selected. The firm hold a number of full-licensed houses and beerhouses, and a large trade is also done with free houses and some of the best local families. About twenty skilled hands are employed in the brewing, and eight horses and lurries are continually occupied in delivering orders. Mr. Brookes is a thoroughly practical man, and his experience has been of the soundest character. His able and energetic personal supervision is bestowed upon the business, and to this circumstance as much as to any other, is to be attributed its marked success. He is respected and esteemed by the many that know him. for his personal worth and strict business principles.


THIS firm occupies very commodious premises at the above address, where they possess every facility for the proper conduct of the trade engaged in, and their show-rooms and stock-rooms display an immense variety of goods suitable for all the purposes of such a business. The works of the firm are in Hulme, and they have ample resources of production, being in a position to execute the largest orders without delay. Messrs. Tyrer & Co.’s specialities consist in the furnishing of balls, bazaars, and banquetting halls, and the suitable decoration of the same for any special occasion; also the supplying of supper tables, forms, and dancing hollands, flags, banners, all kinds of stage prosceniums and scenery for dramatic performances, tents and marquees of various sizes for garden parties, &c., &c., and every requisite for flower shows, bazaars, agricultural shows, and other occasions calling for tents or decorative materials of any kind. Their new type of pavilion, with parquet flooring, is an admirable arrangement for ball-room purposes, and makes a most convenient adjunct to a gentleman’s residence, being capable of speedy erection, and affording splendid accommodation when fitted up and decorated by Messrs. Tyrer & Co. This pavilion has been utilised on four occasions for the accommodation of royalty, on the occasion of royal visits to the Isle of Man, Swansea, Liverpool, and Burnley.

The firm are especially famous as street decorators, in which connection they provide and erect Venetian masts, triumphal arches, gas and variegated lamp illuminations and many other symbols of public rejoicing, in the preparation of which they are singularly expert. Banner painting is an art in which the firm distinctly excel, and for this they gained the only gold medal in 1877. As public decorators they are contractors to the Stanley Hospital Gala Committee, and they have carried out and gained high testimonials for street decorations on the occasions of royal visits in London, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Preston, Swansea, Newcastle, and other towns. Organisers of bazaars for any purpose cannot do better than communicate with this eminent firm, who can not only supply all manner of fittings and decorations, but can also provide any number of entërtainments suitable for bazaars, including excellent marionettes, our old friends “Punch and Judy,” and many other attractive and moneymaking features.

For many years Messrs. Tyrer & Co. have supplied the tents for the encampment of the Manchester Volunteers, and they evidently make a speciality of this sort of thing, judging from the enormous stock of tents for officers’ mess, &c., they keep always in readiness. In all their operations they adhere closely to the sound policy of doing really first-class work and supplying or letting out really superior articles at very moderate and reasonable charges. The present head of the house, Mr. Lee Southern, is a gentleman who enters actively and energetically into all the details of the trade, and his extensive experience enables him to conduct the business with excellent effect.


THE modern bookseller who makes it a sine qua non of his business to keep well in advance of the times, by providing the public with standard works and all the latest and best productions of the press, assuredly plays a most important part in the everyday economy of things; and in this connection, in Manchester of to-day, the trade is in no instance better or more typically exemplified than by Mr. T. R. Wardleworth, the popular bookseller of 18 and 18A, Brown Street, who opened his attractive emporium in the year 1882, opposite to the new General Post Office. The premises occupied consist of two large and spacious adjoining shops, admirably appointed throughout, and very fully stocked with a thoroughly exhaustive series of books in both plain and recherché bindings, of all the standard authors. Mr. Wardleworth moreover prides himself, with justice, in keeping himself au courant with all the events of the literary world, and by securing the co-operation of all the leading London and Provincial publishers, is always in readiness to supply the public with the latest books on the days of their publication. His trade is exclusively in new books, and he has the valuable commercial knack of discerning what book is likely to “take” with the public and what not. He is also energetic and ingenious in his modes of pushing books, and is one of the few booksellers who make use of reviews for this purpose. In his well arranged windows there are usually several cuttings from critical papers setting forth the merits of portions of his wares, and this plan he finds wonderfully efficacious.


THE above forms one of the most rapidly developed businesses in Manchester, and from the most humble commencement has sprung one of the largest concerns of its kind in England. The surprising fact is that all this has been accomplished in about eleven years. When Mr. Bramall commenced business it was in a small room at Pomona, his entire staff consisting of himself and a boy. Nine months afterwards he took a larger room, and in another twelve months was compelled to remove into his present premises. At that time they were only one-third their present size. So fast did the business increase that very important additions had from time to time to be made, until they have reached the great proportions of to-day. The specialities are the manufacture of pressure, vacuum and hydraulic gauges on the Bourdon principle. The fame of these gauges is universal, and immense numbers are shipped all over the world, a large quantity going to Canada, South America, Australia, Japan, &c. The yearly output is over fifteen thousand, and the trade continues rapidly to increase. About fifty hands are employed.

The works are now very large, and are on two floors. On the ground floor is the office, and entrance to the works; also the dial-painting room, packing- room, engine-room, and work-room, fitted up with every description of machinery for cutting and turning the small parts of the gauges, viz., pinions, quadrants, racks, &c. One important part is that the gauges contain no iron or steel, all the pivots being made of an alloy that will not corrode, which is a very important point, as the gauges are generally much exposed to damp. At the right of the office is the large warehouse and packing-room. Adjoining this is another work-room, with machinery and power. At the rear is the foundry. There are five furnaces. The moulding and casting rooms are very complete, and all castings are made on the premises. The second floor is also used as work-rooms, with power and the various kinds of machinery necessary to the business. The entire works are of the most complete nature possible. The respected proprietor, in looking round his large and busy place, must feel recompensed for his untiring and well-directed efforts.


AMONG the notable houses whose names have become closely and creditably identified with the hat and cap manufacturing industry of Manchester of to-day, there are perhaps few that are better known or more thoroughly representative of the business than the one here noticed. Upwards of half a century has now elapsed since the formation of this house in Print Street, afterwards removed to Watling Street, and an inquiry into the annals of the city shows that its commercial development has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement. In 1866 the present commodious premises were acquired and entered upon. No. 30, Fountain Street, is appropriately divided into offices, showrooms, warehouses, and general stock rooms, altogether holding one of the largest, best assorted, and most comprehensive series of felt hats and caps by all the leading makers of the day. All the newest patterns are kept well en evidence, from time, to time, as they come out; and the firm are prepared at all times to execute large and special orders to suit the requirements of any climate. A large and manifestly efficient staff of assistants is employed, and the trade controlled amongst merchants and shippers is certainly second to none of its kind in the city.


THIS notable company was incorporated in the year 1887, under the able auspices of its managing director, Mr. L. D. Prince, for the purpose of supplying retail and wholesale, at the lowest possible prices consistent with equity, all kinds of drugs, chemicals, medicines, herbs, roots, barks, gums, glues, oils, and kindred commodities of the highest quality, in addition to all the collateral articles incidental to the modern chemist’s business. The premises occupied consist of a large and substantial three-storied building, with a capitally-ordered double-fronted shop on the ground floor, augmented by great store-rooms, and well-equipped laboratories and workshops at the rear, the second and third stories being fully utilised for the storage of stock. The company operate extensively as importers, exporters and retail dealers in all the commodities mentioned, and at the same time run a medical dispensary department under the charge of duly qualified chemists, where physicians’ prescriptions and family recipes are dispensed with care and accuracy; every prescription being checked before seeding it out.

In the laboratory department, the company manufacture, on a large scale, two very important and much appreciated articles. These are “Nutritas” — a superior palatable compound, prepared chiefly from the purest cod liver oil, malt extract, and hypophosphites, blended to yield a preparation containing in the highest degree of perfection all the blood, flesh, and nerve enriching properties of the ingredients named, readily assimilable, and acting as a powerful nutritious tonic for the invalid; and “Health Tea,” of which the following is a description:— This Medicinal Tea, mixed in accordance with the medico-botanic discoveries of Dr. Calvel, is an aperient and blood purifier of greatest importance, made up exclusively of hygienic plants of the utmost physiological value. It is recognised as the most natural, agreeable, efficacious, and beneficial of all aperients and blood purifers. This tea presents, under the form of an agreeable and hygienic beverage, all the qualities necessary for a perfect purgative, removing from the alimentary canal and circulatory system those poisonous ferments and impurities which vitiate the blood and endanger life. The tea, whilst purging agreeably, gives vitality to all parts of the digestive organs. Besides the unequalled laxative and purifying properties of this health tea, it is highly recommended for following reasons:—(1st). It is the best tonic, stimulant, and anti-spasmodic, increasing the vitality of all intestinal parts. (2nd). As authenticated by numerous testimonials, it is the best preparation, giving the most satisfactory results in all cases of liver complaints, indigestion, skin diseases, constipation, impurities of the blood, rheumatism, flatulency, head-ache, dropsy, &c. (3rd). It acts uniformly upon all parts of the alimentary canal (a result unattained by any other aperient). (4th). It purges without producing in its reaction either diarrhoea or constipation. (5th). Being taken in a liquid form, it does not tend to cause ulcerations as concentrated and hard pills do. (6th). It can be taken without risk by persons of either sex and of any age. No one need any longer defer taking cooling and purifying medicine, now that it is presented in such a pleasant and beneficial form, and by taking this tea early the regular action of the various organs will be restored, and at the same time, the formation of an injurious pabulum, upon which fasten so readily the germs of fevers and diseases, will be avoided.

In addition to this they have instituted a wine and spirit department, which is fast finding favour among the residents in the district, because of the guaranteed genuineness of all the wines, British and foreign, sold. The trade controlled by the company is one of considerable volume, and the entire business is conducted, under the personal supervision of Mr. Prince, with marked ability and spirited enterprise, and reflects nothing but the highest credit upon all those who are in any way concerned with the administration of its affairs.


IN historically reviewing the trades and industries of the century gone by, it is particularly interesting to meet with a firm of such old standing and extensive business connections as the, one now under notice. Upwards of one hundred and thirty years have elapsed since this representative concern was organised on a sound basis by a Mr. Long in Newmarket Lane, now known as Market Street. He was succeeded by his nephew, Mr. B. Long, who removed to St. Ann’s Street, St. Ann’s Square, and an inquiry into its annals shows that its commercial development has been one steady onward progression from the very date of its inception. Mr. Long was succeeded by Messrs. Josh. Lockwood and Marsh, who in their turn were followed in 1876 by the present proprietor, Mr. Henry Marsh, a gentleman of recognised ability and extended experience in connection with the important industry to which his attention is now so vigorously and successfully directed.

Municipal improvements, and the pressing need for larger premises, owing to the requirements of a rapidly increasing trade, have rendered removals imperatively necessary from time to time. However, the premises now occupied are in every point of character and situation exactly adapted to the wants of a brisk high class business of the kind. They are centrally located, and consist of an exceedingly well-appointed, spacious shop, fully fitted with show cases for holding and displaying a choice series of saddles, harness, bridles, collars, whips, and stable and equestrian accessories of every description. To the rear of the shop are the well-ordered workrooms for the execution of new goods and all kinds of alterations and repairs, and seeing that none but the very best materials are used, and only expert workmen engaged, it follows as a matter of course that Mr. Marsh has made his mark in the saddlers’ world, and now enjoys the fruits of his skilful and sagaciously conducted enterprise in the form of a large, influential, and rapidly growing patronage. In addition to the business transacted at headquarters, Mr. Marsh has three flourishing branches, as above alluded to, where the same business principles are in vogue, with like satisfactory results.


THIS thriving and successful undertaking was originally founded by Mr. Thomas Wright, at premises in Sackville Street, in the year 1853, and that gentleman was succeeded in 1875 by Mr. Wilson, who soon afterwards transferred the concern to the present address, where it has since been increased and developed in scope and extent with very satisfactory results. The premises, which are very extensive and in every way exceedingly well adapted for the requirements of a considerable and growing trade, have a frontage of one hundred feet, and extend to some depth at the rear. The ground floor is occupied by conveniently arranged offices and store rooms, and the two upper storeys are utilised for extensive workshops, fitted throughout with the latest and most improved machinery necessary for the varied work executed for both the home and the export trades. The various departments are constantly and busily engaged in all kinds of iron, tin, zinc, and general sheet metal working, braziers’ and coppersmiths’ work, &c. A speciality is made of the manufacture of tin and copper drying cylinders for calico printers, bleachers, dyers, and finishers, as well as of rollers for mules, throstles, doubler reel centres, and winding frames. Another flourishing department is occupied in every description of tin, zinc, and lead packing-case making, and plain and ornamental lamps of all kinds are also manufactured on a large scale. Mr. Wilson is also an authorised gas-fitter.

Telephonic communication with this important establishment may be effected under the number 283, and there is also a thriving branch business at 20, Beswick Street, Bradford Road, Manchester. A large and efficient staff is employed in the various departments, and the firm is well represented outside by a competent traveller. Mr. William Scott Wilson enjoys the favour and substantial support of an excellent and influential connection of old standing, and he bears a very favourable reputation for the thoroughly reliable character of the work executed in his factory. He is well known in commercial circles, and is personally much esteemed and respected by all with whom he comes in contact.


THIS business was established in 1872, and it soon gave obvious indications that the founder was a man of considerable energy and great original ability in his speciality. The products of his establishment became quickly recognised in the trade and by private buyers, and each succeeding year has added to their merit and reputation. The premises in Oxford Street consist of a handsome and substantial block of building, comprising a magnificent show-room, with a fine frontage extending some fifty feet to the rear; and several show-rooms on the first floor, together, with store-rooms and other accommodation at the rear. The works in Marlborough Place are of ample proportions, and the various departments have been admirably arranged for the effective control of the business. They comprise a number of workshops of different sizes, smiths’ shops, and numerous sheds. There is also an extensive yard for convenient storage of materials and vehicles waiting to be repaired, Mr. Cox making repairs a marked feature of his business. The works are thoroughly equipped with the most modern and improved machinery used in the trade, and every appliance and expedient have been provided that would improve the character of the work done or cheapen the cost of production. A force of thirty coach-builders, body-makers, smiths, painters, joiners, and upholsterers are kept in constant employ by the demands made upon the firm.

Mr. Cox here controls a high-class and thoroughly representative business in the manufacture of carriages and vehicles of all descriptions. The products of this noted establishment have obtained an invaluable reputation, and have achieved signal distinction at important exhibitions. A large and comprehensive stock is held, embracing every class of vehicles for business or pleasure, and including splendid specimens of broughams, landaus, closed carriages, waggonettes, stanhopes, chaises, dog, business, spring, and rustic carts, sociables, gigs, drags, and phaetons. All these vehicles are highly appreciated in the trade, and are acknowledged to be unsurpassed in perfection of workmanship, lightness, elegance of design, style, and durability; they are faultless in their appointments, and are fitted with all the latest improvements. The above illustration gives the outline of Mr. Cox’s improved hansom. It is the only hansom that can be opened or closed whilst in motion and in the same space of time, and having no loose or portable parts cannot rattle or get out of order. The construction of this hansom enables the inventor to use a long wing, which effectually protects the clothes when getting in or out, an advantage that cannot be attained by any other kind of hansom.

A large trade is done throughout Lancashire and the northern counties generally, chiefly among high-class buyers and exporters and the principal private families. For his valuable inventions and improvements in the construction of vehicles Mr. Cox has been awarded the gold medal and diploma of the highest class in four separate instances, and in 1890 the special distinction was conferred upon him of being appointed Honourable Member of the Brussels Universal Academy of Industrial Arts and Sciences. He has an invaluable record of triumphs which his high- class work has achieved at various exhibitions, among which are:— Middleton, 1889; Worsley, 1889; Altrincham, 1890; and Middleton, 1890. Mr. Cox is pre-eminently a practical man, and thoroughly proficient in every department of his special calling. His energetic and able supervision is bestowed upon the business in its entirety, and to his conspicuous ability and high standard of commercial probity the great success of this noteworthy house is to be mainly attributed. He is highly respected by a large circle of friends and acquaintances, and he is an active and important participator in every movement that concerns the welfare of his fellow-citizens.


FOR several years past a prominent place among the tailoring firms of Manchester has been occupied by Messrs. Boydell Brothers, high-class tailors, livery, habit, and breeches makers, who have been established since the early part of 1883 in their present premises, 83, Market Street. The co-partners in this rapidly advancing firm are two brothers, Mr. Jesse and Mr. Joshua Haworth Boydell, and undoubtedly the secret of the remarkable success which has hitherto attended every undertaking with which Messrs. Boydell Brothers have been identified is to be found in the fact that both these gentlemen are ideal men of business, and at the same time are endowed with that perfect courtesy and patience which in their particular businesses perhaps more necessary than in any other. Their chief aim in business is to give perfect satisfaction to every customer with whom they have to deal, and certainly no pains are stinted to attain this end. The production of high-class tailoring at moderate prices would be difficult and perhaps impossible to a firm with less resource at its command than the one of which we are speaking. Messrs. Boydell are well-known as extensive buyers in Scotland and the south-west of England, the two principal seats of the woollen industry, and their patrons have a most extensive and varied stock from which to make their selections. Every class of material will be found fully represented, from the exquisite superfine of the west of England to the rough Harris homespun made by the cottagers of the western islands of Scotland. It need hardly be added that the whole of the duty of buying for their several establishments is undertaken personally and exclusively by the principals.

Turning from the buying of the cloth to the next stage in the production of garments, the cutters are gentlemen of first-class practical experience; and of the highest reputation for ability in their special department, and under their direction are employed a large staff of skilled English workmen. In this connection it may be said that attached to each of their establishments Messrs. Boydell Brothers have large and convenient workshops, where every regard is paid to the health and comfort of their numerous employes.

We mentioned above that the firm commenced business in Manchester in the spring of 1883, but it was actually founded many years before by Mr. Jesse Boydell in the town of St. Helen’s. The fine shop, 12, Church Street, in that town, was opened in the summer of 1870, and ten years later, on the opening of second St. Helen’s establishment, 89, Church Street, Mr. Joshua Boydell became a partner in the business. With regard to these two branches we need only say that the principles which have all through guided the firm have secured for them almost a monopoly of the high-class tailoring of St. Helen’s. Encouraged by their success here, it was only in the natural order of things for men of the push and energy of Messrs. Boydell to seek a wider field for the exercise of their energies. Accordingly, the Manchester, Liverpool, and Warrington branches were opened in succession. In Manchester an old standing trade was taken over and continued with splendid success. That in Liverpool is situated at 37 and 39, Ranelagh Street, and consists of one of the finest shops in that city. The Warrington house was only established in June of 1890, but it is rapidly becoming the leading order trade of the town. The shop is situated at 37, Bridge Street, the principal thoroughfare of the town.

The latest extension is one which has only just been made and can hardly at present be judged as to its success or failure, though the experience of the past does not allow us to entertain much fear of the latter. We have before referred to the success of the Manchester house and we may now add that though the additions to the accommodation of the Market Street premises have been very large, Messrs. Boydell have for some time felt themselves unable to deal satisfactorily with the increasing weight of trade which every year brings to them. A second Manchester branch has, therefore, been opened at 16, Cross Street, within a few yards of the Manchester Royal Exchange. Here special attention is devoted to the highest class of tailoring. Everything is of the best. The highest quality and the choicest designs of materials are used, the most skilled and highly paid English workmen are employed, and the perfect fit and style of every garment is ensured by the care and attention of a cutter of the highest ability and reputation. Messrs. Boydell will here extend a branch of trade, the making of uniforms, liveries, breeches, and riding habits, which they have felt themselves at a disadvantage in dealing with in their Market Street shop.

In order to keep themselves in touch with their customers a number of travellers are employed, who cover the whole of Lancashire, and Cheshire, and parts of Staffordshire, Derbyshire and Yorkshire. The connection of the firm is very extensive, and their reputation as high- class tailors is by no means a local one, but is known throughout the north of England.

It only remains to be said that in the general management of the business, Mr. Jesse Boydell gives his personal supervision to the Liverpool and St. Helen’s houses, while Mr. Joshua H. Boydell devotes his time and energy to the Manchester and Warrington branches. Both of these gentlemen are thoroughly practical, and bring a life’s experience to bear on their business, with every detail of which they have a minute acquaintance. In private life they possess a very large circle of friends, and those who know them best associate with the name of Boydell Brothers all that is genuine, honest and straightforward.


