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IN many respects the district which comes under our notice in the present volume of industrial, commercial, and historical reviews ranks as one of the most important and interesting quarters of Great Britain. It is noteworthy alike on the score of historic interest, of natural resources, and of municipal and mercantile enterprise; and one has only to glance through the annals of England and Wales to perceive at once the prominence of the part played by this Western region and its energetic people in the social and political affairs of the kingdom, and to understand how largely the busy ports on the shores of the Bristol Channel in particular have contributed to our wealth and renown as the greatest commercial nation in the world.

Any review of these flourishing ports must of necessity involve an account of each of the coast towns included in their number, together with a summary of their several histories and business achievements. Such a review, however, can hardly stop here, for it must also embrace some consideration of the wide inland area immediately affected by and interested in the activity of these different seaports. For our present purpose this area may be conveniently referred to under the title, “Wales and the West,” and it will thus be understood to include those parts of the Principality which have a special industrial or commercial aspect (notably the populous manufacturing and mining districts), and also some portions of the contiguous English counties, including Monmouthshire, &c.

The Bristol Channel seaports afford an outlet for much of the produce of Wales and the West Country, and they are also gateways of entrance for a very considerable share of our importations from the American continent. In roughly outlining the scope of this volume, therefore, it may be said that in its pages we shall deal with those communities in which the spirit of Western enterprise has made itself most strikingly apparent. Due notice will be taken of the achievements of ancient and famous Bristol, once the rival of London itself in trading beyond the seas; of the wonderful port and town of Cardiff, the progress of which during the last half-century has been almost unprecedented; of Swansea, Llanelly, and Newport, with their varied industries and large shipping undertakings, and of several other Western ports of creditable prominence. The beautiful and time-honoured city of Bath — most charming of health resorts and most fashionable of inland watering-places — will also claim a share of our attention, and, should space permit, the survey may also be extended to the cities of Gloucester and Hereford and the interesting town of Shrewsbury — ancient municipalities dating back to the earliest periods of English history, and presenting modern features which are well worthy of consideration.

The several ports, towns, and cities to which the attention of the reader will be invited in the following pages contain at the present time an aggregate population of something like 900,000 people: and the principal seaports in our list show a total annual exportation of British products valued at over £11,000,000, besides contributing to the national revenue nearly £1,000,000 sterling in customs dues. Their importance in a commercial sense is therefore manifest, and entitles them to a place in any work designed to illustrate the progress of the present age in British trade and manufacture.

It will be our endeavour in the present instance not to write anything in the nature of an exhaustive historical narrative, but rather to set down a few salient facts of history in a concise manner, and to couple them with such additional comment and statistical records as may serve to indicate the modern character of Wales and the West as a manufacturing and commercial district. In pursuance of this aim, and in order to cite at an early opportunity an example of extraordinary advancement and local prosperity, we may inaugurate this introductory portion of our work by dwelling for a short time upon the annals and undertakings of the Welsh commercial metropolis, the populous and thriving town of


IN the records of its progress daring the present century this great and influential community presents a remarkably forcible instance of municipal and mercantile development brought about by the vigorous efforts of an intelligent and enterprising population, and it may truly be said of Cardiff that no town or city in Britain at the present day owes more to the public spirit of its people or better justifies their individual and united endeavours to promote its welfare.

The growth of Cardiff as a commercial centre and trading port has been unparalleled in recent years, and it is, consequently, in its business aspect that this flourishing town most strongly appeals to us. At the same time the records of the place in days long anterior to the dawn of its commercial prosperity are not without interest, and some of them may be briefly incorporated in this sketch.


Cardiff is a place of great antiquity, and begins to figure prominently at quite a remote period in the exciting scenes of early Welsh and British history. Who was the actual founder of the town it would be difficult to say, but the name seems to throw some little light on this obscure point. The Welsh form of the name, Cardiff, is Caerdydd, and this is understood to signify the fort or city of Didius, a Roman commander, who once had a camp or station at this spot. Some other etymologists and historians suggest “Caer Taf” (“the fort on the Taff”) as a probable derivation of the name; but, having regard to the modern Welsh pronunciation, which is still largely used, there is strong reason to believe that Caerdydd “has it,” and that Aulas Didius, the doughty Roman general above mentioned, founded the place under his own name as Castra Didii. The Welsh princes of Morganwg (Glamorgan) made Cardiff their seat as far back as the sixth century, and it is probable that under their rule the place increased in size by degrees, though the constant warfare in which its lords were at that period involved with Saxons, Danes, and other invaders produced a condition of things anything but favourable to steady progress. After the Norman Conquest, Robert Fitzhamon, one of William’s barons, acquired the lordship of Cardiff and the district generally, and he it was who built the formidable and famous Cardiff Castle, in which Robert “Curthose,” Duke of Normandy, was imprisoned from the year 1107 until his death in 1135. Charters were granted to Cardiff by Edward III., Henry VI., and Elizabeth, and these were confirmed and enlarged by the Charter of Incorporation granted by James I. in 1616. Owen Glendower took the town and castle in 1404, and partially destroyed them. It is recorded that in the reign of Elizabeth Cardiff was “a general resort of pirates,” and the moral tone of the place at that period would seem to have reached a very low ebb.

With the outbreak of the Civil War came new scenes of strife and turmoil, and at first the old castle of Cardiff cut a brave figure, gallantly holding out for the King. The all-conquering Cromwell, however, reduced it to submission in time. From the period of the Restoration down to the dawn of the present century the history of Cardiff has been comparatively uneventful, and the modern development of the place is nothing less than marvellous when we glance at the figures of the census of 1801, and learn from them that Cardiff then contained only 327 houses and 1,018 inhabitants. To-day the houses exceed 20,000 in number, and the population is nearly 130,000. The old fortifications of Cardiff have vanished, but we may learn what they were like from the writings of local historians. Not very long ago the walls of the town were in a state of fair preservation, despite their great age, and they extended with few interruptions from North Street to Mill Lane. At the north-eastern angle of the rampart stood an ancient watch tower, which fell down just fifty years ago. There were other towers for purposes of defence, and also a moat of considerable extent, but the “march of improvement” has eliminated these relics of a bygone age. The castle is now the residence of the Marquis of Bute, the noble bearer of a name which is honoured and revered in Cardiff for the manner in which it has been identified with those great progressive movements that have established the town in its present position of influence, wealth and prosperity.

Cardiff stands on a level1 expanse of ground on the east bank of the Taff, near the coast-line of the Bristol Channel and the roadstead of Penarth. It is a parliamentary and municipal borough, the parliamentary borough comprising the parishes of St. John, St. Mary, Roath, and Canton, and the boroughs of Cowbridge and Llantrissant. One member is returned to Parliament by the Cardiff district, the present representative of the borough at Westminster being Sir E. J. Reed, K.C.B., Gladatonian Liberal, who was elected in 1880 by a majority of 342 votes over the number polled by his Unionist opponent.

The municipal borough includes the parishes of St. John, St. Mary, Roath, and Canton, and these are subdivided into ten wards, the names of which are, respectively, Central, South, Cathays, Park, Adamsdown, Canton, Riverside, Roath, Grangetown and Splott Wards. The local government is vested in a mayor, alderman, and town councillors, each ward being represented by one alderman and three councillors. Aldermen are elected by the Town Council for five years, and are eligible for re-election; town councillors are elected by the burgesses for three years. The present Mayor of Cardiff is Alderman Thomas Rees (Canton Ward), and the Deputy Mayor is Alderman David Jones (Roath Ward).

The municipal organisation is manifestly sound, and its policy has helped to secure a high state of local prosperity, besides assisting in every possible way to develop the resources of the town as a great social, political, and commercial centre. Modern Cardiff is well worthy of the pride of its people and of the unceasing care they bestow upon its various interests; and its advancement in recent years points to the fact that the goal of its progressive career still lies far ahead, and that its highest achievements will be for future historians to chronicle.


As might be expected, from the methods of municipal management pursued of late the people of Cardiff have spared no effort to make their town handsome in appearance as well as prosperous in condition. In all its newer parts Cardiff presents many excellent structural features, and throughout the area of the municipal borough it is remarkably well paved and well lighted, besides possessing very complete sanitary arrangements. The principal streets are broad and well kept, and in these spacious thoroughfares will be found business establishments which would reflect credit upon any city in the world. Time was when Cardiff was a long way outside the pale of fashion, but the energy of its inhabitants has changed all that, and to-day this great Welsh town is perfectly au courant with the progress of the rest of the world as is the metropolis itself. The opening up of rapid means of communication by rail and sea has wrought this beneficent change, and has enabled the people of Cardiff to share in every luxury, as well as in every necessary of life that the activity of British trade brings to our shores from every land under the sun. In the handsome and often palatial establishments which line the chief streets of Cardiff one may find stocks of merchandise of every description as comprehensive and attractive as can be met with anywhere else in the United Kingdom; and for courtesy and enterprise the merchants and traders of this busy town are second to none. The business-like aspect of Cardiff is particularly impressive, at once commanding admiration and promoting thought and retrospect.

“Here, in these crowded thoroughfares we find the pulsing heart of a mighty commercial organisation whose vitality is ever augmenting, and whose influence is already world-wide. Here, in place of the romantic turmoil of the old town in Plantagenet and Tudor times, we see all the thousand and one elements and factors in a vast system of mercantile activity, working together in a collective harmony which, paradoxical as it may seem, is only enhanced by individual competition. And here, we are bound to admit, Cardiff shows herself at her best and brightest, for the very essence of her being is the spirit of commerce and the fervour of trade enterprise that pervade her streets, her docks and quays, her factories and warehouses, and her inhabitants in well-nigh every walk of life.”

It is easy to find one’s way about in the thoroughfares of the Welsh metropolis, and the attractive aspect, good order, and healthy condition of the town in the present year of grace constitute a high tribute to the earnest efforts of the authorities, who have devoted so much attention to the improvement of the streets and buildings within their jurisdiction. The growth of the town during the last twenty or thirty years has carried its streets and structures out over a wide area, and the suburbs have increased immensely in almost all directions. What this steady expansion of a great community really amounts to in time may be understood by anyone who will watch the gradual absorption, year by year, of the fields and lanes in the environs of any growing town, and their incorporation into the system of paved thoroughfares and lofty buildings. As the fields disappear, outlying villages, &c., are brought nearer to the great centre of population and activity, and this finds illustration at Cardiff in the venerable cathedral city of Llandaff, a most ancient though very small place, which, though once about six miles distant, is now almost connected with its huge neighbour.

As a town increases in size and population it becomes imperative that a corresponding enlargement should take place in its facilities of internal transit as well as in its means of communication with the outer world. In these respects Cardiff meets all requirements. There are over one hundred and fifty licensed cabs plying in the streets of the town, and cab-ranks have been fixed for these vehicles at several prominent and accessible spots, such as the Town Hall, the theatre, Queen Street, North Street, Bute Docks, &c. The fares are regulated by the Corporation upon a moderate and reasonable basis, and the vehicles are as a rule comfortable, well horsed, and well driven. Besides the cabs there is an ample service of tramcars and omnibuses, affording ready means of access at economical rates to all parts of the town and suburbs. The principal tramway lines are (1) from Roath to the docks, (2) from Canton to the docks, (3) from St. John’s Square to Cathays, [4} from Grangetown to Splottlands. The omnibus routes are as follows:- From Roath to the docks, from Canton to Roath, from Canton to the docks, from the Monument to Cathays, from the Monument to Richmond Road, from Bute Terrace to Carlisle Street (East Moors), the end of Duke Street to Llandaff, from St. Mary Street to Penarth, and from Pier Head to Penarth Ferry.

In the matter of railway and steamboat communication, Cardiff enjoys splendid facilities. The principal line entering the town from a distance is that of the South Wales division of the Great Western Railway, which has its passenger station at the head of St. Mary Street. The Taff Vale Railway (connecting with the Midland Railway system) has its chief station for passengers and goods at Station Terrace. The London and North-Western Railway has a goods-station in Tyndall Street. In Queen Street is situated the passenger-station of the Rhymney Railway. By these and other connecting lines travellers can reach Cardiff conveniently and expeditiously from any quarter of the United Kingdom, and the mineral product of the South Wales district can be brought to the docks for shipment to any destination at home or abroad. In connection with the docks, we note the remarkable steamship arrangements which place Cardiff in touch with all British and foreign ports. There are frequent sailings to and from Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Hamburgh, Bordeaux, Dublin, Cork, Glasgow, Hull, Bristol, Liverpool, Belfast, and London. The Glamorgan Canal Company’s boats communicate daily with Aberdare and Merthyr Tydvil; twice a week there is a steamer to Bridgwater; and every day three services of steamboats are kept going to and from Bristol. The Penarth Ferry is also a great convenience, a boat running every twenty minutes during tide.

Having now briefly considered the history, topography, local government, and transport facilities of Cardiff, we may proceed to notice in a concise form some of the town’s principal


The public buildings of a town are frequently a criterion of its advancement, and those of Cardiff are highly creditable to the place and its people. The ancient Castle, which has been most skilfully restored, and the fine old Church of St. John, are almost the only historic and antique edifices in the town, but there are numerous buildings of more modern date which are worthy of mention. Notable among these is the large and handsome Town Hall, situated in St. Mary Street. This fine structure dates from the year 1850, and was erected from the designs of a London architect, Mr. Horace Jones. It has been considerably added to and enlarged in later years, as the borough grew, and its requirements increased; and there is now excellent accommodation for the Council Chamber, municipal offices, Law Courts, police court, and police-station, &c., &c. This block also contains the large Assembly Hall, which is devoted to the purposes of public meetings, banquets, &c. The Government Buildings in Bute Place, Bute Docks, were commenced in 1880, the architect being Mr. Rivers. They form a large and commodious block in the Doric style of architecture, and contain the offices of the Board of Trade, the Mercantile Marine Offices, the Cardiff Local Marine Board, and other Government offices. The Custom House and the Inland Revenue offices are situated in Custom House Street.

The churches of Cardiff are very numerous, and not a few of them rank among the architectural ornaments of the town. The fine old Church of St. John is particularly interesting, and its noble tower dates from the middle of the fifteenth century. Between 1884 and 1889 this church was restored and considerably enlarged. Other important churches are those of St. Andrew (1860); St. Mary (1845); All Saints (1856); St. John’s (Canton); and St. Margaret’s (Roath). These are churches of the Establishment, and connected with them are several mission churches, chapels of ease, &c.

The Nonconformist bodies are very numerously represented in Cardiff, and their chapels are among the noteworthy places of worship, the requirements of all denominations of those who dissent from the Established Church being amply provided for. There are five Roman Catholic churches in Cardiff, the town being embraced in the Roman Catholic diocese of Newport and Menevia, of which sea the Right Rev. John Cuthbert Hedley is Bishop. Several other religious denominations have places of worship in the borough, including the Free Church of England, the Lutherans, the Unitarians, and the Christadelphians. At Cardiff, also, are situated the Salvation Army Headquarters for South Wales and Mid-Wales, and the Army have several halls in the district.

Cardiff is well supplied with charitable institutions and establishments devoted to the succour and relief of the poor, the sick, the helpless, and the insane; and in the principles of their organisation and the manner of their administration these institutions are second to none in the country. They include the

Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire Infirmary, founded over half a century ago, and located in a fine group of buildings specially erected for the purpose; the Cardiff Provident Dispensary, which enables the working classes to provide themselves with advice and medicine by their own thrift; the Seamen’s Hospital, on board H.M.S. Hamadryad, a vessel supplied by the Admiralty for this purpose, and moored near the sea-lock of the Canal; “The Rest,” at Porthcawl, a home by the sea for invalids and patients suffering from scrofulous complaints; the House of Mercy at Llandaff; the Asylum of the Good Shepherd at Penylan; and Nazareth House, North Road, an institution conducted by the “Poor Sisters of Nazareth,” whose headquarters are at Hammersmith, and whose noble work among the destitute poor, orphans, waifs and strays, and incurables has met with such high and deserved approval at Cardiff as well as in London. The Cardiff Charity Organisation Society has done good work since its foundation in 1886: and another institution of a highly meritorious character is St. Margaret’s House of Mercy. The operations of these beneficent establishments are greatly facilitated by the liberal support they all receive from the general public from prominent personages in Cardiff and the vicinity. Among the latter the Marquis of Bute — ever foremost in well-doing — stands conspicuous, and his example serves to stimulate the generosity of others, while his name inspires confidence in the worthiness of each cause with which he permits it to be associated.

Welshmen have ever been noted for the close attention they pay to matters of education and intellectual culture, and on these points Cardiff is fully up to the high standard maintained throughout the Principality. Foremost among the educational institutions of the town and county stands the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, which was projected some twelve years ago by a number of influential personages desirous of promoting the cause of intermediate and higher education in Wales. This important college was opened in October, 1883, by Lord Aberdare, who was from the first actively interested in its organisation. The University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire is open to both male and female students, and is conducted upon non-sectarian lines, no student, professor, teacher, or other person connected with it being required to “make any declaration as to his religious opinions, or to submit to any test whatsoever thereof.” The college is well accommodated in spacious premises, and every arrangement is complete for comprehensive academical work. There are now many students in attendance, and the professional staff is large and efficient. The Marquis of Bute, K.T., is president, and Lord Aberdare, G.C.B., is vice-president of the council. The treasurer is Sir Henry Hussey Vivian, Bart., M.P., and the principal is J. Viriamu Jones, M.A. (Oxon.), B.Sc. (Lond.), Fell. Univ. Coll., Lond. The professorial chairs are those of Greek, Latin, Logic and Philosophy, English Language and Literature and History, Mathematics and Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Engineering, Biology, and Celtic. There are also lecturers on the French Language and Literature, German Language and Literature, Hebrew Language, Music, Mathematics; and demonstrators in Physics, Chemistry, and Engineering.

Other noteworthy schools and institutes for educational purposes in the Cardiff district are Howell’s School, Llandaff; the Llandaff School for Deaf and Dumb Children; the Science, Art, and Commercial Schools, for technical instruction; the school on H.M.S. Havannah, where over sixty boys are maintained and taught in various matters connected with seafaring: the Craddock Wells Endowment School, founded in the early part of last century, and devoted to the education and bringing up of a number of poor boys and girls of Cardiff; the Institute for the Blind, in Longcross Street; and the schools of the Sisters of Providence at Roath, and of the Sisters of St. Margaret’s (East Grinstead), in North Church Street. Besides the above there are many elementary schools, including thirteen Board schools, thirteen National schools, a Wesleyan school, and six Roman Catholic schools.

Closely associated with the educational establishments of Cardiff in the work of intellectual training are the several excellent literary institutions found in the town. These include a splendid Free Library, with reading-room, museum, and well-stocked reference and lending libraries; also the Cardiff and County Subscription Library in St. Mary Street; the fine law library of the Incorporated Law Society; the Exchange News Room, where all the principal newspapers, magazines and periodicals are available to subscribers; the Young Men’s Christian Association, with its comprehensive system for the benefit and advancement of its members, and the Young Women’s Christian Association dates from 1884 and has its rooms in Charles Street.

The unwarrantable assumption that people who devote much of their lives to the pursuits of commerce cannot have much sympathy with the fine arts has been repeatedly disproved by the high state of artistic culture met with in many of our large manufacturing and mercantile towns; and in Cardiff we find a number of striking evidences of the fact that most business people turn instinctively to the arts for that rest and relaxation which is the most valuable when it assumes the form of complete change from, and contrast to, the routine of every-day life.
Cardiff has various artistic institutions which all tend to advance the intellectual standard and general taste of a naturally refined and gifted people, and the town (like all the rest of Wales) makes a particularly creditable show in musical matters. The Welsh are probably the most musical people in all Britain, and the glorious traditions of their bards are kept constantly in mind and treasured with zealous care. Long, long ago, when the clash of war and the tramp of armed hosts resounded in the land of the Cymry, the art of poetry found its devotees in every camp, and the sister art of music awoke the echoes of hill and valley as it gave voice to some stirring song of love or battle, instinct with sentiment and patriotic fervour. To-day the industries of peace supplant the strategy of war — the sword has become a ploughshare, and mills and factories replace the tented field; but the bardic harp has lost none of its charm for the Welshman, and its strains can still touch a responsive chord in his breast. Cardiff has several important and admirably organised musical societies, including the South Wales Choral Union, the Cardiff Musical Society, the Cardiff Orchestral Society, the Cardiff Blue Ribbon Choir, and the Llandaff Diocesan Church Choral Association, this latter comprising the church choirs of the diocese of Llandaff formed into a union with the object of promoting the improvement of church music and congregational singing. During the present year (1892) Cardiff will hold its first great Musical Festival on a scale similar to that of the festivals at Birmingham, Leeds, &c., and these gatherings are intended to be a permanent and regularly recurring institution in the future musical life of the town.

The drama is also largely patronised and fully appreciated here, and the town has three theatres — the Theatre Royal, the Grand Theatre, and the Empire Theatre of Varieties. The principal halls are the Philharmonic Hall, the Park Hall, the Colonial Hall, the Lecture Hall in Queen Street Arcade, and the Swiss Hall in Queen Street. These afford excellent accommodation for concerts, lectures, entertainments and meetings. We should also mention the Victoria Music-Hall in St. Mary Street.

The inhabitants of Cardiff, besides possessing ample facilities for intellectual amusement and refined entertainment indoors, are equally well provided with places of outdoor recreation. The parks are beautiful and extensive pleasure-grounds, admirably laid out to serve their useful and beneficial purpose. They include Roath Park, the delightful Sophia Gardens, Cardiff Arms Park, Sophia Gardens Field, and the Recreation Ground at Cathays. The three last-named grounds are largely used by the numerous athletic clubs of the town and district.

Cardiff has a number of excellent hotels which afford highly satisfactory accommodation to visitors. Among these are the Angel Hotel, Barry’s Hotel, the Park Hall Hotel, Wyatt’s Royal Clarence Temperance and Commercial Hotel, and the Lansdowne at Penarth. Club life is in a well-advanced condition here, and there are several important clubs such as the Cardiff and County Club, the Glamorgan Club, the Cardiff Conservative Club, the Cardiff Reform Club, and the Cardiff Exchange Club, the members of the last-named club being principally prominent merchants, shipowners, and bankers of the town. There are seven banks in Cardiff, viz., Lloyd’s Bank: a branch of the Bristol and West of England Bank, Limited; a branch of the London and Provincial Bank, Limited; a branch of the National Provincial Bank of England, Limited; the head office of the National Bank of Wales, Limited; a branch of the South Wales Union Bank, Limited; and a branch of the County of Gloucester Bank, Limited.

Of the press of Cardiff it would be difficult to speak too highly. The daily newspapers are four in number, viz., the ‘Western Mail,’ Conservative; the ‘South Wales Daily News,’ Liberal; the ‘Evening Express,’ Conservative; and the ‘South Wales Echo,’ Liberal. There are also five weekly journals — the ‘Weekly Mail,’ Conservative; the ‘Cardiff Times,’ Liberal: the ‘Cardiff Figaro,’ the ‘News of the Week,’ Conservative; and the ‘Welsh Athlete.’ These various journals speak eloquently at all times in the interests of the community in general and of their special clientele in particular, and in the cause of national and social progress their influence is both powerful and well directed.


AS an example of rapid and enormous development within a comparatively brief period of time, Cardiff in its business aspect has few modern parallels in the Old World. A century ago few people would have dreamed that the then small and quiet seaport, with its insignificant trade and its less than two thousand inhabitants, would within the next hundred years develop into the large and flourishing municipal borough and port with which we now familiar. No more wonderful thing of the kind has come to pass in a similar space of time in Great Britain, and Cardiff may fairly be awarded the palm for rapid growth and increase in wealth and commerce. Two great causes have contributed to this effect — two causes which long lay dormant, but which eventually awoke into life and activity. One of these may be found in the situation of Cardiff: the other in the mineral wealth of the neighbourhood. The Penarth roadstead has always afforded a remarkably safe anchorage for shipping, and its natural advantages in this and other respects have from the first endowed it with great possibilities as a port. In addition to all this, Cardiff is the natural outlet for the mineral riches of Wales and Monmouthshire, and its splendid railway facilities co-operate with its advantages as a shipping port. The Glamorganshire Canal was completed in 179$, and this waterway was for many years the channel by which the coal and iron of the mining districts reached the coast.

We need not speak here of the well-known superiority of the Welsh steam coal — its reputation is world-wide, and it is shipped to every quarter of the globe in response to a universal demand. The opening of the Taff Valley Railway, in 1840, gave a great impetus to the trade of Cardiff, by increasing the facilities of mineral traffic, and this line still continues to be of the highest possible usefulness to the port and to the mining districts. It was during the construction of the Taff Valley Railway that the then Marquis of Bute conceived the idea of forming a large dock between the town and the Bristol Channel, utilising for this purpose an expanse of waste land belonging to himself. Thus was inaugurated what is known and admired as one of the finest pieces of dock structure and engineering in the United Kingdom, and the greatly enlarged Bute Docks as they now exist are a monument to the foresight and enterprise of their noble founder, who, more than half a century ago, saw and understood how immensely beneficial such an addition to the shipping accommodation of the port would be to the entire trade of South Wales. Since then the town and port of Cardiff have prospered exceedingly, and a few quotations of statistical figures will indicate the remarkable manner in which all the trading enterprises of the place have developed during the past fifty to fifty-five years. In 1848 the quantity of coals shipped coastwise at Cardiff was 544,196 tons, and the shipments to foreign ports in the same year amounted to 115,604 tons. This represented five times the amount of the shipments in 1838. To-day Cardiff has fairly established its claim to be recognised as the largest coal-exporting port in the United Kingdom, the quantity of coal and coke shipped at the Bute Docks in 1890 being 7,420,080 tons, while an additional 1,568,895 tons were shipped at Penarth, the busy Bristol channel port which, in the space of fifty years, has grown up from a tiny village to be a fashionable seaside resort and a lively seat of maritime trade, with a resident population of fully 12,000.

The number and tonnage of vessels that entered and cleared the port of Cardiff during the year 1849 were 9,064 vessels, aggregating 695,022 tons. In 1888 the vessels entered numbered 12,973, with a tonnage of 5,767,616; while the clearances were 13,274 vessels, of 6, 483, 762 tons aggregate. In 1890 there entered and cleared from the port 25,972 vessels, of 13,021,688 tons in the aggregate. For the registered tonnage of its vessels cleared with cargoes to foreign countries and British possessions Cardiff shows in the year 1890 a total of 5,498,266 tons. These figures being considerably in excess of those shown by either London or Liverpool, it is plain that Cardiff is the ‘first port in the United Kingdom’ in volume of export trade – a fact of which the people of this progressive town may indeed be justly proud. The number and net tonnage of sailing and steam vessels registered under the Merchant Shipping Acts as belonging to the port of Cardiff on December 31st, 1888, were 290 vessels of 151,792 tons in the aggregate. The value of the total exports of produce of the United Kingdom from Cardiff in 1884 was £4,806,112. In 1888 the figures rose to £4,873,106. In 1890 they stood at no less than £7,863,986. The value of the total imports of foreign and colonial produce brought into the port of Cardiff in 1884 was £1,756,685; in 1888 the imports reached a value of £2,165,961. In 1890 they amounted to £2,600,509. The gross customs receipts at the port of Cardiff in 1888 were £25,423. In 1890 they were £37,819.

The import trade of Cardiff increases concurrently with the* growing demands of the thousands of workers engaged in the great, metallurgical and other industries of the town and its vicinity.

The operatives have daily requirements which must be satisfied: hence we find among the imports great quantities of provisions, grain, potatoes, live cattle, meats, flour, fruits, and other food stuffs which are not only in demand in Cardiff itself, but are also distributed over a wide area in South Wales, Monmouthshire, and the western and midland counties, Cardiff being the natural emporium for these districts. The timber trade of the port is enormous, great quantities of timber being required for use at the collieries, and there is a vast importation of Spanish haematite ore for mixing with the native ore of Wales. The export trade of Cardiff, as we have already shown, is of extraordinary magnitude, and coal is
Its chief commodity, the facilities for shipping coal at the docks quickness being probably superior to those existing at any British port. Among other important exports are found all descriptions of ironwork, great quantities of patent fuel, steel, iron, steel rails, cutlery, textile fabrics, hardware in great variety, glass and earthenware, and almost every other British product. There are also many large and important industries carried on in Cardiff, including copper smelting, engineering and shipbuilding, iron and steel manufacture, tin stamping, &c. Most of these industries are conducted upon a truly gigantic scale, and a notable example of this is found at the vast works of the Dowlais Iron Company, which cover nearly 100 acres of land to the north of Roath Dock.


No single factor has contributed more extensively to the prosperity of Cardiff by promoting convenience and despatch in the operations of its trade, than have the Bute Docks, for which this port is now so widely famous in the shipping world. These magnificent docks were projected by the late Marquis of Bute about sixty years ago, and the prosperity of Cardiff has progressed hand-in-hand, as it were, with their growth and development. The Bute West Dock was opened in 1839, and the Taff Vale Railway being completed and opened within a few months afterwards, the result of the facilities thus afforded soon became manifest in an amazing increase in the trade of the port. Within the space of five years (1839 to 1854) the export of coal from Cardiff increased considerably more than two hundred-fold! In 1855 the Bute East Dock was opened, and a year later a tidal harbour was constructed. The Bute East Dock was subsequently considerably enlarged, and the tidal harbour has now become absorbed in Roath Basin, a sort of antechamber to Roath Dock. Roath Basin was constructed by Lord Bute’s trustees, and opened in 1874. The latest addition to Cardiff’s fine dock system is Roath Dock, which was opened in 1887. - The total water area available in the Bute Docks at the present time is 110 and three-quarter acres, made up as follows:— Bute East Dock, 46 and a-quarter acres; Roath Dock, 33 acres; Bute West Dock, 19 and a-half acres; and Roath Basin, 12 acres. The Bute Docks are now under the control of an incorporated company, styled the “Bute Docks Company,” of which the Marquis of Bute is chairman. They are fully equipped with the most effective modern appliances for loading and unloading vessels, including the wonderful “Lewis-Hunter” coaling cranes; and no docks in the kingdom afford better facilities for the conduct of both import and export operations upon a large scale. In connection with the docks there are large warehouses for storing all kinds of merchandise requiring shelter; while the wharfage area for other goods is commensurately extensive. Huge grain warehouses are also provided, and these are being largely added to.

Dock charges at Cardiff are upon an especially moderate scale, and there are ample facilities for overhauling and repairing vessels, there being several graving docks of large size. As showing how complete is the system of communication by rail between Cardiff and other parts of the United Kingdom, we may say that no less than seven railways have communication with the Bute Docks, viz., the Great Western, the London and North-Western, the Midland, the Taff Vale Railway, the Brecon and Merthyr Railway, the Rhymney Railway, and the Pontypridd, Caerphilly, and Newport Railway. Our readers will find a most useful little handbook of industrial and shipping information in “Some Account of the Bute Docks, Cardiff, and the Surrounding Works and Industries,” published by Daniel Owen & Co., Limited, Cardiff. The same firm also publish an excellent “Almanack,” containing tide-tables, plans of the docks, and a large variety of practical information concerning the town and the port. In due course, in the present volume, we shall speak individually of many of Cardiff’s great industrial and commercial firms; just now, however, we must proceed to briefly consider a few other noteworthy and prosperous Welsh communities, and prominent among these stands


This important and interesting municipal and parliamentary borough has a remarkably fine situation, and presents a picturesque appearance, from its position in an angle between lofty hills, up the slopes of which the houses of the town extend on either side. Here the River Tawe flows into Swansea Bay, one of the most beautiful recesses of the Bristol Channel, and it is in a large measure owing to the fine facilities which this bay affords for sea-bathing that Swansea has lately been increasing in popularity as a summer resort. It is not easy to trace the history of Swansea back to its actual commencement, but the place was certainly of no importance until the end of the eleventh century, when Henry de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, built Swansea Castle. That historic fortress was frequently assaulted and several times destroyed by the Welsh, and it suffered greatly at the hands of Owen Glendower. In 1647 Cromwell ordered it to be dismantled, probably on account of the resistance it offered to him before the eventual triumph of the Parliament. Some interesting remains of Swansea Castle still exist, notably the hall, the dungeons, and the imposing keep. The latter dates from the fourteenth century, having been built by one of the Bishops of St. David’s. Swansea was made a Borough by King John, and subsequent charters conferring increased privileges were granted by Henry III., Edward II., and Edward III.

With the exception of the Castle there are few monuments of antiquity in Swansea. Even the fine old church of St. Mary (founded in the fourteenth century) was largely rebuilt about a hundred and fifty years ago. The town itself is essentially modern and its growth is due to its remarkable activity in the metal trades. The streets are regularly laid out, well paved and well lighted, and there is every evidence of highly satisfactory local government. The municipal borough has a population of 90,423, and is ruled by a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen councillors.

As showing the steady growth of the town it may be said that the population in 1871 was 51,702, and in 1881, 65,597. Swansea town now has separate parliamentary representation, and the present member is Mr. R. J. Dickson-Burnie, liberal.

The modern public buildings of Swansea are numerous, and very creditable to the place. They include the Guildhall, with the Municipal Offices and a fine law library: the Free Public Library (30,000 volumes), with art gallery and school of art in the building; the Grammar School, dating its foundation back as far as 1682; the large and well-arranged market, built 1830; and the Royal Institution of South
Wales, occupying a handsome building in the classic style, in which are a library, lecture-room, and museum of geological and antiquarian specimens. The town is rich in institutions for charitable and other purposes, and among these are the General Hospital, the Deaf and Dumb Institution, the Swansea and South Wales Institute for the Blind, the Eye Hospital, the Sailors’ Home, the Dispensary, and the Nursing Institution. A large concert hall and two theatres afford musical and dramatic entertainment, and there are several very fine public parks and recreation grounds.

Swansea is situated about 45 miles from Cardiff, and has excellent means of railway communication. There are also good facilities of transport by canal, one canal running along the valley of the Tawe into Brecknockshire, another connecting the river Neath with the harbour, and another communicating with the neighbouring collieries. The advantages enjoyed by Swansea in its excellent port, coupled with the immediate proximity of valuable collieries, have made it one of the busiest and most prosperous towns in Wales. Copper smelting is here carried on to an extent probably unequalled elsewhere, at home or abroad, and this has been the chief industry of the place for over two hundred years. Vast quantities of copper are annually brought to Swansea by the large smelting firms whose works form such a conspicuous feature of the district, and the product of these great establishments, in ingots, bars, sheets, &c., is distributed from here throughout the United Kingdom and the world in general. Other notable industries of Swansea include tinplate manufacture, lead smelting, silver extracting, iron and steel manufacture, spelter and zinc manufacture, and the building of railway rolling-stock. The oyster fishery in Swansea Bay still continues to be of very considerable value.

During the last forty-five years great improvements have been effected in the harbour, and there is now excellent accommodation for the shipping of the port, which is very extensive. In 1876 the entries into the port of Swansea, were 7,799 vessels, aggregating 1,068,062 tons, and the clearances from the port were 7,549 vessels, of 1,041,078 tons. In 1885 the entries were 7,447 vessels, of 1,461,248 tons, and the clearances were 7,051 vessels, of 1,366,117 tons. In 1888 the entries were 6,565 vessels, of 1,339,340 tons, and the clearances 6,553 vessels, of 1,341,390 tons. The number and net tonnage of sailing and steam vessels registered under the Merchant Shipping Acts which belonged to the port of Swansea in 1888 were 159 vessels, of 59,565 tons. The value of the total imports of foreign and colonial merchandise into the port of Swansea in 1884 was £1,884,535; in 1888, £2,724,572; in 1890, £3,060,072. The value of the total exports of produce of the United Kingdom from this port in 1884 was £2,096,288; in 1888, £3,445,367; in 1890, £4,953,635. The gross customs revenue at the port of Swansea in 1888 was £8,374; in 1890, £10,200. The principal imports are metal ores, timber, and provisions, while the exports include great quantities of tin-plates, copper, and other local products. A very large trade is carried on with France, Spain, Portugal, the Mediterranean ports, South Africa and South America. A number of well-known newspapers are published at Swansea, including the ‘Daily Leader,’ the ‘Cambrian,’ the ‘Herald of Wales,’ the ‘Swansea Shipping Register,’ the ‘Swansea and Glamorgan Herald,’ the ‘Swansea Journal,’ and the ‘South Wales Critic.’