THIS most useful business was established in 1880, by Messrs. Whittaker & Duggan, and after being conducted under the above title up to the year 1884, was purchased by Mr. B. J. Duggan, trading as Messrs. B. J. Duggan. & Co. This business is chiefly known in connection with the manufacture of the celebrated vaseline tallow and engine oil; also special gas engine oil, suitable for all engines. The vaseline tallow has proved to be the cleanest and best lubricant for cylinders of steam engines, and is recommended by the best engineers, on account of its purity and lubricating qualities. Among its many valuable properties it is claimed that it contains no acid, it does not gum or clog, it cannot stain or corrode bright metals, nor does it injure india-rubber, as animal and vegetable oils do, by eating into and honeycombing it. Another very effective commodity is the white crank grease, for coating hot bearings, and also gas engine oil, stainless oil for sewing machines, cycles, &c. The following are a few of the oils for which the firm are well known: marine engine, shafting engine, ruby engine, loom spindle, neatsfoot, lard, olive, Gallipoli, sperm, mineral, &c. The following greases are made, viz.:— tallow, brown cog wheel, green cog wheel, water wheel grease, white crank grease, loco, and bearing grease, also boiler composition, and transparent varnish.

There is a very valuable home and export trade, the bulk of which is with St. Vincent, Bombay, East Indies, and a large connection exists on the continent. All the goods are manufactured on the premises by a large and thoroughly skilled staff of workmen, under practical management. The premises are of considerable extent, and are contained on two spacious floors, every appliance requisite to the business being provided. There is a first-class boiler, and there are thin jacket pans, fire pans, &c. Mr. Duggan was for several years in connection with one of the largest firms in the oil trade in the United States, and gained a valuable and wide experience in all the different branches of the trade. Mr. Duggan is a well known and highly respected gentleman. His enterprise has placed him in a prominent and favourable position, and whether in business or in social life, he commands the esteem of all who come in contact with him.
The telegraphic address is “Frisco, Manchester.”

13,14,16, 19, 20, 21, ST. MARY’S PARSONAGE, MANCHESTER.

THIS immense business has been in successful operation here for over forty years. The premises occupied comprise three large three-story buildings, each containing a number of spacious and handsomely appointed show-rooms. The entire establishment covers a great area of ground, having, a main frontage of fully 122 feet, and the numerous show-rooms accommodate one of the largest and most complete stocks of furniture to be found in the city and district. Every branch of the furnishing trade is adequately represented, and the visitor meets with all the newest designs and most artistic patterns in complete suites for drawing and dining rooms, all kinds of office and library furniture, novelties in high-class desks for the office and the study, rich and costly pier glasses, magnificent sideboards, overmantels in infinite variety of material and design, carpets and al - in fact, everything essential for the complete and proper equipment of house, mansion, office, or any other building in which articles of furniture are acquired.

A really magnificent display is made in the fine carpet show-room, where all varieties of floor coverings are exhibited, and we were also much interested in the stock of American and Austrian bent wood furniture, a very elegant, serviceable, and fashionable: class of goods, of which this firm are large importers. Another notable speciality consists in bagatelle tables and furnishings, of which a fine stock is kept; and in antique carved oak furniture, Messrs. Hunter’s show-rooms are replete with interesting specimens, which are in great demand. Kitchen furniture, white wood furniture for enamelling, &c., all find their allotted places in these great warehouses, and we must draw special attention to the firm’s speciality in American bed-room goods in walnut and ash combined, these being very neat and attractive articles, of sound structure and beautiful finish. Some very elegant novelties in bamboo tea tables, music stands, and cabinets are deserving of mention, and Messrs. Hunter have a high reputation for their Austrian hotel and restaurant chairs, their Chippendale furniture (an excellent reproduction) and their walnut-wood chairs and couches, upholstered in imitation lizard skin, these latter having a novel and pleasing effect. In high-class American imported furniture Messrs. Hunter show all the latest transatlantic novelties as well as standard articles, and in every respect they exemplify the furnishing trade as completely as any firm whose operations have come under our notice.

The business in its entirety is an enormous one, and the firm have premises for manufacturing purposes in various parts of the city. They employ a very large staff of bands in all departments, and maintain a connection which extends throughout the entire United Kingdom, and to all parts of the Continent. Through the medium of Manchester shippers, this firm’s goods are exported to almost every quarter of the globe. The business is under the sole proprietorship of Mr. Joseph Hunter, and is personally supervised by that experienced and thoroughly practical gentleman, who is widely and favourably known in the trade with which he has been so long associated. It is interesting to note that a portion of Messrs. Hunter’s premises in St. Mary’s Parsonage were once occupied for fifteen years by the father of the eminent author and dramatist, Mr. George R. Sims, and we believe they have always been connected with the furnishing trade. At the present time they certainly form one of the most complete and interesting emporiums in that trade to be met with in the kingdom, and they will repay a visit from anyone who desires to acquaint himself with the perfection that has been reached in the art of the cabinet maker and upholsterer in modern times.


WHEN Mr. Carter commenced his operations in the line of industry indicated above, he occupied one small room in Spring Gardens, and had only a boy as his assistant. That was in 1867, but Mr. Carter dates the real establishment of his business from 1870, when he had half a dozen hands in his employ, and carried on a progressive business. Eight years later he found it necessary to obtain larger premises, and he accordingly came to No. 7, Bridgewater Place, taking the top floor. Every year since then has witnessed an extension of his trade and a consequent addition to the accommodation needed, and at the present time Mr. Carter occupies all the rooms from one end of the building to the other, the floor space being about three hundred feet in length by sixty feet wide. Here he now employs no less than one hundred and forty hands constantly, including a large number of girls, and he is now adding to his large and valuable plant in order to keep pace with the increasing influx of orders received.

All the machinery in use here is of the very best modern type (including no less than nine of Crossland’s self-clamp guillotine machines) and forms an outfit such as one would expect to find in an establishment ruled by a man of such broad practical experience as Mr. Carter. In bookbinding, in all its branches, numbering and perforating, paper ruling, the manufacture of account books of every kind and size, Mr. Carter has won support and confidence by his very superior work at moderate prices, and many orders of exceptional magnitude and importance are regularly entrusted to him. Among these we note one for memorandum books for a leading Manchester firm, Mr. Carter doing the ruling and binding of these books at the regular rate of sixty thousand copies per week. One double ruling machine is kept constantly in operation on this order alone. Four of Cundall’s folding machines are constantly running, folding new work for publishers, the whole of the machinery being driven by one of Crossley’s eight-horse engines.

Mr. Carter has lately executed an order from the largest publisher in the north of England for the binding of ten thousand volumes of one work. He is in a position to execute every description of work in the trades to which he devotes attention, from the cheapest and most ordinary to the most artistic and elaborate, and the large number of machines constantly at work in all parts of his commodious establishment testify to the vast amount of work here accomplished from day to day. The works are maintained in a splendid condition of order and cleanliness, and are managed by Mr. Hull, whose practical skill and experience are fully demonstrated in the satisfactory state of each department. The proprietor himself, and also his son and brothers, take an active part in the general administration of the business, and ensure its continued success by their ability and sound principles. Mr. Thomas Carter, who is a member of the Master Binders’ Association, is well known and much respected in Manchester. He has always adhered to the policy of buying his materials in large quantities and direct from the manufacturers wherever possible, and to this he attributes a large measure of the success that has attended his operations during the last twenty years.


IT appears from the mercantile annals of this city that a wine and spirit business had been carried on in the same quarters since the year 1860, but the concern had a very chequered career, until, after many mutations, it passed, some seven years since, into the hands of the present able proprietors, Messrs. Charles Willie Shore and Albert Shore, trading under the style and title above designated. The premises occupied are in every way well adapted to the requirements of a first-class business of the kind, comprising, as they do, a large and substantial three-storied building, having a fine frontage of thirty feet, and extensive, cool, and splendidly regulated cellarage, and ample accommodation for storage and the bottling of ales and stouts on a large scale. Messrs. Shore Brothers operate principally as importers and wholesale merchants, but also do a very valuable and select family business. Their stock of choice wines, spirits, liqueurs, cordials, ales, and liquors generally is a most carefully selected and thoroughly exhaustive one. Messrs. Shore are also the sole agents for Manchester for William Evans & Co.’s celebrated Hereford cider, which obtained prizes from the Royal Agricultural Society of England at Plymouth, 1890; Windsor, 1889; Hereford, 1889 j beating all Devon, Gloucester, Somerset, Cornwall, and Norfolk exhibits. The whole business is conducted with conspicuous ability and sound judgment, upon lines which have won for them the high esteem and respect of all those who have come into commercial contact with them.


THE extensive business now so successfully carried on by Mr. James Teague was established in 1883 by Mr. Charles Rousenberg, and subsequently passed into the hands of the present proprietor. The premises occupy an excellent position in Miller Street (No. 12), six doors from Shudehill. They comprise a spacious and well-appointed shop, together with the basement and three floors above, used for storage purposes. Mr. Teague occupies the whole of the building, which is
eminently suited to the business, having been fitted up in the most careful and complete manner to ensure the effective and economical working of the various departments. To meet the extensive requirements of the trade, Mr. Teague holds a very large and comprehensive stock of china and fancy articles, figures, fruit, flowers, lustres, vases, and ornaments of all kinds in glass shades. GLASS SHADES of all shapes and sizes are a leading speciality. The stock is admirably arranged for ready reference and easy inspection. The goods are selected from the best sources with great care and sound judgment, and buying in such large lines direct from the producers, and manufacturing extensively himself, Mr. Teague is enabled to compete on favourable terms with any firm in the trade. A very brisk business is done in every department, a large staff of salesmen, warehousemen, and assistants are busily employed, and no effort is spared to meet the convenience of customers in the punctual execution of orders. Mr. James Teague, who is the sole proprietor, is a gentleman well known and highly respected in the trade, and widely recognised as a courteous and enterprising man with whom it is pleasant and profitable to have business transactions.



THIS business was originally established, in 1870, at Nos. 169 and 171, Princess Street, where, under the skilled guidance of the founder, it rapidly grew in extent and importance. Eventually, the business out-grew its original location, and more commodious premises were taken at No. 1, Oxford Street. Here operations are conducted in an extensive and attractive block of buildings, comprising a handsome well-appointed shop, with commanding frontage and extending a considerable distance in depth. The studio is situated at the rear of the shop, and is a fine, spacious, and well-lighted apartment. An important and high-class business is here conducted in sculpture, modelling, the manufacture of plaster of Paris statuary and decorative work for chapels, halls, and public buildings.

For thoroughly good artistic work in their special line, the productions of Signor Alberti are unrivalled in Manchester, and they have deservedly obtained high recognition from different parts of the world, high encomiums being received from the following, amongst many others: The Holy Name, Manchester; Hampton Lodge, Broughton; Mount St. Mary’s College, Chesterfield, and Montreal, Canada. Signor Alberti has also executed some fine work in marble statuary, and in fibrous plaster for the ceiling at the Manchester Palace of Varieties. For the past twenty-five years he has supplied the county asylums with plaster casts for the decoration of the wards and corridors. Schools of art are also supplied with casts from nature, as copies for drawing or modelling; and a large business is transacted in casting modellers’ models from the clay. Signor Alberti was also entrusted by the Rev. Canon Hotter, St. Joseph’s, Bradford, with a commission to execute some sacred statuary in marble, with the most gratifying results.

The leading line of business is the execution of high-class sculpture in Carrara marble for monumental work or decorative purposes, either as original productions or taken from photographic designs or models, and in this most important branch the house is widely and favourably known for the beauty and artistic finish of its achievements. A large business is done in supplying the trade with blocks of statuary or Sicilian marble of any dimensions, which are obtained from the proprietor's branch studio at Corso Vittorio Emanuele, Carrara. These blocks are chosen from the finest veins, and are always of the best possible quality, while the facilities the firm possess enable them to compete very successfully with others in the matter of price. The firm also undertake to repair, clean, and pack marble for safe transmission; a branch of the business in which they have had large experience, and in which they are able to offer every advantage to their clients.

Signor Alberti is widely known for the great ability he displays in reproducing copies from the antique and from modern sculpture in marble, plaster, cement, or terra-cotta. These productions are much sought after for designs, decorations, or art ornaments in gardens. A special feature is made of superior work in painting, bronzing and gilding altars, reredos, dados, church niches, &c., and in taking casts from the human body for sculptural purposes, before or after death, or from surgical operations. Plaster of Paris, of the best and most suitable kind, is supplied for dental purposes, and prepared modelling clay, for the wholesale and retail trade. The shop and studio are replete with splendid specimens of the Signor’s artistic and sculptural skill, in marble, terra-cotta or other material. An important connection belongs to this reputable house, and it is steadily increasing as the proprietor’s artistic accomplishments become better and more widely known. Designs and estimates are promptly furnished on application, and all work is executed in the highest style of art, at the lowest consistent prices, and all orders receive immediate attention. Signor Alberti is well known among a large circle of friends and acquaintances, and is much respected for his courtesy, talent, and many sterling good qualities.


THIS business was founded over fifty years ago by Mr. George Macbeth, who was subsequently joined by his son, Mr. Harold Macbeth, the latter gentleman being now the sole proprietor. This well-known and popular establishment occupies an excellent position in King Street. The two spacious and handsome shops have a very imposing plate-glass frontage of fully forty feet. The massive and lofty windows are well and tastefully dressed, and display to great advantage a choice and fashionable selection of suits and costumes, hats, hosiery, &c., forming one of the most interesting and attractive features of this busy thoroughfare. The fixtures and appointments of the interior are of a very superior character, and with the large and well-equipped workrooms, and extensive warehouse accommodation, the establishment forms one of the most perfect and complete of its kind in the city.

The stock, as becomes a business of this magnitude, is very large and comprehensive. No. 19 contains the departments for boys’ and girls’ suits, overcoats', and costumes, hosiery, hats, &c., and No. 21 the departments for clerical clothing, hats, hoods, stoles, surplices, and gentlemen’s clothing. By inspection only can an adequate idea be formed of the style, quality, and variety of these goods; indeed, the firm have invariably aimed at a high standard of excellence as a characteristic of all their work, and this aim has undoubtedly been most successfully accomplished. In the bespoke department special regard is paid to accuracy of measurement and reliable workmanship, whereby a perfect and elegant fit is ensured, and with the same attention to economy as if selected from stock. Some idea of the magnitude of the business may be gathered from the fact that over a hundred hands are busily employed in the various departments. Courtesy and prompt attention to customers’ requirements are unbroken rules in this establishment, and with the superior facilities at command the firm are enabled to treat their patrons liberally, and to execute all orders with the utmost dispatch. The business in every department is under direct and careful supervision, and is conducted throughout with marked ability, energy, and enterprise.

Mr. Harold Macbeth is a gentleman well known and highly esteemed in business and social circles, not only as the head of one of the oldest and most popular establishments of the kind in Manchester, but also for his ready enterprise and active exertions in promoting the best interests of the commerce and industries of the city and district. The firm have also branch houses at 90, Bold Street, Liverpool, and Regent Street, London.


THIS well-known house was founded in the year 1860 by Mr. Thomas Slack, father of the present proprietors, who commenced in a very small way, but his productions soon acquired a reputation for excellent workmanship, design, and material, and by degrees the premises were enlarged to meet the requirements of a steadily increasing trade. Mr. Thomas Slack died in 1877 and has been succeeded by his two able and experienced sons, Messrs. Thomas and John Slack, trading as Slack Brothers, and these gentlemen have further extended the business and improved its resources, erecting in 1889 the fine new showrooms in Stockport Road. This handsome, spacious, and admirably lighted three-storey building adjoins the works, and affords splendid facilities for the display of the firm’s high-class productions in modern carriages of every description. Here there are always from eighty to one hundred completed vehicles on view. Highly finished workmanship and graceful model are the chief characteristics of all Messrs. Slack’s carriages, and they embody many constructive improvements that speak well for the firm’s inventive skill and practical study of the trade. All the processes of carriage building “from start to finish” are conducted on the premises by Messrs. Slack’s own skilful and experienced staff, which numbers about one hundred hands, and every department in the works is personally supervised by the principals. The house holds a large number of prize medals, worthily gained by the genuine merit of its productions, and enjoys the support and confidence of a large and constantly increasing town and country connection, besides doing an export trade which shows signs of steady and substantial development.
The firm’s telegraphic address is “Slacks, Longsight, Manchester.”


AMONG the principal wheelwrights and coachbuilders in Manchester, a prominent and noteworthy position is occupied by the subject of this notice, Mr. Frederick Bagshaw, of Union Street, Ardwick Green. The business was established by his father in 1861, under whom Mr. F. Bagshaw served his apprenticeship, and in 1871 became sole proprietor. Since then he has, with unflagging perseverance, ability, and foresight, so admirably conducted it that it has grown, both in extent and importance, so as to take rank at this time as one of the most prominent and successful businesses of the kind in Manchester or the vicinity. Operations are successfully carried on in five large railway arches, measuring each about 200 feet by 150 feet. Two of these spaces constitute the store-room for timber and materials generally; one is occupied by the smiths’ shops, and the other by the coachbuilders and other operatives. The shops are thoroughly equipped with every requisite in the way of plant, for the control of a large and flourishing business of this nature. The internal arrangement of the departments and the orderly system maintained among the workpeople are everything desirable for the production of the best results.

Here the proprietor conducts a large and important business as a wheelwright, coachbuilder and general smith. These works are well known in Manchester and in most, if not in every part of the country, and the work turned out takes rank as second to none in the trade. Great care and judgment are exercised in the selection of the materials. Only the best and most suitable woods are used, and not these even until they have been perfectly dried and seasoned, and tested in every possible way. Skilled and experienced workmen are employed, and every stage of construction is well and systematically superintended, so that the completed vehicle is always a first-class article and complete in all its details. Mr. Frederick Bagshaw has a good reputation for the soundness of his materials, the durability and beauty of workmanship, the excellent finish of his productions and the efficient manner in which all new and worthy improvements are adopted.

Every class of vehicle is made at the establishment, whether for business or pleasure; but in building vans, traps, floats, lorries, drays, carts, and this particular description and class of vehicles, he has an enviable and long-standing reputation. As a wheelwright he is deservedly recognised for the excellence and durability of his work, and the demands made upon him often tax all his productive resources. In the matter of price he is able to compare favourably with all competitors, as the extent of operations give undoubted advantages. A numerous staff of skilled workmen is employed, including coach-builders and smiths, trimmers, painters, and wheelwrights, and all orders receive the best attention. Estimates and designs supplied, and special attention is given to repairs.

Mr. Bagshaw has a highly creditable list of awards received at two exhibitions for the excellence of his manufacture, among which is one for the best milk-cart at the Royal Manchester, Liverpool and North Lancashire Agricultural Society’s Show, held at Manchester in 1887 (Jubilee year), and the silver medal awarded to him by the same society at Manchester in 1879, for the furniture van he exhibited. These medals were single awards in competition against all comers. Mr. Bagshaw is pre-eminently a practical man, and his experience has been of a thoroughly sound character. His able and undivided supervision is given to the whole of the business, thus insuring excellence in every detail and perfect satisfaction in the execution of all orders. All his transactions are characterized by fairness and homely manner.


THE many useful details in connection with the important business of japanning are fully carried out at this old-established place. Mr. Walter Craddock, the proprietor, himself thoroughly practical, personally superintends all operations, and employs a number of skilful hands. The business was founded in Manchester in 1864, as Messrs. E. & W. Craddock, and carried on as such until the year 1879, when it came into the sole possession of the present owner. The rapid strides made since its formation nearly thirty years ago, in Richmond Street, testifies to the sterling quality of the workmanship and finish of the goods. The business was removed to more spacious premises at the present address some years ago, and quite recently they were very much enlarged to meet the increasing trade. They are now of very considerable extent, occupying the ground floor, back yard, and basement, and have a total frontage of seventy-five feet by one hundred and twenty feet. There are capable offices, warehouse, and large workshops.

A most extensive business is done, both for the wholesale and retail trades, in plain and ornamental japanning and enamelling of all kinds of iron and tin goods, cycles, &c., and Mr. Craddock has earned a reputation second to none. This firm was the first to introduce enamelling to cycles, upwards of twenty-four years ago, at which date this trade was probably unknown, even in Coventry. They at that time did many of the now ancient “boneshakers.” With keen business foresight, he was not slow to recognize the development and probable ultimate magnitude of this branch of industry, and progressed with the times by laying himself out specially for this business, and the trade has increased with him by leaps and bounds, until at the present time he enjoys, not only local, but world-wide reputation for excellence. The cycles are now all done by a secret preparation of enamel, equalled by none for durability and brilliance of finish, and although tempting offers have been made by large houses to secure the secret, Mr. Craddock prefers not to divulge it, and thus maintain the supremacy he has for many years enjoyed.

A new feature has also been introduced by his firm — sandstone enamelling. This was thought by our forefathers impossible, but owing to Mr. Craddock’s untiring perseverance and zeal the difficulties have been surmounted, and now the rough-hewn sandstone is turned out perfectly smooth, with a polished surface like ebony. A large trade is also done in grave wreath stands, &c. Sewing machines, too, is an important item in this concern, having been an extensive branch for upwards of a quarter of a century, and “Craddock’s” ornamental japanning is universally known in the trade; indeed it is now no uncommon occurrence to see consignments of thirty or forty cases of these goods turned out at a time. The finish is superb, and the ornamenting unsurpassed. The sundry other articles sent out from this establishment are too numerous to detail, but attention is drawn to the following:— Railway and road carriage lamps, ventilators, tea urns, baths, ornamental scales, mantels, &c., and the last, though not least, are the various enamelled appliances connected with electricity, such as switch boards, &c., for which trade Mr. Craddock is specially adapted, and large orders are being daily received for these goods. It will thus be seen that this firm does not lack enterprise, even in branches which would to an outsider appear foreign to that particular business; and he is even now preparing to do a much larger trade in these goods.

Mr. Craddock, the principal, is a particularly unassuming man, and attributes his enormous progress to practical personal supervision and care in the selection of none but the best workmen; and in consequence is kept well supplied with orders by old customers, who continue their patronage from year to year, and also by new ones being constantly added to the roll. The courteous and obliging disposition of this gentleman causes him to be respected by all who know him, and the business founded by the present able proprietor is bound to make more rapid strides in the future than ever it has done in the past.


IN every large and rapidly-growing commercial and industrial centre, the modern joiner and builder who devotes special attention to the careful fitting-up of offices, shops, and warehouses necessarily plays an important and responsible part in the every-day economy of things; and in this connection, in Manchester of to-day, the trade is nowhere, perhaps, better exemplified than by the notable house which now calls for favourable consideration in these pages, devoted to the promotion of the arts, crafts, and commerce of Great Britain. This firm was established twenty-one years ago, and is still carried on by its founders. The premises include a commodious suite of offices for clerks and draughtsmen, stores, ironmongery-rooms, and timber-drying stoves. The ground floor of the works is fitted with modern woodcutting machinery, including sawing, planing, grooving and morticing machine», &c. The workshops are situated on the first and second floors, the foreman’s office being on the first floor. The permanent staff of men numbers from seventy to eighty, but is sometimes doubled, according to the contracts that may be running.

In addition to the ordinary work of general builders and contractors, Messrs. Peace & Norquoy occupy a rather unique position, from the variety of work they undertake and carry on. Amongst others may be mentioned their large trade in the erection of hoardings for right of light and bill-posting purposes, they having erected almost all the posting stations for the three large advertising firms in the city. This class of work, though rough, requires considerable skill and experience in the construction of the framework, so as to withstand the pressure of the wind. In contrast to the above class of work the firm carry on an extensive business in the altering and fitting-up of warehouses, banks, shops, and offices in the city and surrounding towns. They have made this branch of work a special feature in this business, and have earned considerable reputation for turning out really first-class work, and as they give the closest personal supervision, are enabled to offer special advantages to customers. That their fame as shop-fitters extends beyond the. city of Manchester may be gathered from the fact that under the superintendence of Robert Willey, Esq., F.R.I.B.A., architect, London, they have fitted up shops for the Home and Colonial Stores, Limited, of London, in the following towns:— Rochdale, Bury, Bolton, Warrington, and Macclesfield. These shops are all fitted up in the best possible style, the whole of the joiner work being polished walnut with marble countertops, coloured tile floors and dados, and, as a new departure in architectural effect, each shop is set back four feet from the street line, and ornamented by two Aberdeen granite pillars twelve inches in diameter, moulded bases, with Corinthian carved stone caps.

The firm has a considerable advantage over other large contractors by having their works situated almost in the centre of the city; and in close proximity to their works they have stables and timber stores in Ancoats Street, and masons’ sheds and timber yard in Warwick Street. By employing men in all branches of the building trade, including masons, bricksetters, plumbers, plasterers, painters, &c., they have an extensive connection in general jobbing, alterations, and repairs, and, in addition to the various works enumerated above, the firm hold a high position as house builders, and are often employed in the erection of villa residences in the suburbs. The two partners, Mr. Peace and Mr. Norquoy, are each fully experienced builders and highly respected in the trade, and are active supporters of every movement having for its object the welfare of Manchester.


AMONG the notable houses whose names have become closely and creditably identified with the growth and development of the modern tailors’ craft and calling in its highest phases in Manchester of to-day, there are perhaps few that are better known or more widely patronised than the firm whose rise and progress as here recorded. It appears from the commercial annals of the city that the firm was founded by the association of its present proprietors in the year 1879, and that its subsequent doings have been marked by a continuous series of successes. The premises occupied are in every particular exactly adapted to the requirements of a first-class business of the kind. They consist of a large and substantial four-storied corner building of imposing appearance, in the windows of which, as well as in the handsomely appointed shop, a very attractive show is always made of superior fashionable fabrics; the specialities of the house being in Scotch tweeds and Harris homespuns of the finest varieties. Above their own and the adjoining shop are the perfectly equipped workrooms, where a staff of from forty to fifty skilled and experienced cutters and tailors are employed under the personal superintendence of the principals, who, by dint of perseverance and well directed enterprise, enjoy a trade as makers of business, shooting, and fishing suits, liveries, and ladies’ riding habits, which is particularly well-established among the aristocracy and county and city families of Manchester and its surroundings.


IT will be readily conceded that among the many and ever- multiplying wonders of industrial science, there are few, if any, that exceed in interest the triumphs that have been achieved by modern photography. The art and practice of photography is well represented in this city at the well known and popular studio of Mr. Franz Baum, No. 22, St. Ann’s Square. Mr. Baum opened his establishment in 1871, and encouraged by his success in Manchester he established a studio in London, at No. 12, Old Bond Street, in 1884; he has also recently purchased the old established business of Chevalier Lafosse, of “Knolls House,” Higher Broughton, who has retired after a successful career of over thirty years. Mr. Baum retains all the negatives that have been taken in this establishment during the past twenty years. The studio at No. 22, St. Ann’s Square, is located on the third floor of a large block of buildings. The reception rooms are fitted up in a very superior style. The appointments and decorations are in good taste and in excellent keeping with the artistic surroundings. Admirably arranged round the rooms are many splendid specimens of photography, which well display in every detail of execution the superior skill and talent employed in this establishment.

Amongst the numerous specialities may be mentioned the permanent engraving photographs, which are taken cabinet size on ten by eight plate sunk mount, ready for framing or binding, also the drawing room portrait, twelve by ten, sunk mount twenty by fifteen. The prices for the former being — 12 cabinet portraits, one position, £1 5s.; 12 cabinet portraits, two or more positions, £1 10s.; 24 copies, £2 10s.; 50 copies, £4. For the drawing room portraits the prices are — for one copy, £1 11s. 6d.; for 3 copies, £3 3s.; for 6 copies, £4 10s.; and for 12 copies, £7 7s. The great feature of Mr. Baum’s method is that the portraits are more like a real steel engraving of the highest class than a photograph. Mr. Baum has also been exceptionally successful with his photographs on porcelain (opal), the colourings being done by experienced artists in water and oils. All other branches of photography, as cartes de visite, panel portraits, miniatures, enlargements, &c., are carried out in the very highest style of the art. The prices in every instance will bear favourable comparison with those of any first-class establishment. Mr. Franz Baum is a gentleman of recognised ability and high position in his profession. He is well known both in Manchester and London, and enjoys the confidence and support of a very extensive and no less distinguished patronage.


THE history of this noted house commences in 1847, when operations were begun by Mr. John Lawson, the father of the present proprietors in Mount Street. Repeated enlargements of the premises were rendered necessary by the constant increase in the business, and subsequently new premises were taken at Windmill Street, and these also becoming insufficient in accommodation, the premises now occupied were specially erected. The veterinary establishment is well located in close proximity to the central station, and it is spacious in extent and imposing in appearance. The main entrance is surmounted by a large horse’s head, and the premises consist of a suite of general offices on one side [of] the gateway and waiting rooms and pharmacy on the other. An extensive yard runs rearward for more than one hundred feet, and is fitted with loose boxes and stables, bait stables, and smith’s shoeing forge on the ground floor. There are sixteen stalls in the basement which are approached by sloping gangways from the ground floor, and twelve stalls on the first floor which are built in the form of a gallery, and extend on all the four sides of the hollow square; here, too, is situated the special stall where the surgical operations are performed. For disabled or sick horses a hoist is provided by which they can be lifted into the gallery.

The establishment possesses ample accommodation for forty horses, and we may state at once that the stables are built upon the latest sanitary principles, are models of cleanliness and order, and are replete with every comfort and convenience. The extensive hay and straw stores are on the second floor. A prominent feature of this establishment is the shoeing department, in which six skilled blacksmiths are kept constantly occupied under the personal superintendence of the principals. Some idea of the patronage the firm receive in this respect may be gathered from the pile of old shoes which had been collected within three months. This pile must have weighed from eight to nine tons. A notable object, too, in the smithy is the stocks — a contrivance whereby a restive horse can be shod with perfect safety both to the horse and to the shoer.

The reputation which the house has gained in its veterinary practice is not surpassed by that of any house in the north of England. The greatest attention is bestowed upon all animals intrusted to their care, and patrons may rest assured that whatever science, skill, comfort and patience can do to effect a cure of their animals, will be done by the worthy proprietors of this responsible house. Some of the largest horse owners in the district are among their clients, notably the Manchester General Carriage Company, Thompson, McKay and Co., the well known carriers, most of the railway companies, the masters of both North and South Cheshire hounds, and the principal horse-keepers throughout Lancashire and Cheshire, and various parts of England. A large staff of stablemen is employed, also two qualified assistants and two articled apprentices, and competent and experienced persons are sent to any distance to attend to veterinary cases.

The proprietors are men of extensive and varied experience, and are recognised representatives of their profession. They both hold diplomas from the Highland Agricultural Society of Scotland, Mr. John Lawson’s having been granted in 1862 and Mr. Alexander's in 1872. They are also holders of diplomas from the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons in London of the same date as the preceding ones, and Mr. John Lawson has also obtained a certificate of merit from the Ecole Imperiale at D’Alfort in France. This last-named gentleman had conferred on him the distinguished honour of being appointed by the Government as inspector of horses for the Royal Commission on horse breeding in 1890, and he was, likewise, one of the judges in the competition for prizes held on that occasion. Every transaction is carried out in a skilful, conscientious, and thoroughly satisfactory manner, and no effort is spared to uphold the splendid reputation the house enjoys. In private and professional circles the Messrs. Lawson are well known and highly esteemed for their personal worth and their ability and uprightness.
The establishment is in connection with two telephonic systems, the National Telephone Company where its number is 90, and the Mutual with the number 502.


MR. CHARLES NOYES, the founder of the business and the father of the present proprietor, obtained his extensive and valuable knowledge of his calling at Kew Gardens, where he rose by his ability to the position of foreman. Leaving this post, he accepted a head, gardener's place at Bedford, and subsequently came into Lancashire and officiated as head gardener for Mr. R. Gardner, of Chaseley House, Eccles Old Road, until 1833, at which date he commenced business on his own account at Hope Nurseries, in the same road. He removed in 1838 to the Pendleton Nurseries, which at that time presented a very different appearance from what they do now. The proprietor lived in a house on the ground, on which were six small greenhouses, the greater part of the present nursery being utilised as orchards and strawberry gardens, and at that time he owned only twelve cows; but he gradually enlarged the sphere of his operations and established himself in a good position. He died in 1871, and was succeeded by his son, Mr. Charles James Noyes, under whose able and pushing administration the concern has developed with great rapidity, and the establishment now occupies a position of prominence and importance second scarcely to no similar house in the district.

The premises occupied are extensive and admirably adapted to the purposes for which they are employed. The nursery at Pendleton covers an area of five acres and is occupied mainly by shrubs; there are forty greenhouses in operation, thirty to forty milch cows are kept, and occupation is found for eight horses and about forty hands. Here is situated also the proprietor’s private residence, a very handsome and commodious building, which he erected a few years ago. At Patricroft Mr. Noyes possesses a sh[r]ubbery of about an acre in extent, but he contemplates closing this, as building operations in connection with the Ship Canal are encroaching too closely upon him. The nurseries at Barton Moss, which are situated five minutes walk from Barton Moss Station, are some of the finest in the country, they comprise more than forty acres of cultivated land. Twelve years ago he took possession of one acre of land, and the following year he added four more acres. Finding his requirements continually on the increase, six years ago he took a further twenty acres, and last year he completed the total up to date by annexing an additional fifteen acres.

At these famous nurseries there are two noteworthy greenhouses, each measuring one hundred and five feet by sixteen feet, replete with all the latest and best apparatus and appliances, and filled in every part with magnificent tomato plants. The worthy proprietor is of opinion that no kind of stone fruit can be successfully grown within a distance of eight or ten miles west of Manchester, and that very few other fruit trees pay. An extensive and high-class business is done in finely-grown ornamental foliaged and flowering greenhouse and stove plants, palms, ferns, lycopods, &c., also in hardy ornamental trees, evergreens, coniferae, &c.

At the Barton Moss Nurseries there are seven acres of rhododendrons, comprising about 100,000 plants of all sizes, up to three feet each way. They are splendid plants, finely grown, perfect round bushes, with balls of roots almost as large as the tops, and every plant is guaranteed, under ordinarily fair conditions, to make fine growth the season after being planted. There is a large proportion of hardy hybrids, Cunningham’s white, Caucasicum pictum, varium, nivaticum, and other best hardy sorts, fine-named hybrids, scarlet, crimson, white, &c., numbering five hundred and fifty sorts, adapted for the climate of Manchester and other smoky towns. The nurseries contain an acre of oval-leaved privet, two to three feet bushes which the proprietor offers at an exceptionally low figure; also thousands of fine specimens of ornamental trees, six to twelve feet, Ontario and Lombardy poplar, London plane, lime, elm, aria, willow, laburnum, scarlet thorn, weeping trees, &c. There are, too, exceedingly fine specimens of green and fancy holly, aucuba japonica, 3,000 azalea pontica, ghent and mollis; lilac, golden, scarlet, and other elder, weigela, ribes and other flowering shrubs, together with standard and dwarf roses in immense quantities and the choicest varieties.

The glass belonging to the Pendleton nurseries covers an acre of ground, and the «whole of the houses are filled to repletion with fine healthy, well-grown flowering and ornamental store, greenhouse and bedding plants, palms, ferns &e., camellias, azalea indica, Little Pet and other roses in pots, Bourbon, Gloire de Dijon, Marechal Niel and other best teas; 5,000 pelargoniums, 10,000 geraniums, 20,000 palms; choice exotic and hardy ferns and lycopods, &c., &c.; there are, also, vast quantities of strong climbers for store, greenhouse, and open garden, and herbaceous and rock plants in immense profusion, choice selections of flowering plants, coniferae, cut flowers, &c., are furnished for decorating public rooms, churches, ballrooms, &c., and in this department of his business the proprietor has achieved a high reputation throughout the district.

All kinds of pots, peat, sand, loam and bog, and every requisite for the garden and greenhouse are supplied, each the very best of its kind, and at prices which cannot be beaten anywhere. For range of selection and amplitude of variety in the splendid collections of plants and trees he shows, Mr. Noyes cannot be approached in this locality. The seeds are chosen from the best sources of supply and from special growths, and the peculiar character of the nurseries, their situation and soil, together with the special knowledge and appliances brought to bear in growing and hardening the plants, combine to make them of a superior kind, both in growth, flower and vigour. Every attention is paid to purchasers by the worthy proprietor and his courteous assistants, and all plants are delivered free to any reasonable distance round Manchester.

The cream supplied from the fine herd of specially selected cows is much appreciated among the best class of buyers.

A widespread and valuable connection has been developed, the patrons being found in almost every parish of England. Immense quantities of the firm’s splendid produce are disposed of in the various northern markets, and the proprietor himself occupies a stall in Shudehill market. Mr. Noyes is a man of large and sound experience in every branch of his profession. He makes periodical visits to the most celebrated nurseries and growing grounds in Belgium, Holland, Germany and France, and every new strain and novelty can be seen among his extensive collections. In private life he is much respected by all who come into contact with him for his ability, well-deserved success» and strict commercial integrity.

(No details accompany this heading.)


THIS successful business was first established half a century ago at the above address by the late Mr. James Clay, in 1841, the present proprietor succeeding him in 1875. Its progress and development since that date have been rapid and uninterrupted, under the influence of Mr. Mason’s thorough practical knowledge and a sound and judicious policy of administration. The premises occupied are spacious, commodious, and exceedingly well adapted to the requirements of the business. They comprise a large, particularly handsome shop, with a splendid plate-glass window, in which is displayed a most tasteful and attractive selection of high-class boots and shoes. It is beautifully fitted and decorated and extends a considerable distance to the rear. The front, or shop proper, is set apart and utilised as the gentlemen’s room, and is well furnished with a select stock of boots, shoes, slippers, &c., from which the most fastidious tastes can be fully suited. The back portion of the shop is elegantly appointed and fitted up as a ladies’ show and fitting rooms, where the fair customers are always welcomed and waited upon by a thoroughly efficient and obliging staff of assistants. Mr. Mason has lately had the patent Wenham lights fitted up throughout his establishment and showrooms. It is a clear, beautiful light, and does not injure or deteriorate the stock, which is a great consideration to purchasers.

The extensive, well-lighted and thoroughly ventilated workrooms are at the rear of the premises, and a large number of the most skilled and experienced workmen are constantly and busily engaged therein. Dr. Macall, in a lecture that he gave to the Sanitary Association of Manchester, said:- “In the matter of boots and shoes, we deform the work of nature. Shoes are made too narrow, crushing the bones of the foot, the front still narrower, causing the toes to lie in a useless bunch; the great toe, being driven towards the others, is often deformed by a bunion. Then the high heel is added, and this heel being near the middle of the foot, throws the body into a false position, causing undue strain upon the muscles.” Mr. Mason’s boots and shoes, being made to the foot model, give full play to the foot when walking, and so enables the wearer to enjoy natural exercise without that uncomfortable pressure on the joints which is so productive of corns and painful bunions. The boot or shoe, ought to protect the foot, but ought not to distort its shape. Mr. Mason is continually having orders from all parts from his many customers, who have found so much ease and comfort from his superior fit.

A very important feature of the business is the manufacture of ladies’ and gentlemen’s hand-sewn boots. They are all made on the premises under Mr. Mason’s personal supervision, and are executed with neatness, promptitude, and despatch, which does great credit to the establishment. Mr. Mason’s connection is both a popular and family one, he caters for all classes of the community, and though his premises are handsome and attractive, his goods are not only as good, but as cheap, as any other house in the trade. Mr. Mason, who is the sole proprietor, possesses the advantage of long and thorough practical experience, and by his commendable energy and business enterprise has placed, his house in the pre-eminent position it now occupies amongst the industrial establishments of this district.


THE above is a thoroughly reliable and representative establishment in Manchester in its special line. Business operations were commenced by the present proprietor in this direction more than thirty years ago, and by his superior goods, joined with his creditable policy, he soon laid the foundation of an extensive and valuable business. Its progress since its initiation has been steadily and uninterruptedly forward, and at the present time it occupies a prominence unequalled, perhaps, by that of any other house, out of London, engaged in this department of industrial activity. In 1874, additional premises were taken at 20 & 22, St. Ann’s Street, St. Ann’s Square, but after carrying them on successfully for a number of years, the proprietor was compelled to relinquish them, as he found the business at Oldham Road extending to such proportions as to require the whole of his attention.

Extensive and convenient premises are occupied, admirably situated, and having a frontage of some sixty feet. They comprise spacious showrooms fronting the street, with workshops and store-rooms at the rear, and further workshops on the first floor. The premises have been admirably arranged in every respect for the control of the business in hand. The workrooms are thoroughly fitted up with apparatus, appliances, and plant of the latest and best description. The show-rooms are models of excellence in their line, spacious in size, lofty, well lighted, and equipped with every requisite for the accommodation and display of their choice contents. The whole of the establishment is characterized by neatness, and everything is transacted in a systematic and orderly manner.

Under circumstances so favourable to the production of the best results, a large and high-class business is controlled in the manufacture of saddlery and harness of every description. The goods turned out by this notable house are immense favourites with all classes of users, and are everywhere looked upon as standards of excellence in their respective lines. In general superiority, they are unequalled by any kindred house. Special care is taken with the material, the best and most suitable alone being used, and the work is all done by skilled workmen, under the superintendence of the proprietor himself. Perfect workmanship is a leading feature in all Mr. Wood’s productions, and his patrons can confidently rely upon them in this particular. Saddles and harness of superior character, and of all descriptions, are made here in large abundance. The proprietor is thoroughly enterprising, he is constantly introducing fresh designs, which are entirely of his own production, which has been the means of largely extending his trade in all parts of the United Kingdom. Notwithstanding the superior nature of all goods manufactured by this house, prices will be found to be of the most satisfactory character, and such as will favourably compare with establishments where vastly inferior goods are offered. This the proprietor is enabled to do owing to the extent of his transactions and the completeness of his productive resources.