The parliamentary and municipal borough of Merthyr Tydvil, situated 22 miles to the north-west of Cardiff, is another great centre of activity in the mining and metal working industries of South Wales. The town stands at a high elevation among the wild and picturesque Glamorgan Hills, and is the greatest seat of the iron trade in Wales. Prior to the middle of last century it was an insignificant village, hardly known to the outer world; but in 1755 a number of iron furnaces were erected, and since then the place has grown continuously and enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity. In 1881 the town of Merthyr Tydvil had a population of 48,861; in 1891 its inhabitants numbered 58,080. The parliamentary borough (created in 1832, and returning two members to St. Stephen’s) comprises most of the parish of Merthyr Tydvil, the parish of Aberdare, and parts of the parishes of Llanwonno and Vainor, the latter being across the border of Brecknockshire. The area of the parliamentary borough is 29,954 acres, and the population in 1891 was 104,008. The town has two banks, a theatre, several public balls, and an increasing number of fine shops and business establishments, conducted with conspicuous enterprise and ability. Two newspapers are published here — the ‘Merthyr Express,’ and ‘Y Tyst ar Dydd.’

Merthyr Tydvil has an abundant supply of coal, and every branch of iron and steel manufacture is carried on upon a scale of the greatest possible magnitude. No more impressive sight can be imagined than the aspect of this district at night-time, when the lurid glare of its many huge furnaces and works lights up the sky overhead, and sends its red reflection over the country for miles around.


The busy town of Pontypridd, comprising the parishes of Eglwysilan, Llantrissant, Llantwit-Vairdre, and Llanwonno, in the county of Glamorgan, is situated at the confluence of the Rivers Rhondda and Taff, twelve miles northwest of Cardiff. The name (Pont-y-Pridd, or “Bridge of Beauty”) is said to be derived from the remarkably elegant and handsome bridge which here spans the Taff. This bridge, consisting of a single graceful arch, was built by William Edwards, a self-taught mason and architect. Pontypridd is frequently referred to under the name of Newbridge. A hundred years ago it was a small village, but the presence of great supplies of iron and coal in the vicinity has made it a progressive and flourishing industrial centre, with large anchor, chain, and cable works, iron and brass foundries, and manufactures of chemicals. The population in 1881 was 12,317, but in 1891 it had increased to 19,971. Pontypridd has two banks, several notable public buildings, many well-conducted business establishments, a theatre, a spacious Town Hall, available for entertainments, &c., and three newspapers, viz., the ‘Pontypridd District Herald,’ the ‘Pontypridd Chronicle,’ and the ‘Rhondda Gazette.’


Another town whose name is intimately associated with the typical industries of Glamorganshire is Neath, a parliamentary and municipal borough and river port, situated on the river Nedd, eight miles north-east of Swansea. Neath is thought to be the Nidum of the Romans, and it is a place of considerable antiquity, having some remains of an ancient castle which was destroyed as far back as the year 1231. Visitors will be interested in the ruins of the famous old Cistercian abbey (founded early in the twelfth century) to which John Leland, the antiquary, has referred as “the fairest abbey in Wales.” At the present time Neath is purely an industrial town, and its operations are very extensive in the metal industries of South Wales, of which it has become one of the principal seats. There are great mineral riches in the neighbourhood, and these are being actively and enterprisingly utilised. Copper smelting and tinplate making are very largely carried on, and these trades give employment to a great many of the inhabitants. There is also an important export of coal and other minerals to various markets. Neath is a well-governed town, and possess excellent municipal and general institutions. Its population in 1891 was 11,157. There are three banks and several halls and other public buildings; and the town has two well-known nespapers, the ‘Bridgend and Neath Chronicle,’ and the ‘Neath Gazette.’


Though strictly speaking, and English county, Monmouthshire has many characteristics in common with the Welsh counties to which it is contiguous, and its largest town, Newport, is intimately associated with those industrial pursuits that have had all to do with the prosperity of South Wales in modern times. Newport is a large and important parliamentary and municipal borough and on the River Usk, about twelve miles north-east of Cardiff, in the parish of Newport St. Woollos. It is a place of considerable antiquity, and the name probably originated from the fact that Giraldus called the station he established here Novus Burgus, to distinguish it from the much older Caerleon. The Welsh named it Castel Newydd, or Newcastle. The Earl of Gloucester erected a formidable castle here in the twelfth century, and portions of this stronghold still remain. Edward II. granted the town its first charter of incorporation.

Newport has not had a very eventful history, but within the memory of living men it was the scene of one of the most regrettable of the Chartist riots. Over ten thousand armed miners and workmen defied the law in 1839, and raised a local insurrection which was not quelled until troops had been called out to restore order. Twenty of the rioters were killed in an encounter with the military, and many others were injured. During the last half-century Newport has been seen to advantage as a great industrial centre. Latterly, the Pontypridd, Caerphilly, and Newport Railway has increased the facilities of communication with the mineral districts – notably with the collieries of the Rhondda Valley — and great progress has been made in all the local trades, which include shipbuilding, ironfounding, chain and cable making, the forging of anchors, the construction of engines, boilers, and railway plant, and the manufacture of chemicals and agricultural implements. An immense trade is carried on in the exportation of manufactured iron. The commodious docks now have an area of about eighty acres, and afford excellent accommodation for the active shipping trade of the port. On December 31st, 1888, the sailing and steam vessels registered as belonging to the port of Newport numbered 112, with an aggregate tonnage of 32,146 tons. Statistics show the marked growth of the trade in late years. In 1884 the imports of foreign and colonial merchandise at Newport were of the value of £777,828; in 1888, £764,725; in 1890, £910,418.

The exports of produce and manufactures of the United Kingdom from this port in 1884 were of the value of £1,767,484; in 1888 they were £1,816,647; in 1890 they reached the great total of £2,390,428. At Newport the gross customs revenue in 1888 was £15,961; in 1890, it amounted to £19,086. The town has several fine public buildings, notably the handsome new Town Hall, erected in 1885, and the impressive Church of St. Woollos. There are three banks and six newspapers, the names of the latter being the ‘Evening Star of Gwent,’ ‘Monmouthshire Merlin,’ ‘South Wales Daily Telegram,’ ‘South Wales Weekly Telegram,’ ‘South Wales Times,’ and the ‘Star of Gwent.’ The town also has four theatres. Newport belongs to the Monmouth district of parliamentary boroughs, returning one member. The population in 1801 was only 1,087; in 1881 it was 38,469; and in 1891 it had risen to 54,695.


This ancient town is the capital of the county of Monmouthshire, and is charmingly situated in a valley sheltered by wooded hills. Close by is the confluence of the Rivers Wye, Monnow, and Trothy, and the name of Monmouth is obviously a contraction of Monnow-mouth. The history of the town dates back to a very early period, and the Saxons appear to have had a fortress here for the purpose of checking the frequent inroads of the Britons from their Welsh mountain fastnesses. There are still some interesting remains of the grand old castle of Monmouth, where John of Gaunt, “time-honoured Lancaster,” loved to dwell, and where Henry V., bravest of a brave race, was born. Tourists are always much interested in the old bridge over the Monnow, a structure dating from the thirteenth century. There are numerous centres of attraction for visitors in the picturesque neighbourhood of the town, and about six miles distant are the grand ruins of Raglan Castle, an ancient feudal stronghold which is famous as having been defended with the utmost gallantry for ten weeks against Fairfax, by the Marquis of Worcester, in 1646. Monmouth was made a parliamentary borough in the reign of Henry VIII., and it unites with Newport and Usk in sending one member to Parliament. The population of the municipal borough in 1891 was 5,470. Among the most interesting buildings are: the new Town Hall, erected in. 1888 at a cost of £10,000; the fine old parish church, recently restored at a large cost; and a notable Grammar School, founded in 1614. The town has three banks, a weekly newspaper (the ‘Monmouthshire Beacon’), several tanneries, chemical works and saw-mills, and manufactures of iron and tinplates.


This busy town is situated in the parish of Trevethin-with-Pontypool, on the bank of the Afon Llwydd, and near the base of Mynydd-Maen, a lofty hill noted for its remains of an ancient camp. Pontypool is another thriving industrial centre of Monmouthshire, and is about eight miles north of Newport. The name is doubtless a contraction of Pont-ap-Hywel — Howell’s Bridge. Situated on the edge of the South Wales coal and iron district, Pontypool has during recent years shared in the prosperity that has attended the development of the mining and metallurgical industries here. Its connection with the iron trade, however, may be traced back for upwards of a century and a half, and a very notable name in the local history of that, trade is that of the Hanburys, of Pontypool Park. In the time of Charles II. Pontypool was famous for its japanned ware, which long bore the name of “Pontypool ware.” That industry has, however, migrated to the Midlands, and the town is now chiefly noted for its iron and tinplate works, which give employment to a large number of hands. Pontypool is an important railway centre, and has excellent facilities of transport. Its newspaper is the ‘Pontypool Free Press.’ The population in 1881 was 5,244; in 1891, 5,842.

BLAENAVON, a busy seat of the iron industry, is situate in the south-west of Monmouthshire, about six miles from Pontypool. The population in 1881 was 9,522; in 1891, 12,454.

ABERGAVENNY, another noteworthy Monmouthshire town is situated in the north-west of the county, at the confluence of the Gavenny with the Usk, seventeen miles north of Newport. In the immediate neighbourhood are large collieries and iron-works, which contribute in an important degree to the business activity of the of the place. Population in 1881, 6,941; in 1891 7,640.

TREDEGAR is an important mining and market town on the River Sirhowy, county of Monmouthshire, seven and a half miles east of Merthyr Tydfil, with which it has good railway communication. Some part of it is in Llangunider parish, Brecknockshire; but it is chiefly in Bedwelty parish, Monmouth. Not long ago, Tredegar was a poor village; to-day it is a large and flourishing industrial town. possessing very important blast furnaces and steel-works, and engaging actively in the development of the valuable coal and iron mines in its vicinity. Population in 1891, 17,484. The local newspaper is the ‘Weekly News,’ published every Saturday.

LLANELLY, a parliamentary borough, seaport and manufacturing town of Carmarthenshire, is situated on the Barry inlet and River Lliedi, eleven miles north-west of Swansea. Its present commercial importance is due to the large mineral resources of the neighbourhood, and in making the most of its advantages the town has been greatly assisted by its favourable maritime excellent shipping facilities. There are now several first-rate docks, and the improvements made in the harbour have rendered this port increasingly important as an outlet for the produce of the South Wales mining districts. The following figures may be instructive:- value of total exports of British products in 1884, £38,081; in 1888, £90,145; in 1890 £110,790. Value of imports in 1888, £42,378; in 1890, £38,939. Shipping entered,1888, 1,228 vessels, 167, 646 tons; shipping cleared 1888, 1,233 vessels, 168,864 tons. Gross customs revenue,1888, £2,465; 1890, £3,349. Population, 1881, 19,760; 1891, 23,937. In 1851, the population was only 8,710. Llanelly has a number of important local industries, and many large establishments engaged in the working of copper, silver, tin, lead and iron, besides potteries, chemical works, saw and flour mills, &c. The ‘Llanelly and County Guardian’ and the ‘South Wales Press’ are the local newspapers. The town returns one member to Parliament in conjunction with Carmarthen.

In North Wales there are also a number of towns which are deserving of some brief mention here, and not a few of these will be found holding a very creditable place in the business world, while many great industries are carried on in and around them.

CARNARVON is especially interesting from its historical associations. Its grand and extensive castle is one of the most perfect and imposing in Wales, and was founded by Edward I, At Carnarvon, on April 25th, 1284, was born Edward II., the first of the Anglo-Norman dynasty to bear the honoured title, Prince of Wales, and the father of the infant prince celebrated the event by granting a charter to the town. Carnarvon is finely situated at the mouth of the River Seiont, on the shore of the Menai Strait. It is famed for the magnificent scenery which surrounds it, and has become a favourite sea-bathing resort. There remain considerable portions of the old walls, and in the neighbourhood are many British and Roman antiquities. The port admits vessels of 400 tons, and a considerable trade is carried on in slate and copper. Carnarvon unites, with Bangor, Conway, Criccieth, Nevin, and Pwllheli in returning one member to Parliament. The town has several banks, a number of well-known commercial houses, five newspapers, and a population (1891) of 9,804. Its industries include iron and brass founding to some extent, and it enjoys the» advantage of excellent railway communication.

LLANDUDNO has become probably the most popular summer resort in North Wales. Its unrivalled situation, fine climate, splendid sea-bathing, and romantic scenery have attracted holidaymakers from all parts of the United Kingdom, and upwards of 20,000 visitors now come here every season. Local enterprise has been fully equal to the requirements of the case, and Llandudno to-day is a singularly beautiful and attractive town, with large hotels, handsome buildings, a fine parade and marine drive, a promenade pier over 1,200 feet long, and every arrangement for the accommodation and entertainment of visitors. The whole neighbourhood, naturally and historically, is most interesting, and it would be difficult to name a more truly delightful holiday resort. The growth of the town, as regards resident population, has been remarkable. In 1851 it had 1,131 inhabitants. Thirty years later the residents numbered 4,839. In 1891 the census showed the population to be 7,333.

BANGOR, one of the Carnarvon districts of parliamentary boroughs, is a city of great antiquity, and is finely situated on the coast, near the Menai Strait, and in the midst of exceedingly beautiful scenery. It is noted as the seat of the oldest bishopric in Wales, and has an ancient and interesting cathedral. The sea-bathing here is excellent, and attracts many visitors. Bangor has a considerable trade in slate, there being valuable slate quarries in the vicinity. The cathedral was re-opened after restoration, May 11th, 1880. The North Wales University College, here situate, was opened on October 18th, 1884. Bangor has three weekly newspapers. The population in 1881 was 9,005; in 1891, 9,892.

Among other towns in North Wales where trading and industrial operations are carried on with considerable success may be mentioned the following:— FLINT (population, 5,247), MOLD (population, 4,457), HOLYWELL (population, 3,018), DENBIGH (population, 6,412), RHYL (population, 6,491), HOLYHEAD (population, 8,726), and AMLWCH (population, 3,500). On the west coast of Cardiganshire is situated ABERYSTWITH (population, 6,696), a favourite watering-place, with an active shipping trade, and extensive operations in coal and iron.

We must now consider in brief the records and achievements of that “Western Metropolis,” the ancient and famous city of


Historically, politically and socially Bristol has long been a community of special interest and importance, and in point of population, wealth and commerce, it remains the largest and most notable place in the West Country. Its position, geographically, having proved especially favourable to its development as a port, this city has enjoyed unusual success in mercantile affairs, and has for centuries been one of the strongholds of British trade, sending out its enterprises to all parts of the Western hemisphere, and bringing home to the warehouses of its merchant princes the richest products of at least one-half the world. Competition has not dimmed the lustre of Bristol, even in these modern days of keen rivalry, and she still retains her honourable prestige and keeps her well-earned place in the first half-dozen ports of the kingdom. Situated about six miles from the mouth of the Avon, and at the spot where that storied stream is joined by the Frome, Bristol is partly in Gloucestershire and partly in Somersetshire. Originally the town proper stood wholly on the north (Gloucester) bank of the river, but after a time a bridge was thrown across the Avon, connecting the old town with Templefee and Redcliff. The lords of Berkeley swayed the latter place, and they did not permit its inclusion in the jurisdiction of Bristol until after a sharp struggle. For more than five hundred years Bristol has been a county in itself, and it is also a city, a parliamentary borough, and a municipal borough, the latter including the suburbs of Clifton, Redland, and Cotham. The parliamentary borough returns four members, one for each of its four divisions. Its population in 1881 was 253,906; in 1891, 285,611. The municipal borough, ably governed by a mayor, aldermen, and councillors, had a population in 1881 of 206,874: in 1891, 221,665.

The antiquity of Bristol is unquestionable, but the exact date of its foundation would be difficult to ascertain. There is a tradition to the effect that it was first built by Brennus, a British chief who flourished over three centuries before the Christian era. In the fifth and seventh centuries it is mentioned by contemporary writers, and appears to have been a fortified place in those times. That it was known to the Romans is evident from the coins that have been found in the neighbourhood, and also from remains of Roman camps discovered in modern times. The fact that coins were minted at Bristol under the Danish and Saxon kings attests the early importance of the place. The origin of the name is doubtful, and it has been spelled (Mr. Seyer, the historian, tells us) in over forty different ways. Some of the old charters refer to it as “Bristow”; Fuller mentions “Brightstowe” (“pleasant place”) as a probable Saxon form: and Mr. Seyer inclines to “Brigstow,” signifying “Bridge Place.” On these disputed points we shall not pretend to decide.

After the Norman Conquest Bristol was besieged by Edmund, Magnus, and Godwin, sons of Harold II. These three princes, desirous of avenging their father’s death and ousting the Norman invader, laid waste the land along the Avon and sought to make Bristol their headquarters. They were, however, repulsed by the burgesses, and were subsequently defeated in a decisive conflict by Geoffrey Mowbray, Bishop of Coutances. This “fighting prelate” was a conspicuous figure in the early history of the district, and he it was who built the famous castle of Bristol, than which few English fortresses had such an exciting career between the twelfth and the seventeenth centuries. Some remains of this castle are yet to be seen in Castle and Tower Streets, but its demolition took place as far back as 1654 by order of Cromwell.

In 1138 the “Red Earl of Gloucester,” a baron of great power, became feudal lord of Bristol Castle, and here he imprisoned King Stephen (after the battle of Lincoln), and also the hopeless Robert of Normandy, who was subsequently removed to Cardiff Castle. Nine years later Gloucester greatly enlarged and strengthened the castle, making it one of the most formidable feudal strongholds of the West Country. All the Plantagenet kings had a fondness for Bristol. Most of them honoured the place with personal visits, King John (if his condescension can be termed an honour) coming on no less than nineteen occasions. Henry III. also sojourned here for a time on his accession, and he granted to the town (he privilege of electing its mayor after the manner then prevailing in London. Edward III. abolished this practice, and allowed the new mayor to be sworn in before the retiring mayor and in the presence of the commonalty. Edward III. also created Bristol a county in itself in 1373. Richard II. conferred fresh privileges upon the city, which he visited in 1387 in company with his queen and court. Henry of Bolingbroke captured both the town and the castle in 1389, and by his orders Lord Scroop, Sir Henry Green, and Sir John Bushey (who were taken to the castle) were beheaded at the High Cross in the centre of the town. Shakespeare mentions this incident in ‘Richard II.’

Many monasteries flourished in and around Bristol in mediaeval times and after the dissolution of these religious establishments in the reign of Henry VIII., the bishopric of Bristol was created, the old church of the Augustine Canons becoming the cathedral. This noble structure, founded originally in the middle of the twelfth century by Robert FitzHarding, is one of the most interesting pieces of architecture in the city, but little of the original fabric remains. Between 1844 and 1S61, considerable repairs were effected in the edifice, and in 1877 the new nave was completed and opened. There is a fine Norman chapterhouse and gateway, and the choir is generally admired as a good example of the fourteenth-century architecture. The see of Bristol was united with that of Gloucester by an order in council in 1836, but in 1884 an act was passed for the separation of the two, and it is proposed now that Bristol shall have a bishop of its own.

The city is certainly worthy of such an episcopal distinction. Reverting to our historical summary, we find that Charles I. caused the castle to be incorporated in the town, but as an offset to this privilege, and lest the citizens should have “too much of a good thing,” he taxed them very heavily in his “ship money” scheme. This impost, and certain interferences on the part of Charles with the trade of the place, had an ill effect upon the loyalty of the people, and on the outbreak of the Civil War, Bristol was easily captured by the Parliamentary forces under Colonel Essex. In July, 1644, Prince Rupert gallantly stormed and took the city, but a year later it was retaken by Fairfax and Cromwell, and ten years afterwards the grim old castle was dismantled. In 1684, James II. granted the charter whereby the citizens of Bristol became a body corporate under the name of “the Mayor, Burgesses and Commonalty of Bristol.” Later events of note in the history of the city may be briefly chronicled. Edward Colston’s Hospital, Free School, and other valuable charities were founded early in the eighteenth century. The New Exchange was erected in 1741. “Bread Riots” occurred in 1753. An attempt was made to set the shipping on fire in 1777. Riots on account of a toll occurred in 1793, when the troops fired on the populace, wounding many. In 1831 a very serious riot took place on the entry of Sir Charles Wetherell, the recorder, into the city, he being opposed to the Reform Bill. The Mansion House, the bishop’s palace, and several warehouses, and nearly a hundred dwellings were burnt, the mob liberated prisoners and set fire to the prisons, and a great number of people were killed by the military, who were called out to repress the insurrection. The colonel commanding the troops committed suicide in consequence of this disastrous event. The Bristol Association met at Bristol in August, 1836, and five years later the railway to London was opened. The famous Clifton Suspension Bridge was opened in 1864. A successful Industrial Exhibition took place in 1865. There was a second meeting of the British Association here in 1875. University College (a scientific and literary academy for the south and west of England) was inaugurated in 1876. An industrial and fine-art exhibition for Somerset and Gloucester was opened in September, 1884. The great flood of March, 1889, caused damage to the extent of nearly £100,000.

In view of the antiquity of Bristol and its many privileges as a borough and city, it may be interesting to glance briefly at some of the ancient charters of the place. These have been collected and published in Seyer’s “Charters and Letters Patent of Bristol,” a most interesting volume to the student of history. Perhaps the earliest of these documents was that’ of King Henry II., dated 1164. The translated version of this charter reads thus:— “HENRY, King of England and Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Earl of Anjou, to archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons, justices, sheriffs, and all the men of his land, Health. KNOW YE that I have granted to my burgesses of Bristol, that they shall be quit both of toll and passage, and all custom throughout my whole land of England, Normandy, and Wales, they and their goods. Wherefore, I will and strictly command that they shall have all their liberties and acquittances and free customs fully and honourably, as my free and faithful men, and that they shall be quit of toll and passage and of every other custom; and I forbid anyone to disturb them on this account contrary to this my charter, on forfeiture of ten pounds. WITNESSES: Thomas of Canterbury (Archbishop); William, the King’s brother; Reginald Earl of Cornwall, Roger Earl of Hereford, Patrick Earl of Salisbury; Richard de Humet, Constable; Warren Fitzgerald, Chamberlain; Walter de Hereford; John the Marshall. At Salisbury.”

In 1172 Henry II. gave another charter, in which he speaks of his “men of Bristow,” and grants to them his “city of Dublin for them to inhabit.”

Then, in 1188, comes a charter from John, Earl of Moreton (afterwards King John), and in this document several important privileges are conferred, including the following:— No burgess of Bristol shall sue or be sued out of Bristol; they (the burgesses) shall be free from murder and duel; they shall be quit of toll, lastage, and pontage; that no one shall take an inn without leave of the burgesses; that a stranger shall not buy of a stranger, nor keep a wine shop, nor remain more than forty days; that no burgess shall be arrested unless he be a debtor or surety; that the burgesses may marry without licence; that they may have all their reasonable guilds as well or better than they had them in the time of Robert and his son William, Earls of Gloucester; that they may build on the bank of the river, and have all void places to build upon, &c., &c.

Henry III. gave a charter of confirmation in 1227; and another in 1247, sanctioning the joining of Redcliff to Bristol — “our burgesses of Redclive in the suburb of Bristol, that they shall for ever answer with our burgesses of Bristol before our justices.”

Other charters have been granted to Bristol, confirming old privileges and bestowing new ones, by Edward I. in 1300; Edward II. in 1321; Edward III. in 1331, 1347, and 1373; Richard II. in 1377 and 1396: Edward IV. in 1461; Henry VII. in 1499; Henry VIII, in 1510; Edward IV. in 1547; Elizabeth in 1559 and 1581; James I. in 1604; Charles I. in 1626, 1629, and 1630; Charles II. in 1664 and 1684: Anne in 1710.

Bristol enjoys the distinction of having been the birthplace of many famous Englishmen. Glancing down the long list of these notable names we observe such men as Grocyn, the famous scholar of the Middle Ages, who was instrumental in introducing the study of Greek into the English schools: William Wyrcestre, the first scientific student of architecture in our own land; Edward Colston, the philanthropist; John Lewis the antiquary; Sir William Draper, the adversary of “Junius”; Sir N. W. Wraxall, the traveller and historian; Robert Southey, Poet Laureate; the Rev. John Eagles, author of the “Sketches,” and translator of Homer’s Hymns; Thomas Chatterton, the remarkable boy-poet, who committed suicide in London at the age of eighteen; Sir Thomas Lawrence, the artist; W. H. Bailey, the sculptor. The earliest works of Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey were first published by a Bristol bookseller, Mr. Joseph Cottle. Sir Humphrey Davy commenced his scientific career in the laboratory of Dr. Beddoes, at Clifton. Edmund Burke was for a time member of Parliament for the city. The Empress Eugenie was educated at Clifton. Sebastian Cabot was Bristol born, though of foreign parentage, and he sailed from this port in 1497 on the voyage which resulted in the discovery of Newfoundland. It was a Bristol privateer that brought home from the island of Juan Fernandez, Alexander Selkirk, the real “Robinson Crusoe.” The famous ‘Arethusa’ frigate, immortalised by her own acts and by Dibdin’s well-known song, was built at Bristol. The first regular steam communication with the United States was opened in 1838 by the Bristol-built steamer ‘Great Western.’ Twelve years earlier than that, there was steamboat communication between Bristol and Ireland. We might go on for many pages recounting the achievements of this ancient city and her bold-spirited and energetic sons; but our space is limited, and we give a little of it to a summary of Bristol’s principal


The “ Western Metropolis” is rich in handsome edifices, and her churches are particularly numerous and interesting. These fine examples of ecclesiastical architecture the city owes in a large measure to the generosity and piety of her great merchants in past times, among whom the Cannings, Colstons, Framptons, and Shipwards figured prominently and creditably. It is quite certain that few English cities can boast a more notable array of beautiful and historical churches. The cathedral, of which we have already spoken, heads the list, of course, but it has a great rival in the superb church of St. Mary Redcliff, than which there is nothing more perfect of its kind in Britain. This church stands on the south side of the Avon, and was called by Queen Elizabeth “the fayrest and most famous parish church in England” - a renown which has not yet departed from it, for it is indeed the most elegant and most spacious of parish churches, “the pride of Bristowe and the Western Lande.” Founded by Simon de Burton in 1295, St. Mary Redcliff was rebuilt ninety years later by the great Bristol merchant, William Canynges. Of this reconstruction only the south wall of the nave and the south transept of the spire remain; the fall of the spire wrecked the rest, and Canynges’ grandson rebuilt the church in 1471. As it now stands St. Mary Redcliff is without a rival among the churches of England (if we except the great cathedrals from comparison), and is in every part an exquisite example of the Perpendicular style. The vaulting throughout is superb, and the fane is now appropriately surmounted by a graceful pointed spire, 280 feet high in all, and rising some 170 feet above the top of the fine pinnacled tower.

St. Stephen’s Church is nationally renowned for its noble and imposing tower, which is one of the most conspicuous structures in all Bristol. This majestic tower has been aptly described by Mr. Freeman as having almost the appearance of a Gothic version of the Italian campanile, its buttresses being so slight in projection as hardly to influence the general effect. St, Stephen’s dates from the middle of the fifteenth century, and was built by John Shipward, mayor of the city at that period, and for many years one of her foremost merchants. Other notable churches are St. James’s, St. Philip’s, All Saints’, the Mayor’s Chapel, and the fourteenth-century Temple Church, with its remarkable leaning tower. Bristol has also a Roman Catholic cathedral, and a very large number of chapels appertaining to the Nonconformist bodies. These latter denominations are influential and numerous in the city, and their places of worship include many elegant and commodious structures.

Of the other public buildings of Bristol the most noteworthy are the Guildhall, the Exchange, the Merchant Venturers’ Hall, the Commercial Rooms, the markets, and the fine museum and library. The city is rich in schools and educational establishments, among which are the Grammar School, of the foundation of Robert Thorne, 1561; Colston’s School, founded in 1708 by Edward Colston; Queen Elizabeth’s Hospital, a school for 200 boys, founded in 1586; the Redmaids’ School for 120 girls, founded in 1621 by the bequest of Alderman Whitson. Colston’s School has been transferred to Stapleton, Gloucestershire. There is also the University College, opened in 1876; and Clifton has a noted public school or college dating from 1862. Among purely charitable institutions may be mentioned the Merchants’ and St. Nicholas Almshouses, Colston’s Almshouses, Muller’s Orphan Homes, Foster’s Almshouses, and Stephen’s Almshouses. Edward Colston, whose name we have several times mentioned, and whom it would be impossible to exclude from any history of Bristol, was the greatest of the city’s merchants in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Born in Bristol in 1636, he died at Mortlake in 1721, after a long life of industry and successful enterprise, beautified by deeds of the most munificent benevolence. He spent enormous sums of money in founding schools and alms-houses and restoring churches, and his memory is preserved in many ways in Bristol, notably by the three societies called “Dolphin,” “Anchor,” and “Grateful.” These societies were founded to commemorate Colston’s liberality, and to perpetuate his good works. They devote attention to raising money for apprenticing poor boys, and for other benevolent purposes, and have done a vast amount of good.

For the relief of the sick the city of Bristol has a number of admirably organised and well-managed institutions. These include the General Hospital, the Royal Infirmary, the Bristol Dispensary, the Eye Hospital, and the Children’s Hospital. There is also a Blind Asylum in Park Street, and a Deaf and Dumb Institution in Tyndall’s Park.

The requirements of the people in the matter of amusements are well provided for, and the city possesses two spacious theatres, a music-hall, and several excellent public halls, including the large Colston Hall, where the Bristol Musical Festivals take place.

The intelligent action of the local press in all matters affecting the welfare of the community has had a highly beneficial effect upon the condition of modern Bristol, and in this active and progressive city we find the “Fourth Estate” represented by a large body of energetic and capable journalists who have repeatedly shown that they have the best interests of the place and its people at heart.

The leading newspapers and journals of the city include the ‘Bristol Times and Mirror,’ the ‘Bristol Mercury and Daily Post,’ the ‘Western Daily Press,’ the ‘Bristol Evening News,’ the ‘Bristol Observer,’ the ‘Clifton Chronicle,’ the ‘Magpie,’ ‘Amateur Sport,’ and the ‘Kingswood News.’ The ‘Indian Magazine’ and the ‘Stonemason’ are two well-known monthlies.

CLIFTON, a large and attractive suburb of Bristol, is magnificently situated above the St. Vincent Rocks, which here tower in majestic grandeur over the calm waters of the Avon. At Clifton is the famous Suspension Bridge, 702 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 245 feet above the river. This bridge formerly spanned the Thames at Hungerford Stairs, whence it was removed to its present site and re-opened in December, 1864.

We must now bring this brief historical sketch to a conclusion with a rapid glance at Bristol’s


Almost from the dawn of mercantile enterprise in Britain Bristol has stood among the foremost of our great trading ports, and its merchants have frequently led the way in undertakings of great moment. Everybody has heard of the Merchant Venturers of Bristol — the name of this potent and influential guild has long stood as a synonym for the highest commercial enterprise. The company’s hall is one of the city’s notable buildings, and stands in King Street. In the reign of Henry II. it is recorded that Bristol had a large trade with the north of Europe, and about the middle of the thirteenth century the general business of the port had become so extensive that the burgesses found it necessary to considerably increase the accommodation for shipping. Edward III. made Bristol one of the wool staple towns, a great advantage in days when wool was undoubtedly the chief commodity in our internal commerce. In those times, also, Bristol was doing a flourishing trade in leather, wine, salt, and cloths.

Subsequently the activity of the port increased by leaps and bounds, and in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the trade of Bristol attained gigantic dimensions. Then it was that the vast American and West Indian trade with which the name of this famous city has so long been associated was built up and established on a firm basis, and then it was that princely fortunes were made by the Bristol merchants who were wont to congregate in the colonnade known as -the “Tolsey,” near All Saints’ Church, in Corn Street. In those “good old days” no small amount of privateering was done by the merchant princes of Bristol, who found this a convenient method of swelling the profits realised in legitimate trade. Many a vessel sailing from this port at that period, ostensibly as a perfectly harmless and peaceable trader, was sufficiently manned and armed to more than hold her own in an encounter on the Spanish Main with any richly-laden galleon whose cargo it might be worth while to overhaul.

Bristol privateers are a thing of the past; the Tolsey has vanished; and the stately old merchants of a byegone age, with their ruffles and their periwigs, sleep a sounder sleep than ever they knew of in the days when fortunes depended even more largely than they do now upon the caprices of wind and wave but the commercial spirit of Bristol still lives, and the energy of the people is as alert and as active as ever. Thousands of laden ships still come and go in the Avon; tons of foreign merchandise still enter the port to be distributed throughout the land, while tons again of our own products leave it en route for many a distant market. The docks of Bristol are a wonderful sight, and have been formed by excavating a new course for the river to the mouth of the city, and converting the whole of the old channel through the city into one floating harbour, several miles in length. To-day, more than at any time in the past, one can be here impressed by the strange interest of a city whose maritime life extends into its very heart, and it is easy to understand how Bristol appeared to Pope as a place having its “streets full of ships.” Later changes and enlargements have made the harbour and docks capable of accommodating a very large amount of shipping, and the shipping facilities have been much improved by the construction of fine docks at Avonmouth and at Portishead. These two ports (the former on the north side and the latter on the south side of the mouth of the Avon) are in direct communication with the city by rail. In carrying out these improvements a vast amount of money has been expended, but every penny may be said to have been employed with real intelligence and foresight, and the port is reaping the advantages of its enterprise in many ways. During the last forty years the shipping has greatly increased owing to the establishment of new dock charges, calculated to attract vessels to the port. In earlier times the dock rates on vessels and goods greatly exceeded the corresponding rates at London, Liverpool, and several other ports. Among the many advantages which Bristol now offers to shipping, not the least are her splendid railway facilities, which afford every convenience of rapid transit to all parts of the kingdom. The Great Western and the Midland Railways, with their many connections and local branches, provide a system of railway transport equal to that existing at any other English port.

A large coasting trade is carried on by regular steamers between Bristol and the following ports:— Cardiff, Swansea, London, Cork, Dublin, Liverpool, Belfast, Glasgow, and Newport, and there is also regular steamship communication for trading purposes and passenger traffic with Antwerp, Bordeaux, Cadiz, Charente, Hamburgh, Havre, Nantes, New York, Oporto, and Rotterdam. Bristol still continues to be a great place of entry for West India produce, but the import trade has become very comprehensive during the present century, and a glance at the Board of Trade and Custom House returns show us that the imports at this port embrace such varied articles as tobacco, spirits (rum especially), wines, sugar, corn, fish, butter and eggs, cheese, bacon, hides, American and Colonial meats, live cattle, oils, ores, fruits, and timber. The exports are almost equally varied, including nearly every standard article of British manufacture. In the long list we find many products for which Bristol has long been celebrated. These embrace tobaccos and snuffs, pottery, refined sugar, shot, anchors and cables, paper, floorcloth, soap, mill gearing and various kinds of machinery, boots and shoes, calico, chemicals, engines, furniture, flour, carriages, leather, iron wares, &c., &c. The various industries producing these different articles are conducted upon a large scale and with abundant enterprise, and they have the advantage of possessing an ample supply of coal close at hand, in the districts of Bedminster, Kingswood, Easton, and Long Ashton. One of the most celebrated products of Bristol is the widely known “Bristol China,” which was made in its highest perfection by Champion, between 1775 and 1780. Glass- working is also an industry of considerable importance, and soap-making has been largely carried on here since the twelfth century. The boot and shoe industry of Bristol has been in active and flourishing existence for over two hundred years, and it now gives employment to between 5,000 and 6,000 hands.