Sets of harness are manufactured largely, both for home and abroad, and extensive orders are received from the continent and America for buggy harness, the firm’s high-class work finding great favour with our transatlantic cousins. This representative house possesses a splendid record of important contracts, which it has successfully filled, notably with railway and other public companies, for heavy harness, and also Government contracts for military saddles and harness. The patrons of this establishment are found among the best judges and most influential users in the country. As a typical exponent of this branch of industry, Mr. Wood’s stocks are ample in size, and comprehensive in variety. They have been selected with considerable judgment and wide knowledge of the trade, and they comprise many splendid specimens of the saddler’s art. A word of praise, too, is due to the proprietor for the admirably effective manner in which they have been arranged, and for the regard that has been paid to the comfort and convenience of visitors. There are fine selections of saddles of every kind and size, for ladies and gentlemen, attractive in shape and perfect in workmanship. Harness generally, in the best possible style of work, waterproof sheets, whips, brushes, combs, clips, and stable and carriage requisites of every description. A widespread and exceedingly influential connection has been developed. The house is largely patronized by the gentry and public generally. Thirty skilled workpeople are employed, and orders of whatever magnitude are promptly and efficiently attended to.

Mr. Wood is a thorough business man, sound in judgment, and of large experience in his speciality. He is enlightened and able in his administration, and his constant personal supervision is bestowed upon his business. He is fully alive to the importance of maintaining the high standard of excellence which has all along characterized the productions of his house, and to retain the perfect confidence of his high-class connection. All his transactions are marked by methods of fairness and strict integrity, and business relations once entered into with this house invariably become permanent, many of the customers of to-day having been on the books since the business first started.^In private life, the proprietor is well known and highly esteemed for his personal rectitude, his many unobtrusive charities, and for the active and prominent part he takes in all matters of local interest.


THE high name borne by this firm certainly entitles its members to rank among the leading decorators of the city, but besides its good reputation it has other forcible claims to its position. Their very artistic handicraft in Manchester speaks eloquently for itself. This business was established in 1851, and until the year 1890 the whole of the operations were conducted from Greenheys Lane, and in the latter year the firm were forced, owing to the exigencies of an increasing business, and for the facilitating of the same, to make an extension by taking more central premises, and they therefore opened showrooms at 29, Brown Street, City, near General Post Office. The showrooms contain a large assortment of high class wall papers made up from the stocks of about eighty manufacturers, also Lincrusta Walton, Japanese leathers, Cordslova, Muraline, Tynecastle tapestry, Anaglypta, and other artistic decorations. The firm undertakes contracts for the decoration of all kinds of domestic and public buildings, and personal care and supervision is always exercised. Estimates of cost and small scale drawings of proposed decoration will be gladly given free of charge. The firm were awarded a first prize and first-class certificate at the Royal Jubilee Exhibition, Manchester, 1887.


THIS extensive business was established in Tood Street in 1876, but to meet the requirements of a rapidly increasing business they removed to the present more commodious premises about ten years ago. The premises consist of a well-fitted office and large and commodious warehouses on the ground floor and in the basement. The stock held consists of all kinds of provisions, the chief items being a large stock of cheese of prime quality, including the best descriptions of Cheshire and American; also bacon and hams, Wiltshire, Belfast, and Limerick, mild cured and smoked, Cumberland, American flitches, Irish rolls, shoulders, &c., &c.; Butters, Irish firkins and butts, Kiel, Danish, and American; also margarine, in which they do a very large trade. The firm have also a branch establishment in Limerick, equally well arranged and supplied as their English house. A very large wholesale trade is controlled all over the district from the Manchester house. An efficient staff of hands is constantly employed. Messrs. Dodd Brothers are well known on the best provision markets in the country, and most highly esteemed by their colleagues and patrons for their intimate business knowledge and strict commercial integrity.
Their telegraphic address is “Onward” Manchester.


AN upright, clever, enterprising gentleman, Mr. Jackson has succeeded in winning a good name possessed by very few business men. His goodness and skill are universally praised, and to his learning and research numbers candidly state that they owe the preservation of their lives. Mr. Jackson is not an ordinary chemist. He is not one content with having a finely displayed shop, and selling patent medicines. He goes much deeper into things than that. He has read deeply and experimented largely for a quarter of a century or more, and by his study and observation has given to the world some discoveries which will always make his name famous, long after he is dead and gone. His more wonderful discovery is the “Febrifuge,” and who has not heard of it? It is as the worthy inventor styles it — a physician in itself. The unsolicited testimonials which pour in from all sorts and conditions of men prove its worth. A slight instance of the popularity of Jackson’s Febrifuge may be given. During the recent influenza epidemic the weekly sale was over two thousand bottles. The clergy, the press, and the public all speak in equal tones of high praise on its merits. The “Christian Union” devoted considerable space to an article on the discovery, containing many edifying comments too long to be reproduced here. Its great mission is of course to prevent fever, but it is equally valuable for a great number of human ailments, and, to sum up, heads of families have used it for a number of years, and declare they would never be without it. It would take a very long chapter indeed to say all that might be truthfully stated with regard to Mr. Jackson’s discoveries. Happily they are too well known to need going into long details.

For many years, and up till quite recently, Mr. Jackson devoted much time and attention to prescribing, being as much sought after as a doctor. Thousands of grateful patients have testified to his skill and cleverness. Accumulating business and a desire for more relaxation has however induced him to relinquish this department entirely, and he now devotes all his energies to his wonderful specialities and the general druggist trade. His learning and skill is so well known that great reliance is placed in him. On more than one occasion he has successfully treated cases of embryo cancer. His premises consist of a large shop with handsome double windows. At the rear is the laboratory and warehouse, for preparing and storing the specialities. Cleverness clearly runs in the family, for Mr. Jackson’s son, who carries on business at the rear of his father’s premises, is the inventor of a specially superior writing ink, called by him the “Acme.” For this ink remarkable properties are claimed. It is clean, always flows well, does not corrode steel pens, retains its colour - jet black — and is sold as cheap as the most inferior makes. It is difficult to speak in too high terms of these respected gentlemen. Their merits have abundant reward. They are prosperous, they are respected. Who could wish to be more happily placed?


ESTABLISHED so recently as 1885, this house has taken a very high position amongst the industrial establishments of the city, and one not usually attained in so short a period. The premises consist of a spacious and well-appointed office and extensive workrooms on the second and third floors of the above address, the latter being admirably equipped with all the most modern and approved machinery and appliances for the rapid production of pattern cards, books, &c., for cloth and calico dealers, tailors and clothiers, &c. The trade, in which several skilled and experienced hands are employed, extends all over Great Britain, being particularly well established among the wholesale houses, merchants, and shippers of the city, both for the home trade and for export. His manufactures are of a very superior kind, and many of his productions are of exquisite design and beautiful workmanship. In the matter of price, too, he cannot be excelled. His stocks are large, varied, and valuable, and command ready sales. Mr. John Whyte is the sole proprietor, and personally superintends the business, nothing being allowed to leave the establishment until it has undergone his strict and keen supervision. He conducts his business in a most able and honourable manner, and to the judicious enterprise and sound mercantile capacity displayed in the management is largely due the especially gratifying success that has attended the house from the date of its inception.


ESTABLISHED upwards of a quarter of a century ago, this business has continued to grow in extent and importance with every year of its existence. The founder brought to bear an intimate knowledge of the business and considerable practical skill, and by his vigorous and able efforts he soon raised the house into a position of prominence. Operations are carried on in a large and convenient block of two-story building, with bottle-washing and boiling departments on the ground floor, and offices and bottling, labelling, packing, and storing rooms on the first floor. The proprietor’s long experience and liberal policy are clearly shown in the admirably complete style in which the whole of the premises have been fitted up. From fifteen to twenty hands, chiefly females, are kept constantly employed, and a very large trade is done under the most favourable conditions. The productions of this house are well known and everywhere appreciated. The ingredients used are perfectly pure and wholesome, being fruits, spices, &c., free from any deleterious mixture, while every stage of the manufacture is carefully watched by competent persons so as to maintain the high excellence for which they are noted. Whenever they have been exhibited prizes have been awarded to the specialities of this house, notably at the Leeds Exhibition, 1868, and the London International Exhibition, 1873. The leading line of the firm is Hardy’s prize medal India sauce. This is a relish of the first quality, and is having extensive sales. Large stocks are kept of the various kinds made, including the speciality just mentioned, Hardy’s Worcester Sauce, Hardy’s Everyone’s Relish, Relish for the Million, Lincolnshire Ketchup, &c. The amount of business done places the proprietor in a position to quote favourable prices, and special terms are offered to customers ordering large quantities. The connection is extensive and substantial, lying among the principal hotels, restaurants, wholesale and retail grocers, and Italian warehousemen. Mr. Hardy is a representative man in his field of industry, and occupies a good position in business circles. He is respected for his many good qualities and inflexible probity.


THE firm commenced business about five years ago as Edwards & Goodier, patentees of a brush for gumming purposes with roller attached. Mr. Goodier having retired, Mr. Edwards developed the business into one of a practical character, so far as paint, varnish, and enamel brushes were concerned. His practical knowledge as a brushmaker led him to see that machinery may be employed in the manufacture of the brushes, and for the first time probably in the history of this class of work in England, machinery was employed. The firm is now known as Edwards & Co., and they are making these goods with original machines; and they are probably the only firm in England that has proved — and will ultimately still further prove — successful competitors with the German manufacturers of the enamel and paint brushes. A steady demand has been experienced, and this will no doubt continue to be made, for the brushes made by the firm. Messrs. Edwards & Co. do not push their trade, at present preferring to perfect everything in detail before attempting great things. A well-adapted premises and works, and an efficient staff of workers are, however, doing that which has not hitherto been accomplished, and the trade begun so quietly a short time ago will in the future prove one that may be rightly classed amongst the progressives of the city of Manchester.


THIS notable institution took origin under the auspices of Mr. Edwin Ratcliffe, in the year 1856, and was by him carried on with marked success until quite recently, when the concern was taken over by Messrs. Bottomley and Bowker, who, however, still trade under the original style and title as above noted. The works consist of a large and substantial two-storied building, with a frontage of two hundred and ten feet, and an extension of one hundred and fifty feet to the rear. The ground floor of this great building is divided into three parts, a splendidly equipped saw mills covering an area of eighty feet by fifty feet, the machinery of which is worked by two steam engines of twelve and eight horse-power respectively, a spacious store room eighty feet by fifty feet, and drying sheds for the timber used in making packing cases, and for joinery and building purposes. On the first floor there is a large room, ninety-nine feet by twenty-four feet, used as a joiner’s workshop, and another apartment, eighty feet by twenty-eight feet, fully fitted with all the latest and most improved machinery for the making of packing cases. The trade controlled entails the regular and full employment of a staff of forty hands, and under the careful and vigorous control of the proprietors, who are both practical men of the highest standing in the trade, bids fair ere long to become one of the largest and most important, as it is one of the best regulated in its line in the city.


THE widespread distribution of floor cloths, linoleums, baizes, carpets, rugs, mats, and kindred commodities, as a special line of business, finds admirable illustration at the hands of Mr. Frederick Slater, who in 1878 formed the nucleus of his now thriving concern in the populous district of the Oldham Road. Mr. Slater, although still a young man, entered upon his career of commercial activity backed by an intimate acquaintance with all the details of his difficult undertaking. His premises are in every point of character and situation well adapted to the requirements of a very brisk thriving trade. They consist of two very large and spacious shops, admirably appointed throughout, and augmented at the rear with capitally ordered warerooms. A splendid display is always en evidence in the shops, while the stock held is admittedly one of the largest and best selected in the city, comprising the goods of all the best makers of the day, of all grades, to suit the needs of all classes of the community. Mr. Slater operates not only as a retail salesman, but also does a very substantial wholesale trade throughout the country, travelling personally at intervals to customers, and no firm could have won by more honourable and legitimate means the eminent reputation, which by dint of perseverance and the observance of thoroughly sound commercial principles, Mr. Slater now so deservedly enjoys.


AMONG the principal houses in Manchester engaged in its special line of business, conspicuous position is occupied by the old-established firm of Messrs. Walmsley & Son, of Victoria Buildings, Victoria Street, and 78, Market Street, the well-known umbrella makers. The inception of the business dates back to 1846, when Mr. Gaius James Walmsley came from London to Manchester, and commenced operations in this direction. He brought to bear a sound and practical knowledge of the trade, together with notable energy and perseverance, and he soon built up a permanent patronage, which has gone on steadily increasing during the whole time, until it is now one of the largest and most influential in this part of the country. The first premise's occupied were those at Market Street, but as the increase in the business necessitated further accommodation, the premises in Victoria Buildings were taken and made the headquarters of the house. Both establishments are ample in size and convenience, and comprise double-fronted shops, with capacious windows fully stocked with a well-selected variety of first-class umbrellas and walking sticks. The interior is fitted up in a complete and handsome style with every requisite for the display of the goods and the comfort of patrons.

The manufacturing department is situated away from the shops, and is fully equipped with the latest improved machinery and appliances necessary for the systematic and successful conduct of this important branch of industry. A large number of skilled operatives is employed, and the umbrellas turned out by this firm are acknowledged to have very few equals in the trade. They combine the essential features of strength and lightness with elegance of appearance. The materials used are waterproof and warranted fast colours, and the frames and sticks are of the best materials and embody the latest improvements and styles. As exponents of this class of business, the firm hold large and varied stocks, which intended purchasers should not fail to inspect. They have been chosen with an intimate acquaintance with the requirements of the public. They embrace some thousands of umbrellas of every style, shape and price, ranging from the cheapest article in ginghams to the most costly production in twilled silk, with patent frames and carved ivory or silver handles. An extensive choice is offered, and prices will be found of the most satisfactory nature.

The house also shows a fine assortment of gentlemen’s walking sticks and canes of every kind, including the latest and most approved styles in all the fancy woods, malaccas, ebony and bamboo, with horn, ivory or metal handles. The better class of these goods are admirably finished and are eminently adapted for presentation. A large and valuable trade is controlled with the principal inhabitants of Manchester and the suburbs and with the leading buyers throughout the north, and its continual increase speaks volumes for the quality of the goods offered. Mr. Gaius Mines Walmsley is ably assisted in the management by his son, Mr. Francis Walmsley, a gentleman who has spent the whole of his life in this particular business. Their close personal attention is given to the business, and all their transactions are conducted on the sound principles of equity and just dealing.


ESTABLISHED nearly half a century ago, this business rapidly grew in public favour and gathered round it an influential circle of patrons, and its career up to the present day has been an unbroken record of well-deserved prosperity and success. Substantial and capacious premises are occupied, consisting of a commodious block of building, comprising extensive show-rooms on the ground and first floors, with workshops at the rear and ample yard accommodation. The show-rooms are roomy, lofty, and well lighted, and are in every respect admirably adapted to display their splendid exhibits, while the workshops are well arranged and thoroughly equipped with plant and machinery of the best and most modern kind. A large business in the manufacture of superior carriages is conducted here, and the vehicles for which Mr. Roberts stands sponsor are such as would do infinite credit to any similar establishment in the kingdom. They represent the perfection of carriage building, in its most modern and improved aspect and are the outcome of complete resources and fifty years’ experience and study. The timber used is of the best kind and is thoroughly shrunk and tested before being employed. None but skilled workmen are engaged, and every process of manufacture is sedulously watched, with the result that the carriages turned out here are absolutely faultless in every detail. In short, for excellence of material, durability, reliable workmanship, elegance, lightness and general superiority of finish, few vehicles can surpass these.

Large stocks are kept, including almost every kind of vehicle that can be required for business or pleasure. They comprise light traps, pony-carriages, gigs, tandem carts, Whitechapels, rustic carts, phaetons, waggonettes, victorias, sociables, family omnibuses, chars-a-banc, barouches, landaus and broughams. A large number of coach-smiths, body-makers, trimmers, and painters, is employed; and every attention is given to repairs, estimates for which are freely furnished in town or country. The business extends throughout Manchester and the county, and to many of the principal centres in the United Kingdom, and the house numbers among its patrons many influential and aristocratic families. No less than seventy-three first-class gold and silver medals have been awarded to Mr. Roberts in open competition, for the superior workmanship and finish of his productions. Wherever he has exhibited he has been successful in carrying off prizes. Mr. Roberts was awarded a gold medal at the London International Exhibition, 1873, for a canoe landau with patent head, &c.; and in 1886 he was awarded the silver medal at the International Exhibition, Liverpool. At the World’s Exhibition at Paris, 1878, he was distinguished by honourable mention.

Mr. Roberts is a pre-eminently practical man and thoroughly conversent with every department of his industry; his business receives his energetic and able supervision. He is noted for his honourable methods of business and for the care he takes to uphold the enviable reputation he has so long enjoyed. Mr. Roberts is a Justice of the Peace for the city of Manchester, and has been a guardian of the Chorlton Union for more than fourteen years, and a member of the City Council for upwards of ten years.


THIS large and influential business was established in the year 1864 by the present proprietor, who has been most intimately associated with the progress and development of the industry and all the improvements that have been introduced into the various branches of the manufacture from that period up to the present time. The “Medlock Works,” situated at Ardwick, are laid out on a very extensive scale, and are replete with all the most improved machinery and appliances that have been devised to effect economy in working and to secure perfect and uniform manufacture. Mr. Blair gives regular employment to-upwards of forty hands, in the manufacture of iron and tinned iron trunks, travellers’ cases, sample cases, baths, tea urns, coal vases, ash pans, and all kinds of iron, tin, and japanned goods. The premises at No. 1, Bennett Street, Lever Street, comprise a large warehouse of five storeys, containing packing and dispatch departments, stock rooms, office, and all the accessories of a thoroughly organised establishment. To meet the extensive requirements of the trade, Mr. Blair holds a very large and thoroughly representative stock ready for immediate delivery.

The trade, which is entirely wholesale, is of a widespread and steadily growing character, and in addition to the extensive home connection, which reaches to all parts of the United Kingdom, a very large and continually increasing export business is done through the leading shipping houses of Manchester, Liverpool, and London. The business in every department receives the direct personal attention of the proprietor, and is conducted throughout with marked ability, energy, and enterprise. These extensive business relations are well founded upon the eminent reputation, while the superior quality of the goods well uphold the honourable position, which this firm has achieved when brought into competition with the manufacturers of the world.


THIS notable house was organised as long ago as the year 1842 under the able auspices of Mr. Bland, in Market Street, when, having outgrown the premises, it was found expedient for them to remove to more convenient and commodious quarters at 77, Princess Street. Here business was carried on until December, 1887, when in consequence of a disastrous fire at Princess Street, a removal was necessitated to the present premises in Cooper Street and Booth Street. The entire business, since the death of Mr. Bland, in 1864, has been carried on under the sole proprietary control of Mr. Messenger, who was apprenticed to Mr. Bland, subsequently becoming a partner. Although the business has for a long period been under Mr. Messenger’s sole control, he still retains the old firm title, Bland & Messenger. The premises, as they are at present constituted, occupy the whole of the third and fourth floors of the prominent building located at the corner of Cooper Street and Booth Street, and are appropriately divided into well-appointed offices, warehouses, and perfectly-equipped workshops, where a staff of from thirty to forty workmen is actively engaged, under the personal superintendence of Mr. Messenger, in producing a vast variety of pattern cards and books to meet the requirements of spinners, velveteen merchants, and fabric and cloth merchants generally, specialities being made of pocket books, sample and travelling cases, silver and gold blocking, and the careful mounting of maps, colliery and survey plans on linen and other materials, for which estimates are furnished, and orders executed with high efficiency, economy, and despatch. The entire business is conducted with marked energy, ability, and enterprise, upon a thoroughly sound basis of honourable mercantile principles, and it is manifestly Mr. Messenger’s resolution that the high reputation gained by his house in the past shall not merely be consistently sustained, but steadily enhanced in days to come.



MR. MARSDEN founded this notable business in the year 1846, and at his large works at the above address, and also in additional premises in Vickers Street, close by, he has developed a most extensive industry in the production of superior hand-printed floorcloths, which are equally remarkable for their sound quality, artistic design, and beautiful colouring. Every process of this industry is conducted upon the best practical principles, and the whole of the work is carried on in these spacious and perfectly-equipped premises under conditions favourable to the attainment of the highest results in the goods produced. In the various industrial departments alone something like one hundred and twenty hands are regularly engaged, besides numerous warehousemen, clerks, &c.; and the floorcloth designs are prepared by talented artists, who certainly must be congratulated upon the production of a remarkable variety of novel and beautiful patterns. Mr. Marsden holds a large and complete stock of his attractive manufactures in this very useful and indispensable class of floor covering, and he is thus enabled to execute the largest orders with promptitude and despatch.

An immense wholesale and export trade is controlled, not only in floorcloths, but also in brattice cloth of an improved quality, which is largely in demand among colliery proprietors all over the world, and of which great quantities are kept in stock to meet all urgent requirements. In cases of accident any desired quantity of cloth can be at once despatched to the mine on receipt of an order by telegram; and we may mention that Mr. Marsden’s telegraphic address is “Nedsram, Manchester.”