The following figures show the importance of Bristol as a seaport, and the extent of its operations as a trading centre:- In 1847 the tonnage of vessels entering the port during the year was 546,753 tons. In 1855 the tonnage had increased to 1,260,159 tons, and in 1886 to 1,285,090 tons. In 1884 the value of the total imports of foreign and colonial merchandise into the port of Bristol was £7,155,631; in 1885, £7,682,984; in 1888, £7,863,478; in 1890, £8,384,636. These figures indicate the great magnitude of Bristol’s import trade, as also do the figures for the gross customs receipts at the port, which were £914,108 in 1888, and £1,141,455 in 1890. The value of the total exports of the products of the United Kingdom from Bristol in 1884 were only £641,767; but in 1886 they rose to £1,210,833, consequent upon the revival of trade; and in 1890 the exports amounted to £1,689,113. The number and net tonnage of sailing and steam vessels registered under the Merchant Shipping Acts as belonging to the port of Bristol on December 31st, 1888, were 197 vessels, aggregating 42,417 tons.

Modern Bristol is a monument to that sterling spirit of enterprise and commercial progress which, centuries ago, placed this port in the front rank, and which has not failed to maintain it in that prominent and honourable position. With “Virtute et Industria” in the lives and works of its people, as well as upon its heraldic escutcheon, this ancient and historic city may well regard the achievements of a glorious past as stepping stones to the higher attainments of a still more glorious and prosperous future.


The beautiful, “Queen of the West,” the home of health, and the chosen resort of fashion for more than a hundred years, now claims a share of our attention. Called by the Romans Aqua Solis (“Waters of the Sun”), Bath was known to the legions of Caesar fully one thousand eight hundred years ago, and, as early as that, the great virtues of its hot springs were recognised and appreciated. It is to these springs, which still pour forth in abundance their thermal and health-giving streams, that the city owes its importance as a sanatorium and inland watering place, and it may a fairly lay claim to the distinction of being at once the oldest and the most famous health resort in Britain. There is a tradition to the effect that the place was founded by the British prince Bladud, who flourished long before the Christian era; and Coel, another British king, is said to have given Bath a charter. However this may be, it is certain that the Romans founded here a temple to Minerva, together with many baths, altars, &c., and that they strongly fortified the place with high and massive walls.

Bath passed through stormy times in the days of the early Saxons, but its renown as a place for physical recuperation was evidently well maintained even at that time, for the Saxons called it “Akeman Ceaster” — the “City of Sick Men.” Offa captured Bath in 775, and built a monastery, in the church of which King Edgar was crowned by St. Dunstan two hundred years later. The whole of this district was a scene of strife during the war between Stephen and Matilda, and Bath suffered severely in consequence. In 1405 the beautiful Abbey Church was commenced; it was finished in 1609. During the Civil War a vast amount of fighting took place in and around Bath, and the city, which was at first held for the king, was taken by the Parliament, retaken by the Royalists, and eventually handed over to the Parliament in 1645. Charles II. visited Bath in 1663; and Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark had an unmistakable fondness for the beautiful old city and its charming surroundings. “Beau” Nash, who did a great deal to promote the fame of the Bath waters, and to entice the aristocracy to the place, was the social “lion” of Bath during the earlier half of the eighteenth century, and many of the fashionable amusements for which the city was then noted were in a measure developed under his auspices. He died in 1761, but Bath remained a scene of fashionable gaiety, and excellent pictures of the doings of its habitues in that period are preserved to us in the writings of Smollett, Fielding, Sheridan, and others, while Dickens depicted the scenes of a somewhat later era. Queen Charlotte resided at Bath for some time in 1817. Since then the rise of many other watering-places in all parts of Britain has tended to divide the patronage which once almost entirely belonged to Bath, but the city still stands very high in the esteem of the best circles of society, and nowhere is it surpassed in the arrangements that have been made to promote the convenience, comfort, and enjoyment of its many visitors and aristocratic residents.

Bath is, admittedly, one of the most beautiful cities in England, and in point of picturesque situation it is well-nigh unrivalled. It lies for the most part in a romantic valley which here intersects the range of western oolitic hills, and all around the lofty eminences enclose it as in a vast natural amphitheatre, the Avon winding through the valley and imparting an additional beauty to its varied charms. The views from the hills are all delightful, and the wide prospect includes the cities of Bath and Bristol, many villages, and the fine woods that abound in the vicinity. Within the last century and a half Bath has grown very considerably, and has extended its streets and houses far beyond the old Roman walls that once enclosed it. Thus we find it at the present day consisting of two towns, Old Bath on the river, and New Bath on the hills. The whole place is largely built of the fine white freestone which is so extensively quarried in the neighbourhood, and this adds greatly to the substantial and stately appearance of the city. Many structural and topographical improvements have been carried out since 1730, when Queen Square was planned and built by the local architect, Mr. John Wood, and at the present day Bath has reason to be proud of its fine streets and handsome buildings. The principal public edifices are the Great Pump Room, the Guildhall, the Assembly Rooms, the theatre, and the beautiful old Abbey Church, which was restored about twenty years ago, at a large cost.

Bath and Wells form jointly an important diocese, the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of which extends over a large part of Somersetshire. The Abbey Church at Bath is the church of a rectory, comprising the parish of St. Peter and St. Paul, and that of St. James. Structurally, the Abbey is one of the finest of English church edifices of its dimensions, and is of venerable age, as far as its actual foundation is concerned, although much renewed by restorations during the present century. It is cruciform in plan, and is regarded as one of the purest specimens of the English Gothic style of architecture. From the intersection of transepts, there rises a fine square tower, about 165 feet high. The church is said to have been the last building, of equal magnitude, in England completed in pure Gothic. The dimensions of the Abbey Church are as follows:— Length from east to west, 210 feet; length of the cross aisles from north to south, 126 feet; breadth of the body and aisles, 72 feet; height of the roof or vaulting, 78 feet. The grand entrance has a richly carved door, which was given in 1617 to the Abbey by Sir Henry Montague, brother of the bishop of that name. The magnificent west window of the Abbey has been greatly and deservedly admired for its beauty and richness of design and colouring. Altogether, there are fifty-two windows in the building, and this fact is doubtless the explanation of the name, “Lantern of England,” formerly bestowed upon the Abbey. As far back as the year 676 dates the history of this ancient religious house, its founder having been King Osric, who established the Abbey Church and a convent upon the site of the Roman temple of Minerva. A hundred years later King Offa placed secular canons in the church, and these were expelled by King Edgar, who substituted a body of Benedictine monks.

The original church was frequently repaired and restored, but it was not until the year 1495 that Bishop Oliver King began the construction of the present elegant and interesting edifice. The story goes that the bishop was impelled to undertake this work by a dream, the particulars of which have been set forth by Sir John Harrington as follows:— “The bishop, having been at Bath, imagined, as he one night lay meditating in bed, that he saw the Holy Trinity, with angels ascending and descending by a ladder, near to which was a fair olive-tree supporting a crown.” This vision produced a remarkably powerful effect upon the bishop, who forthwith imagined that he heard a voice saying: “Let an Olive establish the Crown, and let a King restore the Church.” This use of his Christian name and surname so impressed the worthy prelate that he instantly formed a design to rebuild the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul. Accordingly he set the work immediately in hand, and, as Sir John Harrington concludes, caused his vision to be represented in sculpture, on the west front of the church, under the motto, “De sursum est” — “It is from on high.” Inside the church the rolls on the buttresses of the aisle windows once bore inscriptions, which were said to read thus:—

“Jerunt ligna ut ungerent se regem,
Dixeruntque Olivae impera nobis.”

These lines (from the ninth chapter, eight verse of the Book of Judges) might thus be translated:—

“Trees going to choose their King,
Said — Be to us the Olive King.”

Here again we notice an allegorical allusion to the bishop’s names.

Bishop King was prevented by death from carrying to a completion the building of the Abbey, and soon afterwards came the dissolution of the monasteries. This brought the church into the hands of King Henry, and his commissioners required of the townsmen of Bath the sum of 500 marks as purchase-money for the fane. The citizens refused to pay this amount, and forthwith the Abbey was almost dismantled, being stripped of its lead, glass, iron, timber, and other materials, and left with only bare and roofless walls. For a hundred years it remained in this deplorable condition, a sad testimony to the state of public taste and sentiment in those troublous times. At length Dr. James Montague, then bishop of the diocese, together with other generous benefactors, restored and completed the beautiful pile in accordance with the original plan and design of Bishop King.

There are numerous other churches of a noteworthy character, including those of St. James, St. Michael, St. Swithin (Walcot), St. Matthew (Widcome), Christ Church, Holy Trinity, St. Stephen, St. Mark, St. John the Baptist (Bathwick), the Roman Catholic Priory Church, &e., &c. Bath is also well supplied with charitable institutions, among which we may mention St. John’s Hospital, founded and endowed by Reginald Fitz-Jocelyn in 1180. This institution has a considerable revenue. and does an excellent work under the patronage of the corporation. The Bath Mineral Water Hospital, the United Hospital and Dispensary, the Eye Infirmary, and the Eastern Dispensary are also notable establishments for the relief of the sick and afflicted. There are well-organised literary and scientific institutions, libraries, and museums, and the many excellent schools and colleges that exist in the city provide admirably for all educational requirements. King Edward’s Free Grammar School dates from 1552, and was one of the numerous educational foundations of the “Boy King.” There is also a Bluecoat School, founded in 1710, by Robert Nelson.

Sydney Gardens and Victoria Park are the principal public pleasure-grounds. The city has a large theatre, and a well-conducted music-hall. Nine newspapers are published here, the names of which are well known in the West of England; they include the ‘Bath Argus,’ ‘Bath Daily Argus,’ ‘Bath Chronicle,’ ‘Bladud,’ ‘Bath Evening Chronicle,’ ‘Keene's Bath Journal,’ the ‘Bath Herald,’ the ‘Bath Evening Herald,’ and the ‘Bath and Cheltenham Gazette.’ Several handsome and conveniently placed bridges span the Avon within the limits of Bath, and the municipal government is excellent, as is shown in the well-kept streets and other creditable features of this fashionable resort. The city had its first charter from Richard I. and Queen Elizabeth granted a charter of incorporation when she visited the place in 1590. The local government is vested in the mayor, aldermen and councillors, which body corporate bears the style of “the mayor, aldermen and citizens of the city of Bath.”

Bath is a municipal and parliamentary borough, as well as a city, and is situated 12 miles south-east of Bristol, and 107 miles west of London. There are excellent railway facilities; coal is abundant in the neighbourhood; and a large general trade is carried on, the markets being of considerable importance.

The thermal springs which attract so many visitors to the city are four in number, and yield over 7,700 gallons of water per hour, at a temperature of from 110 deg. to 117 deg. Fahrenheit. They are very beneficial in scrofulous and cutaneous affections, gout, rheumatism, and bilious and nervous diseases. The virtues of the Bath waters have, as we have already said, been known for centuries, and their reputation has undoubtedly been the great secret of the city’s growth and progress within the last two hundred years. Once the tide of eighteenth-century fashion set Bath-wards the fortune of the place became assured. To commence with, it had the special advantage of the waters, and if also possessed the additional attraction of the most delightful and charming scenic surroundings. Let us glance for a moment or two at the Bath of a hundred and sixty years ago, or thereabouts, and quote a description of the place from the interesting topographical record, “Magna Britannia et Hibernia, Antiqua et Nova,” an enlargement of Camden’s famous itinerary. In this work the city is thus spoken of, the date of the description being about 1725:— “The city of Bath is not a small city, but very compact, and well inhabited by means of the medicinal waters. No man can imagine otherwise how it could accommodate so great a company as frequents it at least three-parts of the year. It is said that there are usually there eight thousand families at a time, some for the benefit of drinking the hot waters, others for bathing, and others for diversion and pleasure, of which there is no place in Europe that affords more. It is walled round with a slight stone wall, pretty entire, having a street built upon it, from whence there is a pleasant prospect over the meadows on the west side. It has four gates, viz., (1) Northgate, with its suburbs, leading to London, opens into the High Street, where there is a plentiful market kept under the Town or Council-House, a neat stone building standing upon 21 pillars in the front, where are the effigies of two kings, Coel, a British King who is said to have given a charter to this city; and Edgar, a Saxon, who was crowned here anno 973. From this place the street dividing leads to (2) Westgate, a handsome building of stone, containing some of the best apartments in the place. The other street leads to (3) Southgate, and from thence along the suburbs to a bridge laid over the Avon, in the middle of which is an old gateway. The other (4) gate to the south leads only to the river, where there is a ferry.

“The streets are narrow, but well paved, the buildings, by reason of the great plenty of stone thereabouts, extraordinarily neat, and some of them as handsome stone buildings as are anywhere found, but many of them standing in courts and alleys, where coaches can’t go. There are forty chairs licensed by the mayor, which for sixpence are obliged to carry a person from any one part of the town to the other, within the walls. There is also another good regulation, which has much tended to the benefit of the town, that no person shall demand above ten shillings per week for one room, which, freeing men from such impositions as are common in other places of concourse, hath brought such numbers of people to it, more for diversion than drinking the waters, that the citizens have been forced to erect many new buildings, yea, whole streets, for the accommodation of strangers, viz., in the north suburbs, and without Westgate. Adjoining to the wall on this north side of the town, there has lately been raised a neat stone building for a school-house, which was erected, and is now maintained by the contributions of the strangers that come to the waters.

“To allure these last there is nothing wanting that may please or divert; for here is a little theatre, pleasant walks upon the town wall, thronged every evening with the most agreeable of both sexes, and along the side raffling shops; and adjoining to the wall without Mr. Harrison’s house, there is a fine ball-room and pleasant gardens down to the river. Besides all these things, the neighbouring hills afford the most pleasant down imaginable, where it is incredible what a number of coaches and horses appear there at a race; so that Bath is one of the most proper places in the world either for obtaining or preserving health by that constant cheerfulness which the agreeable company and the spirit of the water infuse into those that go thither.”

The quaint description we have quoted above affords an interesting idea of the status of Bath in the days of the first of the Georges. Its subsequent progress has been great, and many changes find improvements have taken place in the plan of the city, the style of its buildings and the general features of its daily life. Nevertheless, after the lapse of a hundred and sixty-five years, we are still prepared to agree with the old writer in “Britannia Magna” that Bath is indeed “one of the most proper places in the whole world” for anyone in Search of health, rest, and pleasant recreation. The conditions of life in all places of fashionable resort have, of course, changed greatly since the days of “Beau” Nash and the gay and gallant throng whose patronage and favour did so much for the Bath of long ago. We are in some respects a quieter aid more serious-minded people than our eighteenth-century ancestors, and the various descriptions of pastime they were wont to indulge in would perhaps hardly accord with our more sedate and perhaps more decorous predilections. To speak of the amusements of modern Bath, and to record the many means of enjoyment that exist in the town at the present day would be to trespass upon the province of the guide-books, any one of which will afford more extensive information upon these points than we could possibly find room for in the limited space at our disposal here. When one is in a retrospective mood, however, it is interesting to inquire into the customs and doings of a bygone society, and we can obtain some very entertaining views of life in Bath a hundred years ago by referring to contemporary writings. Those great centres of fashionable gaiety, the Assembly Booms at Bath, presented from day to day scenes which have often been depicted by our novelists, and which, thus recorded, give a valuable insight into the social characteristics of an age that has as completely passed away as many other periods of our history much more remote in date. There does not seem to be anything in common between the life of the Georgian era in the world of fashion and the life of our own fin de siecle society. The ruling desire for pleasure still remains, but the methods of gratifying it have entirely changed.

In the “New Bath Guide,” a visitors’ handbook published in 1785, the following paragraph appears as a testimony to the all-pervading gaiety of Bath at that period:— “No place in England, in a full season, affords so brilliant a circle of polite company as Bath. The young, the old, the grave, the gay, the infirm, and the healthy, all resort to this vortex of amusement. Ceremony beyond the essential rules of politeness is totally exploded; everyone mixes in the Rooms upon an equality, and the entertainments are so wisely regulated that although there is never a cessation of them there is never a lassitude from bad hours, or from an excess of dissipation. The constant rambling about, too, of the younger part of the company is vastly enlivening and cheerful. In the morning the rendezvous is at the Pump Room; from that time till noon in walking on the parades, or in the different quarters of the town; thence to the Pump Room again; from the Pump Room to a fresh stroll, and then to dinner; from dinner to the Theatre (which is celebrated for an excellent company of comedians), or to the Rooms, where dancing or the card-table concludes the evening.”

So the round of pleasure went on from day to day, but it is evident that some of the numerous visitors in bath did not fail to observe certain of the serious aspects and obligations of life, for we read that divine service was every day held in the Abbey Church at eleven o’clock in the forenoon, which practice was originally set on foot and supported by the voluntary subscription of the company resorting to Bath, “it being thought very necessary that prayers should be performed daily at one of the places of religious worship in the city.”

No allusion to the fashionable life of Bath in the eighteenth century would be complete without some reference to Richard Nash, who, by his gallantry and social graces, earned for himself the sobriquet of “Beau” Nash. This remarkable man was a native of Swansea, where he was born on October 18th, 1673. He was originally designed for the law, and received his education at Carmarthen School and at Jesus College. His inclination does not seem to have prompted him to continue his law studies, for after a short time we find him embracing the more congenial profession of arms, in which he doubtless hoped to distinguish himself more readily. As an officer he devoted himself with natural ardour to “the glorious conquests of love and gallantry,” and “became a lover by profession — an universal admirer of the fairest part of the creation,” To further his progress in this direction, he dressed to the very utmost extent of the prevailing fashion, and even went beyond the resources of his finances in gratifying his love for the fineries of fashionable apparel. In time he left the army, and became a man about town. He was always to be seen at the chief places of amusement, and wherever ladies of beauty and fashion resorted there the gallant and devoted Nash was sure to be found. He acquired a great reputation as a man of wit, gallantry and elegant manners, and no one knew better than he all the intrigues and doings of the great world of fashion.

In 1704 the Master of Ceremonies at Bath (one Captain Webster) met his death in a duel, and Nash was appointed as his successor in this important office. In Nightingale’s “Beauties of England and Wales” we read that he “entered upon his duties with uncommon zeal and ardour, and under his auspices the city of Bath quickly arose, if not to its ancient Roman grandeur, at least to be one of the first cities in the kingdom for pleasure, elegance, and taste.” He became a veritable social autocrat, and his magnificent equipage, retinue of servants, and superb personal attire gave him an importance and a stately appearance hardly less than princely. After a brilliant and honourable career at Bath, Nash died at his house at St. John’s Court, in the city, on February 3rd, 1761, at the age of 87. His many benefactions to Bath made his loss sincerely regretted by the citizens,
and he was accorded the honour of a splendid public funeral. The pageant moved from the house of the dead Master of the Ceremonies to the Abbey Church, and the procession included a -large number of charity children, a band of music, several clergymen, the six senior aldermen of the city as pall-bearers, and the masters of ceremonies at the Assembly Rooms as chief mourners. So vast was the crowd assembled to pay a last tribute of respect to the famous “Beau,” that not only were the streets filled, but even the tops of the houses were covered with spectators. In the Town Hall of Bath there is an excellent portrait of Richard Nash, painted by Hoare, and belonging to the Corporation.

Bath has been the birthplace of several notable personages, including Robins, the mathematician, and Hone, the compiler of the well-known ‘Every-Day Book.' John Hales, usually referred to as the “Ever Memorable,” was also born at Bath in the year 1584, and received the rudiments of his education at the Grammar School. Proceeding thence at the early age of thirteen to Corpus Christi College, Oxford, he had a highly creditable career at that ancient seat of learning, and was chosen Fellow of Merton College in 1605. This preferment he obtained through the influence of the then Warden of Merton, Sir Henry Saville, who considered him sufficiently talented to be employed in the preparation of his (Saville’s) splendid edition of the works of St. Chrysostom. It is recorded of Hales that his proficiency in the Greek language was very remarkable, securing for him the professorship of Greek to the University at the early age of twenty-eight. Archbishop Laud preferred Hales to a canonry of Windsor, which valuable ecclesiastical appointment he continued to hold until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1642. During the next fourteen years Hales lived in a state of great privation and hardship, and eventually died, May 19th, 1656, aged seventy-two. After his death his works (chiefly religious tracts) were collected and published under the title of the “Golden Remains of the Ever Memorable Mr. John Hales.”

The city of Bath has given its name to at least four articles which are familiar to the great body of the people, viz., “Bath buns,” “Bath chairs,” “Bath bricks,” and “Bath chaps.” The population of Bath (urban sanitary district) in 1881 was 51,814; in 1891, 51,843. The numerous business establishments of the city cater well to the requirements of residents and visitors alike, and there is no more delightful place in all England in which to spend a pleasant holiday. Bath can never fall from its high estate, as long as the superlative attractions and advantages with which nature has endowed it retain the character that has brought them such far-reaching celebrity.

Now that the historical and retrospective part of our work is at an end, we may invite the attention of our readers to some more minute considerations respecting the special resources of the towns and cities above referred to in the matter of commerce and manufacture. These resources may be best illustrated by individual reviews of prominent firms engaged in various branches of trade, and the following pages will be found to contain historical and descriptive particulars, up to the most recent date, concerning the many mercantile and industrial enterprises which contribute so largely at the present day to the general prosperity of the extensive area comprised under the title of this volume.


IN the full enjoyment of the unique advantages which now contribute in so many ways to its material prosperity, modern Cardiff, with its splendid docks, its unsurpassed railway communication, and its superior facilities for the promotion of commerce in general, furnishes a striking evidence of what may be accomplished when once the spirit of progress is aroused in a community of naturally energetic and enterprising people. And at the same time this busy and populous metropolis of South Wales is a living embodiment of the power and force of contrast. What could be more striking than a comparison drawn between the modern town of Cardiff, and the ancient, mediaeval burgh by the mouth of the River Taff, which, under the dominance and protection of its grim old feudal castle, lived on through the centuries all unconscious of its great destiny in time to come? Nay, the retrospective glance may be narrowed in until it extends over no wider a field of time than is comprised within the present century, and still how remarkable is the contrast! The Cardiff of 1793 had absolutely nothing in common with the Cardiff of 1S93, save geographical position and the inherent, though at that time latent, business energy and public spirit of the South Welsh people. The Cardiff of 1801, when the first of our regular decennial census returns was made, was a mere village of some 2,000 people, just beginning to look forward to the benefits likely to accrue from the then recently completed Glamorganshire Canal. What those benefits have been, coupled with the still greater advantages resulting from the advent of the railway, and the construction and development of the unrivalled Bute Docks, and how they have all been utilised by the shrewd and far-seeing merchants and rulers of the port, may be readily understood by anyone who visits the place to-day and views its salient features with an observant eye. Here we have a noble modern city, with miles of broad, well-kept streets, and towering blocks of handsome and imposing buildings for public and commercial purposes. Here we have a system of dock accommodation and wharfage unsurpassed in England, and equal to anything of the kind to be met with at home or abroad. Here are vast industrial establishments occupying acres of ground in all the outlying districts of the town, and adding to its aspect those evidences of manufacturing activity which testify to the prosperity of Cardiff as a productive centre itself, no less than as a mart for the products of other communities. And, finally, we have here a population of 130,000 souls, active and industrious in their methods of life, and surrounded by institutions of their own creation, which contribute not only to their material interests in mercantile and municipal matters, but promote in an equal degree that desire for educational advancement, intellectual refinement, and artistic culture which always makes itself specie ally manifest among the inhabitants of the Principality.

All this is the work of a century, and it makes one pause and reflect upon the peculiarities of races and peoples when one remembers that there are nations which have existed almost from the time when history began that have not, in all that period, accomplished half as much as this one town has achieved in the brief space of a hundred years.

In the earlier pages of this volume we have dealt with the history of Cardiff, and traced briefly its progress from a feudal stronghold in the Middle Ages to a promising seaport at the dawn of the nineteenth century. We have also indicated the growth of its commercial enterprises and the channels they have followed in their progressive course, and have noticed that in some respects the Cardiff of to-day is a rival even of London itself, particularly in the magnitude of its shipping interest as exemplified in its enormous export trade. During less than half a century the shipping of the port of Cardiff has increased nearly twenty-fold, and statistical returns, which are nowadays prepared upon a system precluding the element of doubt or uncertainty, reveal the remarkable fact that Cardiff is absolutely first among British ports in the actual volume and tonnage of its export trade. Having already dwelt upon these matters at some length, it now only remains for us to draw the attention of our readers to some of those noteworthy instances of individual enterprise and energy which have combined among themselves to bring about such a grand ensemble as is seen in the trade of Cardiff to-day. And in conjunction with Cardiff must be mentioned PENARTH, that progressive outpost of the larger port, with its excellent docks and its many evidences of business enterprise and activity.

In our consideration of the great commercial institutions of Cardiff and district the enormous coal trade of the port will, of course, command attention. At the same time there are many other branches of commerce and manufacture which rank high among the factors that have played their part in establishing the greatness of this flourishing community, and our notice must extend to a multitude of various trades and industries, ranging from those, of universal import to those of purely local significance, and embracing within this scope almost every department of activity in which the skill of the artisan and the talents of the business man can be displayed. It is to illustrate the nature and importance of these varied and ever-growing undertakings that the following reviews have been compiled, and to them we may now invite the attention of our readers.



The coal trade is the greatest commercial interest in Cardiff at the present day, and a pioneer concern in the development of this vast South Wales industry is Nixon’s Navigation Company, Limited, an organisation taking rank among the largest colliery proprietors in the Principality. This Company, founded in the year 1856, are proprietors of the well-known Nixon Navigation Smokeless Steam Coal, which has been used for many years by the British and foreign Governments for trial purposes, royal yachts, &c., and the excellent results obtained from it whenever and wherever it has been used have made it one of the most popular steam coals extant. For navigation purposes generally, and especially where high speed is desired, this coal is unrivalled, and it has come to be used almost exclusively for torpedo boats, while its smokeless properties make it a great favourite with owners of steam-yachts and pleasure vessels. At the same time it is admirable fuel for stationary engines (the small coal doing as much work as the large of inferior seams), and it has been used in large quantities by the New River Water Company, the Crystal Palace Company, and numerous factories and mills throughout the country. The Nixon’s Navigation small coal “binds” on the bars of the furnaces, and does not fall through, thus obviating that waste which is the chief objection to other South Wales smokeless coal. The purity of the Nixon’s Navigation coal — long proven by its use as a smelting fuel in place of coke — is further demonstrated by the following analysis:— Carbon, 89.5; hydrogen, 3.5; sulphur (trace), nil; oxygen, 5.4; earthy matter 1.6 = 100.0. No instance is on record of spontaneous combustion having ever taken place with Nixon’s Navigation coal. H.M.S. Serapis on her outward and homeward bound voyages with H.R.H. the Prince of Wales on his Indian trip, used this coal, which was specially selected for the purpose. It is supplied to the Russian, German, Austrian, Italian, Swedish, Dutch, and Egyptian Governments for royal yachts and special naval purposes, and has been largely used by the great steamship companies, including the Pacific Navigation, the Allan, White Star, Union, Castle, Austrian Lloyds, Royal Mail, Transatlantique, and other celebrated ocean lines.

The Company’s collieries form quite an industrial colony, employment being given to between three thousand and four thousand hands, who live in houses mostly belonging to the Company. When fully developed the pits and levels will be able to raise the vast quantity of five thousand tons per day. The coal is sent direct from the pit’s mouth in wagons, for shipment at Cardiff, Newport, Bristol, Port Talbot, Swansea, Briton Ferry, Llanelly, Sharpness Dock, Gloucester, Birkenhead, Southampton, and London. It can also be obtained at all the principal coast ports of the United Kingdom, and at many foreign ports, by applying to the Company’s offices at Cardiff, or 57, Gracechurch Street, London, E.C.

The whole of this immense business is personally administered by its enterprising and far-seeing founder and managing director, Mr. John Nixon, who is the pioneer of the foreign steam-coal trade of South Wales, and who in 1840 shipped the first cargo of steam coal from Cardiff to the Continent. To illustrate the great part Mr. Nixon has played in the development of this stupendous trade we cannot do better than quote from the speech delivered by the Mayor of Cardiff at the luncheon given to the late Duke of Clarence on the occasion of the opening of the Clarence Bridge, September 17th, 1890. After glancing at the rise and prosperity of Cardiff and noting the causes thereof, his worship referred to Mr. John Nixon as the man who came forward at the right moment to make Welsh steam coal known on the Continent. The Mayor then continued in these words:- “Lord Bute provided a dock, Sir John Guest established his ironworks, and they dug coal at the same time. But the value of that coal was not known throughout the world. Mr. John Nixon, however, came to the front at that time, and went to the Continent. Knowing what he was doing, knowing the value, the high quality of the Welsh steam coal, he negotiated with the late Mr. Thomas Powell to allow him to have coal — not to sell at the highest price, but to sell for nothing almost, to give it away so that he could get it imported into the Continent, and its qualities made known. (Applause.) Mr. John Nixon — all honour to him, gentlemen — knew that great trouble had to be taken: but he felt no work too arduous for him. He dared even to pull off his coat, turn up his shirt-sleeves, and go to work to assist in stoking that coal, so as to make the men on the Continent know how to use it. He got the Government of France to make tests of that coal as compared with Newcastle coal; and they declared that it was thirty per cent, higher in value than that of Newcastle. I am simply drawing your attention to what seems to me to be the groundwork of the prosperity of this neighbourhood, and the real cause of the building up of this great town. At the time I speak of, one hundred and sixty-six thousand tons of coal per year were exported from Cardiff. I remember well, when I came to Cardiff thirty-six years since, five hundred thousand tons were exported in the year, and I have watched with interest the growth of these exports ever since, until I am able to tell you to-day that there were no less than twelve-million tons of coal exported during last year. (Hear, hear, and applause.) I don’t want to weary you, but I want to name, as I have done, the noble Marquis of Bute, the builder of our docks —(applause) — and Sir John Guest — (renewed applause) — who commenced operations at Dowlais, and Mr. John Nixon, who laboured to introduce our Welsh coal to the Continent.”

To this excerpt from a notable speech we would add that Mr. Nixon spent six months on the Continent day by day employed in getting the large consumers to try the South Wales steam coal — leaving it to them to fix the price themselves for a trial, often giving them some coal to induce them to try it. Taff Vale shares were then at less than £40 per £100 share. Sir John Guest, the chairman of the Taff Vale Company, proposed to the directors to call together the creditors of the Taff and offer them the Taff line for their liabilities. Mr. Coffin, the vice-chairman, proposed that, instead of doing this, the directors should go to Glyn & Co., bankers, in London, and give their personal security for a loan of £10,000, which was adopted, and carried the railway over its difficulties. The late Lord Bute offered the late Mr. Thomas Powell the whole of his docks at three per cent, interest on expenditure, no money being paid down, Mr. Powell went with this offer to Sir John Guest, asking him to join him in taking a lease on these terms. Sir John’s reply was, that “the Marquess had made a bad investment, and he might keep it.” Such was the position of the Taff Vale Railway, which has since paid eighteen per cent., and the £100 shares have been sold at £300, and the Bute Dock property has gone on increasing year by year ever since the first foreign shipments of Cardiff steam coal, thanks to the indomitable courage and energy of Mr. John Nixon.

We conclude this brief sketch of one of the most successful enterprises known to industrial and commercial circles by remarking that it will be a lasting monument to the patience, perseverence, industry, and natural ability of the pioneer of the South Wales steam-coal trade. The first cargo of South Wales steam coal shipped from Cardiff to a foreign port was in 1840; in 1893 this port has become the largest for the export of coals in the world, the quantity being upwards of twelve million tons, besides the quantities exported from Newport, Swansea, and other South Wales ports, Liverpool, London, Southampton, &c., none of which up to that time had ever sent abroad a single ton of South Wales smokeless steam coal.


MR. CARL E. HANSEN, who is the sole proprietor of this important and successful business, has been established, under the firm-name of C. E. Hansen & Co., for the past six years at his present address, and has during that period gained the support of a large and valuable connection. The principal feature of his rapidly-increasing trade, in addition to the exportation of coal, which is very largely carried on, consists in the importation of props and mining timber, and the magnitude of these imports may be judged from the fact that no less than ten thousand tons of such timber are now in order through Mr. Hansen’s house. This vast quantity of timber is brought from several districts of Sweden and Norway, and to transport it thence to Cardiff will tax the carrying capacity of several sailing-ships. The activity of the coal and iron industries in South Wales has created a very large and continuous demand for the class of timber required in mining operations, and Messrs. C. F. Hansen & Co. are among the leading firms at Cardiff engaged in supplying the same. Mr. Hansen does a very large trade in the shipment of coal cargoes and bunker coals for foreign steamers. The agency for the Hamburg Yellow Metal Company constitutes another important source of business for this house, and has been very energetically and profitably developed. Mr. Hansen is also surveyor for the Bergen Ship Insurance Company, and sub-agent for Bristol and the Channel ports for several steamship insurance companies in Norway, acting in this capacity under Mr. Pharo, the head agent in London. Besides all this he engages to a large extent in the work of a shipbroker and general commission agent.

With such a combination of businesses to look after and direct, it is surprising to find that Mr. Hansen manages to devote some considerable time and attention to such an exacting subject as that of “Local Option.” Of this principle he is a most active and able advocate and promoter, and in connection therewith he has published an exceedingly interesting and readable pamphlet, entitled “Local Option and the Gothenburg Scheme, as used throughout Norway.” In this attractive brochure Mr. Hansen treats of the working of a system of “Local Option” which has met with gratifying success in Norway, and describes the operations of a company, formed under the sanction of the Norwegian Parliament, with the object of reducing the evils of drunkenness and hindering the landlords of public-houses from promoting those evils for the sake of gain. The results of the system in question appear to have been highly satisfactory, showing a marked decrease in the sales liquor and in the arrests for drunkenness, and as these moral effects have been attained without arbitrary interference with “the liberty of its subject,” there seems to be every reason to anticipate increased benefits from the scheme as its adoption becomes more general. We have not sufficient space at our disposal to properly review the matter here, and the pages of such a work as this are, perhaps, not the best place in which to discuss so important a social question, but it is impossible not to admire the thoroughness with which this plan of “Local Option” has been carried out by the inhabitants of the towns and villages of Norway, who may apply the method to their several communities by a popular vote, confirmed every five years. As Mr. Hansen points out, even the former enemies of the scheme now support it, and it is difficult to see how they can avoid doing so when its manifest benefits are taken into consideration. Without venturing to express a decided opinion as to the practicability of the “Gothenburg Scheme” under all conditions, we are bound to heartily sympathise with the endeavours of the intelligent and thrifty Norwegian people to promote the welfare of their country by abating the evils of intemperance, and it must be said that it is not likely that such a people would so largely adopt a method that was either illogical, unpractical, or unfair to the minority. We trust Mr. Hansen’s pamphlet will be largely read in this country. It sheds an interesting light upon a problem that is within measurable distance of reaching an acute stage in the United Kingdom.

[Transcriber’s Note, 2018: Local option is the "license granted to the inhabitants of a district to extinguish or reduce the sale of intoxicants in their midst."]