As a further safeguard for the collieries this enterprising house has established in the centre of the Staffordshire coalfields a vast emporium which is always kept fully stocked with brattice cloths, engine packing and all such colliery requisites. This depot is situate in Moorland Road, Burslem. Mr. Marsden personally superintends all the operations of his large and deservedly prosperous business, and is ably assisted therein by his son, who is a worthy lieutenant to his energetic parent. Although he has never sought to make himself specially prominent in social or public life, Mr. John Marsden has always been a liberal supporter of local charities and other good works, and he is much esteemed in this vicinity, both for his generous personal qualities and for his commercial integrity and enterprise.


THIS notable house, organised in the year 1871, is to-day being sustained and developed under the vigorous control of its founder with a success which leaves nothing to be desired. Prior to Mr. Dobson’s advent the business had existed on a smaller scale, its present operations being exclusively wholesale, and taking widespread effect, not merely in Manchester, but throughout the United Kingdom and the colonies, calling into active requisition the services of a staff of no less than two hundred skilled cutters, embroiderers, and women workers, whose labours are supplemented by a large number of the most improved and modern machines in each department. Mr. Dobson was the pioneer in his especial line in supplying the London wholesale houses direct from the Manchester warehouses. The premises occupied are very extensive and consist of a large and substantial block of three-storied buildings having a frontage of forty feet facing Russell Street, and extending back to Clare Street, provided with two entrances, one for the workpeople and the other leading to the handsomely appointed clerks’ and private offices and store rooms on the ground floor, the remainder of the accommodation being fully utilised as workrooms. The specialities consist of all manner of children’s dresses, frocks, cloaks, pelisses, and kindred commodities. Mr. Dobson is a past master in every branch of his business, and by his well-known integrity, spirited enterprise, and genial courtesy, has deservedly succeeded in securing the confidence and support of a most extensive and valuable connection.


THIS distinguished firm dates its history from the year 1854 when the business was started by Sir. William Holland in a fairly large mill situated in the Adelphi, Salford. The damage caused from time to time by floods of the river Irwell, at this spot, so interfered with the progress of the trade that Mr. Holland determined to secure a more favourable site, and in 1867 he acquired property at Miles Platting, upon which was erected the first portion of the magnificent block known as Victoria Mills. This structure was seven stories high, 150 feet long, and 135 feet broad, and from the date of its completion it has formed (together with subsequent additions) a very conspicuous feature in the landscape hereabouts. Before long, however, the business of the firm outgrew this increased accommodation, and a second mill, similar in all respects to the first, was built upon ground immediately adjoining. This was in 1873, and up to that time the operations of the firm had been chiefly in the spinning and doubling of cotton yarns of all counts, from 20’s to 200’s, in super combed qualities for manufacturing purposes. T

This line of industry is still pursued as the principal feature of the firm’s undertakings, though other departments have since been very successfully developed. Messrs. William Holland & Sons were among the first (if they were not actually the first) to employ self-acting mules upon a large scale for very fine counts of yarn — in fact, throughout the entire career of this great house we note that it has always been in the van of progress in everything appertaining to the advancement of the industry in which it is so extensively engaged. To Messrs. Holland belongs the honour of having introduced into this country the spinning of what are known as “French cashmere yarns,” a branch which they commenced in 1877, and another new mill was then erected for this department, adjoining the existing premises. Even this structure had to be considerably enlarged in 1885 and 1889, so pronounced is the tendency towards continuous development in all Messrs. Holland’s industrial enterprises.

Regarding the business as a whole, we find no fewer than 180,000 spindles of various kinds in operation, the worsted department alone containing between 20,000 and 30,000 spindles, so that this firm may be justly considered one of the largest private spinning firms in Great Britain, while it is no exaggeration to describe Victoria Mills as the finest and most extensive establishment of its kind in the district, the buildings being all fire-proof, and containing about ten acres of floorage.

In 1872 Mr. William Holland, the founder of the house, admitted his two sons, Messrs. Samuel and William Henry Holland, into partnership, and these three gentlemen still constitute the personnel of the firm. Each of the principals has attained local distinction, and all are most liberal and unostentatious supporters of deserving charities. The senior partner, a gentleman widely known and greatly respected in the city and county, is a justice of the peace and a member of the Lancashire County Council. Mr. Samuel Holland is in the commission of the peace for Manchester, and Mr. William Henry Holland (who is also a magistrate) is a director of the Manchester Chamber of Commerce. Until the amalgamation of Newton Heath with the City of Manchester, Mr. William H. Holland was Chairman of the Local Board of that district. He took a very prominent part in advocating amalgamation, and his services were duly acknowledged by the ratepayers of the locality, who elected him first alderman of the new ward of Miles Platting. Both as benevolent and public-spirited citizens and as manufacturers of a most progressive and enterprising character the Messrs. Holland (father and sons) have made a distinguished mark in the history of modern Manchester, and have amply earned the gratitude and goodwill of those who, in all stations of life, can claim to be their fellow-workers in the cause of social, municipal, and commercial progress in this great community.


THE operations of the firm consist in the manufacture at their four mills of white bleached shirtings and sheetings, greys for bleaching and dyeing, domestics, twills, jeanettes, &c., &c. The premises where the mercantile department is conducted comprise a suite of offices on the ground floor, and commodious warehouse at the rear, together with a spacious and well-fitted sample-room. The business is exclusively wholesale and export, the firm having a first-class connection in the United Kingdom, and a valuable export trade with firms dealing with India, China, Central and South America, the Cape, Australia, New Zealand, and other foreign markets. The firm have agents in London, Glasgow, and Belfast, and have a representative on the Exchange. The popularity which this firm has obtained in all these markets is conclusive proof of the quality of the different goods which they supply. At the present time the great tendency is to run down the quality in all classes of manufactures, but this firm adheres to the principle of sending out a high-class quality. The business is conducted by the enterprising partner, Mr. R. O. Cooper, who is well known in the trade. Great energy is being displayed in the management.


THE large business carried on at German Street Mills, Manchester, under the title of J. & T. Thorp, was founded in the year 1865, and has had a highly successful career from the first. Mr. Thomas Thorp is now the sole proprietor of the concern, and his able and energetic management fully sustains the prestige and renown of the house in its special line of trade. Immense additions have been made to the original premises, and the works now comprise two large and lofty mills, which are subdivided into saw-mills and timber-preparing works, stores, turning shops, smithy, six toymakers’ rooms, three rooms for imported toys, painting and finishing, and packing and despatching rooms. The whole place is admirably arranged and equipped to meet the requirements of the interesting industry engaged in, and nearly a hundred hands are regularly employed in the different departments.

A glance at Messrs. Thorp’ s illustrated sheets of novelties and a tour through their busy factories and well-filled show-rooms would convince anyone that the firm stand in the van of progress, and are in a position to meet all reasonable demands. The toys of one nation or one period would, perhaps, hardly be tolerated elsewhere or at another time. Some, nevertheless, seem to enjoy perennial popularity, and of these our old friend the wooden horse, on wheels and on rockers, is facile princeps. The toy horse is turned out by Messrs. Thorp in many forms, and he is found in this firm’s show-rooms assuming the guise of a velocipede, or associated with both a velocipede and a chair, or perhaps attached to an ingenious “tip cart,” or embidied in a cleverly contrived apparatus, which enables the infantile rider to combine the delights of equestrian exercise with those of the ever-popular swing. Then there is the perambulator horse, the perambulator chair horse, the stool horse, the stepping horse, and the horse whose mission it is to provide motive power for a wonderfully pretty mail cart.

After the horse in all these varied forms comes a great diversity of “mail carts” in such models as the “County,” the “Oxford,” the “Lancashire,” the “Palatine,” the “Safety,” and the “Champion” — this last being Messrs. Thorp’s latest and most perfect achievement in the “mail-cart” line. Then we have a multitude of wheelbarrows, perambulators, and basinettes for dolls, engines and waggons, doll’s cradles, rocking chairs, children’s swings, trucks, and a host of other toys, the great feature of all of them being that they involve a goodly amount of physical exercise of a nature not in the least harmful. Of course, boys’ and girls’ tricycles are not omitted from the long array, and in every instance the workmanship and finish of Messrs. Thorp’s productions are particularly good. Dealers in such goods should not fail to send for this firm’s lists and illustrations; they will find a wide range of eminently popular articles to choose from, and Messrs. Thorp’s prices are well-known to be as low as the lowest for really sound and saleable goods. The firm control a very large and widespread trade, and have always enjoyed the support of a valuable and steadily increasing: connection.

Mr. Thomas Thorp, the head of the house, is well known in Manchester, and much esteemed as a liberal and constant supporter of local charities. He personally supervises the entire business, and his sons, Mr. T. Thorp, junr., and Mr. John C. Thorp, represent the house as travellers throughout the North of England, a London agent performing a similar duty in connection with the southern Counties and the metropolis.


THIS establishment holds a foremost rank among the industries of the district, and has long been well and favourably known, for the extent of its operations. The nature of its operations renders it necessary that the greatest nicety should be observed; accordingly the most expert hands are engaged, specially constructed machinery has been fitted throughout, and the utmost experience is brought to bear on each department. This splendid undertaking was founded by a relation of Mr. Alexander Grimshaw’s upwards of half a century ago, during which period it has steadily maintained its position at the head of all competitors. The fine mill at Miles Platting is of three-storey elevation, fitted up with specially devised machinery for drawing gold and silver wire, for the manufacture of gold and silver thread, plate, and gold and silver skein thread. The firm are also extensive dyers of fast bleaching heading yarns and fancy colours of all descriptions, and there is a very considerable output of Turkey red, and every description of heading yarns, worsted and cotton heald yarns, &c. The warehouse is at Hodson’s Square, Corporation Street, and is most convenient for carrying out the large transactions between shippers, merchants, &c., as well as generally helping on the business. There is a first-rate connection with manufacturers of all kinds of textiles and expensive fabrics, also with India, China, and other eastern countries, in gold and silver threads and plate, Turkey red and other fancy yarns for native use.

There are over two hundred experienced hands on the premises. The commercial standing of the firm is of the highest order, and the deepest reliance is placed upon all dealings connected with it. The active management of the concern devolves upon Mr. A. Mort, whose connection with the house commenced some thirty years ago. From a very humble position he, by industry, perseverance and business ability, worked himself to the responsible office of manager, and at the present time is an energetic member of the firm. He is a gentleman well known on change and highly respected in commercial and social circles. Mr. Grimshaw also commands universal respect. He is esteemed in his business and private capacity alike. Until he was incapacitated by delicate health, he was a useful and prominent member of the Newton Heath Local Board, his retirement being productive of much genuine regret.


DATING back in its foundation to the year 1850, the business was then established as Messrs. Crossley Bros. Subsequently the firm became Crossley and Wilcock, and in consequence of the increasing magnitude of the business the concern was turned into a limited company in 1883. The works are laid out on a very extensive scale, and are replete with machinery, tools, and appliances embodying all the latest improvements. The firm are the original inventors and patentees of the Double-Lift Jacquard Machine, for which they were awarded a prize medal in the first class, Paris, 1855. The company give employment to a large staff of skilled and experienced hands in the manufacture of all kinds of Jacquard machines with from 100 to 2,400 hooks, single-lift, double-lift, double-cylinder, and compound machines.

The company are also makers of card cutting and repeating, and piano card cutting machines, Jacquard harness builders of every description, comberboards, slips, mails, thread, lingoes, all kinds of wire work, and every requisite for fancy weaving. Thousands of the company’s machines are now at work in England and on the Continent, giving every satisfaction. A notable feature in these machines is the turning back motion. They have also an improved card protecting motion, so protecting the cards that the machine can be worked at any speed the looms can be run, which causes a saving of fully twenty-five per cent, on the cards, with a far greater production. Another very important feature of the company’s operations is the manufacture of fancy brocades and grey cottons; this is conducted in weaving sheds attached to the works, in which upwards of four hundred Jacquard machines of their own construction are at work.

This extensive business in every department is under direct and careful supervision, and is conducted with ability, energy, and enterprise. The trade is widespread and steadily growing, and in addition to the extensive home connection, the company’s productions are well known in every market of the world. The managing director, Mr. Thomas Wilcock, M.D., and Mr. Joseph Booth, inside manager, are gentlemen occupying prominent and influential positions in social and business circles. They are well known and highly esteemed in Failsworth, not only as old established and successful manufacturers, but also for their active exertions in promoting^ the best interests of the commerce and industries of the town and district.


THIS notable concern was founded as far back as the year 1851, on a very small scale, by a relative of the present proprietor, and continued under the original management until 1875, when Mr. Knibbs took the management, and in 1885 became sole proprietor. Of course the business had developed very considerably during the first thirty years or so of its career, and had, in fact, achieved a position of much prominence in the trade; but it is not too much to say that its greatest distinction and success has been won under Mr. Knibbs’ able and energetic management, which has placed the house unquestionably among the leading concerns of its kind in the city. The premises now occupied comprise three spacious blocks of three-storey buildings, forming a large triangle, with an open space in the centre, to which access is gained through an archway in the Tipping Street frontage. The whole of the ground floor is devoted to industrial purposes, with the exception of the space set apart for stabling, timber stores, and stores for other materials. On the first and second floors are situated the coachbuilders’, upholsterers’, trimmers’, and painter’s shops, which are always full of carriages, hearses, and light vehicles of every description in various stages of completion. Hearse building is a speciality, and is conducted upon a very extensive scale, Mr. Knibbs having devoted many years of study to this important branch of the trade.

All productions of this house are marked by elegance of design and beauty of finish in a very notable degree. Mr. Knibbs works entirely to order, and the high reputation he has gained for all his manufactures in the coach-building line ensures a constant influx of important orders, and precludes the necessity of depending upon casual custom to any large extent. Designs and estimates will be promptly forwarded on application. Upwards of forty highly skilled workmen are kept busily employed at these well-equipped works, and the fact that all their operations come under the personal supervision of the able and experienced principal of the house completely ensures the satisfaction of customers who appreciate really first-class work at reasonable prices.


IN illustration of the wine and spirit distributing interest, as developed in Manchester of to-day, a fairly typical example may be found in the above old-established house. An enquiry into the history of the house shows that it dates back in its foundation to the year 1745, when it was projected in Princess Street, by the great-grandfather of the present senior member of the firm, Mr. Joseph Armstrong. The personnel of the firm are Messrs. Henry Armstrong, senior, and Henry Armstrong, junior. The premises now occupied in St. Ann Street are in every point of character and situation exactly adapted to the wants of a very brisk business of the kind. They consist of handsomely-appointed offices on the ground floor, and capacious well-ordered cellars below, where a very large and choice selection of wines and spirits, suitable for a trade amongst connoisseurs, and other consumers of high-class liquors is held. The trade controlled is a very old- established one amongst the best families of the city and surrounding country, and other large consumers throughout the north of England.


THIS notable business was founded in the year 1833, in a very humble way, in the neighbouring town of Bolton, and an enquiry into the commercial annals of the city shows that it has always maintained its high reputation for the excellence of its productions. The premises occupied present an exceedingly fine window display of articles incidental to the business and the premises are well stocked with all kinds of saws, planes, and all kinds of cutlery, as well as every description of small machines of the nature of lathes, circular saw benches, fretwork machines, and the like, plane-making being the speciality for which the firm have become particularly noted. The trade controlled is one of considerable volume, the entire business being conducted under the personal supervision of the principals, upon lines which reflect nothing but the highest credit upon the administrative abilities and commercial capabilities of its worthy proprietors. There are still a few living who dealt with the founder over fifty years ago. Mr. Gleave, senr., who is hale and hearty, is in his eighty-fifth year.


A THOROUGHLY reliable house extensively occupied as shippers of Manchester goods is that of Messrs. Seddon & Butterworth, which was established at the above address in 1883 by the present proprietors, Mr. William Seddon and Mr. Thomas Butterworth. Both these gentlemen were men of large commercial experience, and under their energetic and enterprising control the concern was developed with notable success and rapidity. Every year its transactions have increased in extent and importance, and the house is now fully recognised as a leading one in the trade. Ample and commodious premises are occupied on the second floor at the above address, including handsomely fitted offices and large and convenient warehouse accommodation. An extensive and valuable trade is done in Manchester and other goods with all the great centres of commerce on the Continent, in most of which the firm keep resident agents. They are thoroughly conversant with all the best sources of supply, and they possess unsurpassed facilities for disposing of their commodities in the most suitable markets. For variety of selection and novelty of patterns the house has few equals, while the extent of their business gives them many advantages. The proprietors are well known and highly respected in commercial circles for their strictly fair and honourable methods of transacting business. In private life they enjoy the esteem of all who come into contact with them for their personal worth, their disinterested and active public, services and uprightness.


THIS well-known and influential concern was founded as far back as the year 1860, and maintains a very prominent position in connection with the industry with which its name, is associated. Mr. James Alfred Turner, the founder and principal of the house, has devoted many years of careful attention to the manufacture of various kinds of packing material, in which he has introduced and patented some very valuable improvements, and the genuine merit of his productions has enabled him to maintain a leading position in the trade and to secure a prominent place for his goods in all the principal markets, at home and abroad.


THERE is always a special interest attaching to old institutions, whether they be of a national, municipal, or industrial character, and prominent among the latter class in this district of the city is the old-established business of Mr. John G. Jones, rope, twine, and cotton banding manufacturer, dating back in its foundation to the year 1840. The business was established by the father of the present proprietor, originally in Embden Street, and about fifteen years ago was removed to the more extensive and commodious premises now occupied. These are located in Raby Street, Alexandra Road, Moss Side. The works are laid out on an extensive scale, the rope walk being fully one hundred and twenty yards long. The various departments are replete with machinery and appliances of the most improved construction, and the premises throughout have been specially fitted up in the most careful and complete manner, to ensure the effective and economical working of a large and increasing business. The motive power is communicated from a twelve horse-power gas engine. Mr. Jones gives constant employment to upwards of thirty experienced hands in the manufacture of ropes of all kinds. Twine and cotton banding, oil cloth, tarpauling, canvas, paper, &c., are also largely dealt in. A large and comprehensive stock is always on hand, ready for immediate delivery. These goods are well and favourably known in the trade.

They have now been over fifty years in the market, and it is interesting to note that, in spite of the keen competition of the times, they not only maintain their high reputation for excellence of material, manufacture, and finish, but are making greater headway than ever, both at home and abroad. In addition to the extensive home connection, Mr. Jones does a very large business with the leading shipping houses for export, chiefly to Australia, South America, and India. Mr. John G. Jones is a thoroughly practical man, with an experience extending over many years, and this advantage, combined with the possession of one of the largest and most complete works in the district, enables him to compete on favourable terms with any firm in the trade.


THE above flourishingg establishment dates back in its history no further than 1883, at which time business was commenced under the title of Taylor & Holt. In 1886 the firm was changed into Taylor & Co., under which designation it is still conducted. Operations are carried on in a substantial and commodious block of buildings, three stories high, and having a frontage of eighty-one feet and a depth of forty-eight feet. The premises comprise a well-appointed suite of offices and large workshop on the ground floor, a number of fitting shops on the second floor, and warehouses and storerooms on the third floor. The internal arrangement of the premises has been carried out with great experience and a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the trade, and all the workshops are efficiently equipped with the most modern plant and machinery. The convenience and resources of the establishment are of a liberal and effective kind, but the rapidly increasing trade which the firm is doing has rendered further accommodation necessary, and numerous extensions are in contemplation.

A large and flourishing business is controlled as steam, gas, and hydraulic engineers, and smiths’ and general warehouse machinists. Considering the short time the house has been established its work has obtained an exceptionally noteworthy position in the markets, and among large consumers. Great attention is bestowed upon the material, and the workmanship is invariably such as can be implicitly relied upon. Thoroughness of work and moderateness of prices are the two leading features of the firm. All orders receive prompt attention, and patrons can be sure that by placing themselves in this firm’s hands they will avoid the many vexatious delays so specially incidental to this branch of business.

The firm’s ingenuity and skill have been exercised in the invention of many useful novelties, some of which have attained a widespread recognition. Their new cavity wall clamps are good and cheap, and act as a perfect wall tie and damp preventer; they are much in demand among builders, and are everywhere recommended by architects. Another invention patented by the house is the universal hat vellureing machine. These machines are fitted up with Taylor’s hat blocks. They are simple in construction and very strongly made, and they are supplied with vellure heater and brim plate, thus making them complete hat-finishing machines. By their use a hat can be vellured equal to new in a few seconds. The firm are also makers of strong portable, wrought-iron wine bins, which can be packed in a very small compass. This house has the agency for the inside electric telephone, and skilled workmen are sent to any part to fit up any work in connection with this system.

The connection of the house is widespread and influential, and a valuable home and export trade is controlled. There are twenty skilled engineers, fitters, turners, &c., kept in constant employment, under the able and experienced superintendence of the principal’s son. Mr. Joshua Taylor is in every sense of the term a thoroughly practical man, and his experience has been of the soundest and most diversified character. His constant attention is given to the business, and he is anxious that in all things his house shall maintain to the full the reputation it has acquired. In his commercial transactions he is strictly fair and upright, and he retains the confidence and esteem of his numerous patrons.