MR. WILLIAM EVANS has for some years successfully practised, with his headquarters in the Bute Chambers, Cardiff, as a consulting engineer, naval architect, marine surveyor, and draughtsman. Nothing, in its way, could be more complete than Mr. Evans’s professional equipment for the duties which he now discharges. He holds an Honours Certificate in naval architecture, and is also Queen’s Prizeman for drawings in naval architecture. He is likewise the possessor of a first-class Board of Trade Engineer’s Certificate. His technical and practical knowledge is further vouched for by the fact that he is a member of the North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders. Mr. Evans occupies a spacious suite of magnificently appointed general and private offices at Bute Chambers, Cardiff Docks, which are fitted up with all the appliances, of the most approved modern device, for the rapid dispatch of professional and commercial business. He enjoys the Confidence of a large and influential circle of clients in Cardiff and the other South Wales ports. In the course of his practice he prepares specifications, designs, plans, and drawings for all classes of steamships, &c., makes surveys of collisions and other damages, supervises ships during construction and repairs, and surveys vessels for purchase. He also arranges for the building of ships, and takes the shore superintendence of steamers. Mr. Evans’s name is favourably known throughout the steamship-building world as the patentee of that excellent improvement in marine propulsion — “Evans’s Patent Screw Propeller.” He is well known in more distinctly commercial circles as the district agent for the Stockton Forge, which supplies all descriptions of bridge and roof builders’ girders and constructional ironwork, stern and rudder frames, stern and keel bars, shafting and general smith-work, tunnel lining, bridge foundation, cylinders and heavy castings, &c.

Mr. Evans has recently been appointed assistant surveyor for iron and steel sailing-ships and steamers to Det Norske Veritas (the Norwegian Veritas), for the Bristol Channel District. His eminent qualifications make Mr. Evans a most suitable man for this post; his knowledge of naval construction and engineering will enable him to carry out the rules and requirements of this society in a manner satisfactory to all parties. Mr. Evans has gained much popularity among his numerous clients through his zealous and untiring efforts to utilise his exceptional professional abilities in their best interests.


THIS important Company holds a prominent position in connection with the great coal trade of Cardiff. The speciality of its commercial operations is the celebrated Lewis’ Merthyr steam coal, which is on Government lists, and which has long enjoyed an eminent reputation as a first-class and remarkably pure steam coal, economical in use, and producing the best results as a navigation fuel. The Company originated about fifteen years ago, and Sir William Thomas Lewis is one of the largest shareholders and the present chairman. The collieries are situated in the best part of the Rhondda Valley, and have excellent facilities of transport, being on the line of the Taff Vale Railway, in direct communication with the port of Cardiff. This colliery presents an example of perfect organisation, being equipped with every appliance of the most modern type, both for working the coal and for ventilating the pits. The mine is lighted by electricity, which is found to be a great improvement, both on the score of efficiency and of safety. In addition to steam haulage, some hundred and fifty horses are engaged in the work of the colliery, chiefly underground, and these have excellent stable accommodation. Employment is given to upwards of two thousand hands, and the weekly wages list shows an average payment of about £3,000. The Company’s enterprise is conspicuous, no effort being spared to place this valuable property in the best possible condition, and large sums of money are now being expended in the adoption of means for increasing the present output, which even now reaches the very large figure of about two thousand five hundred tons daily. Coke is also manufactured to the extent of about six hundred tons per week. A trade of great magnitude is conducted by this influential and well-established concern, and the Lewis’ Merthyr navigation steam coal is well and favourably known in all parts of the world. The affairs of the Company are most capably administered under the careful supervision of the manager, Mr. Robert Hooper, a gentleman whose practical knowledge of the coal trade specially qualifies him to direct the operations of such a notable undertaking as this.
Telegrams for the Company should be addressed - “Lewis Merthyr,” Cardiff.


IN connection with the vast coal trade of Cardiff special mention must be made of the important house of Messrs. A. Tylor & Co., Limited, whose extensive business was founded upwards of fifteen years ago. This firm rank among the leading colliery proprietors and coal shippers in South Wales, and their speciality is the well-known and greatly esteemed “Tylor’s Merthyr” Steam Coal, which is exported to all parts of the world. “Tylor’s Merthyr” Steam Coal is well known for the purity of its analysis, and for its high evaporative powers, and it is greatly valued as an all-round steam coal, equally efficient and economical. The results of tests carried out by the Admiralty at Portsmouth Dockyard show very favourably for this coal in competition with other best steam coals; and the following figures refer to a trial of “Tylor’s Merthyr” in a stationary-engine boiler of the Lancashire type, twenty-three feet long by seven feet diameter, with double flues (two feet nine inches), and grates five feet long by two feet six inches wide:— Number of pounds of water evaporated by one pound of coal calculated from the temperature of one hundred degrees — 9.645 pounds. Number of pounds of water evaporated per square foot of grate surface per hour, calculated from the temperature of one hundred degrees — 199.4 pounds. Total ash and clinkers — 3.1 pounds, out of thirty-seven cwt. of coal used in the trial. Number of pounds of coal burnt per square foot of grate surface per hour, calculated from the temperature of one hundred degrees — 21.7 pounds. Temperature in funnel, eight hundred and ninety degrees. These figures speak for themselves. Perhaps no higher recommendation of “Tylor’s Merthyr” Steam Coal could be advanced than the statement that it is used by the Admiralty, the Italian Government, the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, the Royal Mail Steamship Company, the Compania Transatlantica, the Chemins de Fer de l’Ouest, the Great Indian Peninsular Railway Company, and other principal steamship and railway companies. The company is sinking two new pits, which are now practically completed, so that their business will be one of the largest in the district.


A THOROUGHLY enterprising and capable firm, largely occupied with the staple trade of Cardiff, is to be found in that of Mr. William Edgar Williams, of the Exchange, the extensive colliery proprietor and agent. Operations were commenced in this direction in 1888, and already the concern has secured a reputation for the quality of the coal handled, and the fair and liberal treatment all customers receive. Mr. Williams’s resources are exceptionally large, and orders of whatever magnitude can be filled with promptness and satisfaction, while prices will always be found as low as any ruling in the market. The premises occupied in Cardiff are adequate in extent, and admirably adapted to the business on hand. They consist of a suite of three large and handsomely appointed rooms, comprising private and general offices with accommodation for a numerous staff of clerks under the control of Mr. C. Ashwin. The collieries owned by Mr. Williams are as follows. The Fernhill Colliery, which is situate at Treherbert, Rhondda Valley, the output of which is about seven hundred tons per day, finding employment for a force of about six hundred hands. The produce is a dry, smokeless steam coal, very serviceable and much in demand for locomotives and steamers. J. T. Green, Esq., J.P., is the managing partner here, and Mr. D. R. Jones, colliery manager. The Aberdare Colliery is at Aberdare, and produces a coal similar to the above. The output is about two hundred and fifty tons daily, and employment is found for one hundred and fifty hands. The Abertillery Collieries are situated at Abertillery, in Monmouthshire, and produce some two hundred tons daily, and there one hundred and fifty hands are kept constantly employed. This coal is one of the best kinds found in South Wales for domestic purposes, and secures ready sales at good prices.

An extensive and high-class trade is being controlled, and the steady increase in the demand testifies how well the house is giving satisfaction in every respect. The quality of the coal can always be relied upon, and so can prompt attention and favourable quotations. The house is in a position to guarantee punctual delivery of foreign orders on all occasions. The firm also has fuel works and wharves at La Rochelle, and employ a large amount of labour there, an immense trade with France and the Mediterranean ports being controlled. There are branch offices at London, Newport (Mon.), Swansea, Rouen, Bordeaux, and Paris, and every facility for conducting an extensive trade with despatch and satisfaction. The proprietor is a gentleman well known in commercial and financial circles, and by his energy, judgment, and honourable methods he has built up a trade which has very few superiors in the South Wales district, either in the extent of its transactions or the value of its connection.


ONE of the leading engineering concerns in Cardiff is the Wyndham Valve Company, whose extensive business was founded in the year 1886, and whose specialities have become widely known both at home and abroad since their first introduction to the engineering and shipping world. This Company have large and splendidly equipped works at the above address, and give employment to a numerous staff of skilled mechanics. The leading speciality of the business, from which the concern takes its name, is the Wyndham Alliance Valve, of which the Company are the sole makers and patentees. This celebrated apparatus for pumping purposes has achieved great success and favour, and is largely supplied to the Admiralty. Its advantage over other valves consists mainly in the extremely effective cushioning power, which ensures a strong resistance when bringing the valve to rest, and not only does away with all noise, but also considerably reduces wear and tear throughout the machinery.

The Company have received a large number of testimonials, speaking for the efficiency, of the Wyndham valve. One of these letters, a fair specimen of the majority, may here be quoted:— “ S.s. Discovery, Penarth Docks, Dec. 10th, 1888. Mr. Wyndham, Dear Sir — I have great pleasure in stating that your Patent Alliance Air-Pump Valve has given the greatest satisfaction in the s.s. Saxon, after working for upwards of fourteen months under my charge. I consider the cushioning by the water so perfect that they will wear the engines out with proper care. When I joined the above steamer I had the air-pump cover lifted, and found the hot well full of water after standing three days, showing that the valves were perfectly tight, and that the vacuum would keep good for any amount of time, as far as the air-pump was concerned. I can with confidence recommend your valves: they add to the efficient working of the engine by maintaining a steady vacuum, and also hold it for a considerable time when stopped. — SAMUEL PHILLIPS.”

The following extract from the Western Morning News, Plymouth, August 20th, 1891, will be of interest:- Trial of s.s. Phoebe.— The new second-class cruiser Phoebe was taken outside Plymouth Breakwater soon after six a.m. for an eight-hours trial of engines under natural draught. The trial was a great success. The contract horsepower was considerably exceeded, whilst the engines, which had been built at Keyham Factory, worked smoothly and well, to the great satisfaction of the officers responsible for their construction. The sea was rough, but the Phoebe attained a speed of fully sixteen knots, and will, of course, attain a higher speed under forced draught. Mr. Durston, the Engineer-in-Chief of the Navy, attended the trial. It may be mentioned that the Phoebe's air-pumps have been fitted with Wyndham’s Patent Alliance Valves, which are now extensively used in the mercantile marine, and which have already been supplied to the gunboats of the. Pheasant class. It is understood that the Wyndham valves gave entire satisfaction during yesterday’s trial. The Phoebe’s engines are the most powerful yet completed in any Government dockyard.”

The Wyndham Valve Company are also sole manufacturers of the well-known Couves’ Patent “Wave Subduer,” a remarkably effectual apparatus for abating the force of waves in stormy weather. The apparatus is as ingenious as it is effective, and is so constructed that it will project a steady jet of oil several feet beyond the bows of the vessel in which it is placed. When the vessel is in motion the oil is naturally thrown away from the bows along with the broken water, and the beneficial effect is instantly apparent. This valuable invention has successfully solved the problem of how best to apply oil to the subduing of waves, and wherever it has been used it has given great satisfaction, even under the severest tests. Testimonials confirm this statement, and the following excerpt from a local paper gives further evidence in favour of the apparatus:— “The ‘Earl of Dunraven’ (Captain John West) made a trip from Cardiff to Ilfracombe and back on Saturday under circumstances as regards weather the reverse of pleasant for her passengers. There was considerable wind, and an adverse tide both ways. Occasion was taken to test the capabilities of Captain Couves’ Patent Wave Subduer, an invention whereby, by the distribution at high pressure from the bows of the vessel of a spray of oil, the highest sea is subdued. The experiments were conducted by Mr. R. Blight, on behalf of Captain Couves, the results being most marked and satisfactory.”

The following letter on the same subject is from the first officer and the chief engineer of the s.s. Arrow:— “ Rotterdam, March 12th, 1891. We are very pleased with the wave subduer which was fixed to this steamer. When necessary to be used it has always given the most satisfactory results, and we consider it only wants to be known to be universally adopted. On the voyage from Cardiff to Genoa, laden with coals, we encountered very heavy weather, the sea breaking heavily on board; the wave subduer was applied, and the effect was marvellous, the vessel going along in comparatively smooth water, with dry decks.”

In addition to making the two important specialities referred to above, the Wyndham Valve Company do a large general engineering business, and by turning out first-class work at moderate charges they have gained the support of a wide and valuable connection. The principals of this enterprising and thoroughly representative firm are Mr. J. S. Wyndham and Mr. R. Constantine, both of whom are gentlemen of large practical experience, and who take an active part in the administration of the business. Mr. Wyndham and Mr. Constantine acquired their extensive knowledge during a considerable experience as sea-going engineers, and they are, therefore, especially qualified to cater for the requirements of their influential marine connection.


FOUNDED in the year 1872, and ably and energetically managed from the first, the business of John Cory & Sons has become one of the largest and most important concerns associated with the shipping activity of the port of Cardiff. This firm conduct a very extensive system of operations as steamship owners and brokers, and, in addition to their offices at Cardiff, they have a branch at Newport (Mon.). As steamship owners, Messrs. John Cory & Sons rank with the leading firms in the Bristol Channel ports, and their valuable fleet embraces about twenty-two vessels, the names and tonnage of which are as follows:—Rosslyn (1,200), Rochefort (1,250), Rheubina (1,500), Radyr (1,500), Rhiwderin (1,500), Raglan (1,450), Rapid (l,450), Radnor (1,750), Rhyl (1,900), Ross (1,900), Rougemont (2,200), Resolven (2,350), Restormel (3,000), Ruperra (3,000), Reading (3,000), Mark Lane (3,000), Ravenshoe (3,000), Redruth (3,600), Godmunding (1,600), Ramillies (4.500), and James Tucker (4,000) tons. These are trading vessels of the first class, built upon the best modern lines, and possessing every accommodation of a superior character. Messrs. Cory’s vessels are well-known in shipping circles, and are largely employed in coasting and ocean trade. For the past ten years this representative firm have occupied their present fine premises in Mountstuart Square, where they employ a numerous and efficient clerical staff. Here may be seen a number of very beautifully made and elegantly finished models of the firm’s vessels, illustrating their excellent construction and carrying capacity. The present members of the firm are Mr. John Cory and Mr. James Herbert Cory, both of whom take an active part in personally directing the affairs of their extensive business, and meeting the requirements of a large and important connection. Mr. John Cory is a member of the Local Marine Board, Barry Pilotage Board, and is also a director of many of the largest dry-dock companies in the district, while Mr. James Herbert Cory takes considerable interest in public matters, devoting thereto such time and attention as he can spare from the demands of a busy commercial life, and he has for the past two years been a prominent member of the Cardiff Town Council.


A VERY large and thoroughly representative engineering and ship-repairing business is carried on by the above-named Company, which commenced operations on May 2nd, 1891, and has since had a highly successful career. The works, admirably situated at a point between East and Roath Docks, and adjoining the Commercial Dry Docks, are extensive, but are at the same time very compact in their arrangement, and are organised throughout in a manner conducive to the greatest convenience in the execution of work. Iron and brass foundries, boiler sheds, coppersmith’s and shipwright’s shops, and general engineering shops are included in this fine modern establishment, all these departments being fully equipped with the newest and best machinery for their several purposes. This valuable plant embraces powerful apparatus by some of the foremost makers in the Kingdom, and it places the Company in a high position, as regards efficient working resources. In a portion of the establishment, which is now being considerably increased and improved by the erection of new buildings, we find one of the largest plate-bending rolls in South Wales. This gigantic machine is driven by its own separate engine, and weighs no less than seventy-eight tons. Altogether, the Company has spared neither trouble nor expense in making their works thoroughly adequate for the rapid execution of orders of any magnitude, and the high reputation they have already gained for reliable work and unfailing promptitude speaks volumes for their facilities, and for the able management of the entire industry. Between two hundred and three hundred hands are now required to cope with the numerous orders entrusted to this rising concern, and everything at the works is carried out under the careful supervision of the manager, Mr. T. Davies, a thoroughly practical and experienced engineer. The managing director and secretary is Mr. Charles Radcliffe, who may always be relied upon to look after the general interests of the business, and supervising its commercial affairs. The Company are doing a rapidly increasing trade, and their whole business is one of the most promising and progressive among the growing industrial concerns of modern Cardiff.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Tydvil, Cardiff.”


THOUGH only established as lately as the year 1890, Messrs. Charles E. Evans & Co. have rapidly pushed themselves into the front rank of business circles, and are building up and successfully developing a very busy and prosperous trade as coal exporters and merchants, ship-brokers, &c. Messrs. Charles E. Evans & Co. occupy a capital suite of well-appointed and conveniently-arranged offices advantageously and centrally situated at No. 56, Mount Stuart Square, and their numerous and extensive transactions give constant and busy employment to a competent staff of some eight clerks, under the watchful and energetic personal direction and superintendence of the principal, Mr. Charles E. Evans. A considerable business is done in the export of coals to all parts of Europe, Africa, West Indies, and South America, and the firm are also known as the agents in Cardiff for the sale of Messrs. Partridge, Jones & Co.’s “Western Valley Black Vein” and “Llanerch” and “Varteg” coals. The telegraphic address of this thriving firm is. “Export, Cardiff.”

Mr. Charles E. Evans has a valuable experience and thorough practical knowledge of the export coal trade, in connection with which he is widely and favourably known. He is much looked up to and respected in commercial and shipping circles as an able and energetic business man of the first rank, and he is alike greatly esteemed and respected by all who have the advantage of his personal acquaintance and friendship. This firm recently supplied the German Emperor’s flagship with bunker coals for her northern voyage, and also contract to supply the Danish and Swedish, Norwegian, Dutch, and German Governments with steam coals.


THE important business which has been developed at Cardiff by Mr. Samuel W. Allen, the well-known consulting and mechanical engineer, is the outcome of a comparatively short space of time, having been founded in the year 1886. For the past five years Mr. Allen has occupied his present suite of offices in the Exchange building. Mr. Samuel W. Allen’s services and advice as a skilled and experienced specialist and mechanician are frequently sought after. As an inventor Mr. Allen has displayed his talent in many ways, and perhaps the most widely known and most generally esteemed of his mechanical patents is his cleverly contrived and exceedingly useful “steam striker.” This apparatus occupies an intermediate position between the steam hammer proper of the forge, and the hand hammer of the blacksmith’s shop, and Mr. Allen’s design in introducing it has been to provide an appliance capable of rapidly and effectually executing such work as may be too heavy for hand labour and hardly heavy enough to warrant the use of a large steam hammer. In construction it is equally ingenious and simple, and the working parts are reduced to the smallest possible number. The machine is made in three sizes. The length of stroke may be regulated and varied from about three inches to two feet six inches (with the smaller size of strikers), and five hundred blows per minute may be easily obtained with a pressure of about forty pounds per square inch. The steam striker takes up very little room, the force of the blow can be regulated at will, and the hammer can be kept off the anvil when not in use. For bolt making the Allen steam striker is invaluable, enabling one man to do as much work as could be done by three with the old-fashioned “olivers.” For coppersmiths’ work, for planishing surfaces of any kind, for colliery purposes, and for tool making and general repairs this machine will be found exceedingly useful, convenient, and labour-saving. The steam striker has been supplied to most of the leading engineering, shipbuilding, and machine-making establishments in Wales, England, Scotland, and Ireland, and Mr. Allen’s long list of patrons includes firms at Hong Kong and in Canada, Russia, Australia, India, and other distant parts of the world.

Mr. Samuel W. Allen, the inventor of this and many other clever machines, is a gentleman of very high professional qualifications. For sixteen years he held the important post of chief mechanical engineer to the Marquess of Bute, and since then he has been in business for himself with unqualified success. He is a member of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers; and as evidence of his artistic tastes it may be stated that he is vice-president of the Cardiff Photographic Society, and an associate of the Royal Cambrian Academy of Arts. Mr. Allen’s assistance is also frequently sought, as an expert, in legal cases involving important issues, and he is local agent at Cardiff for the well-known patent agents, Messrs. Phillips & Leigh, of Chancery Lane, London. In this capacity his skill and experience render his advice and assistance of much value to inventors who consult him with a view to obtaining trade-marks and patent rights in their inventions.


THE operations of the Cardiff Steamship Company, Limited, have, during the past twelve years, largely facilitated direct mercantile communication with that important Welsh seaport and Bordeaux, and their weekly service of steamers carrying passengers and cargoes between both ports has established a form of commercial intercourse of which business men on either side have not been slow in taking advantage. Goods are taken at through rates to all parts of England. The Company have so far anticipated the exigencies of passenger traffic as to introduce on all their vessels those features of modern improvement which travellers are accustomed to expect in availing themselves of the attractive conditions of a sea journey with the best lines; and in this respect the Cardiff Company’s boats are in no way second to any controlled by English corporations. The names of the steamships belonging to the Company are: the Garonne, 1,550 tons register; Dordogne, 1,050: Taff, 1,100; Ely, 1,120; Usk, 1,080. Mr. A. G. Todd controls the transactions of the Bordeaux house, the location of the Company’s establishment there being 31, Quai des Chartrons, while the home matters are looked after by Messrs. Horatio Hooper and William Campbell, who are assisted by a competent staff of clerks. For the first nine years the Company’s headquarters were at Bute Crescent, but a removal to the present premises at 51, Mountstuart Square was suggested by their more immediate proximity to the Docks, and other points of convenience of equally important consideration to a firm controlling a business of some extensiveness and wide connections. In all matters of practical management Messrs. Hooper, Campbell & Co. have shown a disposition to consider the interests of the trading and general public, meriting the full recognition which it has elicited; and the whole work of the Cardiff Steamship Company is sustained and accelerated with no small degree of tact and enterprise.
The telegraphic address of the Company is “Hooper, Cardiff.”


AN eminently reputable and leading house extensively occupied with the staple trade of Cardiff is that of Messrs. T. Beynon & Co., Limited, Colliery Proprietors, Ship Owners, Brokers, and Merchants. Established more than thirty-five years ago, the concern has ever been conducted with enterprise, energy, and tact, which has placed the house to-day in the foremost position among similar local establishments. The partners are Mr. T. J. Beynon and Mr. J. W. Beynon, both gentlemen of recognised ability in their calling, and well and honourably known among all the principal buyers. The premises occupied consist of a suite of six rooms, comprising general and private offices and anterooms. The offices are handsomely appointed, and accommodation is afforded to a large staff of clerks under the superintendence of Mr. J. W. Beynon. The collieries belonging to the firm are situate at Abercarn, near Newport (Mon.), and are amongst the most extensive and celebrated in the district. A force of no less than two thousand five hundred hands is employed, and the output reaches the enormous quantity of six hundred thousand tons annually. The coal obtained from these mines is famous for its superior and uniform quality. It is semi-bituminous in character, and is eminently adapted for steam purposes, the demand for it being constantly increasing. The firm are also shippers of the well- known “Beynon’s Merthyr Steam Coal,” and “Newport Abercarn Black Vein Steam Coal,” as well as of the best kinds of Anthracite coals, Patent Fuel, and Coke. The extent of their resources, combined with the amount of business done, places the firm in a position to quote the lowest market prices, and to insure the prompt and satisfactory delivery of all orders of whatever magnitude. Among the other advantages possessed by the firm for the effective control of their business is that of owning a fleet of powerful vessels. These are regularly despatched to the west coast of South America, and take general cargo as well as the articles specially handled by the firm. The fleet consists of the following vessels:— Lillian Morris, of 745 tons burden; Caroline Morris, 897 tons; Sita, 916 tons; Lady Wolseley, 1,205 tons; Beatrix, 1,243 tons; Arete, 1,286 tons; ss. Thomas Coats, 673 tons; and ss. Celynen, 981 tons. The connection of the house extends to almost all parts of the world. A large home trade is done, and an extensive export trade is controlled with the Mediterranean, Baltic, African, and South American ports.

The proprietors occupy a position of prominence in trade and commercial circles, and are well known for the equitable and just methods which characterise all their transactions. In private and Social life they are everywhere respected for their personal worth, disinterested public usefulness, and business rectitude. A well-conducted and prosperous concern of this kind is a credit to the town, in the progress and prosperity of which it has been no inconsiderable factor.


THIS important business was established in 1880 by Mr. W. Chappie. The founder brought to bear upon his new undertaking a wide experience in the various branches of this important craft, joined to a cultured taste and good executive ability. Subsequently he was joined in partnership by Mr. J. F. Kemp, who imported valuable practical knowledge into the firm, having been for upwards of twenty years overseer of the well-known printing works of Mr. William Lewis, Duke Street, Cardiff. Under their joint control the character of the work has been materially improved, and the capacity of the establishment so extended as to be now equal to any similar house in the district. The premises occupied were entered upon in 1887. They are ample in size and very attractive in appearance, consisting of a commodious girder-built block of three-storey building, with Newbridge and Bath stone facings, and covering an area of one hundred feet by twenty feet. The interior has been well arranged with due regard to the requirements of the printing trade. The basement, a solid concrete floor, which is forty feet by twenty, is used for the heavier class of printing machines, comprising some of the latest and most improved Wharfedale machines, driven by two “Otto” gas-engines. The ground floor is used for the binding and book-making department, and the ruling machines and guillotines are also here, as well as two first-class platen machines for artistic and general printing. At the rear are large store-rooms and warehouses, and a small but well-equipped stereo foundry. The compositors’ room is on the first floor, and has dimensions of forty feet by twenty feet. It is fully equipped in the best possible style, containing some five hundred or six hundred of the most modern founts of English and American type, while on the second floor is the bill-room, fitted all round with racks in which are kept wood and metal letters, some of them of gigantic size suitable for the largest style of posters, together with a lithographic and colour printing department. The principals’ private office is also situate on the first floor.

Every class of work is turned out by the firm, employment being found for a staff of not less than thirty skilled hands. A high standard of excellence has been reached in every department, and everything emanating from here will be found to reflect great credit on the enterprise and skill of the proprietors and the eminent executive resources of the establishment. Colliery work, shipping work, companies’ prospectuses, articles of association, and every description of letterpress are turned out in thoroughly good style and at the lowest remunerative prices, while artistic and ornamental work of every kind, price-lists, pattern-books, business-cards, show-cards, and chromo work generally are executed in an original, able, and well-finished manner. Bookbinding is undertaken in all its branches, and ledgers, invoice-books, and other account-books are manufactured of the best and most durable material at very reasonable prices. The latest addition is one of Mackay’s patent gold-blocking machines, for all kinds of gold work on leather, shopkeepers’ window tickets, illuminated cards, &c. In addition to the foregoing a large trade is transacted as publishers of books, pamphlets, &c. Indeed, this may be said to be the staple trade of the firm. The connection of the house is widespread and valuable, and its continued increase is eminently gratifying as showing the satisfaction the firm are giving in their various branches. The proprietors devote their close personal supervision to the business in its entirety, and no effort is spared by them to maintain and increase the reputation the house has already acquired for first-class work and prompt and careful execution of orders. They occupy a position of importance in local trade circles, and are noted for the straightforward and honourable methods which mark all their dealings, as well as for their strict personal integrity.


THIS business, which was commenced by Mr. C. Schroeter, who trades under the title of Messrs. C. Schroeter & Co., in 1874, has from its inception made such steady and certain progress that in many instances it may be regarded as a leadings concern of the kind in the district. The offices are handsomely appointed, and fitted up in an improved style, being arranged so as to facilitate the despatch of business. A considerable clerical staff is employed, the members of it being well experienced. Mr. Schroeter is engaged in several highly important branches of commerce, one being in exporting coal to foreign parts. These coals are received from some of the most famous collieries in South Wales. He is also engaged as an importer of pitwood. This is largely used by different colliery proprietors who value the safety of their properties, the timber being of the soundest and best description. He is one of the largest importers of Scandinavian pitwood in the Bristol Channel. In addition to these two callings Mr. Schroeter has large transactions as a shipbroker, and thoroughly carries out all the many duties connected with the same. He has distinguished himself by the able and consistent manner in which he transacts all commissions entrusted to him. He enjoys the full confidence and respect of a large and superior clientele, and is esteemed for his personal merits.


THE prosperity of Cardiff is closely bound up with its shipping interests, and many enterprising and capable firms are occupied with this department of commercial activity. Among these, reference must be made to the well-known and responsible house of Messrs. John P. Hacquoil & Co., of Bute Street, Docks, Steamship Owners and Shipbrokers, and Colliery Proprietors. The business was initiated in 1860, under the title of Hacquoil Brothers, and was developed with considerable energy and ability; the designation of the firm was afterwards changed into the one it bears now, the partners being Mr. John P. Hacquoil and Mr. H. J. Simpson. The firm early achieved a reputation for the spirited and well-directed policy with which it was managed, and for the liberal and honourable way in which all customers were treated. These characteristics have loomed largely in the firm’s career down to the present time, and no house stands higher in the estimation of the profession than that of Messrs. John P. Hacquoil & Co. Large and commodious premises are occupied, conveniently located in the neighbourhood of the docks, comprising a suite of private offices and general offices, which offer ample accommodation to a numerous staff of clerks. The firm have also offices at 50 and 51, Lime Street, London, E.C., and at Dock Street, Newport.

An extensive business is controlled, and its constantly increasing character is evidence that every satisfaction is being given to customers. The firm’s resources are on a very large scale, and they possess perfect facilities for carrying out the largest contracts in an efficient and expeditious manner. An important business is done in buying and selling ships on commission, a branch of business for which the special experience and knowledge of the partners particularly qualify them. Messrs. John P. Hacquoil & Co. are the general managers of the famous Powell’s Tillery Steam-coal Company, Limited, whose extensive works are at Abertillery, in Monmouthshire. The produce of these mines bears a good repute in the trade for its uniform and superior quality, and so rapidly has the demand for it increased in certain quarters that, even with the output maintained at the present time, demand cannot be met satisfactorily, and two new pits have been sunk. The connection is mainly abroad, and no effort is spared in filling orders to secure the repeated confidence of patrons by always supplying a good article at the lowest market price.

The proprietors of this representative house are sound men of business, and have been long and honourably connected with the trade with which their names are so closely identified. They are widely known and esteemed for their ability, personal worth, and strict commercial integrity.
The telegraphic addresses of the house are “Quail,” Cardiff, and “Hacquoil,” London or Newport (Mon.).


AMONG the steamship owners and brokers of Cardiff a particularly prominent position has been maintained for the past ten years by the eminent firm named above. Founded in the year 1882 by Mr. Evan Thomas and Mr. Henry Radcliffe, this important concern has played a very active and influential part in the shipping trade of Cardiff in the decade that has elapsed since then, and at the present time its affairs are most ably administered by the principals, Mr. Henry Radcliffe and Mr. Daniel. Radcliffe. The firm occupy very commodious and handsomely appointed offices at Dock Chambers, where the routine of the business is ably attended to by a numerous and experienced staff. Here the visitor will notice a number of beautifully finished models of steamships belonging to the firm. These are produced in highly polished woods, with electro-plated fittings, and are shown in glass cases. They are among the finest models that lave ever been made. Messrs. Evan Thomas, Radcliffe & Co. own a fleet of no fewer than seventeen steamers, nine of which are of the latest type of construction, viz., steel built, with triple-expansion engines. The aggregate tonnage of the fleet is 49,650 tons, and the following is a list of the names and tonnages of the individual vessels:— Gwenllian Thomas, 1,600 tons; Iolo Morganwg, 1,800; Anne Thomas, 2,000; Kate Thomas, 2,100; Wynnstay, 2,100; Renfrew, 3,250: Walter Thomas, 3,300; Bala, 2,600; W. J, Radcliffe, 2,900; Clarissa Radcliffe, 3,850; Sarah Radcliffe, 3,350; Mary Thomas, 3,100; Jane Radcliffe, 2,600; Douglas Hill, 3,100; Llanberis, 3,550; Manchester, 3,100; Glamorgan, 4,200. The last-named nine steamers (from the W. J. Radcliffe to the end of our list) are among the finest vessels owned by any private firm in Great Britain, and the entire fleet represents an outlay of upwards of half a million pounds sterling. An addition to the above fleet, in the shape of a fine 4,000 tons steamer, is now being built to the order of the firm.

Messrs. Evan Thomas, Radcliffe & Co. engage very extensively in the shipping trade of the port, and are also large general merchants. Their vessels are regularly employed in the exportation of coal, iron, and coke to all parts of the world, and in the importation of iron ore, grain, timber, oil, and general cargoes — the timber chiefly from America, the grain from Russia and America, and oil from the Black Sea. Altogether an immense trade is controlled, and the firm stand high in the esteem and confidence of a widespread connection at home and abroad. The business is directed with marked energy and sound judgment, and receives the personal supervision of the Messrs. Radcliffe. Mr. Henry Radcliffe is a director of the Bute Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Company, of the West of England Steamship Protection Association, of the United Freight and Demurrage Association of Cardiff, and of the British Freight and Demurrage Association, Limited.
The telegraphic address of Messrs. Evan Thomas, Radcliffe & Co. is “Radcliffe, Cardiff.”


THIS old-established and eminent house is one of the best-known concerns of its kind in English and foreign shipping and engineering circles, and has achieved a distinguished reputation in the important branch of trade to which its attention has been specially devoted during the last thirty years. Messrs. Tuck & Co.’s extensive business was founded in London, and the head office is still situated there (No. 116, Cannon Street, E.C.), but the Cardiff branch is of such importance in its relation to the trade of this busy port that our review would be incomplete without some reference to its operations. The premises occupied at 103, Bute Docks form the headquarters of the firm’s Western trade, and were opened about twelve years ago. Since then other branches have been started at Barry Dock, Newport, and Swansea, all three of which are managed from Cardiff, Mr. W. Tyson Martin being the experienced and energetic manager for the whole of this district. The firm also have offices at 42, Chapel Street, Liverpool; 35, Market Street, Manchester; 13, Aston’s Quay, Dublin; Richmond Place, Southampton, and at Melbourne, besides agencies in all parts of the world. These ramifications of the business, so widespread and international in their extension, speak volumes for the superior quality of the goods with which the firm under notice have identified their name. Messrs. Tuck & Co;, Limited, have their chief speciality in their celebrated “Patent Elastic Steam Packing” (Tuck’s genuine packing), a production which has become deservedly famous both at home and abroad. The firm are, however, hardly less renowned for their manufacture of vulcanised india-rubber and asbestos goods for all mechanical and general purposes. They make the rubber up from the raw material into bands, buffer springs, hose piping, valves, and all other forms required in industrial establishments, and their rubber goods are known and esteemed in almost every quarter of the globe for their sound quality and reliability. Messrs. Tuck & Co., Limited, hold an immense stock of all the goods they manufacture and supply, including a large variety of leather goods, in such lines as belting, hose, &c., and they are thus in a position to execute the largest orders with promptitude. The premises at Cardiff are very extensive and well organised for the purposes of the trade, and they include works in which the firm manufacture their noted “triple and asbestos packings.” The business in its entirety is, we believe, the largest of its kind in the Principality. Messrs. Tuck & Co., Limited, enjoy the support of a most extensive and influential connection in the home and export markets, and they are contractors to the Admiralty, foreign Governments, railway companies, &c.


AMONG the oldest established business houses in Cardiff still doing a vigorous and prosperous trade, that of Mr. Frederick Ward, of 48 and 49, James Street, Shipping and Family Butcher, merits special mention in this work. This representative business was founded some thirty-five years ago, by the present proprietor, and by him has been developed with notable enterprise, perseverance and ability, until at the present time neither in the extent of its operations nor in the value of its connection has it any successful rival in the district. The premises occupied at James Street are very handsome in appearance, and stand in a prominent corner position. They consist of an imposing block of building, three storeys high, with a frontage of fifty feet, and running back for some eighty to ninety feet. They comprise two spacious shops, one for meat and the other for vegetables and poultry, an immense display being made in the five capacious plate-glass windows with which the front is fitted. The interior of the establishment has been liberally furnished with every requisite and convenience for the proper control of a large business of this description. At the back of the meat department is a compact suite of offices, and also a large room fitted up with the latest and most effective refrigeratory appliances for the preservation of the meat in hot weather, into which the meat is run by means of an ingenious pulley railway. The whole of the establishment is lighted by the electric light, and is particularly noticeable for the cleanly and wholesome appearance that pervades every department.