AMONG the specialised industries that have received remarkable development in Manchester of to-day, the manufacture of green and oak-bark tanned picking, straps and strap laces, and kindred commodities, as exemplified by the firm of Messrs. James Moston & Sons, is certainly deserving of notice. This notable house was organised upwards of forty years ago by the late Mr. James Moston, who was succeeded by the present proprietors, whose long training and thorough practical knowledge of the business in all its details, has enabled them to pursue their onerous duties with a maximum of good results. The premises occupied consist of a large and commodious factory and tannery combined, elaborately equipped with all the most modern appliances for the production of the goods for which the firm has become so justly famous. These comprise green and oak-bark tanned picking straps and laces, buffalo hide skips, white horny and yellow laces, pickers, and the like, vast quantities of which are produced, and distributed through the agency of merchants and shippers to all the leading home and export markets. The business in all its branches is-most capably carried on under the personal superintendence of the proprietors, who give full employment to a large and manifestly efficient staff of hands, and no circumstance could more strongly accentuate the merits of this firm’s productions than the international reputation they have acquired; for there is hardly a quarter of the globe to which their manufactures have not found their way.


THIS very important concern, having establishments at both Manchester and Sheffield, was founded in the year 1887, under its present title and constitution, and has advanced into the front rank of carriage builders under the able and enterprising management of Mr. Palmer. The company’s show-rooms in Manchester have an excellent situation at the above address in King Street West, and their works at Ardwick form a most extensive factory, which is equipped throughout with the best modern appliances, including certain machinery of a special character for some of the unique work done here. Challiner’s new patent shielded rubber tyre, of which the Shrewsbury and Talbot Cab and Noiseless Tyre Co., of London and Manchester, are the sole makers, is a leading speciality of the house, and is a most valuable improvement, comprising all the advantages of a rubber tyre with full protection against wear and tear, and without the drawback of heavy draught. These tyres can be fitted to wheels already existing, and can be used with equal satisfaction on any kind of roads. A serviceable steel tyre shields the rubber cushion, but does not destroy its elasticity, and while this steel tyre can be easily renewed when necessary, the rubber cushion remains unimpaired in usefulness for years, greatly lessening vibration in the carriage, and reducing the noise of the wheels on rough pavements to a minimum. The manner in which the steel tyre is attached (without rivets) conduces to its durability and to its remaining in position. Many testimonials have been received, affirming the great satisfaction these new tyres have given, and the majority of these letters speak of the many merits of the invention in terms of the very highest praise. The company under notice also specialise Challiner’s patent adjustable noiseless rubber tyre truck wheels (also made solely by the Shrewsbury and Talbot Cab and Noiseless Tyre Co.), a novel production of a most useful kind, eminently adapted for use in warehouses, and on railway platforms and other places where trucks are much employed.

As actual designers and builders of carriages of all descriptions this company have, of course, many specialities of their own. Without exception these are to be highly commended, and special praise is due to the new square-fronted brougham, a splendid family carriage, remarkably roomy without being any larger than usual in external appearance; and the latest thing in rustic four-wheel dog carts, which is about as stylish and as handsome a vehicle as we have ever seen, to say nothing of its lightness, strength, and convenience. The company are noted for their dress carriages, sheriff’s carriages, four-in-hand drags (club pattern), landaus, broughams, victorias, stanhopes, T-carts, gigs, in fact, every style of modern two-wheeled and four-wheeled vehicles. A splendid display is made in the show-rooms, both at Manchester and at Sheffield, and the carriages on view indicate the very perfection of workmanship, design, and finish as being the chief characteristic of this firm’s manufactures. Both new work and repairs are executed at moderate prices, old carriages are taken in exchange, carriages are let out on hire with or without option of purchase, and all the usual departments of the trade receive full attention. The company have just carried off the Gold Medal at Sheffield for the best display of carriages, and their many improvements have been greatly praised by press and public everywhere.

The trade controlled extends all over the kingdom, with export to India and elsewhere, and Mr. Palmer is just the man to continue the development of the business by his practical skill and untiring energy. We may add that the company’s Sheffield address is 264, 266, and 268, Glossop Road, and it is in contemplation to open another branch in London, to further promote the growth of the business in the south of England.



THIS firm have developed an immense system of operations at Eagle Quay and also at Liverpool and Stockport. It has been in existence nearly a century, having been founded originally by Mr. David Bellhouse, and it has always remained under the control of the same family. Each succeeding generation has. contributed to the expansion of the concern, and at the present day the business certainly ranks as one of the largest in the kingdom. The premises occupied are in the heart of the city, and cover an area of about four acres, with entrance from Whitworth Street, late Hunt Street. There are two principal sections in the establishment (one 120 feet by 282 feet; the other 400 feet by 150 feet), and these contain nearly twenty spacious workshops and sheds, fitted throughout with the latest modern machinery suited to every operation in the usual routine of a comprehensive wood-working trade. For the convenience of the trade they hold an exceedingly large stock of prepared floorboards of various qualities, widths and thicknesses; mouldings of every description, and sashes and doors, and the yards and timber sheds always contain full supplies of such standard wood goods as pitch pine, red and yellow pine, Dantzic oak, bay wood, birch, &c., besides plasterers’ laths, hair, &c. Other specialities of note include packing cases, lapping boards, baling boards, calender boxes, bleachers’ rollers, &c., in all of which the output is very large and of excellent quality.

Messrs. Bellhouse have an extensive yard and saw mill in Wellington Road North, Stockport, where their experience enables them to command most of the work of the town and district (manager, Mr. J. Clarkson), besides a branch at Liverpool, and they control an immense trade with builders and other users of prepared woods and timber. The firm have also, within the last few months, completed the purchase of a large plot of land at Albion Street, Miles Platting, with wharfage on the Rochdale Canal and in direct communication with the Manchester Ship Canal Docks. On this site they have erected a large saw mill, 100 feet by 50 feet, with a steam joinery works attached, numerous sheds for drying timber, and a speciality is the stove in connection with these works, in order that no timber be used in the manufacture of moulds, doors, &c., that is not thoroughly seasoned. All machinery is of the latest type, &c. The present partners are Robert Bellhouse, Ernest Bellhouse, and Kenneth Cecil Bellhouse. Messrs. Bellhouse are well represented by about eight commercial travellers, who regularly wait upon their very numerous customers in all parts of the country.


ALTHOUGH it is only four years since the proprietors of this concern commenced operations, yet such has been the ability and energy displayed, that already there is a large and very valuable connection. Thoroughly practical, conscientious, and painstaking, Messrs. Bleackley and Sons have in four years established a reputation which many a firm, ten times older, might envy. The premises occupied are on the first floor of the above address, an extensive building having a frontage of eighty-four feet by thirty-nine feet. There is a capital office, general workroom, &c. The workroom is used for making-up all kinds of Manchester and other goods, received from the merchants, shippers, mill-owners, and others, and making ready for dispatch to all parts of the world. All kinds of home trade, Italian, dress goods, and all styles in white, dyed, or printed goods, are most carefully handled, and there are powerful steam presses for compression, &c. This is a branch of industry with which the proprietors have been conversant all their lives, and in which they especially excel. The specialities are bookfolds, rolls, &c., cut and re-made up to any style. There are thirty hands employed on the premises, and these, under the able direction of the principals, perform their duties quickly and well. Messrs. Bleackley have availed themselves of the facilities afforded by the Manchester Telephone Exchange, with which they are connected. Respected on all sides for their frankness and ability, Messrs. Bleackley and Sons fill an honoured place among the worthy citizens of Cottonopolis.


MESSRS. J. S. Moss & Sons conduct a business, the history of which dates back for about a hundred years, their house having been founded about the end of last century; and at an early period of its career Mr. Joseph S. Moss was the principal. That gentleman died about twenty years ago, and was succeeded by his eldest son, who subsequently retired from business and went to live in London. The house then came into the hands of its present able and experienced proprietor, Mr. Isaac Slazenger Moss, who retains the old name of the firm. Remarkable success has attended the career of this house, and at the present day Messrs. Moss & Sons’ trade is not only exceptionally large, but is of a substantial and high-class character, which speaks volumes for the excellent lines upon which it has always been conducted. The firm devote their attention to every branch of gentlemen’s, boys’, and ladies’ tailoring, executing work of very superior style, quality, and finish, and making a speciality of the best classes of garments at strictly moderate prices. They are well known for the merit of their productions in gentlemen’s dress for all occasions, and also for ladies’ riding habits and servants’ liveries; and an important department has been developed in the making of young gentlemen’s clothing, as supplied to scholars at Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester, and most of the well-known public schools.

Messrs. Moss & Sons occupy very fine premises, in a most advantageous corner position and nothing could exceed the attractiveness of their varied and tasteful window display, or the general interest attaching to the entire establishment as an emporium of fashion. The stocks held in piece goods for all branches of tailoring are among the largest and most carefully-selected we have seen, and embrace all the newest and most fashionable patterns, shades, and textures of cloth, from the best manufactories in the country. Messrs. J. S. Moss & Sons employ a very numerous staff, including cutters of very high repute, and workmen of proved ability and experience; and all orders are executed on their own premises, in commodious and well-ventilated work-rooms, and under general conditions which ensure the most satisfactory results. The “cash system” is adhered to in preference to the “credit system,” and it certainly operates very largely to the advantage of the customers. Profits are arranged on the lowest possible scale, and it is evidently the desire of Messrs. Moss to maintain the steady and substantial increase that has so long marked their business, without incurring the risk of bad debts, inseparable from a “credit” trade. This firm would seem to be the pioneers of the cash payment system in the tailoring trade, having worked upon that method for over a hundred years with excellent effect; and their prices will always stand comparison with those of any other house, while their goods are unsurpassed in value and reliability.

Messrs. J. S. Moss & Sons have made the corner of Market Street and Corporation Street (where their establishment stands) one of the most notable spots in Manchester; and we trust this eligible site will long continue in the occupation of a firm whose record has been so honourable, and whose reputation stands so high with the public in Manchester and elsewhere. Telegrams to this house should be addressed “Moss, Manchester.” We have alluded to the fact that this firm engage in army contracting and military tailoring; but we must not omit to add that they excel in sporting clothing, hunting outfits, &c., and that they gained a Prize Medal for this special class of work at the Paris Exhibition of 1878.


MR. J. Robertshaw projected his notable undertaking in the year 1872, for the purpose of placing upon the market a series of soundly-constructed high-class wire mattresses, which have already won for him an unsurpassed reputation in the trade. The Imperial Mattress Works consist of a large and substantial two-storied building, the ground floor of which is admirably appointed as an engine-room, varnishing and fitting department, while the upper storey is elaborately equipped with new and improved machinery for saving labour and facilitating the production of the mattresses in a highly-finished and superior series of forms, at a considerable reduction in prices. Skilled hands are actively engaged upon the work under the personal supervision of Mr. Robertshaw, and all the mattresses turned out are essentially easy and comfortable, elegant and durable, perfectly noiseless and readily adaptable to the form of the body, remarkably elastic, portable, and above all, so cheap as to come within the pockets of persons of moderate means.

Among the specialities introduced by Mr. Robertshaw, “The British” treble and double-woven wire spring mattress is particularly worthy of mention in this place; being without doubt the best and strongest wire mattress yet introduced to the trade. The materials used in its construction are chosen with the utmost care and the improved method of winding up, and extra strong wire-work combined, render it impossible for it to sink in the centre. The “Imperial” Diamond Spring Mattress of registered design, moreover, is worthy of the attention of hotel-keepers, schoolmasters, and furnishers of public institutions, hospitals, &c., in virtue of its great durability; while the “Victor” chain spring mattress, possesses all the salient features of the “Imperial” and the “Woven Wire,” with the addition of being raised higher at the head and foot ends.

Mr. Robertshaw also operates on a large scale as a maker of superior bedsteads of every kind, supplied with his famous mattresses, back and leg rests for invalids, folding camp bedsteads, and kindred commodities. The trade controlled is one of considerable volume amongst bedstead makers and house furnishers in all parts of the kingdom, and a sound and rapidly growing export connection, principally for the Australian markets, has been established, which, under the able and energetic direction of the spirited principal, promises to be well-sustained and steadily developed. Mr. Robertshaw will be pleased to furnish illustrated price lists on application.
Telegraphic address, “Robertshaw, Cornbrook, Manchester.”


THIS firm now holds a most important place among the leading industries of the district, and continues rapidly to extend in value and usefulness. The proprietors from the commencement of their operations have left no stone unturned to deserve the success which has so richly crowned their efforts. In the first glace their ample works are built on the latest and most improved principle, and plentifully supplied with the best machinery and appliances. They were specially constructed for the purposes of the trade followed, and for solidity and completeness cannot be excelled in the district. The buildings cover a considerable extent of ground, are of two-storey elevation, with a flat, and are exceedingly well planned by Mr. Martin, senior, who, having had a life-long practical experience, knew full well the requirements for the trade he and his sons were following. They were erected six years ago, when the firm commenced operations.

There are between sixty and seventy skilled hands employed on the premises, which are known as the Albert Engraving Works. Principal attention is devoted to the engraving for calico printers, the firm turning out copper rollers on which are the designs for the calico printing. The greatest skill is required in the process of preparing the rollers, and it is in connection with the completeness of detail that Messrs. Martin & Sons have earned such a high and far-reaching reputation. They also do large quantities of work for embossers. They have a very large connection among the calico printers and embossers of the district, and they have important transactions with Spain, Portugal, Sweden, and other parts of the Continent, also with South America. The works are carried on under the direction of Mr. Martin, junior, a gentleman of great practical experience as an engraver, and thoroughly well versed in all the numerous details of the trade. Under his able management the firm gains in popularity and support. Speaking in both a commercial and social sense, both father and son are held in the highest respect. They are widely known for their strict integrity, and clients have entire confidence in placing themselves in their hands.


THIS rapidly growing business was established in 1867. The premises consist of two substantial buildings, each, comprising a handsome single-fronted shop, elegantly appointed in the interior with extensive store-rooms, and well-fitted workshops at the rear. The stock in both shops is large and comprehensive, and embraces a large and varied selection of what are known as London, Birmingham, and Sheffield goods, consisting of all kinds of fancy jewellery, the best of Sheffield cutlery and electro-plated articles, also leather bags, writing cases, needle books and cases, purses in all varieties, albums, satchels, travelling bags, &c., &c. There is also a large and splendid selection of English lever gold and silver watches for ladies and gentlemen, clocks of all kinds, and a very choice assortment of timepieces for drawing-rooms and dining-rooms, &c., together with a recherche selection of plain gold and gem jewellery, electro-plate, &c. A speciality is made in repairs of watches and jewellery, clocks, fans, &c., a number of skilful and experienced hands being employed. The workshops at the rear are fitted with a battery for electro-plating all articles done on the premises. Mr. Huckbody is a practical watch and clock maker, and personally superintends the business in every detail. A very large and rapidly increasing business is done among a highly influential connection which extends throughout Manchester and its environs. Mr. Huckbody is warmly appreciated in business circles generally, and has a very genial acceptance amongst his contemporaries in trade.


THIS most useful business was established more than one hundred years ago by Mr. Joshua Bower, and was succeeded to by Mr. John Bocock in 1861. This gentleman took into partnership his brother and Mr. William Thorp in 1872. The first house was in Dale Street, and a removal was made to Shudehill about 1875. In that year Mr. John Bocock retired from the firm, which was then composed of Mr. W. W. Bocock and Mr. William Thorp. In 1882 Mr. Bocock retired, the partnership coming to an end by effluxion of time, and the concern came into possession of the now sole proprietor, Mr. Thorp. The premises in Shudehill consist of a building of four storey elevation, having a measurement of thirty feet by eighty-four feet. The articles are all of an eminently useful nature, and for which this house is so well and widely known, not only in the United Kingdom, but also in various parts of the world. The comprehensive nature of the business can best be learned from a perusal of the following list of valuable goods included:— Ornamental and photographic glass, French shades and stands, high-pressure steam gauge tubes, gas globes, fern shades, propagating glasses, &c., &c. Mr. Thorp is an extensive dealer in crown, sheet, and plate glass, white-stoppered phials, box-capped pomades, oil sample bottles, &c. As a white, green and black glass bottle merchant he has immense transactions. These are adapted for all manner of purposes, and are quoted at wonderfully low rates. To more quickly facilitate delivery and save carriage, the proprietor has perfected arrangements for storing vast quantities with the different carriers. This also applies to the greater part of the stock. There is a very valuable trade connected round this grand old house, which has a splendid reputation in the commercial world. The enterprising proprietor has considerably advanced its importance since assuming entire command, and conducts his transactions with singular enterprise and ability. Among those with whom he mingles he is a great favourite, and his strict integrity makes him trusted and much respected by his large connection.
The telegraph address is “Willthrop,” Manchester.


LOOKING backwards, it appears that this well-known and noteworthy house was established in 1840 and re-organised by its present senior partner in the year 1870, and that its commercial development has been both rapid and continuous. The premises occupied consist of a shop and showrooms, with spacious workshops to the rear, in which a very large and select assortment of sunlight pendants, centre flowers, ventilators, cornice enrichments, trusses, corbels, gas and electric light fittings, and every description of architectural ornaments for the interior and exterior decoration of buildings, in the most effective style, and at the lowest cash prices, are available for choice. The firm operate in every branch of the modern modellers’ craft, and are manufacturers on a large scale of Scagliola, Carton-Pierre, fibrous plaster, &c. They are the only firm of Scagliola manufacturers in Manchester. This popular mode of decoration, derived from the “Sunny South,” consists of the imitation of antique marbles for the decoration of churches, theatres, public buildings, for covering ironwork, for mantelpieces, statuary pedestals, &c., &c. Both Mr. Hammond and his son are practical modellers of considerable artistic ability; they employ none but skilled craftsmen, and by diligence and well-directed enterprise have succeeded in building up a business which may with every justice be stated to be second to none of its kind in the north of England.


THIS business was founded in the year 1872 by the present senior partner, who subsequently took his son into partnership when the firm assumed the present title. At the above address Messrs. Revell & Son occupy commodious-premises, located on the third floor of a large block of buildings, containing all the accessories of a thoroughly organised establishment. The various departments are replete with all the best and most improved machinery and appliances. Messrs. Revell & Son undertake all kinds of general and commercial printing, as catalogues, pamphlets, placards, hand bills, &c.; artistic and colour printing is also executed; show cards, business and invitation cards, programmes, menus, &c., &c. All the work is produced in the very highest style of the art, and they display many splendid specimens, which show in beauty of design and elegance and accuracy in every detail of execution, the superior skill and talent employed in this establishment. Messrs. Revell & Son have a very extensive and old- established connection, and the proprietors stand in a position to execute all orders on the shortest notice, and with despatch and economy. Both Mr. J. H. Revell and his son take an active part in the management. They are well known and highly esteemed in commercial circles and are widely recognised as courteous and enterprising men of business.


THIS representative firm is now under the able and vigorous proprietary control of Messrs. Isidor and Amelia Danziger, widow of the late W. Danziger, who was the founder of the firm in Manchester as long ago as the year 1850. It was found expedient twenty-five years since to transfer the business to its present more convenient and commodious quarters in Corporation Street. The premises occupied are well adapted to the requirements of a brisk business of the kind, and consist of a spacious warehouse, a large and lofty showroom above, in which the goods, said to be the largest and most varied stock in its line in the provinces, are most methodically arranged. The departments, each of which is fairly exhaustive, comprise ladies’ and gent’s travelling and fitted bags, brief, square, and Gladstone bags, &c; fancy handkerchief bags, in newest styles in morocco, Russian lizard crocodile, calf, and other leathers; fur, seal-skin, musquash muff bags; Saratogas, dress baskets, portmanteaus, rug straps, waist belts, garters, &c.; purses in band, lock, and portemonnaies; cigar and cigarette cases, plain and embroidered inside; ladies’ and gent’s card cases, pocket books, wallets; ladies’ and gents’ dressing cases, etuis, student cases, companions; albums, an enormous variety; photo frames in wood, plush, metal, glass, &c. A speciality is an adjustable standard for Gladstone bags, with all fittings complete, ingenious invention of this firm. Cabinet goods, desks, work boxes, ink-stands, liqueur frames, scent stands, jewel boxes, in leather and wood, tea caddies, papier-mache goods; glove and handkerchief sets, fancy work baskets, scent satchets, hair brushes, vulcanite and horn combs, wood and bone dominoes, and numerous Paris, Vienna, and Berlin novelties, bracket ornaments, &c. A very substantial trade is done with shippers, and the firm is represented by a full staff of first-class travellers, controlling a connection which has placed their house in the very foremost rank of the great mercantile institutions of Manchester.


MR. Wm. Flanagan commenced business in 1885, originally at No. 14, Union Street, Church Street, and in consequence of its rapid development and the necessity for increased accommodation, the more extensive and commodious premises now occupied were acquired in 1889. These comprise a large and well-constructed building of three stories. On the ground floor is the spacious and well-arranged warehouse and offices, the floors above are devoted to storage purposes. The manufacturing operations are conducted at the West-End Mill, Mottram, where Mr. Flanagan gives employment to a number of experienced hands in the manufacture of wadding of various qualities, suitable both for the home and colonial markets. The mill is replete with all the best and most improved machinery and appliances. Mr. Flanagan has always a large and thoroughly representative stock on hand ready for immediate delivery. This article has a standard reputation in the trade, and by economical manufacture Mr Flanagan is enabled to offer his customers exceptional advantages both in quality and price; and with his superior facilities he can execute all orders with the utmost despatch. The trade is of a widespread, influential, and steadily growing character, and in addition to the extensive home connection Mr. Flanagan does a large and ever-increasing export business, especially with the Colonies. The business in every department receives the strict personal attention of the proprietor who is well known and highly respected in commercial circles as a courteous and enterprising man of business.


THIS important concern was founded in 1873 under its present title, at 17, Watling Street, those premises consisting of four rooms. Some idea may, therefore, be gained of the rapid, rise of the concern, and, owing to the enterprising and progressive policy pursued by its proprietors, from the first it has had a most successful career, developing continuously, and eventually gaining a position in the front ranks of the trade. In 1878 Mr. Kay, one of the founders, died, and the surviving partner, Mr. Lee, was then joined by Mr. G. T. Bowes, an experienced business man, with an excellent knowledge of commercial routine, who had been for twenty-one years with Messrs. S. & J. Watts & Co. Mr. Lee and Mr. Bowes constitute the present firm, but the original title is retained. The premises now occupied in High Street were specially erected for this business in 1890, the interior being constructed according to Mr. Lee’s own designs. It forms a large-and handsome brick structure, with stone facings, presenting a fine appearance, and reflecting much credit upon the architect, Mr. Andrews, of Cross Street. Five lofty flats and a spacious basement are comprised in this immense warehouse, and the whole place is provided with the best modern improvements of every kind, including an installation of the electric light. It may be said that these premises in their entirety constitute an establishment which is equal in resource, convenience, and general accommodation to any other in the trade.

Messrs. Kay & Lee hold large stocks, not only in made-up clothing of every description, but also in all manner of woollens and piece-goods generally; and the extraordinary variety of the stock meeting the eye of the visitor to this warehouse gives a striking proof of the comprehensive nature of the trade engaged in. The firm cater for all the requirements of the home and export markets, producing goods calculated to meet the demands of every class of customer, and the organisation of the warehouse and workrooms is practically perfect, nothing being neglected that could tend to more fully ensure the smooth and satisfactory working of the routine of this vast industry. Altogether, they give employment to about six hundred hands. All the conditions under which the industry is carried on are favourable to the attainment of the best results in each department, and every labour-saving device is in operation. The ventilating, lighting, and warming arrangements are all that can be desired, these important matters having evidently received the most careful attention throughout the premises. Lavatories on each floor, large kitchen and basement, with cooking accommodation for five hundred people, &c., have their place in the establishment, and it is quite evident that, although space is of great value in large works of this kind, the firm have most carefully considered the needs of their employes, and have adopted every means of promoting their health and comfort.

Messrs. Kay & Lee seem to be constantly adding to their productive resources, extra machines and appliances of the most improved type being frequently introduced into the factory departments. The trade controlled extends all over the kingdom, as well as among the shippers to the different markets abroad, and the house maintains a connection of the most valuable character, and enjoys a degree of favour and confidence in the trade which could have been gained only by close adherence to the most honourable commercial methods and a well-sustained resolution to produce goods of a high order of merit and reliability.


THIS old-established firm of wine and spirit merchants originated as far back as the year 1840, and is one of the best known and most esteemed houses in the trade. The name of Messrs. Findlater & Mackie is known in all parts of the United Kingdom in connection with the supply of high-class wines, spirits, and liqueurs, and the firm are represented in London, Brighton, Liverpool, Birmingham, Dublin, Birkenhead, Bristol, Cardiff, and Swansea, besides the Manchester house and two branches at Rochdale and Dewsbury. All these depots are engaged in very extensive trading operations, and are supported by large and valuable connections in their several localities. The Manchester establishment is as important as any in the city, and is located in very commodious and handsomely-appointed premises on the ground floor of the Royal Exchange Building. Besides the fine sample rooms and offices here occupied there are immense stores in the basement and sub-basement, covering a floorage area of about three-quarters of an acre. The firm have also large bonded stores at all the principal railway stations, and at the Excise Stores in Salford, where they have their own vaults.

Immense stocks are held in all departments, and Messrs. Findlater & Mackie have a splendid reputation for choice qualities of wines, spirits, and liqueurs, selected with the utmost care at all the. great sources of production at home and abroad. Their list is a most comprehensive one, embracing every well known brand and favourite vintage, and the specialities of this house in old bottled Port, Port from the wood, Sherry, Madeira, Marsala, Champagne, Claret, Hock (still and sparkling), Moselle (still and sparkling), Burgundy, red and white Hungarian wines, Australian and Californian wines, fine old brandies, whiskies, rums, gins, and all the leading liqueurs, afford the very best possible value to connoisseurs and to all who appreciate a really first-class article.

Messrs. Findlater & Mackie’s knowledge of the trade is of that sound practical character which comes of years of experience and intimate acquaintance with every market, and few firms are so well prepared to give their customers complete satisfaction in every matter of price, quality, and prompt delivery. This house holds a number of very valuable agencies, notably those for Bass’s, Allsopp’s, and Worthington’s ales, Guinness’s Dublin stout, Schweppe’s aerated waters, and the celebrated aerated waters of Messrs. Cantrell, Cochrane & Co., of Dublin and Belfast. Numerous large vans are specially kept for deliveries (free of charge) in all parts of Manchester and district, and the firm enjoy the patronage and confidence of an exceedingly large and influential local connection among private families and large consumers of wines, spirits, and liqueurs. We may add that Messrs. Findlater & Mackie are also importers of Havana cigars, and supply the leading brands of these at lowest market quotations.

Telegrams for the firm should be addressed “Vintage, Manchester.” The telephone (National) is No. 922. Mr. James Watt is the resident partner of the Manchester business, which he personally conducts under the style of Findlater & Mackie.


THE Crown Street Works were organised in the year 1885 by Messrs. A. Haworth and. H. Stothard, trading under the style and title above designated. The works consist of a large and substantial four-storied building, elaborately equipped with, all the latest and best cutting, turning, planing, and other machinery and appliances, calling into active requisition the services of a staff of from thirty- five to forty hands, in the production of all kinds of double and treble woven wire mattresses, chain mattresses, hospital bedsteads, folding cots, bed rests, ships’ berths, woven wire fabrics, and the like, for all of which they have gained an unsurpassed reputation, and do an enormous home and export trade, the latter being especially large with India. A considerable trade, moreover, is done with the colonies and South America, and it may be mentioned in this place that the firm are on the eve of very considerably extending the scope and aims of their business, by the wholesale manufacture of general house furniture. Both partners take an active share in the control of the concern, which is managed in all its branches with energy, tact, and judgment, upon a thoroughly sound basis of honourable mercantile principle.
Telegraphic address, “Spring Mattress.”


THE profitable rearing and successful feeding of live-stock is oftentimes beset with difficulties that have baffled even expert breeders and agriculturists, and it is therefore reassuring to learn that the means for combating and successfully overcoming the vexed questions that will arise in spite of every care, as to how to secure the best possible results under even the most perplexing contingencies, have at length been discovered and made generally available by the above notable house. Every well-regulated farmer, breeder or keeper of live-stock would find it to his advantage to learn of, and “when found, make a note of,” Messrs. Hadfield & Co.’s valuable productions, all of which need no further recommendation than that which one trial will serve to elicit. These comprise a Milk Substitute for calf rearing, which combines very many advantages which may be summarised as follows:- The preparation is cheaper than milk, keeps the calves healthier, prevents scour from supervening, makes better and stronger calves, and is essentially easy to use. It has been fully demonstrated to be the best and most reliable article of its kind extant, and the only real substitute for milk. The next preparation is the firm’s celebrated Milk Producer for dairy cows, which acts powerfully, by giving tone and appetite and improving the digestion of the animals, and at the same time strengthens the lacteal glands specifically, causing them to secrete a larger quantity and richer quality of milk, while the value of the cows is enhanced by their decidedly improved general condition. Lastly, Messrs. Hadfield & Co. have placed an unrivalled Horse and Cattle Food on the market, which is reckoned to be invaluable for hard-worked horses, enabling them to do their work with less fatigue by vastly improving their condition. The firm’s premises consist of a large four-storied warehouse and factory, replete with every facility for the production and prompt distribution of their commodities. The entire business is pursued by a capable and energetic proprietary upon principles which have won for them a high reputation which it is manifestly their resolution shall not only be well-sustained, but steadily enhanced in days to come.


A SUCCESSFUL and popular establishment among the many in Manchester engaged in the silk mercery business is that of Mr. S. Russell, of 17 & 19, Downing Street, silk mercer and family draper, milliner, &c. Operations were commenced in this line as far back as 1874, and by his enterprise, assiduity and ability, the founder soon obtained for his new venture a recognised position in the trade. The courteous and honourable treatment all comers received and the reliable nature of the commodities supplied were highly appreciated, and the house grew rapidly in favour and patronage, increasing in importance year by year, until it assumed proportions which justly entitled it to be classed among the leading establishments of this kind in the vicinity. The original premises becoming insufficient in accommodation, a removal was made to the present site in 1888, where operations are conducted in a substantial block of three-storey buildings, having a commanding frontage of sixty or seventy feet, and possessing an extensive double-fronted shop, with windows admirably adapted to display their well-selected contents, and handsome show-rooms at the rear, together with show-rooms and warehouses on the first floor. The show-rooms are of ample size and thoroughly fitted up with all appliances and means for the effective exhibition of a large selection of splendid goods; and the workshops, which are at the rear of the premises are specially noteworthy for their roominess, light, and general comfort and convenience.

A very important business is here controlled in silk mercery and drapery of every description, and all goods supplied are such as can be freely warranted to be of the best quality and of the latest style and material. The proprietor is intimately acquainted with all the most eligible sources of supply, and has had many years’ practical experience in every department of this business; he is an expert judge and is perfectly familiar with all the requirements of the public. Under these circumstances, it is no matter of surprise that the choice of goods offered at this noted house should be unsurpassed and that it should embrace all the best and most fashionable materials, shapes and designs, and the latest London, Paris and Berlin styles. Mr. Russell is, moreover, a keen buyer, and the extent of his transactions give him considerable weight in the market, consequently, he is always able to offer his customers every conceivable advantage in the way of prices.

The stocks held are heavy and comprehensive, and include splendid exhibits of satins, silks, velvets, velveteens, plushes, serges, cords, lustres, tweeds, cashmeres, beiges, and every description of materials for dresses; as well as ample stores of well-chosen linens, laces, flowers, feathers, trimmings, frillings, muslins, shirtings, calicoes, woollens, cloths, curtains, gloves, umbrellas, socks, pants, vests, ladies’ and gentlemen’s underclothing, ties, scarfs, &c. This establishment has obtained considerable reputation for the superior manner in which it turns out ladies’ jackets, mantles, capes, robes, costumes and dresses. A large staff of skilled workpeople is engaged in this department, under the constant superintendence of experienced cutters and forewomen, and the articles produced are everywhere known for their excellence in material, soundness and beauty of workmanship, elegance and style in cut, and perfect fit. A special feature, too, is made of mourning, and prompt and efficient attention is given to all orders of this description, the house possessing facilities which enable it to compete advantageously with rival establishments, either in the abundance or choiceness of the materials, despatch in execution, or moderateness of prices.

The connection of this establishment is large and valuable. The trade done is both wholesale and retail and lies among the smaller drapery establishments in Manchester and the district and the leading families and gentry. A number of assistants are employed under the immediate supervision of the proprietor, whose constant and indefatigable attention is given to the business in its entirety. He is straightforward and honourable in all his transactions and universally known and respected in social and business circles.


MR. Everton commenced business in 1861, originally at No. 29, Lever Street, and transferred to the more extensive and commodious newly-built premises in 1889. On the first floor are the cutting room, office, and warehouse; the workrooms are on the second floor, and extensive storage accommodation in the basement. These premises are eminently suited to the business, having been specially fitted up and arranged in the most careful and complete manner. Mr. Everton gives constant employment to over one hundred hands in the manufacture of every description of hat and bonnet shapes in accordance with the latest styles and the most approved fashions. Bonnet stands are also made of every size. Mr. Everton likewise does an extensive business in buckram and Paris nets, of which a large stock is always on hand. The trade is of a widespread, influential, and steadily growing character. Mr. Henry Everton is a thoroughly practical man, with an experience extending over many years, and by economical manufacture and prudent buying he is in a position to compete on favourable terms with any firm in the trade. As one of the oldest members of the trade, Mr. Everton naturally occupies a very prominent and influential position. He is also well known and highly respected, not only as an old established and successful manufacturer, but also for his active exertions in promoting the best interests of the trade and industries of the city and district.


THIS business was established by the present proprietor in 1883, but prior to this time Mr. Habisreuter had been, for a number of years, in the employ of Mr. A. Hauck, Cross Street, King Street, where his experience had been of such a nature as to fully qualify him for the management of a business on his own account. Premises are occupied in m commodious three-storey block of buildings, comprising a large single-fronted shop on the ground floor, admirably fitted up and provided with every convenience for the adequate display of the valuable stock. The workshops are on the first floor, and are compact and well lighted, and suitable in every respect to the occupation carried on. A large business is controlled here in the manufacture of fur garments of every description. The productions of this house have achieved a reputation in the trade, and are unrivalled for their general excellence and uniform superiority. Mr. Habisreuter is intimately acquainted with the best sources of supply for his special commodities, getting them always direct from the foreign merchants. He buys only the very finest skins, and these are made up by skilled workpeople under his own immediate supervision, every care being taken that patrons shall be thoroughly satisfied.

Nothing, then, but the very best material is used at this responsible house, and the workmanship is of the soundest and most complete character, while the cut and fit are everything the most fastidious could desire, and as prices compare favourably with other houses, a steady and increasing business has resulted. To enable him to readily meet the wants of his customers the proprietor keeps very a large and varied stock of valuable goods on hand, and among these supplies will be found some of the choicest specimens of the furriers’ art. For variety, richness of material, and style, the stocks at this noted house are deservedly famed, and a visit of inspection to them cannot fail to be otherwise than exceedingly gratifying and profitable to intending purchasers. A number of experienced workpeople and competent cutters are kept in constant employment, and special attention is given to every department of the business, orders for goods not in stock being quickly filled in the most satisfactory manner.

Furs of every description are cleaned, altered, or repaired on the most reasonable terms, and seal-skin jackets are cleaned, re-dyed, re-lined, lengthened, and altered to the present fashion with promptness and efficiency. A large and important connection is enjoyed among the leading families in Manchester and the district. Mr. Habisreuter is an energetic, reliable, and thorough business man, and perfectly familiar with every detail of his speciality. He is courteous and honourable in all his transactions, and is much respected in social and commercial1 circles.


AN inquiry into the commercial annals of Manchester shows that this representative concern was organised in 1862, and vigorously carried on by Mr. James Hoy at the Station Works, in Back Pump Street, until the year 1887, when, owing to its phenomenal growth, the business was transferred to its present extensive premises. These consist of a large and substantial four-storied building, having a frontage of over one hundred feet, facing Granby Row, and comprising within its limits a handsome suite of offices and stock-rooms on the ground floor; the remainder of the building being fully equipped with steam-driven machines of the most perfect description, and calling into active requisition the services of a staff of upwards of one hundred and fifty hands, who operate in the manufacture of ladies’ skirts of every description, these being distributed wholesale to all parts of the kingdom. The entire business is splendidly organised, and personally conducted by Mr. Hoy with tact, push, and energy, and it is no exaggeration to say that there are few men better known or more highly esteemed in business circles than the spirited proprietor of this valuable concern.


ONE of the largest and most select businesses of its kind in Manchester is that of Messrs. Kirby & Nicholson, whose well-known mantle and costume warehouse occupies such a prominent position in St. Ann’s Square. This old-established and eminent house originated upwards of half a century ago, its founder being a Mr. Ford, who was succeeded by a Mr. Coaker. The latter remained proprietor for about sixteen years, and gave place in 1889 to the present firm, consisting of Messrs. Kirby, Nicholson, Wordsworth, and Rigg, trading as Kirby & Nicholson. These gentlemen possess the most complete practical knowledge of the trade in all its details, having for twenty years conducted a similar concern at York, where they still have a fine establishment at Victoria House. They have employed their knowledge and experience to great advantage in connection with the Manchester business, and have more than maintained its position in the front rank of the trade. The premises here occupied are in the very heart of the city, and have an almost unrivalled situation in the centre of St, Ann’s Square. They comprise a very large and handsome five-storey building, with fine frontage and superb internal appointments, all the spacious show-rooms being fitted in very superior style.

In its entirety the establishment is one of the finest in the city, its general arrangement and organisation being practically perfect, and in addition to this it contains a stock which it would indeed be difficult to surpass. Messrs. Kirby & Nicholson exemplify the fashion trade most completely, and their show-rooms always display the newest designs and most recherche productions in costumes for walking and all other purposes, dinner gowns, tea gowns, ball and evening dresses, mantles, cloth jackets, opera mantles, children’s jackets, and mantles, evening cloaks, &c., &c. In these departments the firm under notice unquestionably excel, and not in London itself can one meet with a more interesting array of fashionable novelties than those displayed at this noted establishment. Every recent modification of style is promptly and accurately reproduced, showing how completely Messrs. Kirby & Nicholson are in touch with the great centres of fashion; and in workmanship and finish, as well as in material, their productions fall nothing short of perfection.

The fur department is another interesting feature of this favourite emporium, and the display of sealskin jackets and fur-lined cloaks is one of special richness and beauty. In rich brocades, plain silks, velvets, gauzes, nets, Bengaline in every shade and plain and printed pongees, Messrs. Kirby & Nicholson’s warehouse is quite a treasury of attractions; and the various departments for robes, tweeds, delaines, gloves, hosiery, ribbons, embroideries, laces, fans, umbrellas, and ladies’ and children’s outfitting of every description are each of sufficient importance and interest to constitute a very respectable business apart from the others.

The establishment in its entirety is as complete an emporium of high-class draperies and fashions as we have ever had the pleasure of visiting, and under Messrs. Kirby & Nicholson’s able and enterprising administration the business has become, unquestionably, one of the leading concerns of its kind in the city and district. The firm enjoy the support and confidence of a wide and constantly increasing clientele, and are patronised by the first families of Manchester and neighbourhood. No house is better known, and among the many merchants of this busy city, Messrs. Kirby & Nicholson have speedily come to the front in public esteem, as the result of their well-directed energy, personal courtesy, and honourable commercial principles.


THIS business, which may fairly claim to be the largest and most important of its kind in Manchester, was established in 1884, on the present premises. These consist of very extensive cellarage and basement in 85A, Mosley Street. The stocks in all departments touched are of a vast nature, and for quality unsurpassed. The enterprising proprietor, Mr. Moller, has made a name for the excellence of his wines and cigars, which are far-reaching, and which command the increasing attention of bona-fide connoisseurs in all parts of the country. The wines, which are a most superior lot, are in the finest condition, and include ports, sherries, clarets, Madeiras, hocks, champagnes, and other sparkling wines, including his own special brand, “Jules Victor” Cabinet, which has made a name for itself, and though much cheaper in price, will bear comparison with most of the fashionable high-priced wines. An enormous trade is done in the celebrated Pilsener, Bavarian, and Vienna lager beers, which Mr. Möller imports direct. This is supplied extensively to hotels, restaurants, clubs, &c., in cask or bottle, and in the wood to bottlers in all towns in; the kingdom. A splendid stock of cigars is held. All the best brands are imported, and are from selected crops, and include a fine stock of Havanahs, and other well-known foreign cigars.

This is undoubtedly one of the largest concerns of its kind in the city, and the proprietor is to be complimented upon the superior manner in which his establishment is in every way conducted. There is a very valuable connection with shippers, who are supplied with English and foreign beers, wines, &c., for exportation, prices quoted f.o.b. [free on board]. There is a large branch establishment in Liverpool which is exceedingly useful for supplying shippers, this being the chief duty of the branch. It is in no way a matter of surprise to learn that each year’s receipts of this fine business show a wonderful increase, for the energy, enterprise, and ability of the proprietor, together with his courtesy and attention, could not fail to win the hearty support and confidence of customers.