Mr. Ward is a thorough master of his business, and he spares no expense or trouble in providing the best of everything. Whatever he offers can be thoroughly relied upon, and his name in the trade is of itself an ample guarantee for superior quality. A number of fine cattle are kept on the farms ready for killing, and fresh supplies of meat are provided every day. In 1891 Mr. Ward imported one thousand six hundred head of first-class cattle into Cardiff from Chicago, which is the largest importation of cattle by any butcher into South Wales. The vegetables are chiefly of Mr. Ward’s own growing, and are always fresh and rich in character. An extensive family connection has been established throughout Cardiff and the district, and ships are supplied with live pigs, poultry, and vegetables. A large number of hands are kept constantly employed, and orders of any magnitude are executed with promptness and with every satisfaction as regards quality and price. In the control of this extensive concern, branch establishments have been opened at 10, Bridge Street, Cardiff, and at Barry Dock Road, Barry, where a good and fast-increasing trade is being carried on. It should be noticed that Mr. Ward is purveyor by appointment to Her Majesty the Queen. The telegraphic address of the Cardiff house is: “Ward, Butcher, Cardiff,” and the telephone No. 146; and of the Barry establishment, telegraphic address: “Ward, Butcher, Barry,” telephone No. 15.

The proprietor is a thoroughly active man, and superintends the whole of his extensive business himself, ably assisted by Mrs. Ward. He is well known and respected in the trade, and is regarded on all hands as the leading representative pf this business in the locality. By his straightforward and honourable dealings he commands the respect of all who come into business connection with him, while in private life he is highly esteemed for his personal worth, the lively interest he takes in all local public movements and his inflexible uprightness.


CARDIFF is the largest coal-exporting port in the world, and among the numerous firms that contribute to its remarkable activity in this branch of trade a very prominent position is held by that of Messrs. Thomas, Riches & Co. This firm, dating from the year 1871, are proprietors of the celebrated Cambrian Navigation steam coal, which is obtained from their valuable collieries in the best part of the Rhondda Valley These collieries are among the largest and most productive in the district, the output now reaching nearly to a million tons per annum. The great demand existing, for the Cambrian Navigation coal causes a steady increase in the firm’s industry, and at the present time it may be said, without exaggeration, that the operations of this great house afford a means of livelihood to something like ten thousand people. The collieries, which are in close communication with the Taff Vale and Great Western Railways, possess the largest ventilating fan ever constructed, and are in all respects admirably equipped and most capably managed. Both on the surface and underground they are lighted by electricity, and all the newest and most effective appliances are in use for raising the coal and despatching it by rail. The Cambrian Navigation steam coal is greatly esteemed for its purity of analysis, freedom from smoke, dust, and clinkers, and high evaporative power; and for these reasons it is very largely used by the world’s navies and by the great steamship companies at home and abroad. This firm is also intimately connected with the Sguborwen Merthyr Steam-coal Collieries, these companies being practically under the same management. The managing partner of the firm is Mr. David Alfred Thomas, who also takes a great interest in public affairs, and was again returned as senior member for Merthyr Tydfil at the General Election of 1892. At Cardiff the firm’s business is ably looked after by their manager, Mr. H. W. Wood Davey, who is to be found at the offices at Bute Docks. Messrs. Thomas, Riches & Co. undoubtedly control one of the largest and most important coal businesses in South. Wales, and their name is favourably known all over the world.


THE business of “Thomas Elliott, Limited,” of the Bute Aerated Water Works, Cardiff, has a distinct historical interest for the chronicler of the industrial records of Wales. For, there is every reason to believe, when Mr. Thomas Elliott established this thriving industry in 1840, he constituted himself the pioneer of the manufacturers of mineral waters in the Principality of Wales. Mr. Elliott has since had many imitators, but the enterprise which he founded has now become probably the largest manufactory of aerated and mineral waters in the provinces. The success of Mr. Elliott’s establishment, controlled by his conspicuous energy and enterprise, naturally kept pace with the unprecedented growth of the export trade of Cardiff, and the consequent expansion of the population, and the equally natural increased demand for aerated waters. The desire to be prepared for a corresponding expansion of business in the future led to the incorporation of the company in 1887, under the Limited Liability Acts. An excellent board of managing directors is constituted by Mr. Thomas Elliott (chairman), Mr. Vincent Elliott, and Mr. John Hill, the indefatigable secretary and accountant being Mr. T. E. Lewis. The company have found the demands upon their productive resources at headquarters so heavy that they have found it judicious to establish branches at Pontypridd, in the Rhondda Valley, where they are now erecting a large factory: at Barry Dock, at Penarth, and at Cowbridge. All these branches are prosperous, and the company have recently acquired extensive premises opposite their Cardiff works, which are being converted into bottling and storage rooms. The company produce, in very large quantities, all the varieties of aerated and mineral waters which are usually in demand; and they have an excellent speciality, which has become remarkably popular throughout South Wales and the West of England, in the form of their Improved Fermented Ginger Beer. Some idea of the huge output of this famous company may be formed from the fact that the company regularly employ upwards of a hundred hands, notwithstanding the economy of labour which is effected by their splendid perfected modern machinery, and that thirty horses and vans are employed in the daily task of delivering goods to their wide circle of customers.


THIS large and very important business is one of the leading concerns of its kind in South Wales, giving employment to upwards of two hundred hands, in its various departments, and enjoying the support of a most valuable and influential connection. The business was founded in 1857 by its present proprietor, Mr. F. S. Lock, and has its headquarters at very extensive premises in Penarth Road, comprising as a principal feature an immense saw-mill, fitted with a large and valuable plant of steam-sawing and wood-working machinery of every description, and all of the most improved modern type. Above the mill is situated the joiners’ shop, one hundred and seven feet long by twenty- five feet wide, containing sixteen benches, and a splendid equipment of the best tools and apparatus known in the trade. Mr. Lock has spared no expense in the organisation of his works, and the many labour-saving appliances he has brought into recognition here enable him to make rapid headway, not only with his own important building contracts, but also with the work of supplying joinery, mouldings, &c., to the trade, a very extensive department which has been most successfully developed.

The yard space and storage for timber accommodates a very large and comprehensive stock, including considerable quantities of mahogany, teak, and other high-class woods. To the right of the yard stands a block of buildings one hundred and fifteen feet in length. Here are the timekeeper’s office, nail stores, wall-paper stores, glaziers’ shop, plumbers’ shop, painters’’ shop, and a large room for storing rain-water goods, gullies, &c. On the first floor of the same block we find the general and drawing offices, lavatories, strong-rooms, and stores for an immense stock of ironmongery, locks, gas fixtures, and plumbers’ goods. Adjoining the drying-shed for timber there are spacious stores for cement, plaster, &c., and in the yard are two powerful steam mortar-mills, constantly in operation. Two large cranes afford facilities for the moving of heavy goods, and a line of rails is laid from the end of the yard to the mills. The establishment also includes smiths’ and wheelwrights’ shops, and stores for a great quantity of building stone, paving stone, firebrick, glazed bricks, stable bricks, tiles, moulded bricks, and other materials; while the capacious cellars under the main building contain supplies of paints, oils, varnishes, glass, &c. Stables for twelve horses, with cart-sheds, haylofts, &c., complete one of the most extensive and interesting establishments of its kind in the Principality.

Mr. F. S. Lock engages in all the departments of the building business, and has carried out a great many important contracts, including the election of the Park Hall Buildings, hotel and shops — one of the largest blocks in Cardiff. He also holds the contracts for repairs to Government buildings in this district, and has been largely engaged in tramway work in Cardiff, and very recently in the extension of the double line. The London and Provincial Bank, Messrs. Jotham & Sons’ clothing establishment, and other buildings in St. Mary Street are notable examples of his work. Houses of all kinds are planned, built, painted, papered, glazed, and made ready in every respect for the furnisher. Greenhouses and conservatories are made by steam machinery, and are numbered among the most successful specialities of this house. A large amount of order work is also done in general repairs, alterations, rebuildings, &c. Mr. Lock is a most active and energetic man of business, and he and his staff are well known as thorough masters of every detail of the trade. All contracts are carried out by him in the promptest and most conscientious manner, and good work and materials are guaranteed by the reputation and high-standing of the concern.
Telegraphic address: “F. S. Lock, Cardiff”; Telephone No. 71; P. O. Telephone No. 507.


SOUTH Wales can boast of many colossal colliery companies, such as have few rivals in the world, and among these select representatives of this important industry a conspicuous and leading position is occupied by the celebrated firm of Messrs. D. Davis & Sons, Limited, whose offices are at 7, Bute Crescent, Cardiff. The business was originally established in 1845, under the title of Mr. David Davis, and was developed by the founder with notable ability, enterprise, and success. In 1886 the style of the firm was changed to Messrs. D. Davis & Sons, and afterwards in 1890, in consequence of the immense growth in the extent and importance of the business transacted, the concern was converted into a limited company, with Mr. F. L. Davis as managing director and chairman. The following gentlemen comprise the board of directors:— Mr. Benjamin Lewis, manager for Cardiff, Mr. H. L. Warner, Mr. Charles Hull, manager in London, M. Jules Vasse, manager in Paris, Mr. W. W. Joseph, and Mr. Frank Edwards, M.P. These gentlemen have been connected with the firm for periods ranging from eighteen to forty years, so that the management is still in the same hands as when the concern was a private firm.

The premises occupied in Cardiff are ample in size, and adequate in convenience of arrangement. They comprise a suite of private offices, together with general offices, affording accommodation for a numerous staff of clerks. The company are the proprietors of the Ferndale Collieries situate in Rhondda Valley, Glamorganshire, which are famous no less for their extent and the efficiency of their management than for the superior and uniform quality of the output. The coal obtained is a steam coal of exceptionally good character, a clear burner, and remarkably free from all kinds of impurities. Upwards of a million tons of this valuable product are brought to the surface and sold every year, and employment is found for a force of several thousand persons. An enviable reputation has been secured by the company for the prompt and efficient manner in which it is able to fulfil the largest contracts, a result mainly due to their splendid resources and admirable system of control. The connection of the company is world-wide.


THE Windsor Hotel, at Bute Docks, was opened in the year 1892, with Captain S. W. Pearse (late of the ss. Royal Welsh) as proprietor. The hotel is a desirable addition to the town also from an architectural point of view, and consists of a large and handsome block of building, three storeys high, and of the composite order of architecture. Passing through the fine entrance of the hotel the visitor comes to the private bar and to the coffee-room, the latter a commodious apartment forty feet in length, and comfortably and elegantly furnished. On the left is a spacious smoke-room, and on the same floor is the hotel grill-room, substantially fitted up, and ample in size to accommodate some eighty or ninety guests. The walls of this room are tastefully decorated with some well-selected pictures and large massively framed mirrors. The first floor contains the billiard-room, which is provided with two of Burroughes & Watts’ celebrated tables, with all the latest improvements. Adjacent is the principal dining-room, which will comfortably seat one hundred persons, and is well adapted for public banquets and similar purposes. The private apartments are on a superior scale, and offer absolute quiet and privacy. There are several fine sitting-rooms and bedrooms en suite, and sixteen single bedrooms, all of which are lofty and well ventilated, and with their cosy appointments looking the very picture of comfort and cleanliness. The cuisine is a leading feature at the Windsor. It is presided over by a thoroughly competent chef. The larders are plentifully supplied with all the delicacies of the season, and both the cooking and serving are of a superior kind, a staff of seventeen well-trained waiters and waitresses being employed.

The establishment from top to bottom has been fitted up regardless, of expense with every modern improvement that can contribute to the convenience and satisfaction of the patrons. The bath-rooms are of first-class character, and the sanitary arrangements have been carried out under the directions of the most reliable authorities. Much judgment and experience have been employed in the selection of the wines and spirits, which include many choice and rare kinds, and the ale and cigars are the best procurable. Although the best kind of accommodation is offered in every department of this hotel, extensive larder, good cooking, excellent attendance, and choicest wines and spirits, the charges will be found rarely to exceed those in force at many much inferior establishments. Captain Pearse makes an admirable chief, and handles his staff with great skill. His personal supervision is bestowed on the concern in its entirety, and every department is maintained in a thorough state of control and efficiency. He is unremitting in his attention, and the wants and wishes of his patrons in every respect receive prompt am courteous attention. Under his well-directed and genial management, the Windsor cannot fail to obtain a good share of patronage from the principal visitors and inhabitants of the town.


WALES is probably the most musical part of Great Britain, and it is therefore not surprising to find in Cardiff the headquarters of such a noted firm of musical-instrument dealers as Messrs. Thompson & Shackell, Limited, who are among the largest pianoforte dealers in the Kingdom, and who are also extensively engaged in organ-building. This important concern was founded upwards of thirty years ago at Carmarthen (where it still has a branch), and was started as a private firm, trading under the style of Thompson & Shackell. Twenty-one years ago the chief establishment was opened at Cardiff, and in 1886 the business was converted into a limited liability company, of which Mr. E. W. Shackell is managing director. The premises in Cardiff are known as the Queen’s Music Warehouse, and are of large extent and commodious arrangement, the show-rooms being capable of holding and displaying a hundred and eighty instruments at a time. The company have a well-equipped factory for the manufacture of organs in Gladstone Place, near the Docks, and here they have built a large number of excellent instruments. The business has developed enormously during recent years, and branches have been opened and very successfully carried on at Bristol, Swansea, Gloucester, Newport, Merthyr, Cheltenham, Pontypridd, Maesteg, Penarth, and Llanelly, in addition to the Cardiff house and the original establishment at Carmarthen. Messrs. Thompson & Shackell do an immense trade in pianofortes, and offer great inducements to cash purchasers, showing pianos of remarkably good tone and workmanship at twenty, twenty-four, thirty, and thirty-six guineas, with very superior makes at proportionately higher prices. These are iron-frame instruments with all modern improvements, and are specially manufactured for the firm. No better value can be met with anywhere, and any instrument can be had on the firm’s new “hire-purchase” system, an equitable and economical means of obtaining a really good pianoforte or organ on easy monthly payments, with immediate possession of the instrument.

Messrs. Thompson & Shackell, Limited, are sole agents in South Wales for the celebrated Neumeyer pianos and the equally famous Estey American organs, prices in this line ranging all the way from sixteen to three hundred guineas. The stock in the ware-rooms also contains a full assortment of pianos by Brinsmead, Kirkman, Collard, Broadwood, Ibach, Knauss, Hopkinson, and all other leading makers. As organ and harmonium builders this firm have gained a high reputation; and they are well known as the inventors and patentees of the Royal Coupler-Action piano, which possesses an attachment enabling the player to sound octaves without actually striking them with his hands. This invention, which is patented in Great Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, the United States, and Canada, is a useful adaptation for the pianoforte of the well-known “octave coupler” of the organ, and by its aid the difficulty of playing octave passages at high speed becomes practically nil.

Besides the Estey organs, for which they hold the sole agency here, Messrs. Thompson & Shackell show a large variety of their own excellent organs and harmoniums at moderate prices, and these instruments invariably give good satisfaction, musically and in all other respects. The Queen’s Music Warehouse also contains a varied stock of small musical instruments, string and wind, together with a full assortment of sheet music, and all other requisites of the art for amateurs and professionals. The business in its entirety is one of the largest and best of its kind in the country, and has widespread and influential connections. Its large and growing trade is managed with marked ability and enterprise by Mr. Shackell, who has been a member of the Cardiff Town Council for the last nine years, and who is equally esteemed and respected as a business man and as an active member of the municipal government.

Fulton, Dunlop & Co., Wine, Spirit, Ale, and Porter Merchants,
16, Duke Street, Cardiff.

In connection with the wine and. spirit trade at Cardiff a position of distinction is held, by the old and well-known firm of Messrs. Fulton, Dunlop & Co., whose business dates from the year 1859. This eminent house has its headquarters in premises which were specially built to meet the requirements of its extensive trade. The establishment in Duke Street comprises spacious offices, sale-room, stores, and cellars; and in addition to this the firm have bonded warehouses in Westgate Street, and other large cellars in Working Street, Queen Street, and Church Street, together with stabling for a number of horses used in the delivery of goods. There are also highly successful retail depots in Working Street and St. John Street. Messrs. Fulton, Dunlop & Co. hold stocks of wines and spirits which are among the largest, best, and most comprehensive in the Principality. Their wine-list embraces the choicest growths and vintages of champagne, sparkling moselle, claret, still and sparkling hock, still and sparkling burgundy, sherry, madeira, marsala, port from the wood, and old crusted port of rare quality. All these wine's are of the finest character in their several classes, and are the very best that capital, enterprise, and a masterly knowledge of the trade can secure. No finer goods can be obtained anywhere, and this policy of maintaining the highest possible standard of merit in their wines has long distinguished the firm under notice, and won for them a high, place in the esteem and confidence of connoisseurs and the best classes of the public.

The same principle is carried out in the matter of spirits, and Messrs. Fulton, Dunlop & Co. stock large quantities of the choicest brandies, Irish and Scotch whiskies, rum, gin, hollands, and all the reputed brands of foreign and British liqueurs and cordials. Finally, it may be noted that this firm do an immense trade in bottled beer and stout, and among their specialities in this department are Guinness’s Dublin extra stout, Bass’s and Allsopp’s pale ales, Findlater’s invalid stout, London extra stout, and fine Scotch ale. They also supply the leading beers and stouts in cask, and have an extensive trade in aerated waters, including those of Schweppe, Hooper, Ross, Cantrell & Cochrane, the Apollinaris Company, &c.

Everything sent out by this firm is in first-rate condition, this being ensured by laying down large stocks and holding them for long periods. The entire business is conducted upon high-class lines, and Messrs. Fulton, Dunlop & Co. have always catered specially to the requirements of that section of society in which their wide and valuable connection is mainly developed. The house enjoys the patronage of the first families of the district, and holds the rank of a recognised leader in its important trade. There is a branch at Windsor Road, Penarth, and goods of the same description as those supplied by the firm at Cardiff and Penarth (and at the same prices) may be had of Messrs. Fulton & Co., Swansea; Dunlop, Mackie & Co., Bristol; Mackie & Gladstone, Birkenhead, Liverpool, and Birmingham; and Findlater, Mackie k Co., London, Dublin, Brighton, and Manchester. The Cardiff business is under the sole management of Mr. Alderman Andrew Fulton, who founded it, and to whose remarkably extensive experience and active energy the concern owes much of its success and development. Alderman Fulton stands among the most prominent and most respected citizens of Cardiff, and is one of the oldest members of the Town Council, having been elected thereto in 1875. He was Mayor of Cardiff in 1884-85, and was made an alderman of the borough in 1887, which important office he continues to fill with close attention to the social and municipal interests of the community.
We may add that telegrams for Messrs. Fulton, Dunlop & Oo. should be addressed “Fulton, Cardiff.”


THIS well-known firm originated in the year 1876, and formerly had its headquarters at 20, Mountstuart Square. For the past eight years, however, the offices have been at the present address. Messrs. T. C. Howe & Co. are managers of the well-known Thornton Steamship Company, and agents for Messrs. Donald Currie & Co., the Shaw, Savill, and Albion Company, Limited, the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, the American Steamship Company, Limited, the Allan Royal Mail Line, and the Cunard Line. They are also connected with the Tondu Colliery Company, Limited, the registered offices of which are situated at the above address. The property of this latter company is situated at Tondu, and has fifty-six coke ovens, and a coal shaft 227 yards deep. A very remarkable feature of this valuable colliery is that there are no fewer than eleven seams of coal in the one shaft, all of them over a yard thick, or, collectively, 69 feet of solid coal. The most valuable seam is the noted “Cribbwr,” which is regarded by experts as being the finest coal in Wales. Since the property was taken over by the present syndicate great improvements have been carried out at the colliery, and better working facilities have been provided. The Company expect to be soon turning out about four hundred tons of coal per day. The coke ovens are continuously kept going, the “Cribbwr” coal being recognised as the best in Wales for making foundry coke. The coke produced is sent as far west as Milford, east to Kent, north to Staffordshire, and south to Falmouth. The affairs of the company are well looked after in shipping and other circles by the general managers at Cardiff.


AMONG the select business establishments of Cardiff there is none better known or more generally esteemed than that of Mr. George Colle, the leading tailor and military and naval outfitter of Duke Street. This house is one of the oldest in the town, and was founded as far back as the year 1807 under the name of Ware & Sons. Subsequently the title became Ware & Colle, and for the past seven years the business has been conducted under the name and sole proprietorship of Mr. George Colle. The present premises in Duke Street have been occupied for about twenty years (although the firm have been located in the same street over forty years), and are admirably suited to the requirements of a high-class trade. They comprise a handsome shop, with spacious show-rooms, cutting-rooms, and work-rooms in connection, and contain a splendid stock of superior cloths and tailoring fabrics in all the newest and most fashionable patterns, shades, and textures. Mr. Colle’s attention is devoted entirely to the higher branches of the trade, and his work is par excellence in style, fit, and finish, as well in quality of material. A leading speciality consists of military, naval, and civil uniforms of all kinds, and in this department a very large trade is done, as the result of the high standard of perfection attained. Ladies’ tailoring and habit-making constitute a special department in which Mr. Colle is eminently successful, and the making of liveries forms another special feature of considerable importance. Mr. Colle has also developed a large and high-class hat trade, and keeps an excellent stock of Messrs. Tress & Co.’s well-known hats.

His clientele is of a distinguished character, including most of the aristocracy of the district, and a very important trade is done with the leading military and other officers in this neighbourhood. Mr. Colle was honoured on several occasions with the patronage of his late Royal Highness, the Duke of Clarence and Avondale, and with that of the late High Sheriff of Glamorganshire. He is official outfitter by appointment to the South Wales Physical Training College and Gymnasium, Cardiff. Moreover, Mr. Colle has customers resident in nearly all parts of the world, whose orders he regularly receives and despatches. For the convenience of his extensive home connection he has travellers who wait upon customers in all quarters of South and West Wales. Every order is executed under the personal supervision of Mr. Colle, who is a thorough master of the high-class tailor’s art, and whose taste and judgment are recognised by all his influential patrons. We believe this is the oldest business of its kind in Cardiff. Mr. George Colle has recently acquired the old-established business of the late Mr. Daniel Evans, Tailor and Breeches-maker, 4, High Street, Cardiff, having bought from the late Mr. D. Evans’ executors the whole of the stock, goodwill, and book debts. The late Mr. D. Evans established the business about the year 1850, and successfully carried it on until his death, as a high-class trade, being especially noted for liveries. Mr. George Colle has had the shop enlarged and refitted, and well stocked with high-class woollens, and will carry on the business in conjunction with his well-known Duke Street business. In every respect this is a house of the first rank, and is conducted by its present esteemed proprietor in a manner fully maintaining the high reputation it has so long enjoyed.


The origin of this noted business goes back to 1840, the present style of the firm being assumed a little more than fifteen years ago. The concern has all along been conducted with remarkable energy and judgment, and has grown annually in the extent of its operations and the capability of its resources. The premises occupied comprise private and general offices, well arranged and fitted up with every requisite for the control of a large business, among which may be mentioned telephonic communication with the various centres of trade in the West of England and South Wales. The premises include extensive saw-mills, turning shops, and spacious yards for storing timber. The equipment of the manufacturing departments is the result of the firm’s long experience in the business and their full resolve to leave nothing untried to turn out the best goods at the lowest prices. A force of from fifteen to twenty hands is employed according to the season, and Mr. Edwyn Cooke, who personally undertakes the supervision, is to be heartily congratulated on the systematic and effective way in which the whole business is conducted. The stocks held are, perhaps, the largest and best selected in the district. There are ample supplies of oak, elm, mahogany, birch, pine, fir, &c., a special line is made of lignum vitae, of which the house holds an exceptional quantity, and which it is able to offer at an exceptionally favourable price.

Messrs. Edwyn Cooke & Co. are also well known as importers of American spokes, hubs, ash oars, and various kinds of manufactured goods which our trans-Atlantic cousins can produce with much skill and at considerably less cost than ourselves. The firm are held in high regard, and their productions find ready sales among better class buyers and consumers. They are made of the best well-seasoned timber and are strongly and well finished, whilst every inducement is offered to buyers in the matter of prices. The proprietor is a practical and experienced man of business, and by his personal attention to all orders he secures the continued support of all that come into business connection with him. He is regarded as a worthy representative of this important branch of industry, and in trade and commercial circles is widely and favourably known. In private life he enjoys universal respect for the ability, disinterested services on behalf of the public good, and his personal rectitude.


BREWING is one of the greatest of British industries, and it has a famous representative at Cardiff in the widely known house of Messrs. S. A. Brain & Co. This firm control what is known as the “Old Brewery,” a historic establishment, the annals of which date back for over two centuries, and the products of which are renowned in all parts of the Principality. For the past thirty years this immense business has been in the hands of its present proprietors, to whose energy and ability it owes its great modern growth and development. The premises were rebuilt in 1887 at a cost of £50,000, and they now form one of the largest, best-equipped, and most perfectly organised brewing establishments in the Kingdom. Recently the firm have completed a fine artesian well, which affords an unlimited supply of pure water, admirably suited for brewing purposes. The growth of this firm’s business in modern times and the difference between the resources of the old brewery and those of the rebuilt establishment, may be understood when we say that the old plant was a ten-quarter one, while the plant now in use has a seventy-quarter capacity. The concern is at once the oldest and the largest in Cardiff, and is celebrated for the excellence and purity of its products in all descriptions of light and strong ales and beers, porter, and stout. An enormous local trade is controlled, and the entire business is personally managed with great energy and judgment by Mr. S. A. Brain, the head of the firm, who has associated with him in partnership his uncle, Mr. J. B. Brain, of Clifton.

Mr. S. A. Brain, who is a descendant of one of the oldest and most respected Gloucestershire families, is a thoroughly practical and scientific brewer, and has had long experience in the trade, which he turns to excellent account in the administration of the Old Brewery. He was one of the founders of the Cardiff Malting Company, a concern which has developed wonderfully during the last two or three years, and which has now attained proportions of great magnitude and importance. Mr. S. A. Brain is also chairman of the directors of Stevens & Sons, Limited, the largest firm of wine and spirit merchants in South Wales. Despite the heavy and constant demands made upon his time and energies by the duties of an exceptionally active business life, Mr. S. A. Brain has found opportunity to enter with considerable prominence into public affairs in Cardiff. He is one of the most popular and energetic members of the Cardiff County Council, to which he was elected in 1885, and in which body he stands as one of the representatives of Grangetown Ward; and was also returned this year with a large majority at the head of the poll for the Cardiff School Board. Mr. Brain is also on most of the important municipal committees, and his name appears on the membership rolls of all the leading friendly societies in Cardiff. Finally, as a captain in the local Artillery Volunteers, he has gained well-deserved popularity, and his unfailing interest in the welfare of the working classes in the town, coupled with his active participation in every public movement having a beneficial object, has won for him the esteem and regard of all sections of society in this great and busy community.

We may conclude this brief review by saying that the Old Brewery at Cardiff (which Mr. S. A. Brain has brought so thoroughly “up to date” in all its working resources) has worthily found a place in Mr. Alfred Barnard’s monumental work, “The Noted Breweries of Great Britain and Ireland,” where it is graphically and interestingly described at considerable length.


A CAPABLE and thoroughly reputable firm in Cardiff, largely occupied in its special line of business, is to be found in that of Messrs. W. Gill & Co., of 119, St. Mary Street, the well-known Hotel Brokers, Valuers, and Auctioneers, Estate Agents, &c. This firm’s business was established in the year 1884, and has occupied its present well-situated and commodious premises for the past four years. Mr. W. Gill, the founder and sole proprietor, brought to bear upon his undertaking the result of many years’ valuable experience in every branch, of the profession. A good name was soon secured for the expeditious and honourable way in which all business entrusted to him was despatched, and the foundation was laid of what has now become one of the leading businesses of its kind in the South Wales district. Operations are carried on in large premises conveniently situated, and having entrance in Quay Street. They consist of a suite of fine offices, private and general, thoroughly well fitted up with every requisite, and affording accommodation for a good staff of clerks, under the personal supervision of the proprietor. A valuable and increasing business is here controlled in the various branches so ably represented by Mr. Gill. Clients’ businesses are bought or sold as occasion demands, mortgages are effected upon freehold and leasehold properties, and valuations of properties, for probate or other purposes, are made with promptness and accuracy. Mr. Gill can be relied upon by intending investors to give them the best advice on property of every description, as long experience and wide and particular knowledge of business establishments and estates in the locality give him special qualifications in this direction. Particular attention is given to the management of estates, the property being kept in thorough repair, and in the highest state of productiveness; responsible tenants are secured, rents regularly collected, and prompt settlement made with principals. But the leading feature of the business is the buying and selling of hotels and public-houses, a department in which Mr. Gill’s large experience and influential connection place him at the head of local practitioners. Every regard is paid to the interests of clients in this as in every other department, and patrons are gratified by the prompt manner in which their business is transacted. Property of all kinds, household furniture, shares, and goods of every description are sold by auction at Mr. Gill’s periodical sales, and consignments on commission receive every attention.

In addition to his business as above, Mr. Gill is the owner of a large estate known as the Hendra Quarries and Brick Works, and situated near Pencoed Station, on the Great Western Railway, about sixteen miles from Cardiff. This valuable property, where large industrial operations are now being carried on, consists of seventy-four acres of land, having common rights extending over three thousand acres. In the event of enclosure this estate will be entitled to an allotment of about seventy acres. A narrow-gauge tramway connects the works and quarries with the Great Western Railway, thus affording satisfactory facilities of transport. The buildings on the estate are commodious, and well laid out for work, and the brick-kilns are five in number, with extensive drying-sheds. Additional capital is now required to build a Hofmann’s Improved Kiln, capable of burning one hundred thousand bricks per week. For this a contract has been offered with engagement guaranteed to burn all hard bricks, and seventy-five per cent, facing, at a cost not exceeding two shillings per thousand. Power is supplied for the purposes of the works by two steam-engines of the best description, and there are also wagons and a locomotive for the railway traffic. The quarries of freestone are very extensive, and the quality of the stone is particularly good. For a length of eight hundred yards by one hundred and twenty yards wide and ten yards deep these quarries have been proved, and are estimated to supply four hundred tons a week for seventy-five years. Silica stone is also abundant on the estate, and is very rich, giving ninety per cent, of silica. The quantity available is estimated at ninety tons a week for a hundred years, and the bricks made from this are equal to the best Dinas fire-bricks, being capable of resisting the highest temperature. Clay deposits of large extent exist on the Hendra Estate, covering an area of twenty acres, and proved to a depth of twenty feet; but it is supposed that they extend much deeper than this. There are extensive deposits of limestone, conveniently situated; and large quantities of foundry loam can be produced at a nominal cost. This loam is likely to be the basis of a large trade, for Messrs. Gill are daily receiving repeat orders from foundries in which it has been used. The firm have expended a very large amount on the buildings and machinery, and in opening up and developing the estate, and the works are now in a position to do an extensive and profitable trade in three departments, viz. (1), red building bricks and silica fire-bricks: (2) building stones and dressed stones; (3) building sand and foundry loam.

Very high testimony to the importance and value of the Hendra Estate is presented in the report upon this property made by Henry Reid, Esq., C.E., the well-known mining expert, and author of “Portland Cement, Its Manufacture and Uses,” &c. Mr. Reid, after describing the estate and its principal minerals, goes on to say:— “The estate of Hendra is well and favourably situated, being nearly midway between the important and rising ports of Swansea and Cardiff. At the latter place large building operations are in contemplation, in the execution of which considerable quantities of stone, bricks, lime, and cement will be required. The outlay at present incurred by the proprietor in opening up quarries and building the brick-works, together with the cost of the branch railway, as well as other exploratory work, has been very considerable. A shaft has been sunk to something like one hundred feet in search of hematite iron, which is supposed to exist under some portion of the estate. For so far the indications are favourable, and during the progress of sinking favourable indications of the existence of metallic ores were observed. A sum of £20,000 would be required to fully develop the estate in the direction of stone-quarrying, brick and cement making, but, if it is found desirable, a much less sum would suffice for a partial development only.” Mr. Henry Reid then concludes his interesting report in these words:— “Coals are very cheap, and there is probably no position in South Wales more favourable for the prosecution of the industries I have referred to. With an expenditure of £20,000 I estimate the profits which might be realised would be as follows, viz.:— Fire-bricks and building bricks, £4,500; lime and cement, £2,500; building stone, £1,000; terra-cotta, £500; sand. £1,000 to £1,500 — total, £9,500. I do not think I have over-estimated the increase which could, without much difficulty, be realised from the estate of Hendra in the way I have indicated. I consider the value of the estate, buildings, machinery, quarries, branch railways, &c., to be £30,000.”

From the details given above it will be seen that the Hendra Estate is one of more than ordinary importance, and under the enterprising management of its present proprietor its commercial value and productiveness have been fully exemplified. A very large and steadily increasing business is now being done in the various useful products of this property, and Mr. Gill is to be congratulated upon the successful manner in which he has developed the estate, and the important addition he has made thereby to the industrial activity of the district.


FOUNDED about twelve years ago at the above address, this notable business has become one of the largest and most important concerns of its kind. It is now entirely under the direction of Mr. Oliver Walkey, and to this gentleman’s practical skill and untiring energy a large amount of its great success is due. The extensive and commodious premises in St. Mary Street comprise a fine four-storey block, affording the most ample accommodation for the various departments. An enormous trade is done in paper and paper-bags of every description used by grocers, ironmongers, and all other trades. These bags are made both by hand and machinery, the latter being a most interesting process. A large amount of female labour is employed in the hand-made department. The firm’s trade extends all over South Wales, the house being, we believe, the only one in this district which unites under the one proprietory the several special branches of trade and industry in which Messrs. Walkey, Thomas & Co. are so successfully engaged. Their promptitude in meeting the requirements of customers has gained the confidence and approval of a widespread connection.


THIS representative house was founded in the year 1848 by Mr. Joseph Flint, father of the present partners, Messrs. Henry and Herbert Flint, who now jointly direct the operations of a large and flourishing business in the home, foreign, and Colonial markets. The present premises in Customhouse Street and Hope Street were recently purchased by the firm, and comprise a large and handsome four-storey block, fitted with every convenience to facilitate progress. The general counting-house and the partners’ private offices are situated on the ground floor, and the remaining flats are devoted to warehouse purposes. Each one contains a great quantity of goods in which Messrs. Flint Brothers have dealings, but these stocks only represent a minor part of the firm’s resources, as they always have very large available supplies awaiting orders at London, Liverpool, and the port of Cardiff. As far as the Colonial produce trade is concerned, this is the oldest and largest business in the district; in fact, Mr. Joseph N. Flint, the founder, was the pioneer of the trade in Cardiff. Messrs. Flint Brothers continue to have their speciality in the importation and distribution upon a large scale of Australian and American produce, and they make a leading line of Zealand butter, which they import in vast quantities. Immense stocks are also kept in cheeses of various kinds, tinned goods of every description (especially tinned fruits), dried fruit, bacon, lard, and margarine, and in all these commodities the firm do a trade of great magnitude. The top floor of the premises is specially equipped for smoking and curing bacon, which is all done on the premises. Mr. Herbert Flint, one of the partners, makes periodical journeys to New Zealand and Australia, and in this way the house keeps in close and advantageous communication with the great sources of supply in the countries named. Messrs. Flint Brothers supply grocers and provision dealers in all parts of South Wales and the West of England, and their travellers cover the whole of these districts. The general connection is old established and highly influential, and the house holds an honourable position in the esteem and confidence of the trade. We may add that Mr. Joseph N. Flint, the originator of this important concern, was one of the best-known commercial men in Cardiff, being chairman of many notable companies in London and the provinces, and was greatly respected by all who knew him in these and other capacities.
Messrs. Flint Brothers’ telegraphic address is “Flint, Cardiff,” and their telephone is No. 577. Cables should go through Reuter’s agency.


THE unexampled rate at which Cardiff, of late years, has travelled on the road to the highest distinction amongst the great seaports of the world, so far as regards her export trade, has been accompanied by a c6rrespondingly important movement in the direction of making Cardiff, the commercial capital of South Wales, the centre, as it naturally should be, for the distribution of the necessaries of life throughout the whole of the great district which, in that respect, has hitherto been dependent upon Bristol or London. A visit to the extensive premises of Mr. Charles Carey Thomas, at 48, Bute Street, will convey, in the form of a very striking object-lesson, some suggestive information as to the rapidity with which this movement is progressing. Mr. Carey Thomas holds a varied stock of provisions, chemicals, confectionery, and other comestibles which cannot be surpassed, and is rarely equalled, outside of the Metropolis. The business is entirely wholesale, and the prices quoted will, in their moderation, compare favourably with those of any other house of good standing in the United Kingdom. The firm’s “Prices Current” forms a copious printed document which may be consulted with advantage by all retail dealers throughout Monmouthshire and South Wales.

Mr. Carey Thomas’s premises comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices on the ground floor, which are supplied with all modern requisites, including telephonic communication, the rapid despatch of commercial correspondence and other business. The telephone number is 539, and the registered telegraphic address is “Midlothian, Cardiff.”

From the offices, entrance is obtained, by separate doors to two extensive warehouses, amply stocked with good stores of jams, pickles, &c., a portion of this floor-space being utilised for packing. The first floor (the whole building is occupied by Mr. Carey Thomas) is used as a warehouse for the oatmeal which forms one of the specialities in his business. Here also are large stocks of rice, peas, haricot beans, &c., and also the spice room. The second floor is devoted to the packing of small parcels, ready for the retail market, of such commodities as birdseed, cornflour, oatmeal, self-raising flour, baking powder, hops, &c. These packing operations give employment to a large number of female workers, the spacious apartment in which they are engaged being about sixty feet long by twenty-five. The basement of the building has a history. It formerly constituted bonded vaults, the oldest in Cardiff, sad known as No. 1. It now holds an enormous store of bottled fruits, jams, and unpacked goods.

The various floors of this admirably arranged warehouse are reached by a powerful lift which has its point of departure at the back entrance. The firm have constantly in their employ about twenty experienced assistants, in addition to the staff of commercial representatives, who are constantly “on the road” on behalf of the house, and whose task, in extending its connection, is much facilitated by the high reputation which it bears. It is impossible in this place even to summarise the contents of Mr. Carey Thomas’s scores; but it may be noted that the house has justly become famous for its excellent “Red Dragon” brand of self-raising flour, and for its celebrated “Midlothian” oatmeal in packets. It may be added that Mr. Carey Thomas is sole agent for McCall & Stephen’s “Adelphi” biscuits, for Beveridge’s pickles and fruit wines; for Buchanan’s (Glasgow) jams, marmalade, and peel, and for the Linlithgow Company’s wax candles. He is also a large direct importer of Continental produce, viz., haricots, blue peas, seeds, &c., &c.


ADMIRABLY located within easy distance of the Docks, and forming an extensive block of buildings projected somewhat in the shape of an L, and occupying the whole of the south-western frontage from Bute Road to Hannah Lane, and including a portion of Hannah Street, this vast and splendidly-organised emporium, which was established in the year 1881, is still conducted under its original style and title, under the active proprietary control of Mr. Thomas Loveridge in association with Mr. Edward Ison. The main entrance to the premises indicated leads, into a spacious shop seventy feet by twenty-six feet in area, presenting well-dressed windows to both Bute Road and Hannah Street, and here may be inspected a vast assortment of most of the articles used in building and working a ship, engineers’ ironmongery of every description, and conspicuous as centrepieces, two large glass casefuls of respectively electro-plated and planished goods, suitable either for use on board ship or in the dwelling-house. The workshops are located at the rear, whilst the great basement below, which is reserved as a receiving and despatching department, communicates by means of a patent lift with the yard above, the shop already mentioned, and the three extensive warehouses which occupy the accommodation above the shop and workshops. These warehouses are perfect models of order and cleanliness, and the system of organisation developed apportions to each room a distinct line of goods. Thus passing from one to another may be seen in rapid succession complete series of hollow-ware, such as stewpans, saucepans, kettles, and the like; lamps and brass-foundry; fenders and fire-irons: glass, china, and earthenware; ships’ pulley-blocks, vices, shovels, forges, and heavy iron goods; cabin and cooking stoves; boilers and tubes; galvanised iron goods: yellow metal goods; oils, paints, and colours; brooms and brushes: tools for all trades; and stationery. All these departments are in private telephonic communication with the shop, there being four such telephones, while extra-mural communication is effected by means of the National and Post Office telephones, which afford distinct interchanges even to the distance of one hundred and twenty-five miles, to Birmingham. From what has been recorded, a fairly accurate notion of the magnitude and comprehensiveness of this undertaking may be readily gathered, and it only remains to add that the trade controlled, both wholesale and retail, throughout Cardiff and very largely amongst ship-owners and masters, is quite commensurate with the extent of the establishment, while the business in all its branches is conducted in the most masterly manner, and unquestionably reflects nothing but the highest credit upon the energy, enterprise, and talent brought to bear upon its development.


FEW towns in the Kingdom have grown with the rapidity that Cardiff has. Thirty years ago it possessed but one hotel and very few shops of any size or importance, while at the present time it is exceptionally well supplied in both these respects. Among the latest additions to the grocery and provision establishments of the town are the popular and flourishing stores of Messrs. Griffith, Son & Co. These were established in 1891, and were directed with such ability, energy, and perseverance that a success was scored at once. The proprietors had had a long experience in various parts of the country in every branch of the trade. The premises occupied in Cardiff are situated in the Hayes, close to the Royal Arcade, and in the most central part of the town. They are spacious in extent, and have been eminently well arranged for the expeditious and convenient control of an extensive business of this description. They consist of a capacious shop with a window frontage of thirty-six feet, the depth of the establishment being eighty feet. The interior is arranged in a novel style, in the centre being a circular mahogany counter constructed for the sale of special bargains, and here are put on view a fresh supply of specially cheap and tempting novelties every week. Round the spacious apartment are four provision stalls, fitted up with highly polished parian marble counters and tables where are sold ham, bacon, butter, and cheese, the stocks being the finest and largest in the district. The grocery counters are on an equally fine scale. The shop is elaborately and handsomely provided with every requisite and convenience, and capitally lighted, even to the remotest corner, by means of ingeniously constructed reflectors. The cellarage at this establishment is of a superior kind, and well adapted for the storage of butter, cheese, and kindred goods during the summer months, the same temperature being kept up ail the year round. The bakery, too, is specially large, and provided with every improvement for turning out all kinds of superior cakes. The tea-bins, which have been constructed for the mixing and blending of India, China, and Ceylon teas, are on the first floor, and some idea of their size may be formed when it is known that the smallest of them will hold five hundred pounds of tea.

In addition to the accommodation at the Hayes, the proprietors possess extensive curing, smoking, and drying warehouses in Great Frederick Street, which have recently been, rebuilt on the most modern principles. The building is of four storeys, and fitted with all the very latest appliances for curing, drying, and smoking bacon and hams, which are brought up every morning to the sale warehouse in the Hayes. This is undoubtedly the finest smoke-house in South Wales. The system adopted is a marked improvement on the usual method of drying bacon and hams by the use of gas. The operation is quicker, and the bacon retains its flavour in a very superior degree. It is interesting to notice that the architects of this novel building were Messrs. Seddon & Carter, of Cardiff, and that Messrs. Shepherd & Sons, also of Cardiff, were the builders.

An extensive and increasing business is controlled, a staff of not less than thirty hands being employed under the superintendence of the proprietors. The articles handled are of the best quality, and are offered at prices which cannot be surpassed by any establishment in the country. The proprietors are men of large experience in their business and thoroughly conversant with the best sources of supply; Their selections are made from the most eligible markets in the United Kingdom, as well as from the Continent and America. The extent of their transactions give them advantages in buying, and the facilities they possess for storage and other purposes all conspire to enable them to offer best goods at the lowest prices. A leading line is made of tea, and their “Formosa” is a marvel of cheapness at 1s. 8d. per pound. The stocks include specially prepared little hams, dried hams, and the finest Waterford and Wiltshire bacon, the choicest American cheeses, English Cheddars, among which is the Belville Cheddar from the celebrated Griffith factory, Danish, Clonmel and Australian butters, &c., and we may add that this firm have sold more American and Canadian provisions in one week than any other single establishment in Great Britain. An extensive and widespread connection has been secured with the leading families in the district, and also with hotels, restaurants, and eating-houses. The proprietors, Mr. W. Griffith and Mr. T. L. Griffith, give their close attention to the business, and no effort is spared by them to maintain the uniform and high character of everything they offer, and to give entire satisfaction to customers. The partners occupy a responsible position in trade circles, and are respected in private and business life for their enterprise, fair and honourable methods, and personal worth. The senior partner has the honour of being the first president of the recently formed Cardiff and District Grocers’ and Provision Dealers’ Association.


THIS eminent firm of wine merchants, caterers, and restaurateurs originated at the present address in the year 1887, and in the five years that have elapsed since then its business has been developed by proprietary energy and ability into one of the largest and most important concerns of its kind in South Wales. Messrs. Culley’s spacious and remarkably well-arranged restaurant occupies an area of several thousand square feet under the noble pile of the Cardiff Exchange, and is one of the recognised gastronomic institutions of the town. It is magnificently appointed and artistically decorated throughout, and some idea of the magnitude of the place may be gathered from the fact that the great hall of the restaurant is upwards of one hundred feet long, and is fitted with a fine counter bar, sixty feet in length, by the noted house of Mason’s, of Birmingham. At the south-west end of this hall there is a coffee bar, and here also is the silver grill. The principal dining-room is a large and handsomely decorated saloon, with tables capable of accommodating one hundred and fifty guests at a time. There is room for two hundred in the large hall, where twenty-eight tables are laid. As a rule, the place is patronised to the full extent of its capacity, and the attendance is generally voted to be faultless, a circumstance due to the personal supervision of the principals, or their immediate deputies. Every arrangement to promote the comfort and convenience of guests is in operation, and even the most fastidious of patrons must find satisfaction in the excellent and systematic organisation of this fine establishment. The scene presented by the great hall on any weekday between 12.45 and 2.30 P.M. is sufficient to convince anyone of the great popularity the Exchange Restaurant enjoys among prominent business men whose daily avocations call them into this part of Cardiff.

In addition to the public rooms already referred to, there are several elegantly-appointed private apartments, coffee and smoking rooms, beautifully furnished and decorated, a spacious cocoa-room, &c., &c. No expense has been spared to make the establishment one of the finest of its kind in the country. There is a large billiard-room, with tables by Burroughes & Watts and by Thurston. The kitchens are perfectly appointed, the spacious cellars contain vast stocks of the choice wines for which the place is deservedly noted. One of the unique advantages of the Exchange Restaurant is that of its being all upon the one level — stair-climbing is entirely dispensed with. The work of the restaurant is ably performed by a staff of about fifty hands, under efficient supervision; and as the firm are large general caterers, they have several carts and vans for the delivery of goods in town and country. Besides controlling this splendid restaurant, Mr. R. P. Culley directs a number of other important enterprises of a somewhat similar character. He has a highly successful restaurant in Oxford Street, London, and is proprietor of Culley’s Hotel, the principal hotel at Barry Dock, and the Refreshment Rooms at the Railway Station, Barry. He also owns a branch for the sale of wines, and a large restaurant in St. Mary’s Street, Cardiff, and is now achieving great success with his magnificent new hotel (with one hundred and fifty bedrooms) close to the famous Brine Baths at Droitwich. This hotel was fitted up throughout by eminent London firms at a cost of nearly £10,000. The unqualified success of the Exchange Restaurant, and of all Culley’s other undertakings, is a high tribute to that gentleman’s well-known geniality and professional ability. He has gained great personal popularity among his patrons, and certainly has spared no effort to merit the confidence they have reposed in him.

TELEGRAMS: “Treseder, Florist, Cardiff.”

ORGANISED by its present able and energetic proprietor, Mr. William Treseder, in the year 1850, the commercial development of this business has been both rapid and continuous from the very commencement. In addition to the well-organised headquarters at Cowbridge Road, Mr. Treseder holds large nurseries at Llandaff, ample gardens at Whitchurch, and a beautifully-appointed flower-shop at High Street Arcade, Cardiff. There are no less than thirty-five acres of land under active cultivation, upon which are erected about fifteen well-constructed hothouses, &c., while a staff of some forty skilled hands are engaged in the various departments under Mr. Treseder’s personal supervision. Mr. Treseder operates in every branch of his comprehensive business, and periodically issues large and lucidly arranged catalogues of all his produce. One of these gives details of all kinds of vegetable and flower seeds, garden implements and manures, and other requisites, &c., while the other is devoted to a general nursery stock, in which prices are given of fruit and forest trees of every kind, roses, conifers, hardy evergreens, deciduous trees and shrubs, hardy perennial, border and rock plants, climbing plants, &c. In addition to this, Mr. Treseder makes a speciality of his cut-flower department, executing all orders entrusted to him with care and promptitude: and being a large grower of every class of flowers, is enabled to place before his patrons an almost endless variety of the choicest blooms, either loose or in the form of wreaths, crosses, bouquets, posies, buttonholes, sprays, &c., and he moreover undertakes all kinds of floral decorations, either by contract or otherwise. His business is, indeed, a remarkable example of substantial success worthily achieved, and all its affairs are administered in a manner that is well calculated to preserve all the creditable traditions of the house, and to sustain it in the public favour it has so long and so worthily enjoyed.


IN the list of the most promising and important of the younger commercial undertakings that flourish in the busy town of Cardiff, a leading and representative position must be assigned to the pushing and energetic firm of Messrs. Simon Pearce & Co., who carry on an extensive and prosperous trade as practical tailors at 7, Park Hall Buildings, Queen Street. This busy and thriving firm was originally established by Mr. Simon Pearce in the year 1889; and in the very brief period that has since then elapsed a very excellent general family trade in all branches has been built up, and steadily and progressively developed. The premises are situated centrally in a first-rate business position, and are very roomy and commodious, and having a handsome shop fitted with plate-glass windows. The workshops are on the premises, and a good staff of skilled and experienced workpeople is kept constantly employed in fulfilling the requirements of an influential connection both in town and country. Messrs. S. Pearce & Co. keep an excellent stock of all kinds of materials of the finest qualities and. in all the latest patterns and designs, and the interior fittings and appointments of their busy establishment are of attractive appearance and very conveniently arranged. They have a first-rate reputation for style and fit, combined with finished workmanship and durability of material, and they are very warmly and appreciatively supported by all who have once given them a trial. Mr. Simon Pearce is himself a thoroughly practical man in every branch of the trade, and possesses valuable and high-class experience, gained in the leading establishments of Reading, Bath, and Southsea. He devotes close and attentive supervision to the management of all the details of the firm’s concerns, and to his personal endeavours must largely be ascribed the undoubted success which has been in so short a time achieved.


ESTABLISHED no farther back than 1886, this undertaking has been managed with so much enterprise, skill, and perseverance that in the extent of its resources and the value of its transactions, it has few equals and no superiors in South Wales. The founders of this noted concern were Mr. William Morgan and Mr. E. Biermann, and to their able control the success of the business is solely due. Some short time ago Mr. Jacques Morris was admitted into partnership, that gentleman, whose attention is especially concentrated upon the fruit department of the firm, having the management of the London branch establishment which is situate at Russell Street, Covent Garden. The Cardiff premises are exceedingly large and commodious, and are among the most attractive business houses in the town. The fruit warehouse is a fine building three storeys in height, and occupying a prominent corner position with a frontage of one hundred and thirty feet and a depth of some sixty feet. The ground floor comprises a spacious auction-room and a large sale-room, thoroughly well fitted up with every requisite and convenience. The offices are on the upper floor and consist of several private rooms and accommodation for a numerous staff of clerks. Similarly convenient premises are in occupation for the provision department. A number of clerks are kept constantly employed here also, as well as a large body of warehousemen.

The firm are direct importers of various kinds of provisions — cheese, butter, lard, eggs, and tinned goods from the Continent as well as Australia and Canada, and everything they handle is well known to the trade for its high-class and reliable quality. The proprietors have graduated in every department of the business, and their selections are made from the best sources of supply, and bought at the most opportune and fitting time. They are consequently in a position not only to execute the largest orders with promptness, but also to quote prices which will compare favourably with those of any first-class house in the trade. An extensive business is done in fruit and vegetables, both as direct importers and commission agents. Their sales are always well attended and good fair prices invariably prevail. Special arrangements have been made with Spanish houses for the direct importation of oranges, onions, &c., and also with Canadian firms to supply apples and Californian fruits. The proprietors are known for the prompt and honourable way in which all settlements are made, and for the care paid to the best interests of all those who consign goods to them. The firm, too, are largely occupied in importing flour, hay, straw, moss litter, and various kinds of merchandise of a similar character. The partners are sound business men, conversant with every detail of their calling, and having an intimate knowledge of the requirements of the trade and the market value of everything they touch. They are well known in private life, and ae everywhere respected for their ability, well-merited success, and personal integrity.
Telegrams Should be addressed: “ Morgan, Cardiff.”

Pine Sleepers, flooring boards, deals, &c.; all kinds of joinery and turning work at the shortest notice.
Orders punctually attended to.


FOURTEEN years have now elapsed since the formation of this representative undertaking by the association in business of Mr. R. Proud and Mr. J.T. Hogg, and doubtless the most effectual way in which to indicate its true character, scope, and aims would be to give a concise descriptive sketch of the establishment as it now obtains, and to supplement this with a few observations upon the nature of the operations there being carried on. The premises occupied are very extensive, and in every point of character and situation precisely adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business of the kind. They comprise a large and substantial building, most eligibly located between the Post Office and Pier Head, and appropriately divided into commodious stores, a capitally-arranged sale shop very fully stocked with an exhaustive selection of ships’ ironmongery and kindred commodities of every description, and well-ordered offices replete with every facility for the rapid transaction of business. At Dudley Place, Stuart Street, are the firm’s well-equipped works, comprising coppersmiths’ and plumbers’ shops, a large and well-arranged shop, in which several useful machines are in use, such as seven cutting lathes, boring and drilling machines, screwing machines, steam hammers, &c., all worked by one of Crossley’s fourteen horse-power gas-engines. The firm make a speciality of brass and gunmetal goods, suitable for steamers, having a good brass-foundry, capable of turning out the largest class of castings, and a staff of brass-finishers who are accustomed to this special work. Adjoining the fitting shop is a substantial two-storey building, on the ground floor of which we find a large stock of the heavier class of goods used and sold by the firm, such as brass and copper sheets, rods, and pipes, iron pipes, plates, bars and sheets, steel sheets and bars, all sizes of chain, lead, zinc, tin, &c., &c. Over the store are the tinsmiths’ and ironworkers’ departments, where ventilators, tanks, lamps, funnels, &c., are made in large quantities. On the opening of the new dock at Barry the firm decided to open a branch there. This is under the management of Mr. J. F. Proud, and has been very successful. The firm are also well known on the Tyne, having large works at North Shields.


THE above business was established in 1886 in the premises still occupied, and has been developed with notable energy, ability, and success. A name was early acquired for the reliable character of the articles supplied, and the fair and honourable manner in which all patrons are treated, and the foundation was laid of what has since become an important factor among local establishments of this kind. The partners are Mr. W. Edgar and Mr. F. Hilliges. Mr. Edgar has been in the coal trade for the past twenty-six years in Newcastle, Sunderland, and Cardiff, and has had varied and extensive experience of the trade in all its branches. The premises occupied consist of a large and well-appointed suite of private and general offices affording accommodation for an ample staff of clerks. The superintendence of the commercial department is mainly undertaken by Mr. W. Edgar. The firm has a similar establishment at Newcastle-on-Tyne. An extensive and high-class business is controlled in the exportation of coal from the Bristol Channel, Tyne, Wear, Humber, and Scotch ports to all parts of the world. The proprietors are well acquainted with all the best sources of supply, and their long connection with the trade, joined to the value of their transactions, gives them advantages in buying possessed by very few competitors. Everything supplied by Messrs. W. Edgar & Co. is of the best kind, and is guaranteed to be what it is represented both in quality and weight. All the leading sorts of coal are supplied on best conditions, special and particular regard being paid to Aberdare, Merthyr, and Rhondda smokeless steam, and the famous Monmouthshire steam coals.

The firm are largely occupied in importing pit wood of every description. The best kinds of woods used in pits are obtained direct. Sufficient stocks are kept, so that orders can be filled with promptness and every satisfaction as regards quality and price. The connection developed by this establishment is widespread and influential, and its steady but constant increase is eminently gratifying as showing how well the wants and requirements of the trade are being met. The proprietors are sterling business men, and all contracts placed in their hands are carried to completion in a thoroughly capable manner. By their fair and liberal policy, they continue to command the esteem and renewed confidence of their numerous patrons, while in private life they are everywhere respected.
The telegraphic addresses of the different establishments are, “Ragdew, Cardiff,” and “Ragdew, Newcastle-on-Tyne,” respectively.


THIS large and important brewing concern was founded in the year 1889, and the splendid brewery in Penarth Road is not only one of the structural ornaments of the town, but is also a very conspicuous object in the view of travellers to Cardiff, either by road, rail, or sea. The building is of the most substantial construction, and measures one hundred and three feet in length, fifty-two feet in breadth, and sixty-three feet in height. Above it towers a fine octagonal shaft reaching a height of one hundred and twenty feet. The whole establishment occupies an area of nearly an acre, and is undoubtedly one of the largest and best-organised breweries in the Principality. The plant is a remarkably fine one, and embodies the newest apparatus sanctioned by the experience of the trade. Nothing is lacking to ensure perfection in the product of the establishment, and the high reputation that has already been gained by the beers of the County Brewery speaks sufficiently for the completeness of the manufacturing arrangements. The Company are conducting their industry with a view not only to the development of an immense business, but also to the maintenance of the high character and quality of British beers. Water of exceptional purity and suitability for brewing purposes is an advantage possessed by this brewery, and only the best malt and hope are used, every process being carried out under highly competent supervision. The County Brewery also has splendid storage accommodation for malt, hops, and beer. There are excellent facilities of despatch and transport, and the coopers’ work is all done on the premises. Mr. Charles Callaghan, the company’s brewer, has an office where all materials and ingredients are microscopically examined to ensure their suitability for the brewing of first-class beer, nothing used at the brewery being allowed to pass without minute examination. The County Brewery Company’s average weekly output is about two hundred barrels, embracing several grades of mild and strong ale and beer, an excellent light dinner ale, fine qualities of superior bitter ale, and extra strong stout. In all these goods the high standard of purity which has marked the product of the County Brewery from the first is fully sustained. The County Brewery Company have developed a large and steadily increasing trade, with a valuable connection in all parts of the Cardiff district, and their beers are advancing daily in popular favour. The business is administered with conspicuous ability and enterprise under the personal superintendence of the principal owner and Mr. George Cross, and the concern forms one of the best examples of a first-class modern brewing industry to be met with in this neighbourhood.


THIS business was founded in the year 1851, and has always been carried on at the present premises, which comprise a large, handsome, and finely-appointed shop, affording every convenience for the purposes of the trade to which it is devoted. Here Mr. T. J. Williams keeps a splendid stock of all descriptions of nautical instruments, opera and night glasses, astronomical and nautical telescopes, and every kind of ships’ stationery. He is agent by appointment for the sale of Admiralty charts, and is licensed by the Board of Trade to sell marine forms. Charts and sailing directions for all parts of the world will be found in his stock, together with English and foreign logbooks, tide-tables, nautical almanacks, and office requisites of every description; also agent in South Wales for Bourdon’s Own-Made Steam Gauges of all kinds and he devotes special attention to the repairing of pressure and vacuum gauges, and the testing of the same by mercurial column testing pump on his own premises. Another speciality of the business consists in adjusting iron ships’ compasses, which important work is carried out with great care and with the unerring skill and accuracy that come of long experience. Mr. Williams is agent for the celebrated compasses and navigational machines of Sir Wm. Thomson, F. R.G.S., of Glasgow; these are the most perfect and costly instruments made, and are greatly used, not only by our own Navy, but those of other nations, also many well-known American steamship companies. Mr. Williams is widely and favourably known as a chronometer-maker, and in this department he enjoys the patronage of the Admiralty. His work is of the highest class, and is done by specially skilled and experienced hands under his own supervision. Altogether, a very large business is carried on, and the house is recognised as one of the leading concerns of its kind in the port of Cardiff. It stands high in the confidence of a widespread and valuable connection, and the proprietor is personally well known to and esteemed by a large circle of customers and friends.


THIS representative concern was founded in January, 1892, and commenced operations under the direction of its principals, Mr. John Jones, Mr. William Jones, and Mr. J. D. Morgan, who started the business with the object of supplying all kinds of building materials to the trade. The works are admirably situated on Dumball’s Road, in close proximity to the main street of Cardiff, and have been organised and equipped upon the best modern principles. They comprise large offices, carpenters’ shop, machine-shop, turning department, &c., all possessing the best working facilities that modern machinery and a numerous and skilful staff can supply. The plant includes circular saws, planing and moulding machines, tenoning and mortising machines, band and cross-cut saws, lathes, a drum for turning square work, and various other wood-working and joinery apparatus, all of the most improved and effective type. Steam is the motive power used, and the entire equipment of the works is driven by a fine forty-five horsepower engine, the gearing and shafting being carried underground. The drying-room is over the boiler-house, and has one of the well-known Blackman patent ventilating fans. The establishment in its entirety is without any doubt the leading one in the district, and reflects great credit upon the enterprise and practical skill of its proprietors.

The timber floats on each side of the works are connected by a canal flowing through the yard, and thus cargoes of timber can be sent up both the Merthyr and the Aberdare valleys. A swing bridge has been carried over the canal, and a line of rails laid through the works and yards, communicating with a siding from the Great Western Railway. The facilities of transport are therefore all that can be desired. A powerful crane enables the staff to pick up timber from the canal with ease and expedition, and three new sheds have lately been erected for the storage of timber in seasoning. A very large business has already been developed by this energetic company, the connection among builders, contractors, joiners, &c., extending to all parts of North and South Wales, and throughout many of the intermediate districts, goods being frequently sent to the west coast. The Company contemplate adding a new department for door manufacture, and have purchased some valuable machinery for this purpose, including a sand-papering machine, a door-cramping and a sash- cramping machine, also a relishing machine, all of which machines are quite unique so far as this district is concerned. Evidence of the work of the firm can be seen at the chapel at Taibach, all pitch pine, the Board School at Barry, and elsewhere. Mr. John Jones, one of the partners, was for eleven years connected with the Pearl Street Steam Joinery Works, and he and his colleagues in the Company are well and favourably known in the district.

TELEGRAMS: “Clarke, Cambrian Chambers, Cardiff.”

In every great centre of commerce the departments of business undertaken by the accountant, auctioneer, and valuer are of necessity of the greatest importance to its mercantile prosperity, and in Cardiff at the present day these functions have been most happily combined in the operation of the firm whose rise and progress is here noted. This prosperous concern was originally established in the year 1870, in Trinity Street, by Mr. John Jenkins, who was subsequently joined by Mr. Charles Clarke, and afterwards removed to the present eligible premises at Cambrian Chambers, Westgate Street, to meet the requirements of their ever-increasing business. Mr. John Jenkins has recently retired, and the business is still carried on under the style of Jenkins, Clarke & Co., by Mr. Charles Clarke, who is assisted by a staff of efficient and fully-qualified clerks. The firm operate in every branch of their important business, and in addition to ordinary accountant's, auctioneer’s, and valuer’s work, hold many offices of trust and responsibility, acting as the accredited agents to the Sun Fire and Life Insurance Office, the Commercial Union, Queen’s, London and Lancashire, and the Royal Exchange Fire Insurance Companies: the Norwich and London Plate-glass and Accident; the Provident Clerks’ Life and Guarantee Associations, and the National Burglary Insurance Company — in fact, every branch of insurance business is here represented; special attention being given to large and hazardous fire risks, which, by the firm’s connection with all the large Companies, they are able to effect on economical terms.

One of the special features of the proverbial progress of Cardiff for some years past has been the conversion of several large well-known firms into limited liability companies, and the firm now under review have been largely engaged in the formation of some of the most successful of them. Mr. Clarke holds the office of secretary to the old-established Cardiff musical firm of Thompson & Shackell, Limited; the Glamorgan Bill-posting Company, Limited; the Queen’s Hotel, Cardiff, Company, Limited; the Bank Buildings Office Company, Limited; the Grand Property Company, Limited; Shackell & Co., Limited (Barrow-in-Furness and Manchester); and the Mart, Limited; and in addition to this he is secretary to the South Wales Mercantile Permanent Benefit Building Society. The ramifications of this business are so varied that it is impossible to enumerate them in the brief space at our disposal, but in all these functions it is a recognised fact that they enjoy a reputation second to none in South Wales, and the substantial success achieved, and the large business connection acquired, is unquestionably the result of their enterprise, professional ability, and straightforward business methods.


THE inception of this business took place in 1882, when operations were commenced under the title of Johnstone & Co., the concern being converted into a limited company in 1890, with Mr. A. Wilmshurst as managing director. During its whole career the progress of the business has been eminently satisfactory, and a good name was soon secured for the care and skill with which all affairs entrusted to them were transacted. The premises utilised consist of offices on the first floor of a large block of building, and having a conspicuous entrance at the corner of Quay Street. The interior has been well arranged and fitted up in a convenient and suitable style, the establishment affording ample accommodation for the principals and a staff of four clerks. The company are largely occupied in negotiating partnerships and transfers of established trades and businesses. The wide and varied experience the company have had in every department of their important profession, and the amount of information they have been able to collect, tabulate, and arrange for ready reference on all matters connected with the trades and trading establishments in this locality, place them in a position to render exceptional and valuable services to their patrons. Persons desirous of finding partners or of obtaining partnerships can place themselves in the hands of this company with the full assurance that everything that sound knowledge, trained judgment, and care can accomplish will be done to carry out their instructions, and that perfect secrecy will be maintained and all settlements made in a prompt and satisfactory manner.

Another branch of the business consists of the formation of joint-stock companies for taking over and developing private industries and mercantile undertakings. Many important limited companies owe their establishment to this firm’s successful negotiations. Commercial and partnership disputes are arbitrated, mortgages arranged, private arrangements between debtors and creditors procured, fire loss assessments prepared or reviewed, and trades investigated and accounts audited for intending buyers, and book debts purchased. The operations of the company are by no means confined to Cardiff or the surrounding country, but extend to every part of the Kingdom. They are constantly engaged in obtaining partners for substantial and old-established firms, as well as disposing of many valuable concerns in London and most of the commercial centres. Mr. Wilmshuret is assiduous in his endeavours to promote the interests of his clients. He is a gentleman of experience and ability and of marked skill in financial affairs. He is strictly honourable in all his transactions, and is respected and esteemed by all who come into business connection with him, and by all who know him in private and social life.


ONE of the oldest and most respected houses in the stationery and bookselling trades in Cardiff is that of Mr. William Lewis, whose representative business was founded as far back as the year 1823 by Mr. W. Bird, then holding the office of postmaster at Cardiff. The original premises no longer exist, but the present commodious establishment was built about fifty years ago. For the past thirty-five years the business has been in the hands of its present sole proprietor, Mr. William Lewis, and under that gentleman’s able and energetic management it has attained very large dimensions. The present premises in Duke Street are handsomely appointed and conveniently arranged, and the fine double-fronted shop displays to advantage a very comprehensive stock of all the goods appertaining to the trade. At the rear are situated the works, which are three storeys high. On the ground floor is the printing department, which is fitted! with the most improved modern machinery, driven by an “Otto” gas-engine. Here a great amount of work is done in all kinds of letter-press and lithographic printing for commercial and general purposes. Above the printing-room is the compositors’ room, and the upper floor of the building is devoted to bookbinding, die-stamping, and illuminating. Account-book making is here largely carried on, and Mr. Lewis has a steady demand for his excellent bank and office ledgers and other account-books. Among the special departments of this fine old business may be mentioned that for ordnance maps, Mr. Lewis being the authorised agent for these important chartographical publications in the Cardiff district. Map mounting is also largely done. The stock of books and stationery is a most exhaustive one, and altogether, this business is the outcome of years of careful, capable, and industrious management. The trade extends all over South Wales and the West of England, and the work produced in every department is of such a high standard of excellence that orders are frequently received from distant parts of the Kingdom. This is especially so in the case of account-books and office requisites, which have always held an important place among Mr. Lewis’s specialities. A large and varied stock of these goods is constantly on hand to meet urgent requirements. The staff employed is a numerous one and composed of highly efficient workmen, and the whole business is conducted upon thoroughly first-class lines under the personal supervision of the principal. Mr. Lewis became connected with this influential concern, under Mr. Hugh Bird, son of the founder, who was then proprietor, and upon that gentleman’s retirement Mr. Lewis took over the business, which he has ever since conducted with marked success. He possesses a masterly knowledge of the trade in all its details, and is much esteemed in commercial circles.
This establishment has telephone communication, the telephone number being 574.


THIS important firm originated about thirty years ago in Angel Street, Cardiff, under the auspices of its present proprietors, Mr. John Sankey and Mr. Charles Sankey. The business eventually outgrew its original quarters, and was removed about three years ago to the present address in Hope Street and Tredegar Street. The premises here occupied are among the handsomest and most substantial commercial structures in Cardiff, and comprise a fine corner block containing three floors and a lofty basement. This building is heavily stocked throughout with all descriptions of goods appertaining to the grocery and provision trade, and the establishment is most conveniently arranged to facilitate the progress of a very large and comprehensive business. Special features of the warehouse are the tea-tasting and mixing room, jam-room, and spacious butter cellars, all of which contain immense stocks. The spacious counting-house, sale-room, and buying office, together with the principals’ private offices, are situated on the ground floor. The firm’s travellers cover the whole of this district, and their goods enjoy a reputation which keeps them in large and constant demand. Messrs. Sankey have a notable speciality in a protected brand of butter called “Silver Vale.” For this article they have a great sale — in fact, butter may be regarded as a leading commodity of the business, and with it come all sorts of provisions of the best and most reliable quality. The firm are also agents for Messrs. W. & A. Gilbey, London, and have a depot in High Street, Cardiff, stocked with their celebrated wines and spirits. This is a first-class house in every respect, and its name is widely and favourably known. Its affairs are personally administered by the principals, and the sound business policy they pursue has inspired confidence and won general approval. The Messrs. Sankey are among the most prominent members of the commercial community in Cardiff, and Mr. John Sankey is a director of many public companies in the town and district.
Telegrams for the firm should be addressed: “Sankey, Cardiff”; the telephone is No. 119.


THIS business has been established just a quarter of a century, and in that time the Company has developed a trade which has few or no equals of its kind in this part of the Kingdom. The premises occupied are ample in size and thoroughly convenient for the purposes of the business. They consist of a large shop on the ground floor, well stocked with goods of every description handled, together with a large range of workshops at the back. These have been fitted up with all the latest and most improved apparatus, plant, and machinery known to the trade, and many special appliances. The motive power is supplied by a large “Otto” gas-engine. A large and increasing trade is here controlled, principally in the manufacture of Lewis’s Patent Flexible Textile Valve, used especially for air pumps m marine engines. This invention has now been before the public for upwards of six years, and has come to be recognised among engineers as probably the best of its kind yet introduced. It has been subjected to the most rigorous tests, and its durability and efficiency have been established beyond question. It is accepted by practical engineers in nearly every part of Great Britain as the most reliable and cheapest valve in the market. In the matter of economy it is claimed that this valve is nearly fifty per cent cheaper than rubber valves, and testimonials are forthcoming which show that these textile valves have been in constant use for over three years, and have then been found in as good condition as when first put in. The special advantages claimed for these valves are:— 1, they will not crack, or break, owing to the nature of the fabric they are made of; 2, oil or heat does not in any way deteriorate their value; 3, and they keep a better vacuum than any other valve; 4, a flat guard is preferable with a short lift. Upwards of two thousand steamers use these valves, including those belonging to the most famous steamship owners in London, Liverpool, and other ports of the United Kingdom, as well as many leading foreign firms. They are also in use in many of the principal mills in the country, and in the East and the Colonies at the sugar and indigo works. The firm enjoy a high reputation for the leather and cotton belting they turn out, and for their productions as curriers and leather-dressers. A large and well-selected stock of india-rubber goods is always kept on hand suitable for marine engineering, as well as asbestos goods of all kinds. Leather (copper-riveted) ship hose is made to order or repaired on the shortest notice.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Textile, Cardiff”; and the telephone connection is Western Counties Telephone No. 102, Cardiff.