Telegraphic address “Beating, Manchester,”

THE above works were organised in the year 1879, by Messrs. Peters and Turpin. Upon a dissolution of partnership in 1884, the business was continued By Mr. Thomas P. Turpin, until the incorporation of the present company in 1890, under the style and title above designated, with Mr. H. A. Ralph as the able manager. The premises occupied are very extensive, covering a very large area of ground bounded by Harding Street, Wood Street, Brindle Heath Road, and Brierley Street, forming the four parieties of a great square enclosure. Upon this space are erected offices, engine and boiler rooms, a great carpet beating department, fitted throughout with special machinery, ample stabling accommodation, and a thoroughly well-regulated series of cleaning and dyeing machinery and appliances. The company operate not only as carpet-beaters and cleaners, but as renovators of all kinds of furniture fabrics and linings; cretonne, chintz, dimity and linings, cretonne and chintz covers, brackets, curtain holders, &c., blinds, blankets, counterpanes, and quilts, bed ticks, carpets and carriage covers and horse clothing, table covers, lace and muslin curtains, and gentlemen’s clothing, ladies’ garments and fabrics, such as velvets and velveteens, silks, and satins, and the like, and all kinds of sundries in the way of kid gloves, ribbons, antimacassars, fichus, sun shades, and so on and so forth.

The machinery and apparatus employed by the company in cleaning, dyeing, starching, and glazing, and the French process of cleaning by the dry system (Nettoyage a sec), are without question the best and most modern of their kind extant, with the result that the company have gained an unsurpassed reputation for the excellence of their work in each and every department represented. Altogether a staff of about sixty hands, men, women, and girls are employed in the business, and during the busy seasons night and day changes are customary. A service of about ten carts and lurries is perpetually on the move collecting and delivering over a radius of fully ten miles, from the Royal Exchange, Manchester, taken as a centre. The entire business is conducted with marked ability and energy, and reflects the highest credit upon its management, and upon all those who are in any way concerned with the administration of its affairs.


THIS noted house was founded as far back as 1853, and its career from its inception has been one of uninterrupted prosperity and success. Operations are conducted under the able management of Mr. T. Bardsley. in extensive and commodious premises, in the Liverpool Road, generally known as the Pork Butchers’ and Confectioners’ Supply Stores. They consist of a substantial and spacious block of three-storey buildings, comprising large single-fronted shop, numerous warehouses and store-rooms, and a range of stores at the rear. The shop is thoroughly and handsomely fitted up with every contrivance and requirement for the expeditious discharge of the business. The warehouses are lofty and well lighted, and eminently well furnished for the safe and proper storage of the large and varied assortment of commodities they contain. The works are situate at Collyhurst, and are ample in size and convenience, having been specially erected for the purposes to which they are applied. They are efficiently equipped with plant and machinery of the most modern and improved description.

An extensive and valuable business is here controlled in drugs, drysaltery goods, chemicals, essential oils for mineral water manufacturers and confectioners, all kinds of colours, gelatines, dye- woods, &c. None but fresh and genuine drugs are kept at this responsible house, and patrons can rely upon obtaining the best of everything at prices which cannot be surpassed by any establishment in the trade. The house has obtained a reputation, almost universal, for the unique and superior character of its specialities. In their preparation the greatest care and attention are employed to maintain their uniform excellent and special virtues. These leading lines refer chiefly to the business of the pork butcher and confectioner, and the ever-increasing demands from all parts of the globe testify unmistakably to their intrinsic worth and popularity. To specify one or two. The Icehone Meat Preservative is one of the best known. It has been before the public for many years, and the increase in the sale has been phenomenal. It is the most efficacious article yet made for keeping animal and vegetable substances sweet, sound, and in good condition for any reasonable extent of time. It is a powerful antiseptic and a certain meat and milk preservative. It can only be obtained direct from the firm, and the public should be wary of the many worthless imitations which are in the market.

Another special favourite is the firm’s celebrated Smokeline, by the use of which a fine smoky flavour is imparted in a few minutes to hams, bacon, tongues, saveloys, German and Spanish sausages, &c, The Smokeline is thoroughly established in public use, and in efficiency, cleanliness, and economy it surpasses everything of the kind in the market. Several years ago the firm turned their attention to the manufacture of a lard-refiner that would remove the rancid and rank flavour from lard, and at the same time make it snow-white. After many trials and great expense they were eminently successful, and their production leaped into immense demand and general adoption.

A line in which an extensive business is done, and for which the house is particularly noted, is that of herbs, English and foreign. The herbs are carefully selected from the best growths, and are so dried as to preserve their good qualities and flavour, and special plant for grinding has been laid down. Among their other principal specialities are the East India Theodine, a pure vegetable and harmless colouring for sausage, pie, and other meats; Camwood Extract, highly recognised and extensively used for colouring polony, chicken, and ham and tongue skins; the antiseptic liquor meat wash, which is indispensable to butchers, poulterers, tripe dressers, &c., as fresh meat painted over with this liquor will keep fresh for weeks; the Bury pudding seasoning; ham dressing husk; lacque for colouring black puddings; polony and sausage seasonings, which are in great demand all over the United Kingdom, and which for flavour and delicacy will satisfy the taste of the most fastidious; biscuit powder; best fresh-ground spices; gravy and jelly powder, &c. The stocks held of these specialities, as well as of drugs and chemicals of every description, is very large.

An immense trade is controlled, which is exclusively wholesale, and extends throughout the United Kingdom, and to the United States, Canada, and the Colonies generally. Mr. T. Bardsley is the honoured head of the firm, and is looked upon as a thoroughly representative man in his line of business. His experience has been of the most valuable character, and he is eminently skilled in every department of his speciality. He is well known in commercial circles for the equity and integrity of his methods of business, and in private life he is much esteemed for his personal worth, courtesy, ability, and active public usefulness.


THE position of this firm may be almost termed an enviable one. The worthy proprietor may be said to have brought about this satisfactory state of affairs by his own untiring industry and his undoubted ability. He is known throughout the trade as one who gives the best possible value for money, and as one who thoroughly understands the details of his calling. His stock is of the most comprehensive nature, and for abundance of choice it is not to be surpassed in the district. There have been several changes since it was originally founded in 1870. In that year Mr. George Reece commenced operations at 49, Dantzic Street, and, in 1886, the firm became Reece, Hobson & Co. In 1889 Mr. Reece again became sole proprietor, and remains so up to date, trading as Reece & Co.

In 1886 the present house was taken at 28, Shudehill. This consists of building of three floors and basement, with frontage of about thirty-six feet by thirty-three feet. The basement is the store-room for glass, backboards, and mouldings. The ground floor is the sale-room, stock-room, and office. A quantity of mouldings, frames, &c., are also stocked here. The first floor is part work-room and part stock-room, the second has work-rooms and store-rooms for cardboards. There is also a large store-room in Thornley Brow. So extensive has the concern become that premises three times the size of the present would not be too large for the requirements. The business is principally with the picture frame dealers all over the midland and northern counties. Mr. Reece employs a considerable staff on the premises in putting together frames, cutting mounts, &c. His stock of framing is made up of all kinds of mouldings in American and German, black, gold, oak, mahogany, rosewood, and in fact every variety. All kinds of mounts are in stock, or cut to order. There is also a fine selection of room mouldings, mounting boards, glass, backboards, &c. Mr. Reece is a popular favourite with his many customers, who hold him in great respect.


THIS fine hotel, one of the most conveniently situated and most comfortable of Manchester's first-class hostelries, is an old-established and widely known house, and occupies a large and handsome four-story building at the corner of Piccadilly and Chatham Street, with entrances in both thoroughfares. The whole establishment is admirably arranged for the purposes of a first-class modern hotel, and combines comfort, elegance of appointment, and convenience in a very notable degree. A principal feature on the ground floor is the spacious, well- lighted, and finely furnished coffee room, which contains a number of excellent and valuable pictures, and is (among other advantages) provided with both gas and electric light. Three large smoking rooms, very comfortably furnished, extend a constant welcome to lovers of “the weed,” and guests who are fond of a game of billiards, will not be disappointed of their enjoyment in the spacious billiard room, with its one full-sized Orme & Son’s table. Adjoining the billiard room there is a perfectly appointed lavatory.

A broad and handsome staircase leads up to the first floor, where we find a large reading room and several beautifully furnished suites of private apartments. A charmingly decorated corridor, adorned with plants, flowers, mirrors, and fine paintings, is a very attractive feature on this floor, and here will be found three excellent pianofortes to contribute to the enjoyment of family gatherings and social parties. Many daintily furnished bedrooms take up the space on the upper floors, and each of those flats has its bath rooms. There are also large and well-lighted stock rooms for the use of commercial men, whose requirements are very carefully considered at this house.

The Waterloo Hotel has always been noted for its excellent cuisine, and special attention may be invited to the table d’hote dinner from 1 to 2.30 P.M. daily. In the coffee room dinners, luncheons, &c., are served in the best style at separate tables at any hour of the day. The wines, spirits, &c., are all of the best quality, and the attendance in all parts of the house is excellent. All the waiters, as well as the manager, are thorough linguists, and French, German, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, and Danish are spoken, so that the visitors from the Continent have a special reason for patronizing this house. Altogether the Waterloo Hotel is not to be readily surpassed in any detail that contributes to the comfort and satisfaction of the travelling public, and the fact that its hospitality is sought by a very large and regular clientèle from all parts of the world is a standing recommendation. Visitors will find the establishment replete with every modern convenience at reasonable charges, and all who patronize this hotel carry away with them pleasant recollections of its many comforts, and of the courtesy of Mr. G. Battaglia, its genial, experienced, and deservedly popular manager.


MR. Samuel Megarity entered upon his career of business activity in the year 1873, bringing an ample capital and extended experience to bear upon the development of the undertaking to which he has so vigorously and successfully directed his best energies. The premises occupied are in every point of character and situation exactly adapted to the requirements of a brisk business of the kind. They consist of large and substantial two-storied buildings, comprising a handsomely appointed suite of offices, a capitally ordered mill, elaborately equipped with all the best and most modern sawing, planing, and moulding machinery, driven by steam power, and a large yard and drying sheds, stocked to repletion with a vast quantity of well-seasoned timber and building materials of every description. In addition to this the firm hold depots at the various local railway stations for the storage of timber, and are thus prepared to undertake contracts of any magnitude.

Messrs. Megarity & Co. operate on a very extensive scale as contractors and builders of dwelling houses and public institutions. They have long held contracts in connection with the corporation, and make a great speciality of the office and shop fitting section of their business, with particular reference to the fitting up of public bars, and the production of air-tight cases for home and exportation. Mr. Megarity personally superintends the working of the entire business, finding full and regular employment for a large staff, and nothing could be more commendable than the order and system which prevail in every part of the premises, and in the execution of the contracts which have made the house one of the most famous of its kind in the country.


AFTER many years practical experience with one of the largest firms in the hosiery and outfitting trade, Mr. R. S. Foster commenced business recently on his own account at the above address. Mr. Foster has been fortunate in securing these large and commodious premises, which comprise a spacious and handsome double shop, with a very imposing plate-glass frontage of fully thirty feet. The windows display to great advantage a choice selection of high-class hosiery, shirts, collars, scarfs, ties, &c., forming a prominent and attractive feature of this busy thoroughfare. The interior is fitted up in a very superior style, with elegant, yet substantial, counters, stands, show-cases, and other appropriate appointments. The premises also contain extensive warehouse accommodation, well-equipped workrooms and all the accessories of a large and thoroughly organised establishment.

The various departments are well and completely stocked with goods of a quality and character admirably suited to the trade, including a most extensive assortment of general hosiery and outfitting goods, white, and coloured shirts, wool and union shirts, ladies’ and gentlemen’s gloves, ties and scarfs in all the newest shapes and in endless variety, collars, cuffs, linen fronts, braces, Cardigan jackets, &c. Indeed, one of the features upon which Mr. Foster very justly prides himself, apart from the quality of the goods, is the large and varied stock always on hand, the whole of which is selected from the best sources, with great care and sound judgment, and buying in such large lines direct from the manufacturers, Mr. Foster is enabled to give his customers exceptional advantages, both in quality and price. Shirts, collars, cuffs, and fronts are made to measure on the premises, and with the same attention to economy as if selected from stock. A very brisk business is done in every department, which receives the strict personal attention of the proprietor, and is conducted throughout with marked ability, energy, and enterprise.

There is in connection with this establishment a luxurious toilet club, with well-appointed hair-dressing rooms and private dressing room for use of gentlemen, free to members of the club. The subscription to the toilet club for one year is 21s.; half year, 12s. 6d.; quarter, 6s. 6d. This establishment from the outset rapidly assumed a leading position, and it is gratifying to note that the public have now firmly impressed upon it the mint-mark of their appreciation. Mr. Foster’s principal establishment is at 234, High Holborn, London. He has recently opened a branch establishment at No. 9, Market Street, Leicester, which is conducted on the same lines as the Manchester house.


THIS business deserves special mention from its long continuance, operations having been commenced thirty-five years ago. The Manchester houses belonging to the firm are large in their extent, commodious in their arrangement, and attractive in their appearance. They each consist of a double-fronted shop, handsomely and thoroughly fitted up, together with extensive and capacious store-rooms, well supplied with every appliance and requisite for the storage of the goods and the accommodation of visitors. The stores and smoking houses are at Ordsall Lane, Salford, and are among the largest of the kind in Manchester. Everything emanating from this establishment is the best of its kind, and can be guaranteed to be of thoroughly reliable and superior quality.

Only the best class of provisions is held by the firm, and of these an extensive range of choice is offered to customers. The bacon and hams are of prime sorts, including finest mild cured, home and farm fed, dried and smoked bacon, and Cumberland, Wiltshire, and American hams. In butter the house shows the richest productions of the most celebrated English dairies, and large and choice assortments from Ireland and Denmark; while the lard has been procured from the best known and most reliable English refiners. The proprietors have made a special feature of cheese, in which commodity their taste and judgment are alike irreproachable. The supplies include splendid examples of Cheshire, Cheddar, Stilton, Wiltshire, American, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, Gruyère, Parmesan, and all the choicest kinds are well and amply represented.

The house imports direct from the foreign producers, and customers will always find prices of the most satisfactory kind at this old- established house. The trade done is both wholesale and retail, and includes a first-class connection throughout the country and an important family trade. A large and efficient staff of assistants and others is employed, and patrons can rely upon civil and prompt attention. A branch house has been established at 116, Wilinslow Road, Withington, at which place a similar class of goods is kept as at the establishments in the city.


THIS well-known and thoroughly representative house was established in the year 1850 by the late Mr. John Smith, an extremely popular local man, who was for many years an active and prominent member of the Openshaw Local Board. Mr. Smith proved himself a thorough master of every detail of the ironfounding industry, in which he had had many years’ experience. The business he founded at Openshaw developed very successfully, and in 1888 he disposed of the business to his two sons, Messrs. Frederick and Samuel Henry Smith, who trade under the style and title of John Smith and Sons. Immense alterations and improvements have recently been made in the premises at Openshaw, and the establishment is now one of great magnitude and splendid arrangement throughout, and the fine, spacious show-rooms (of which there are no less than five), are filled with interesting and attractive specimens of the firm’s productions, notably in marble and enamelled slate mantelpieces of great artistic merit. There are also iron mantelpieces, painted and enamelled, splendid kitchen ranges, in which there are all sorts of improvements and economical contrivances.

The firm also show a magnificent assortment of tile registers, small ranges, and iron gates and railings of every description, in all of which the resources of the house are most creditably exemplified. The foundry and the various workshops of the firm (including enamelling works) are all perfectly equipped, possessing every facility for the proper conduct of an immense industry; and, in addition to the productions named above, Messrs. John Smith & Sons are prepared to undertake and execute in the best modern style any conceivable kind of artistic and general iron founding. The firm’s catalogue will be forwarded gratis on application, and estimates will be given for any class of goods or work required. Messrs. John Smith & Sons employ about two hundred hands, and control a very large and widespread trade, all the operations of which are ably supervised by the present energetic and experienced principals, who have shown a determination to fully maintain against all competition the high repute and prestige their house has enjoyed from the first.


THIS well-known firm was organised in the year 1869, and is still under the able and vigorous control of its founder, Mr. John Williams. During the first ten years the firm was engaged as “bricklayer and contractor,” but since that time general contracting and all branches of the building trade have been undertaken. The premises occupied are very extensive, and in every way well adapted to the requirements of a brisk, first-class undertaking of this kind. They consist of a very large, capitally ordered yard, in which a good stock of all kinds of builders’ materials is always held. There are well-appointed offices, a perfectly equipped series of sheds with circular saws, planing and moulding machinery, a powerful mortar mill, and every appliance necessary to the pursual of the business in all its branches. A regular staff of from twenty to thirty hands finds full employment all the year round, but is often very considerably augmented. Mr. Williams operates on a large scale as a contractor for the erection of public buildings, churches, schools, and works of all descriptions, and has erected a large number of dwelling houses and cottages in Salford and its vicinity of the very best workmanship. Alterations, additions, and repairs are undertaken. Special attention is given to practical sanitation, drainage, and ventilation. Valuations are undertaken, and buildings are inspected and reported upon at a reasonable charge. Mr. Williams is a tradesman possessing the advantage of a long and thoroughly practical training; he has a perfect knowledge of his business, and exercises that sound judgment and well-directed enterprise which have won for him the respect, esteem, and confidence of all those who have had the privilege of his acquaintance. He is also the inventor of the special ashpit and receptacle door-latch, now coming into use.


THIS thriving and flourishing concern was originally established in the year 1866, and had been for many years conducted, with very satisfactory results, by Mr. Henry Dawes, when the present proprietor succeeded to the business in the year 1889, he having been manager for Mr. Dawes for several years. The firm is located advantageously in a central position in the busiest part of Salford, and the commanding double-fronted shop is excellently fitted and appointed for the convenient arrangement of a large and comprehensive stock of all the various articles required in a general ironmonger’s and mill and colliery furnisher’s business. The connection, which is of a quarter of a century’s standing, is very valuable and influential, and a very extensive trade is done, especially in the mill furnishing department. The fitting of electric bells and speaking-tubes is a speciality, and in this department skilled and experienced workmen are employed. Mr. Joseph B. Trousdale is himself a clever practical man of considerable energy, shrewdness, and business capacity, and he devotes close and active supervision to every detail of the work. Valuations are undertaken in the ironmongery and metal trades, for probate, transfer of business, partnerships, or bankruptcy proceedings, and the sale of businesses negotiated.


THIS thriving institution was organised in the year 1837 by the late Mr. John Townsend, whose name is known far and wide as one of the pioneers of the modern mineral water industry; and is now being carried on upon the same sound lines by his widow, who retains the services of an eminent chemist to personally supervise the production of the beverages, and to analyse all the ingredients used, so as to be able to guarantee absolute purity and wholesomeness and perfect uniformity in everything emanating from the establishment. The premises occupied are in every respect exactly adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business of the kind, and are provided with carefully ordered offices and a plant of modern machinery embodying all the characteristic features of every worthy improvement and advancement that has marked the progress of the industry during the past half century. The firm operate on a very extensive scale as makers of all the popular varieties of aerated beverages, such as soda water, potash water, crystal lemonade, aromatic ginger ale, horehound beer, lithia water, seltzer water, quinine tonic water, champagne cider, stone bottle ginger beer, fermented hop bitters, and the like; and of a very varied selection of choice British cordials, including raspberry brandy, gingerette, peppermint, orange bitters, wormwood bitters, brandy bitters, cloves, aniseed, pine apple, capilaire, noyeau, rum shrub, concentrated lemonade, etc., entailing in their production and distribution the regular services of a staff of from eighty to one hundred hands, some ten or twelve lurries and other vehicles and upwards of twenty horses. The trade controlled is one of considerable volume, extending to all parts of the country, but is particularly well-established locally amongst private families, and wholesale amongst hotel-keepers, licensed victuallers, beer retailers, and others. This firm has also had the honour of the patronage of Her Majesty the Queen. The entire business is conducted with rare ability and enterprise in all its branches, and reflects the highest credit upon all those who are in any way concerned with the administration of its affairs.

Telephone No. 107, National Telephone Co.

DATING back in its foundation to the year 1860, this large and influential business was established by the father of the present proprietor, the latter gentleman succeeding in 1884. Since then the trade has been greatly developed, and new works have been erected in Sebastopol Street, Ancoats, devoted solely to the manufacture of tarpaulin and oil cloth. At the Blossom Street works, cotton oil cloth, patent packing, wagon and cart-sheet making is extensively carried on. They are also fitted with improved machinery for finishing and calendering the various goods produced. The firm have always a large and thoroughly representative stock on hand ready for immediate delivery. The reputation of these goods is so well and firmly established that it is scarcely necessary to emphasize the fact. It is interesting, however, to note that, in spite of the keen competition of the times, they not only maintain their high reputation for excellence of material, manufacture, and finish, but are making greater headway than ever in the market.

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