THE prosperous organisation recently established in Cardiff, under the title of Crosswells, Limited, presents a representative example of those modern concerns the aim of which is to provide the licensed trade with ale, porter, wines and spirits, on such liberal terms as are available to a company controlling exceptional and unrestricted resources. The firm provide for the trade exclusively, sending out liquors of unchallengable purity and excellence and in first-rate condition. To attain these results the utmost care is necessarily adopted in the arrangement of the valuable bottling facilities possessed by the firm, and a visit to their spacious stores and accessories at Penarth Road makes apparent to the observer sufficient impressions of complete appointment to endorse the claim to noteworthiness with which Messrs. Crosswells, Limited, are now accredited. The entire space of one extensive warehouse is reserved for bottling, while another warehouse encloses the firm’s immense collection of bottled beers, stored preparatory to consignment. The operations of the firm are largely favoured by the accommodation afforded by the spacious yard in which the buildings are located, and two additional warehouses are appropriated to the storage of beers in cask. Further space is afforded in the large room adjoining the firm’s offices on the first floor of the main building, and a loft is reserved for bottled beers. The hayloft, cart-shed, and stabling indicate the provision made for a large delivery service, and the entire arrangements of the establishment tend to convey the fact that, though a recent acquisition to the trade and industry of Cardiff, the business of Messrs. Crosswells is already in a condition of splendid development.

The firm have also extensive establishments at Newport and Bristol, the respective addresses of which are given above. While supplying those noted ales of which the famous Bass takes precedence, the firm are extensive purveyors of Guinness's stout, and through them the popularity of the celebrated Showell’s ales has been largely forwarded in this neighbourhood, as well as over the still widely extending area of business which Messrs. Crosswells’s commercial operations cover. These ales - the productions of Messrs. Walter Showell & Sons, Limited, of the Crosswells Brewery at Oldbury — are largely sent out to the private trade. They include India pale and bitter ales, also mild ales and stouts; and few brewings have more permanently established themselves in public taste and appreciativeness than those to which Messrs. Crosswells, Limited, devote special consideration. The transactions of this company during its brief existence denote a rapid progress creditable to the principles adopted by its promoters, and the ability which has been brought to bear upon its management. The secretarial duties are undertaken by Mr. C. Handcock, who watches the interest of the company with discrimination; and the direction of the concern altogether manifests those features of capable enterprise in which its continued success and its greater importance in the commerce of Cardiff are already forestalled.


THIS large and substantial business was founded about thirty-five years ago, under the title of Watts, Milburn & Co., at Newcastle and Blyth. Subsequently the business was extended to London, and about ten years ago the Cardiff and Newport establishments were inaugurated. This well-known firm ranks among the most extensive and important concerns in the colliery and coal-shipping trade of South Wales, and represents the late National Steam Coal Company, Limited, the late London and South Wales Coal Company, Limited, and the late Abercarn Coal Company, Limited — three notable undertakings which have recently been amalgamated as The United National Collieries, Limited. Messrs. Watts, Ward & Co. are also steamship owners upon a large scale, and have a fine fleet of twenty-five vessels by means of which they carry on their vast shipments of coal to all parts of the world. The various collieries represented by the firm are certainly among the best worked and most productive in the Principality. The “National” property yields a perfectly smokeless coal, unsurpassed for steam purposes, and produces about one thousand two hundred tons per day. Another speciality is the North Dunraven Merthyr smokeless coal, of which there is a daily output of six hundred tons. At Risca there is another colliery, turning out one thousand eight hundred tons daily of superior steam coal, and a fourth colliery at Abercarn raises one thousand five hundred tons per day, making an aggregate daily output of over five thousand tons. Messrs. Watts, Ward & Co. conduct the business from their head offices in the Exchange at Cardiff, where they occupy ten spacious and very handsomely appointed rooms, and employ a numerous staff of clerks and other assistants. Their head office for steamship management is at Whittington Avenue, London; and branches at Newcastle-on-Tyne, Blyth, Newport (Mon.), Barry, Paris, Nantes, Barcelona, Genoa, Savona, and Milan. The head of the house is Edmund Hannay Watts, Esq., J.P., and with him are associated James Williams, Esq., J.P., E. H. Watts, Esq., J.P., F.R.G.S., Henry, Watts, Esq., A. B. Ward, Esq., and F. S. Watts, Esq., all gentlemen of high standing in the trade, widely known, and greatly respected for their admirable enterprise and honourable principles.


THE whole operations of this concern, which was established many years ago by Messrs. Batchelor, may be said to represent a large portion of the wood-working and timber trades of Cardiff. Ever since the acquisition of the business in 1879 by its present owners, its resources and connections have been enormously developed. It is the main centre of supply for an extensive circle of builders, contractors, cabinetmakers, and coachbuilders in that part of the country. Its importations from the Baltic, the White Sea, Canada, America, and other sources enable the firm to maintain large and varied stocks to suit all requirements. The mills are appointed with all the splendid facilities which modern ingenuity has made available for the work of sawing, planing, and moulding. In the several processes powerful machinery, expressly devised to serve the purposes of Messrs. Morris & Smith’s industry, is skilfully brought to bear, and an engine of some eighty-five horse-power provides the capable steam service required. The admirable situation and arrangement of the whole establishment at Herbert Street (off Bute Street) may be here noted; and of the extensive yards, sheds, and accessories which the premises comprise, especial attention is directed to the capacious drying-chamber, which provides accommodation for ten thousand cubic feet of timber at one time. An immense impetus to local industry has been given by the adoption of a new drying process, the rights of which for Cardiff and district have been acquired from the Universal Cool-Air Drying Company of London. This invention is patented, and the valuable service it has rendered to contractors, builders, and all consumers of seasoned wood can scarcely be over-estimated. The feature of this process is that it is done by cool air instead of, as formerly, by hot air and steam. It is done in a very short space of time, and is the nearest approach to natural drying known to science. The excellent mouldings for which Messes. Morris & Smith are widely noted owe their superiority to the patent drying process. The mouldings derive an enhanced value therefrom, and in this important accessory of wood-working trade a very notable evidence of progress has to be recorded. We need only add that the entire organisation of Messrs. Morris & Smith’s works conveys impressions of the careful personal oversight which the partners themselves devote to all its details; and as merchants, importers, and masters of one of the first industries of Cardiff, the firm display vigorous and progressive enterprise, appropriate reference to which cannot be excluded from the present work wherein the features of modern advancement are chronicled.


DURING the ten years that Mr. Vaughan has been in practice in Cardiff he has brought his name forward into the foremost ranks of architects and surveyors. It has fallen to the lot of few to meet with such continued and unmistakable success. He has executed plans for twenty-five churches, and restored seven others. Several parsonages have been designed and re-arranged, several board schools have been planned by him, in addition to other important work. A few of the buildings designed by Mr. Vaughan may be noticed as including — St James’s Church, Newport Road, Cardiff; the Welsh Church, Howard Gardens, Cardiff; Radnor Road and Grangetown Board Schools; Llanelly Hospital; Aberystwith Hospital; and Ty-To-Maen, St. Mellon’s, Cardiff, the residence of Richard Allen, Esq. Any single example of Mr. Vaughan’s designs is sufficient to show that he is possessed of talent of a high order. His buildings are models of elegance, completeness, and convenience, while the most is invariably made of the ground at disposal. Many of the churches that have been erected from his plans show striking originality in execution, and are distinct acquisitions to the architectural beauties of South Wales. The board schools are amongst the best of the kind to be found in the locality, Mr. Vaughan having amply arranged for ventilation and sanitation. All the work turned out by him bears evidence of skill and care, proving the great interest he takes in his profession. He is a fellow of the Royal Institute of Architects, and is also an experienced surveyor. The premises occupied consist of a convenient and appropriately fitted suite of offices on the upper floor of a large building at the above address — the Borough Chambers, St. Mary’s, which have the entrance from Wharton Street. Mr. Vaughan is courteous and honourable in his transactions, and occupies a high social position in the district.


THIS business was established by Mr. J. G. Maddox (the senior partner of the firm) about twenty-five years ago. He has recently taken into partnership his son, Mr. George James Maddox, and the firm is now known as J. G. Maddox & Son. The premises occupied consist of a good sale room, offices, and large store-rooms. Sales by auction are constantly held at the sale-rooms, and at private residences, of estates, house properties, and every description of household goods and general merchandise. Mr. Maddox senior is agent for the De Winton Glamorganshire estates, and other properties in the neighbourhood. The business has a good and old-established connection, and is well known in Cardiff and district. Every description of insurance is carried out by the firm, who are agents for some of the leading companies. The partners are experienced in all branches of the trade, and all business entrusted to them receives their careful and prompt attention.


IN 1886, Messrs. Daniel & Sons, whose headquarters were formerly at 115, Bute Docks, established themselves as marine and general consulting engineers. The important commercial relations which, in this professional capacity, they created, and the special knowledge which they naturally acquired of the normal wants of steam users in the district, enabled them to begin business, in 1889, under specially favourable conditions, as oil refiners and merchants. The members of the firm are Mr. G. M. P. Daniel and his sons, Messrs. Nicholas Thomas, Frederick George, and Charles Edwin Daniel. All the partners have a thorough technical knowledge of the business, and the success which they have achieved is such as might have been anticipated from such antecedents. Their suite of offices (general and private) at 8, Mountstuart Square, are well appointed, and are provided with all the requisites for the rapid despatch of the extensive correspondence necessitated by the numerous and widely spread transactions of the house. The registered telegraphic address is “Leinad, Cardiff.”

The works and stores occupy conveniently arranged premises at Clarence Bridge, Corporation Road, which cover a large area. The works are fitted up throughout with all the appliances which modern science has provided for the saving of time and labour in the several industrial processes, enabling them to quote prices which compare advantageously with those of other leading houses in the trade. The business is conducted under the personal supervision of the junior members of the firm. Messrs. Daniel & Sons supply, in large quantities, all classes of lubricating oils, and especially marine engine and cylinder oils. They are likewise extensive dealers in colza oil, paint oils, petroleum, &c., and they also study the convenience of their customers by always holding large stocks of cotton wastes, soaps and sodas, and paints. The partners are personally well known in the best commercial circles in South Wales, and are much esteemed for the sterling integrity and liberality which characterise all their commercial transactions. Mr. G. M. P. Daniel receives most valuable assistance from his sons in the conduct of the oil business; Mr. N. T. Daniel devotes a large amount of time to his strictly professional duties as consulting engineer.


THE above firm do a large trade as paper merchants, and by the sale of washed wools and millpuffs for upholstering purposes, &c.; and having acquired an interest in a paper-mills and a flock-mills, to which they supply the raw materials, hold a decided advantage in disposing of these products to the consumer. Their head warehouse and offices are situated in the Penarth Road, to which the firm removed in 1891, in consequence of the growing demands upon the space at their disposal. Their present quarters comprise a very handsome warehouse, which, being newly built, has been admirably adapted to the various requirements of the business. The building is one hundred and thirty feet in length, by thirty-two feet wide, and fifty feet high, with four storeys. The ground floor in front is utilised for the purpose of the large wholesale paper trade which is conducted by the firm. The space is conveniently divided into well-appointed general and private offices, together with spacious show-rooms and stock-rooms. The remainder of the premises are utilised for “grading” all kinds of materials for the manufacture of paper of different descriptions. The various floors are so arranged as to keep all these grades separate and distinct. A large staff of experienced hands is employed in the various departments, and the aggregate of the business annually transacted is enormous.


THIS large and important business was founded by the present proprietor, Mr. Richard Sleep, in 1864. A well-won reputation is held for the all-round excellence of the concern which, during the enormous development that has taken place in local shipping matters during recent years, has played a very conspicuous part. The premises occupied are of great extent, and are thoroughly well equipped. There is ample warehouse accommodation; a supply of pulleys and all the requisites for carrying on an extensive business of this description are present. Each section of the trade is well arranged, so that orders may be executed quickly, There are large and valuable stocks of bar-iron, steel, ship-masts, ladders, &c., the quality of which may be implicitly relied upon. The leading speciality is in supplying the trade at wholesale prices. During the course of a year immense quantities of Mr. Sleep’s celebrated American ash boat-oars are got through, sometimes reaching four thousand. These oars are known to a large portion of the shipping community for their reliable properties, and have the preference over most of the others made. An important branch is made of steering wheels. These are kept in stock from three feet to six feet in diameter, and contain all the most recent improvements. The intimate knowledge of the trade possessed by Mr. Sleep enables him to personally conduct it with great success. His enterprise and ability have been the means of building up a large concern of vast usefulness to a port like Cardiff, and the constantly-increasing patronage accorded him is well merited. Mr. Sleep is much respected for his own sterling worth.


THIS superior and extensive business is worthy of special mention among the great commercial industries of Cardiff. The premises add considerably to the architectural features of the town, and have a most handsome and imposing appearance. The building is of five-storey elevation, with a double frontage of seventy-one feet. The depth is fifty-eight feet. The attractive plate-glass windows are well displayed with the various commodities dealt in, and the shop interior is fitted up in a most suitable manner. At the rear is the neatly furnished counting-house. On the first floor are the hay mmd straw stores, on the second floor corn and seeds are stored, also artificial cakes. The third floor is occupied by corn and meal, and here too is a fine steam-engine of thirty horse-power for working the mills. On the fourth floor are the supplies of chaff and stocks of corn, while here are chaff-cutting, corn, and cake mills. Adjoining is a fine boiler-house. Well-ventilated stabling is provided for the eleven horses at the rear. There are in the different departments twenty-five competent hands employed, and the easy and effective manner in which even large orders are got out speaks of a well-planned organisation. The agency is held for the following renowned firms, a thoroughly representative supply of their goods being on hand: Spratt’s patent Dog and Poultry Food, Simpson’s Spice and Calf Meal, Thorley’s Food for Cattle, the Waterloo Feeding Cake for cattle, the Dublin and Wicklow Manure Company, &c. The whole of the operations are carried on under the personal control of Mr. Noah Rees and Mr. T. P. Rees, gentlemen whose enterprise, energy, and sound integrity have promoted them into the foremost ranks of the tradesmen of the district. The business was established in 1860.


MR. Thomas Gough, of Clifton Street and Oxford Street, Roath, has been enabled to share largely in the unexampled progress which Cardiff has made since 1874, when Mr. Gough began business. In the beginning of his business career Mr. Gough’s headquarters were the establishment at 1, Oxford Street, where his principal industrial indoor operations are still carried on. In 1888, however, his contracts for plumbing, glazing, and the decoration of interiors had become so numerous that he found it necessary to open the commodious premises at 1, Clifton Street. These, which were formerly occupied as a villa residence, have been admirably adapted to the requirements of the business. They are chiefly used as show-rooms, with ample plate-glass display windows and a fine assortment of gas-fittings, paperhangings, and other adjuncts of decorative art. Mr. Gough’s relations with several of the eminent firms producing these classes of goods are so intimate that he is always able to submit to his customers the latest designs on terms whose moderation cannot be surpassed. The works at Oxford Street comprise all that is necessary for the proper conduct of a builder’s trade of the first class. There is a spacious yard with all sorts of building materials, stables, and plumbers’ and carpenters’ shops fitted up with all the mechanical appliances of modern invention for economising time and labour. The soundness and lasting character of Mr. Gough’s building work is celebrated throughout a wide area, as he has carried out, to the complete satisfaction of architects and principals, most important works at Llandaff, Canton, Cardiff, and Roath, in which latter suburb the extraordinary increase in the residential population has afforded much scope for his abilities. In the internal decoration and renovation which he executes, much artistic taste is displayed, and also a large knowledge of the most modern methods of applying practical sanitary science. Mr. Gough is personally well known throughout the district, and is held in high respect for the sterling integrity which characterises all his transactions.


THIS important concern was founded as far back as the year 1846, in the same premises, by the late Mr. William Nell, and in 1871 it passed to his eldest son, Mr. William Walter Nell, who carried it on until 1889, when the magnitude and steady development of the business warranted its conversion into a limited liability company. Of this company Mr. William Walter Nell remains a director, and many of the brewery staff who were long in the service of himself and of his father have been retained by the company; in fact, we may say that the utmost good feeling has always existed between the firm and their employes during the whole time that Mr. Nell and his son have carried on this enterprising concern. Mr. Michael Fisher, who has been in the employ of the firm for about thirty-eight years, is the experienced and thoroughly practical manager, and to his courtesy we are indebted for the information here embodied. The Eagle Brewery is a large establishment, covering a considerable area of ground in the neighbourhood of St. John’s Square, and in all the details of its arrangement and equipment it displays an excellent and most complete organisation. The whole industry is carried on under the most perfectly satisfactory conditions as regards care, cleanliness, practical skill, and all other matters essential to the attainment of the best results. We need not comment at any great length upon the quality and character of the beers produced at the Eagle Brewery. Their merits are well known and their purity is widely appreciated; and they rank in quality with the best “brews” in the market.

Connected with the brewery are very extensive cellars, bottling departments, stabling, coopers’ shops, bottle-washing departments, fitted with all the necessary appliances, and in the near future several additions will be made to the premises with a view to providing still more completely for the requirements of a steadily increasing trade. In addition to their brewing operations, the company under notice carry on a very large and important trade as importers of wines and spirits, and for this department they have a spacious warehouse, the main entrance to which is in St. John’s Square, and extensive wine cellars underneath the warehouse and offices. Here very comprehensive and valuable stocks are held in all kinds of wines and spirits and the company are noted for their fine old French brandies, choice Scotch and Irish whiskies, selected rums and gins, and superior brands of port, sherry, claret, champagne, Hungarian wines, &c. There are included in this stock large quantities of rare old port and sherry upwards of twenty years in bottle, and we note also a very full stock of champagne of the excellent 1880 and 1881 vintages. Altogether this is one of the most successful and substantial businesses of its kind in the Principality, and its affairs are administered in a manner tending to fully maintain its high position in the trade, and to preserve the reputation so long enjoyed for goods of the first quality. Careful supervision undoubtedly has a great deal to do with the continued prosperity of the concern. We ought to add that the late Mr. William Nell, founder of this representative house, was for many years a prominent member of the Cardiff Town Council, and was much respected by all who knew him in business and public life.


IN our record of the rising firms in Cardiff mention should not be omitted of that thoroughly enterprising establishment of Messrs. P. Baker & Co., Iron Merchants, and Machinery Dealers and Colliery Stores, whose offices are at 1, Dock Chambers, and works at East Moors. The business has been established some seven years, and has been conducted with energy and perseverance, and the foundation stone laid of what has every prospect of becoming one of the most important of its class in this part of the Kingdom. The efficient resources of the new firm, and their ability to supply everything required in their line were speedily recognised, and a reputation acquired which has gone on increasing with every passing year. The partners are Mr. J. E. Baker, Mr. P. Baker, and Mr. Frank Jones. The Albion Works, as they are called, are situate at the bottom of East Moors, adjoining the East and Roath Docks. They are of considerable extent, and are well equipped with the newest and most improved plant and machinery. The motive power for the machinery is furnished by a powerful steam-engine, and a force of from fifteen to twenty workmen is kept constantly employed, chiefly in repairing every description of machinery, which is largely stored, and kept ready for instant requirements. In this department a large business is being done. The firm, however, are mainly occupied as iron merchants and dealers in colliery machinery. The proprietors are of long standing in the trade, and are perfectly familiar with all the best sources of supply. Engines, boilers, winches, pumps, locomotives, and all kinds of machinery are kept in stock in great variety, and orders can be filled with promptness. The firm are more particularly notable for the extensive selection of colliery machinery and requisites they keep constantly on hand, as well as for the reliable and superior quality of everything they supply in this direction. They are also sole agents in South Wales and Monmouthshire district for the celebrated portable engines, and other machinery manufactured by the well-known firm of Clayton & Shuttleworth, of Lincoln. A large and valuable connection has been established, and the constantly increasing character of the demand shows how well they are supplying the wants of their special class of customers.
The telegraphic address of the house is “Tinplates, Cardiff.” National Telephone No. 190.


AMONG those industries in which British enterprise has secured a leading place, there is none more noteworthy than the manufacture of indiarubber and waterproof articles; and the highest modern developments of this very important industry are exemplified in the operations of the noted firm whose name appears at the head of this review. The immense business carried on by Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, & Anderson, of London, Cardiff, and Bristol is undoubtedly cue of the largest concerns in the indiarubber and waterproofing trade. The Cardiff branch was opened about six years ago, and has been highly successful in maintaining and further developing the firm’s valuable connection in Wales and the West. Large and commodious premises are occupied in Queen Street, the spacious double-fronted shop being handsomely appointed, finely situated, and in every respect well suited to the requirements of the extensive and first-class business here carried on. In the shop and the show-room beyond, the visitor is brought into contact with one of the most varied and comprehensive stocks of high-class rubber goods and waterproof articles to be met with anywhere in the kingdom, and in this interesting stock the resources of Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, & Anderson as manufacturers are fully indicated.

As our readers are generally aware, this firm are famous for their improved waterproof garments, and in these goods they have a leading speciality in which they have attained as high a point of perfection as has yet been reached. They make waterproofs for all the occasions of ordinary wear, and devote special attention to the production of military, naval, and hunting waterproofs. All these garments (in fact, everything the firm produce) are manufactured at their large factory in Bow Road, London. This factory, its workpeople, and its methods generally had the distinction some little time ago of being interestingly described in the Star (London) by Mrs. Annie Besant, who gave a most instructive account of the careful manner in which Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, & Anderson train their operatives in the various departments of their great industry. From Mrs. Besant’s account it is evident that the hands are well paid, well looked after, and thoroughly happy and contented, while the system under which they work — void as it is of the slightest tendency towards “sweating” — enables the hands to take a real interest in their work. That they do this is evident from the class of goods they turn out. Mrs. Besant’s account of these notable works redounds greatly to the credit of the firm.

A word must now be said concerning one or two of Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, & Anderson’s most prominent specialities. The two latest among these, and the most important withal, are the new improved regulation waterproof army cloak, and the regulation Admiralty waterproof. The former is the only waterproof for army officers, and is at the same time a most excellent garment for civilians. It is produced with a view to obtaining the maximum of practical utility and wearing qualities, while reducing to a minimum the necessity for repair when on actual service. This cloak has met with the complete approval of the War Office authorities, and has been adopted by them as a pattern for cloaks to be worn in wet weather by all officers. As the letter from the Horse Guards to Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, & Anderson says:— “This pattern possesses many advantages over that sealed in 1871, and it is considered to be an excellent garment.” The new improved pattern has therefore superseded that of 1871, and has been officially sealed by the military authorities. The firm produce it in many sizes and in three qualities —1, standard quality, as sealed at the War Office; 2, extra quality, of special lightness; 3, second quality, for civilian wear. The “standard” and “extra” qualities are for both officers and civilians. It is well to point out that this very superior and thoroughly economical waterproof garment has met with the flattery of imitation. Those of our readers who desire the genuine article will be able to tell it by the presence of a red seal in addition to the well-known trade-mark of Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, Anderson. The regulation Admiralty cloak is a production calling for the same high commendation as has been accorded to the army cloak. It is the result of the endeavours made by Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, & Anderson, at the request of the Admiralty, to thoroughly improve the navy cloak, and how successful those endeavours have been is shown in the fact that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have fully approved of the new pattern submitted to them, and that pattern has been duly sealed as the regulation Admiralty waterproof for naval officers. This cloak bears the firm’s trade-mark, but is further distinguished by a blue seal. This cloak is the best all-round waterproof for civilians that we have seen. In fact, it comprises “twenty waterproofs in one,” being adapted for such varied uses as shooting, boating, canoeing, golfing, fishing, exploring, mountaineering, ocean travel, rambling, cycling, hunting and riding, driving, evening dress, and business wear, while racing men, yachtsmen, campers, coaching men, surveyors, and all others whose callings render them liable to the discomforts of wet weather will find it invaluable. The Admiralty cloak is made in all the usual sizes, and the firm have now produced (in response to a widespread request) a “second quality,” in addition to the “standard quality.”

In these famous waterproofs an immense trade is done, both with officers of the army and navy, and with civilians. Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, & Anderson also manufacture a great variety of other waterproofs, and of indiarubbcr and waterproof goods for sporting, surgical, mechanical and domestic purposes. These are all classified and enumerated in the firm’s illustrated catalogue, and complete stocks will always be found at the Cardiff establishment, at the London depots (in St. Paul’s Churchyard, and 37, Queen Victoria Street, E.C.), and at the branches at Bristol (High Street). The firm have gained a great number of first-class awards at the leading international exhibitions, and their goods are held in the highest esteem and confidence both at home and abroad. Besides contracting for the Admiralty and War Office, Messrs. Anderson supply the India Office, the London Metropolitan Police, and the London Fire Brigade.

Their trade is world-wide, and the connection in South Wales, North Wales, and Monmouthshire is well looked after by the Cardiff branch, which is under the able management of Mr. Alexander Pringle, a gentleman who had been for seven years connected with the house in London before he came to take charge of the Welsh business. The trade done by this house is unquestionably the largest of its kind in the Principality, and, like all the affairs of Messrs. Anderson, Anderson, & Anderson’s widespread business, it Is directed with conspicuous enterprise, judgment, and commercial skill. The head of the house is Mr. James Henry Anderson, who, with his sons, constitute the firm. The senior partner takes great interest in public and political affairs, and contested the Holderness division of Yorkshire, in the Liberal interest, at the General Election of the present year (1892). He is a business man of well-known enterprise and capacity, and has always assumed an active part in the management of the important concern over which he now presides with the able assistance and co-operation of his sons.


THE promoters and proprietors of this company are Mr. B. Rowland and Mr. W. T. D. Rowland. Since the establishment of the business in 1889 they have occupied the same offices on the second floor of the Exchange. The two offices are well fitted up, and a staff of four clerks is engaged, these working under the direction of Mr. B. Rowland. Messrs. B. Rowland & Co. do a large business as colliery agents for the supply of coal for home consumption. A speciality is made of the Garth and No. 3 Rhondda Red Ash house coal, of which they sell in the district for household purposes between four thousand and five thousand tons per month. They further trade in foundry and furnace coke, and are pitwood, iron, and iron ore merchants. So as to meet the most immediate demands, and also to be well posted in the state of the coal markets (whereby customers are materially benefited), they have a registered telegraphic address, viz., “Rolan, Cardiff.” Under the excellent directorate and management of the firm a large and increasing business is done, and the thoroughly satisfactory manner in which all transactions are carried out leaves nothing to be desired.


THE above house deserves special mention in the commercial life of the district as being the only Norwegian ship stores in South Wales. The origin of the business goes back to 1889, when operations were started, under the name of Sorensen & Co., by Mr. August Sorensen, of Fredrikshald, Norway, who brought to bear upon his undertaking a wide experience and executive ability. He was joined in partnership in 1891 by Mr. F. J. Allum, of Drammen, when the firm assumed the title at the head of this sketch. The business success has been secured from the first by the thoroughly reliable character and excellence of the goods offered, and the prompt attention bestowed upon the wants of patrons. The business has grown rapidly, and the accommodation has become insufficient, more space being required for the increased stocks, particularly in lager beer, and while we write alterations and enlargements are in progress. The premises as now occupied comprise a shop with a varied display of different kinds of stores, such as tinned goods, meats, and preserves. At the back is a large warehouse, well stocked with oils, shipping tackle, and similar goods while the extensive cellars contain tierces of beef and pork, and the upper storeys multifarious collections of canvas, ship lamps, nails, brooms, and other kinds of ships’ stores. Here is controlled a large and valuable trade, and merchants and shippers can rely upon the uniform excellence of everything offered. The specialities of the firm, for which they have obtained a well-recognised position in the trade, are Norwegian Gold Medal Punch, Norwegian Aquavit, and Norwegian Lager Beer, and other well-known Norwegian goods. Messrs. Sorensen, Allum & Co. are familiar with the best sources of supply, and their selections are made from the best-known makers in their respective lines, and are bought in such quantities as to secure every advantage in the matter of price. Patrons can, therefore, always obtain here the most reliable articles. The firm are also agents for Norden’s Copper Paint, Moller’s Life-Saving Appliances, and Schjott’s Patent Wave Subduer, all of which are leading goods in their respective lines, and are commanding large and increasing sales. All orders receive prompt attention, and no effort is spared to give entire satisfaction in quality of goods and fair and reasonable prices. The proprietors are well known in local trade circles. The success of the business is due to the partners’ experience, and they well merit the prosperity they have obtained.
Telegrams should be addressed, “Sorensen, Cardiff”; and the telephone number is 160.


THE business operations of the accountant, auctioneer, and general valuer have always been of the greatest importance and responsibility in every commercial centre. Mr. John E. Gunn some seventeen years ago formed the nucleus of this prosperous business in St. Mary Street, subsequently removing to his present eligible quarters, which comprise three handsomely appointed office, affording ample accommodation for a staff of ten well-qualified clerks, whose labours are most carefully and energetically directed by Mr. Gunn himself. Mr. Gunn’s operations embrace every branch of accountancy and auctioneering business, and take effect in a number of other departments usually associated therewith. Large auction sales of freehold and leasehold properties and farming stock, as also of other personal effects, are disposed of at frequent intervals, and every sale conducted under Mr. Gunn’s auspices is assured of a good attendance of buyers. In financial matters Mr. Gunn’s name ranks high in the profession, and he holds many important positions of trust, acting as secretary to the following notable concerns, viz., Messrs. James Tucker, Limited: Messrs. David Jones & Co., Limited; South Rhondda Colliery Company, Limited; Bevan & Co., Limited; the Mount Stuart Hotel and Property Company,Limited: Welsh Manufacturing and Wool Stapling Company, Limited; Langammarch Wells Estate and Hotel Company, Limited; Stevens & Sons (Cardiff), Limited: Royal Hotel Company (Cardiff), Limited; Cardiff and South Wales Manure Company, Limited: Cardiff Philharmonic Music-Hall Company, Limited: the Pontypool Flour Mills and Bakery Company, Limited: Messrs. W. E. Vaughan & Co., Limited: the South Wales Crown Soap and Candle Company, Limited; the Aberthaw Pebble Lime Company, Limited, &c. All classes of land, house, estate, building society, and insurance agency business is transacted, and among other work largely engaged in Mr. Gunn effects valuations, undertakes mortgage broker’s work, makes surveys, and takes inventories of stock and effects of every kind. The business is indeed in a splendid condition of development and progressive prosperity, a state in which it is well sustained by the ability and judgment that mark Mr. Gunn’s administration, and a first-class connection is maintained among private customers and business men throughout the town and county districts many miles around.


THIS business was established in 1856, and, consequently, is one of the oldest concerns of the kind in the town. The premises are centrally situated, and fitted with the most improved machinery, capable of high speed, and driven by a fine engine and boiler. The type in use comprises the productions of the best typefounders, suitable for all kinds of commercial, artistic, and general letterpress printing, all in excellent condition. The requirements of a modern printing office are thus fully met. There is a good staff of thoroughly experienced men employed. The work turned out is creditable in the highest degree, being bright, clean, accurate, and effective. M. Evans & Co. more particularly devote themselves to colliery, railway, and office work, for which they have been largely patronised by the principal firms in the district for the last thirty years. This class of work requires promptitude and complete accuracy, and they receive it here. General jobbing work is also executed, and plain and coloured posters. Account-books of all kinds are printed, ruled, and bound on the shortest notice, in any style. The connection is a good solid one, and is constantly being added to.


THIS representative business was established as far back as 1879, and its progress has been of an eminently satisfactory character, fully commensurate with the ability, energy, and tact that have been spent upon it. The premises occupied are capitally located, being in the immediate neighbourhood both of the Docks and the Exchange. They comprise private office, general offices, and drawing-room, all well arranged and handsomely and thoroughly fitted up with every convenience for the control of the business. The drawing and designing room is a particularly fine apartment, spacious and well lighted, and contains various interesting and ingenious models of steamships on which Mr. Aisbitt has been engaged. A competent staff of assistants and clerks is kept, and everything placed in his hands receives his own personal supervision. Mr. Aisbitt’s long experience and special technical knowledge place him in the forefront of the profession. His survey reports can always be relied upon, and all his reports are sent out “type-written,” for which purpose type-writers are kept constantly employed. A leading speciality of the firm is that of surveying for the London underwriters, and in looking after their interests in regard to all claims for damages in this district. Mr. Aisbitt is a member of the London Salvage Association, and he is largely occupied as a salvage expert in cases of wreck. As a leading practitioner in one of the most responsible and important professions in the district, he enjoys a well- deserved and enviable reputation with all who have need of his valuable services, and in private and social life he is widely known and everywhere respected and esteemed for his many good qualities, and his constant and disinterested support of all local movements and charities.


THIS small but compact brewery was commenced in 1874, and was taken over in 1875 by Mr. George Watson, who very successfully developed it. In 1885 it was turned into a limited liability company, with Mr. Watson as chairman. The premises in John Street are substantial and well arranged. The place is taxed to its utmost capacity, and has become much too small for the requirements of the Company. It is, therefore, their intention, as soon as suitable ground can be acquired, to build a new brewery, which will be on a greatly extended scale. A considerable reputation has been gained by the productions of the Company, chiefly mild ales. These are of excellent tone, pure, and brewed under most experienced supervision. The weekly output amounts to about one hundred barrels, this being the limit of the plant and premises. Throughout the most scrupulous cleanliness is observed, and the best ingredients only are used. in addition to their own ales the Company are agents for Messrs. Salt & Co., Burton-on-Trent, and for Messrs. Davis, Strangman & Co.’s stout and porter, Waterford. There are about eight hands employed. The energetic manager and secretary is Mr. Soule, who is well assisted in his duties by a competent staff. There can be little doubt but that when the Company acquire new and larger premises they will vastly extend, for they certainly have made an excellent name, not only for quality, but also for enterprise and sound integrity.


This business, which is rapidly assuming large and important proportions, was established by the present partners, Messrs. Morteo Brothers, in 1890. The conveniently situate premises occupied consist of a handsome and well-fitted suite of apartments near the Docks, arranged as private and general offices. The partners are chiefly engaged in shipping the most celebrated brands of Welsh coals to Italy and the River Plate. They have large transactions with several colliery proprietors, and have already distinguished themselves by the energetic and able manner in which they conduct their business. The firm are shipbrokers and steamship agents, and have important branches at Swansea, Newport, and Genoa; and they are also largely engaged in timber chartering. As agents for the Bank of Genoa, Messrs. Morteo Brothers are brought still more prominently before the world of commerce. They hold this agency for all the Bristol Channel ports. The members of the firm are Mr. Arthur Morteo, who has been connected with the shipping trades of Cardiff for about thirty years, and Mr. Arnold Morteo, gentlemen who, by their courteous and straightforward dealings, have gained the cordial respect and esteem of many of the chief commercial centres of the borough and district.
The telegraphic addresses are: “Morteo, Cardiff”; and “Aurora, Genoa.”


A LARGE and important industry is carried on at Cardiff by Messrs. Bird & Son, a firm who have been engaged for the past twenty-five years in the distillation of tar and resin, the refining and manufacturing of oils and greases, and the importation of oil and petroleum. The Glamorgan Works, where the operations of this well-known house are carried, on, cover several acres of ground, and form an establishment admirably adapted in all respects to the requirements of the industry, the several departments being equipped with the best modern appliances and machinery. Employment is given here to a large staff of experienced men, and the various processes are conducted upon the most advanced principles and under thoroughly capable supervision. Messrs. Bird & Son’s goods are held in high estimation in the trade, owing to their superior quality and uniform excellence, which is undoubtedly due to the very careful manner in which they are prepared, and is the outcome of long practical experience. A good reputation having thus been so long enjoyed, the firm take every precaution to ensure its maintenance. Large and valuable stocks are held in the warehouses adjoining the works, comprising oils and greases of all kinds, together with general stores of the class required by collieries and ship-owners. They also have extensive stores on the Ely River, Penarth Harbour, known as the Imperial Wharf, where large quantities of petroleum, benzoline, and other oils of a more or less inflammable nature are stored. Both the works and the stores are in direct railway communication with all parts of the country, and the firm are thus in a position to execute all orders without delay. Messrs. Bird & Son rank among the largest importers of seal oil and petroleum in the Kingdom, and they were the first to bring these important commodities direct into South Wales through the port of Cardiff. For these and other oils they have immense storage accommodation, and always hold exceedingly large stocks, and every facility exists for the satisfactory conduct of the trade. The firm enjoy the confidence of a widespread and influential connection, and are respected by all their customers for the straightforward methods that characterise all their commercial dealings. The principal and founder of the house, Mr. Robert Bird, is a gentleman much esteemed in the district, and takes an active part in public life. He was Mayor of Cardiff in 1883-84, and is at the present time a Justice of the Peace for the borough.


FOUNDED over forty years ago, this well-known business has been highly successful from the first, and was converted into a limited company in 1889. The wisdom of this step has been proven by the increased prosperity and marked growth of the business during the past three years — a result to which the energy and experience of Mr. John Weaver, the esteemed managing director of the company, have contributed very largely. The premises comprise large stores on the ground floor, with cellars of the same dimensions beneath, extending right through into Westgate Street, and containing stocks of great comprehensiveness. The Company also have bonded stores at 12, Penarth Road, and 6, Canal Side, Bute Dock. The Penarth Road stores are in what are known as the Rotunda Buildings, and were opened in 1881. They are devoted to both British and foreign goods in bond, and they are among the finest cellars out of London, according to no less an authority than the Controller of Customs at Cardiff. The principal cellar is one hundred and fifty feet long by sixty-six feet at its widest point, and it is, we believe, the largest single bonded cellar in the provinces. The place is most substantially built and protected, according to the requirements of the Custom House, and it accommodates a vast stock of wines and spirits in casks, affording a striking indication of the magnitude of Messrs. Stevens’ trade. The Stores at Canal Side consist of a fine warehouse of three storeys, with a specially equipped vatting floor, and are used as bonded stores for whisky only. There is here in operation a hydraulic lift capable of raising one ton. Messrs. Stevens & Son’s three establishments in Cardiff are as perfectly organised as any we have seen in the trade, and they afford every facility for the conduct of what is doubtless the oldest and largest business of its kind in the Principality.

The Company have a wide reputation for sound quality and perfect reliability of all their goods, and they are particularly noted for several important specialities, chief among which are the “Duchess” and “Edinburgh Cream” Scotch whiskies. These high-class spirits are of remarkable purity and fine character, and have a large sale, being esteemed by connoisseurs everywhere. Messrs. Stevens & Son do an exclusively first-class trade, and no wines or spirits that are not of the most satisfactory quality are admitted into their stock. They supply everything appertaining to the trade of a high-class wine and spirit merchant, and their numerous customers include the leading hotels and innkeepers of Cardiff and the surrounding country. Farther afield, also, they have a valuable connection, extending throughout South Wales, and their travellers cover the whole of this large and important district. Mr. John Weaver, the well-known and courteous managing director, has been associated with the house since his boyhood, and for the past thirty years has had the entire management of the business. His long experience, thorough knowledge of the trade, and admirable qualities of tact and judgment eminently fit him to direct with continued success the affairs of this influential and extensive concern.
Telegrams for Messrs. Stevens & Son (Cardiff), Limited, should be addressed, “Sebastien, Cardiff.” The firm’s telephone is No. 569.


NOT only is this the most prominent establishment of the kind in Cardiff or the district, but it can also lay claim to being the oldest, operations having been initiated as far back as 1848, by Mr. C. Wakeford, the father of the present proprietors. At his death, which happened some five years ago, the business was left to his two sons, Mr. H. S. Wakeford and Mr. R. A. Wakeford, who had been associated with him in the control for many years. The premises occupied comprise a handsome suite of private and general offices in the front, together with show-room, warehouses and stock-rooms, and a large printing works at the rear, well equipped with the latest and most improved plant and machinery, including printing machines, lithographic presses, guillotines, and paging and ruling machines, driven by a powerful steam-engine. A numerous staff is employed, and an efficient system of discipline and management is maintained in every department. Every class of work is undertaken, from the cheapest handbill to the most finished circular, but it is chiefly in the higher walks of the business that the firm have gained their splendid reputation. Invoices, programmes, menu cards, and suchlike work are executed in a very superior style. Special regard is paid to publishing pamphlets, price-books, and catalogues, the ample resources of the firm giving them many advantages in this department. The firm’s lithography is noticeable for the accuracy of the drawing and the clearness with which the effects come out, while every kind of engraving is done in a thoroughly high-class manner. Bookbinding is undertaken in all its branches, and a special feature is made of the manufacture of account-books, their productions in this line being unequalled for good material, sound workmanship, and handsome appearance. Extensive stocks are held of stationers’ goods of every description, including printing and writing papers, business and private envelopes, inks of various makers, inkstands in large variety, letter-racks, invoice-books, ledgers, memorandum-books, &c. The partners are men of large experience and of recognised skill and taste in their profession. Their personal supervision is given to the concern in its entirety, thus ensuring to customers prompt attention and uniform quality of work. They are strictly fair and honourable in their dealings, and by their liberal and straightforward policy they command the respect and continued support of all who come into business connection with them.


FOR upwards of thirty years the house of Messrs. T. Waring & Son has occupied a leading and influential position among the establishments in Cardiff occupied as civil engineers, architects, land agents and surveyors. When the firm first commenced operations Cardiff was just beginning to develop, and with its growth the firm has kept pace. Large and commodious premises are occupied, conveniently situated at No. 1, Charles Street. They consist of a suite of six offices, well arranged for the control of business of this character. The connection acquired by the house is one of the finest in the district, many of the best-known and most influential local residents being numbered among their clients. Among other positions of trust, Messrs. T. Waring & Son are agents for Messrs. Stacey’s, Roath, Canton, and Cardiff Estates; building agents for the Roath Court Estate of Mr. C. H. Williams; building agents for Mr. J. R. G. Homfray, of Penllyn Castle, Cowbridge; building agents to Mr. Henry Lewis, of Green Meadow, near Cardiff; and also building agents to several other landowners in the neighbourhood of Cardiff. The firm also occupy the responsible position of secretaries to the Cardiff Workman’s Cottage Company, Limited, to the Cardiff Theatre Company, Limited, and to various other public bodies. They are likewise engineers to the Cardiff Rural Sanitary Authorities. Mr. Charles E. Waring, F.S.I., and A.M.Inst.C.E., the senior partner, is the appointed Surveyor to the Board of Trade. He is the recognised representative of the profession in which he is so largely engaged and is universally respected for his marked ability, disinterested public services on every possible occasion, and his strict personal rectitude.


MR. SEDDON has been established in Cardiff since 1885, but prior to that his connection with the profession had been both long and valuable. For seven years he occupied a responsible position with Palmer’s Shipbuilding Company, at Jarrow-on-Tyne. He afterwards served ten years on the staff of the late Liverpool Underwriters’ Registry at London and Cardiff. During the last three years of that period he had sole charge of the Bristol Channel district, an appointment he held until 1885, when the Registry amalgamated with Lloyd’s. Since that date Mr. Seddon has been in business for himself, and to show the high position he occupies in the profession it should be noticed that he has been appointed surveyor for the British Corporation for the Survey and Registry of Shipping, Glasgow. The premises occupied in Cardiff are conveniently situated, being close to the Docks and likewise to the Exchange, and comprise two large and well-appointed offices on the first floor. Mr. Seddon’s services are in constant requisition among the leading ship-owners of the Channel ports and underwriting companies of the chief ports of the Kingdom, and everything placed in his hands is sure to be carried out in a thoroughly able, conscientious, and satisfactory manner. Whatever he undertakes receives his close personal attention, and as a consequence, the utmost confidence can be placed in him. He is a member of the Institute of Naval Architects. He has designed several merchant vessels of the best class for British firms. In every department connected with the profession. Of the marine and engineering surveyor Mr. Seddon has gained a high reputation, and the success he has attained is the well-merited reward of his conspicuous ability, energetic business habits, and upright and honourable dealings. During last August and September, Mr. Seddon was engaged along with others in the raising of the ‘ss. Fedele Primavesi,’ which, was sunk by an accident in the Roath Dock early in August, and the salvage operations were most successfully carried out.


THIS extensive business was founded in 1888 under its present title, and its operations embrace the supplying by contract of railway wagons and of all railway and colliery stores. The firm are agents in South Wales for the following manufacturing concerns of world-wide reputation:— The Lancashire and Yorkshire Wagon Company, Limited, Heywood; the United Asbestos Company, Limited, London; the Asbestos Fireproof Paint Company, Birmingham: H. & S. Barker & Co., Railway Wheel Works, Mexborough. The productions of all the above-named firms are supplied through the medium of Messrs. Howard Davenport & Co., and very large stocks of asbestos, steam packings, oils, paints, and other stores are held in the firm’s extensive warehouses in Bute Street. At this address also are the general offices of the house, presided over by Mr. Howard H. Davenport, the managing partner. Mr. Davenport is a gentleman of very comprehensive experience. For upwards of twelve years he was manager for the Metropolitan Carriage and Wagon Company, at East Moors, Cardiff, and quitted that position to found the business here under notice. His energy and activity have developed a very extensive trade in a comparatively short space of time, and Messrs. Howard Davenport & Co. are now largely employed in building new railway wagons, financing rolling stock, and supplying colliery and engine stores for an influential and widespread connection in various parts of the Principality. The business in its entirety is in a flourishing and progressive condition, which is entirely due to Mr. Davenport’s enterprise and unremitting personal supervision.
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed, “Buffers, Cardiff.”


IN CONNECTION with the carriage-building industry in South Wales, no house enjoys a more creditable reputation than that of Mr. John Norman, whose large and admirably-organised works rank among the representative industrial establishments of Cardiff. Mr. Norman commenced his business in the year 1868, and his fine establishment in Market Road is the result of the steady growth and prosperity of his trade. The premises are very large and of substantial and handsome build, and they have a main frontage of about one hundred feet, with a rearward depth of nearly three times that distance. Comprising in one spacious block a splendid set of show-rooms and a number workshops of workshops of specially complete equipment, the Canton Carriage and Wheel Works afford every facility and convenience for the large and superior business to which they are devoted. Every department of the industry is fully exemplified on the premises by Mr. Norman’s own numerous and highly-efficient staff of workmen, and in the show-rooms the visitor will always find an unsurpassed display of carriages of all kinds, Mr. Norman’s output comprising every kind of vehicle intended either for business or pleasure. Thus he is equally well known and reputed for his stylish private carriages, broughams, phaetons, victorias, dog-carts, &c., and for his omnibuses, hansoms, breaks, carts, trollies, wagons, and vans. All these vehicles are specialities of the house, for each type receives the utmost possible care in construction, and is tamed out in the highest style of design, workmanship, and finish. Mr. Norman is famous for his elegant productions in light traps of various kinds, governess cars, Battlesden cars, Manchester and Rutland carts, &c., and his heavy vehicles for all business purposes are greatly esteemed for their strength, durability, and good appearance. By the judicious use of a valuable plant of the best modern machinery, Mr. Norman is prepared to turn out first-class and highly-finished work at prices which can compete successfully with those of any other house of good standing in the trade. The best materials are invariably used, and particular attention is given to the wheels, which Mr. Norman makes from carefully- selected and thoroughly-seasoned wood. There is always a large and varied stock of carriages and other vehicles held on the premises in readiness for immediate delivery. Mr. Norman has a large timber-yard adjacent to his factory, in which he holds many thousands of feet of first-class timber in log and in plank, oak, ash, and elm being the principal woods. Employment is given at these busy works to no fewer than fifty or sixty skilled and experienced workmen, and Mr. Norman’s resources, large as they are, are often fully taxed to meet the pressing demands of his immense business. He has a wide and valuable connection in the best private circles, and also does an extensive business in supplying wheels to the trade. Mr. Norman is a thoroughly practical man, and personally supervises all the operations of his trade, no order being executed without receiving a full share of his careful attention. He is a master of his craft in all its branches, and has worthily gained a position of high distinction in an industry in which the United Kingdom leads the world. Despite the heavy demands made upon him by his constantly-growing business, Mr. Norman does not attempt to shirk any of the public duties which naturally fall to the lot of a good citizen, and he undertakes his share of the administration of the poor laws by acting as a guardian for the Canton district, where he is well known and greatly respected.


MR. H. CAMBRIDGE established himself professionally in Cardiff in 1880. He now holds a leading position amongst the members of his profession in South Wales and the West of England. The handsomely appointed public and private offices occupied are provided with all the requisites of modern device for conducting with despatch the large amount of professional and commercial business which has to be transacted. An efficient staff of assistants, under the immediate supervision of the principal, perform the more or less routine work of the office. All important matters come under the immediate notice of Mr. Cambridge himself. His professional connection extends throughout the whole of the district, where he is well known and highly esteemed in the highest commercial and industrial circles. Mr. Cambridge’s business responsibilities have grown with the unexampled growth of the community of which he is an eminently honoured member. He is a member of the Institute of Marine Engineers, and superintending engineer for the following eminent ship-owning firms:— Messrs. James Ware; Hurley, Matthews & Co.; Blindell Brothers & Co.; J. T. Short & Co.; and E. R. Keer & Co. Mr. Cambridge is, likewise, the agent for the Uskside Engineering Company, of Newport (Mon.). In all these different capacities, his energy and professional skill find ample scope for their exercise.
The registered telegraphic address of the firm is, “Engineer, Cardiff.” The telephone number is 29.


DURING the short period this superior business has been established it has made most satisfactory progress. It was founded by the present sole proprietor, Mr. J. D. Coleman, who is a chemist by examination, in 1891. The shop has a handsome double plate-glass front, affording abundant light to the interior. The furnishings and fittings are neat and refined, and the establishment has about it a thoroughly prepossessing appearance. Mr. Coleman has become noted for the purity of the drugs and chemicals he supplies, these having been carefully selected from the leading houses, and are of one standard quality of excellence. He deals very heavily in all kinds of patent medicines of tried value, also in many valuable proprietary goods. The miscellaneous part of the stock is made up of the thousand and one articles pertaining to a business of this kind, and of these there is not a more carefully selected stock in the district. There are many delicacies in perfumes, fancy soaps, &c.; also the best toilet requisites, articles for the nursery, teeth, &c. Mr. Coleman personally gives his attention to the dispensing department, and it is here that his skill is more particularly exhibited. He has gained the public confidence by the accurate manner in which he makes up all kinds of prescriptions, family recipes, &c., using the very best ingredients only. His innate courtesy, and the careful attention he pays to each individual customer, have brought him the cordial respect of a large portion of the community by which he is surrounded.


MR. COMMON commenced business in this direction in 1882, but prior to that he had had a long and exceptionally valuable experience in the practice of his profession. Extending over a period of eighteen years, he occupied the distinguished and responsible post of Surveyor to the Liverpool Underwriters’ Registry for Iron Vessels, and fulfilled all the arduous duties connected therewith with conspicuous success. During the time he has been established in business on his own account he has developed a widespread and influential connection. A reputation has been secured for the able manner in which all affairs intrusted to him are carried out, and for the honourable methods which characterise all his transactions. He is also extensively occupied in surveying and assessing accounts for repairs, a department for which he is particularly adapted both by experience and special skill. He superintends the construction and repairing of all classes of vessels, including their machinery, boilers, and equipment, and gives reliable advice on all matters relating thereto, and from his extensive connections and thorough experience in every department he is in a position to carry out all business placed in his hands in a capable and satisfactory manner. In all matters affecting ships and shipbuilding his judgment is of great weight, and his services are eagerly sought as technical assessor and referee. Mr. Common has recently been appointed Surveyor to the Germanischer Lloyd for the Classification of Vessels for the British Channel and South Wales district. Mr. Common is well known among his professional brethren, and is held in the highest esteem for his marked ability and conscientious method of discharging his business. In private and social circles he enjoys the respect of all who know him for his independence of thought and personal rectitude.
The registered telegraphic address is “Common, Cardiff.”


THE firm of Messrs. Basker & Co., of Tudor Road, Cardiff, and also of Bridgwater and Plymouth, claim, with reason, to be “high-class” mineral-water manufacturers. Though only in the seventh year of its existence, this firm has created a most valuable and substantial business connection. The exceptionally good quality of all the productions of Messrs. Basker & Co. may be largely accounted for by the high technical qualifications of the members of the firm. The senior partner, Mr. J. Anthony Basker, is an accomplished professional analyst who is entitled to add the honourable initials, F.C.S., to his name, while the junior, Mr. F. Shepherd, has had many years’ experience in all departments of the business. It is rarely, if ever, that one meets with such a combination in the members of a mineral-water manufacturing firm, and the result is the exceptional confidence which the numerous customers of Messrs. Basker & Co. repose in their manufactures. The premises in the Tudor Road are admirably adapted to the requirements of the business, and the machinery and mechanical appliances employed are of the most approved modern type, having been manufactured by the Riley Manufacturing Company: the machinery is driven by an eight horse-power gas-engine of recent construction. A large and efficient staff are employed in the various departments, while many carters, horses, and spring wagons are regularly employed in delivering goods throughout a wide area. The various specialities which have made the reputation of the firm are prepared with filtered water, and in silver-lined condensers, so that metallic contamination is entirely avoided. Messrs. Basker & Co. manufacture, in large quantities, soda water, potash water, lithia water, quinine, seltzer water, lemonade, ginger beer, ginger ale, orange champagne, and gingerine, all of the highest possible quality. It is found that, taking the demand for the different classes of the firm’s productions one with another, it varies but little throughout the seasons.


THE partners in this notable concern are Mr. Pedro Manzanos and Mr. Miguel Cristobal, both gentlemen of large and varied experience, who by their unremitting endeavours during the last twenty years have built up a business which is a credit to them in every respect. An extensive business is controlled in exporting coal, chiefly to the Spanish ports. The proprietors are well acquainted with all the best mines, and their selections are such as always give satisfaction to their customers. The extent of their transactions gives them advantages in buying which they freely share with their patrons, and they possess every facility for filling large orders with promptness. Another important branch of this business consists of importing pit timber of every description. Their supplies are obtained from Spain and France. A good business is being done in this direction, and one that is continually increasing. The proprietors by their integrity have gained the esteem of a widespread and influential connection. They occupy a good position in the trade life of the locality, and wherever they are known are respected for their ability, courtesy, and personal uprightness.


THIS thriving and eminently representative concern was originally founded by Mr. John Shearman about five years ago in the above premises, which consist of large fitting-shop, boiler-makers’ shop, and smiths’ shop, with extensive yards and stores, and a fine suite of well-arranged offices. The works are of the dimensions of about three hundred and fifty feet by fifty feet, and upwards of one hundred and twenty picked workmen of special skill and capacity are employed, in addition to an efficient staff of clerks. The machinery is of the most approved modern construction, and the plant generally is exceedingly complete and well-ordered. In addition to the above-named departments there are extensive shipwrights’ and joiners’ shops, and in these trades a very large business is done. Messrs. John Shearman & Co. are noted for their first-class and thoroughly sound, finished, and reliable workmanship, as well as the undoubted excellence of all the materials employed, and they enjoy the implicit confidence and substantial support of a very large and influential connection, and they stand very high among the first houses of the kind in the Kingdom. The greatest care and attention are devoted to the smallest of matters, and, on the other hand, Messrs. John Shearman & Co. are in a position to undertake and successfully carry through any contracts in their line, no matter how large. Active part in all the details of the business is taken by Mr. John Shearman, who is a practical man, thoroughly acquainted with every branch of the trade. He is very well and favourably known in commercial circles, and is universally esteemed and greatly respected.


THE headquarters of this important concern are centrally and conveniently located in well-appointed offices in the Exchange, and the firm have been established for about fifteen years, during which they have steadily and progressively increased and developed the scope and extent of their transactions with uniformly satisfactory results. Their operations consist chiefly in the negotiation and execution of important contracts for the construction of steamers and the purchase and sale of new and second-hand steamers and sailing-ships. They are also agents for the eminent firm of Messrs. Harnis & Pearson, of Stourbridge, and are represented with much energy and fidelity by Messrs. Penn & Co., doing a thriving and important trade in clay goods, such as retorts, bricks, furnace finings, glass-works, tank blocks, and other specialities in bricks. The telegraphic address of the firm is “Despatch, Cardiff.” Messrs. Penn & Co. have a very widespread and influential connection of old standing, by whom they are held in high regard and supported with much appreciative cordiality. They bear a very high reputation as keen and energetic business men, thoroughly versed in all matters connected with the shipping trade, and possessing valuable judgment and experience. They are regarded with the most implicit confidence by all with whom they have dealings, and are personally greatly respected and universally esteemed.


THIS large and important business has held a position of considerable prominence in and around Cardiff since 1865, in which year it was founded by Mr. William Thomas. On the retirement of the founder in 1887, the present proprietor, Mr. Thomas Diamond, trading as Messrs. William Thomas & Co., succeeded to the concern. The premises are admirably situate, being between the West and East Basins. They reach considerable dimensions, and are equipped with all the most recent improvements and appliances. There are neatly furnished offices, large and well-laid-out workshops, sheds, and timberyards, the whole presenting a very compact and prosperous appearance. The yards contain an extensive stock of special timbers for ships’ repairs and refitting, as well as for boat-building, &c.; also a large stock of ash oars and hickory hand-spikes, stores of all kinds for general outfit, with a large assortment of blocks and sheaves. Repairs in this establishment are executed on the premises by practical men. The great increase in the importance of Cardiff has been taken full advantage of by the enterprising head of this notable concern, and numerous branches, indispensable to shipping, are entered into with a vigour and thoroughness that stamp the place as one of the first of the kind in the locality.

Special attention is paid to shipwrights’ work and boat-building, also to the making of masts, spars, &c. All kinds of shipsmith’s work is promptly executed, as well as ship-joinery. An important department is made of properly securing iron cargoes, specially experienced men being employed, this doing away with the danger of the cargo moving. An important branch, too, is the executing of all kinds of dry-dock work, relays of hands being maintained for the purpose of insuring despatch. The ordinary staff numbers about thirty, but when special orders are under way, this number is increased up to one hundred and thirty. Mr. Diamond, who has a thorough practical knowledge of all the details, personally superintends all the operations. He is constantly receiving large commissions, and the way in which he executes them invariably adds to his reputation and connection. Thoroughly honourable, and of a genial disposition, he worthily holds the esteem and regard of all having transactions with him.


ORGANISED fifteen years ago by the association in business of Mr. Frederick T. Prior and Mr. F. J. Ferris Bailey, the firm came to Cardiff about ten years since. The commercial development of the concern has been both steady and continuous. The premises occupied are extensive, and precisely adapted to the requirements of a business of the kind. They comprise a substantial heavily stocked warehouse, the ground floor of which is admirably appointed as a general retail department, in which a very superior stock of goods is held and displayed, including plain and fancy stationery of every conceivable kind, account-books and office requisites, stationers’ sundries, and, in short, every item incidental to a thoroughly typical stationer’s emporium of the best class. At the rear are the convenient and well-equipped printing offices, fitted with modern machinery and appliances, and here the firm operate on a large scale as general letterpress and lithographic printers, rulers, account-book makers, bookbinders, &c. They are also printers and publishers of several magazines and other works. In the wholesale section of their business, moreover, they act as paper merchants, stationers, and as direct importers of the better class of foreign fancy goods incidental to their business, their trade being actively promoted through the agency of travellers, covering & district of about fifty miles from Cardiff as a centre. Both partners are gentlemen of extended experience in connection with the important branch of business to which their attention is now so vigorously and successfully directed, and their administrative policy has been such as to continuously promote the prosperity of their house by strengthening its influential connections, and fully sustaining the confidence in which it has so deservedly been held throughout the trade.


MESSRS. Griffith & James Lave been established in Cardiff since 1879, as consulting engineers and marine surveyors, and the combined professional ability and business aptitude of the two members of the firm, Messrs. J. E. Griffiths, M.I.M.E., and E. C. James, have created a valuable business connection. Mr. Griffiths is a member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and has applied his technical acquirements in an especial degree to the subject of marine engineering. The firm undertake a large amount of business on behalf of several of the leading ship-owners in the port, in superintending the contraction and repairs of steamships. They are engineers and nautical assessors to the local Marine Board, and are frequently consulted as experts in marine casualty and reference cases. The firm have much more than a purely local reputation among electrical and pumping engineers as the patentees of an improved expansion rotary engine, for generating high speed and working up to three thousand revolutions a minute. The business premises of the firm comprise a well-appointed suite of general and private offices at 2, Bute Crescent, furnished with all the modern appliances for facilitating the rapid despatch of business. Their registered telegraphic address is, “Griffwill, Cardiff.”

Messrs. Griffiths & James are personally well known throughout the best commercial circles in South Wales, and are much esteemed for the sterling uprightness of all their transactions in their professional capacity. The partners of the firm have a large clientele as consultation experts and arbitrators between coal-owners, ship-owners, and merchants in cases of dispute as to the quality of coals, and they report in these cases both in English and Continental ports.


THIS large and successful engineering and tugboat building industry was founded about a quarter of a century ago by the present firm, and has become one of the principal concerns of its kind in the port of Cardiff. The premises occupied cover a large area of ground at Bute Docks, the situation being a highly advantageous one in every respect, and the works comprise a great range of substantial and commodious buildings, arranged as smithies, engineering shops, and other departments, and specially equipped throughout with the best modern machinery for their several purposes. As general and marine engineers, boilermakers, and builders of high-class tugboats, Messrs. Elliot & Jeffery have long maintained an eminent reputation. Their resources in these lines of industry are of a very superior character, and they are justly noted for their improvements of construction, as well as for the sound materials and first-class workmanship they put into all their productions. This firm are, moreover, surveyors of steamships, machinery valuers, and arbitrators, for which important branches of business they possess the special qualifications that are the outcome of long and thoroughly practical experience. Messrs. Elliot & Jeffery are also owners of the well-known steam tugboats, ‘Earl of Dumfries,’ ‘John McConnochie,’ ‘Thomas Collingdon,’ ‘Bulldog,’ ‘Sir W. T. Lewis,’ and ‘Elliot and Jeffery.’ The firm enjoy the favour and confidence of a wide and valuable connection, having always served their customers well and conscientiously, and no concern in the same line of operations at Cardiff has a better record for good work and fair dealing.


MR. ALFRED ELLIS, of the Roath Road Nurseries, projected his undertaking in the year 1872, and has developed a business of such magnitude as to be able to-day to cater adequately for the whole town. His carefully ordered premises have now been occupied for a period extending over sixteen years. The premises comprise a large handsomely constructed show-house, most tastefully arranged throughout to hold and display a grand collection of palms, evergreens, ornamental foliage plants, graceful ferns, and phanerogams from all parts of the world, all of which are cultivated to perfection, while in addition to this are sixteen spacious glass-houses for the cultivation of plants and seeds of every kind, and a wide expanse of land for open-air gardening. As a seedsman Mr. Ellis periodically publishes a select price-list of carefully tested vegetable and flower seeds, which ought to find its way into the hands of every lover of horticulture; but it is as a floral artist that he particularly excels. He fashions, to order or otherwise, all kinds of buttonholes or sprays, bridal and bridesmaids’ opera and ordinary bouquets, baskets of floral decorations, cut flowers, tube and serviette flowers, flowers for table decorations, ball and banqueting rooms, churches and other public buildings, flowers for the decoration of ladies’ fans and attire, wreaths and memorial crosses, and the like. In each instance, if so desired, the sprays, baskets, bouquets, &c., can be made up of flowers to suit the colour of the costume, or to symbolize any special occasion or function, and all such orders entrusted to his care are executed in the highest style of art, with despatch, and at the lowest possible prices. He employs a large staff of skilled gardeners and floral artists, and is ultra-careful in packing, so as to guarantee the receipt of his floral combinations in all their pristine beauty, however distant their destination may happen to be. The business is certainly one of the best of its kind in the Principality, and no one could have won by more honourable and legitimate means the high reputation and widespread patronage which Mr. Ellis has so long and so deservedly enjoyed.


AMONG the steamship agents in the Bristol Channel ports a prominent position has been held for the past seventeen years by Messrs. E. Taylor & Co., whose name is well known in connection with steamers sailing between Cardiff and Belfast, Glasgow, and Greenock. Messrs. Taylor occupy commodious and conveniently situated offices, on the second floor of the Merchants’ Exchange building, and act as agents for a line of steamers which affords probably the cheapest route for goods from Cardiff to the North of Ireland and to all parts of Scotland. The principal vessels of this line are the screw steamships ‘Tweed,’ ‘Medway,’ ‘Solway,’ ‘Avon,’ and ‘Severn,’ all fast-sailing and well-appointed steamers, with superior accommodation for goods of all kinds. These vessels are also admirably fitted for carrying a certain number of passengers each, and are largely patronised by travellers, tourists, and business men, the fares being very moderate, and the accommodation excellent. Guide-books (free), issued by the firm, give particulars of very enjoyable and economical circular tours via London and the East Coast, and also of tours to the Giant’s Causeway and Antrim coast Belfast, and to the West Highlands via Glasgow. The vessels sail from the East Bute Dock basin on Mondays, and from Belfast to Cardiff (direct) on Saturdays. The sailings from Glasgow to Cardiff via Belfast are on Fridays. Return tickets are issued available for two months, a convenience greatly appreciated. Messrs. E. Taylor & Co. manage the business at Cardiff with great ability and energy, everything being personally supervised by Mr. E. Taylor, the principal of the firm, whose long experience enables him to cater very successfully to the requirements of the numerous merchants and shippers who avail themselves of the excellent service of steamers he represents.
Telegrams for this firm should be addressed “Clyde, Cardiff.” The telephone number is 152.


THIS business is distinguished as being among the oldest of the kind in Cardiff, having been established over twenty years ago by Mr. Pascal Bernasconi, trading under the above title. On the decease of the founder, which took place about twelve months ago, the business was taken over by his nephew, Mr. Thomas Piffaretti, who continues it under the old title. The premises occupied are conveniently situate, and have a ground measurement of thirty-five feet by one hundred and thirty feet. The premises are divided into a handsome and capitally appointed shop, sale-room, offices, warehouse, &c. The continual scene of activity going on speaks of the extent of the transactions of the firm, and on every side orders are being rapidly executed, a competent staff of hands being employed in each department. Everything in the way of ship chandlery and provisions is on hand in any amount of variety and of the most superior quality. Although this business is regarded as one of the first of the kind in the district, the enterprise of the firm does not end here, for there are important branch stores in Dudley Street and at 94, Dock Street, Newport (Mon.). The business is under the supervision and direction of Mr. Piffaretti, and the manner in which he rules at the head of this large commercial enterprise is ample demonstration that he is possessed of a large amount of ability and knowledge of details. His courteous demeanour causes him to be highly esteemed and respected.


IN a work specially descriptive of the rise and progress of leading commercial houses of Cardiff a special mention must be made of the business of Mr. Alfred Freke, of Duke Street, which has attained the foremost position in its particular branch of trade, and in its operations reflects the greatest credit on its originator for the skill and industry by which it has attained its present position. Founded about twenty years ago in Bute Street, by its present proprietor, the business progressed, and was subsequently removed about twelve years since to the present central and commodious premises in Duke Street, where it has been further developed, and has been eminently successful up to the present time. On removing to Duke Street, Mr. Freke, in addition to his well-established business as a photographer, commenced that of picture-frame making, and dealing in fine arts, and owing to his careful attention to detail, and enterprise, he has built up an extensive connection in every branch of his trade. The premises occupied in Duke Street are admirably adapted for the business, comprising a large and handsomely fitted double shop, with an office at the rear. On the first floor is a suite of four rooms, including well-furnished reception room, containing fine specimens of enlarged portraits of Colonel Morgan, O. H. Williams, Colonel Page, and other leading men of the district, with splendid photographs of the mayors of Cardiff, and many of the nobility and gentry of South Wales. Amongst numerous commissions executed for the Marquis of Bute and Lord Windsor may be mentioned the lifelike portraits of Sir Joseph Barnby and others taken direct, the negative measurement being twenty-four inches by twenty inches. Other specialities to be here noticed are portraits in oil, beautiful watercolours on opal, enlargements in crayon and carbon: also photographs of Llwynfid Colliery, four feet in length, which were sent to the Paris Exhibition, the Park Hall, and artistes at the Cardiff Musical Festival in September, 1892, for which the firm were highly complimented.

Adjoining are two dressing-rooms, well fitted with every requisite, and most conveniently arranged. The studio is built out of the main building, and is large and well lighted, admitting of photographs being taken from either end, and contains the newest apparatus which can be procured; there is a spacious dark-room adjoining the studio where several assistants are employed. On the second floor of the building is another suite of four rooms, comprising retouching-room, varnishing-room, drying-room, and fitting-up room. The printing is carried on in a specially constructed room at the rear of the premises. Some idea of the extent of the business may be gained from the fact that here are stocked and catalogued over fifty thousand negatives, all of which can be referred to for repeat orders. Adjoining are the framing works, which are spacious and well lighted, and consist of separate workshops for joining, gilding, and fitting-up, fitted with the best appliances used in the trade, and including machines for planing heavy moulding.

Amongst the numerous artistic frames designed by the firm may be noticed a speciality in the Florentine frame, most beautifully gilt in English gold; also a very handsome frame, with festoons of flowers and fruit, and when gilt is certainly most attractive. The renovating, cleaning, re-framing and re-gilding are all carried out in the best style, and the firm are noted for excellence of workmanship in this department. We next come to the picture-gallery, which has been specially constructed with top light, and is stocked with one of the finest collections of engravings, in the artists’ proof state, after Meissonier, Millais, Edwin Long, Sir Frederic Leighton, Rosa Bonheur, Dendy Sadler, and many other celebrated artists too numerous to mention. Mr. Freke has also frequently exhibited the important works of Sir Noel Paton, Edwin Long, Herbert Schmalz, &c., including “Vigilate et Orate,” “The Choice,” “Anno Domini,” “The Return from Calvary,” and many others. In the main shop will be found every requisite for the artist and the amateur, comprising Winsor & Newton’s and Rowney’s oil and water colours, mathematical instruments, scales, drawing papers, easels, drawing boards, studies, &c.; also a large assortment of fancy articles for painting on. In the Studios and workshops about twenty skilled hands are constantly employed.

It is well known that during the last twenty years photography has made enormous advances in the variety and beauty of its productions, and a great amount of skill is required to keep pace with all the modern improvements, and the constant introduction of novelty. The house now under notice has shown itself capable of keeping pace with all the requirements of a very extensive and high-class connection, and its proprietor has frequently been complimented from all parts of the country on the beauty of his productions, and the satisfaction given to his patrons by the manner in which their commissions have been carried out. Mr. Freke is widely known and popular with a large circle of influential patrons and friends.


THIS business was established in 1862 by the present senior partner. After having conducted it for over a period of thirty years, and with most satisfactory results, he took his son, Mr. F. J. Harris, into partnership. This decision has proved of the greatest advantage to the firm. The shop has a frontage of thirty feet, and extends to a depth of forty feet, with workshops and stores at the rear of nearly the same dimensions and proportions. All work is done on the premises by an efficient staff of skilled workmen, and is carefully supervised by one or other of the partners. In addition to ship and house plumbing and brazing, the firm are iron, copper, brass, and tinplate workers. Further than this, they have gone deeply into the practical study of sanitary work, with a due regard to a perfect ventilation system in connection therewith. All the newest inventions in the way of sanitary fittings for patent closets, lavatory basins, &c., &c., for house, ship, or offices will be found here, and all thoroughly reliable. All work is done in a high-class and first-rate fashion, and there is not the slightest doubt that the firm are rapidly going to the front and establishing for themselves a high repute.


THIS business was originally established at No. 5, Customhouse Street, in 1885, under the above title. A few years ago a removal was made to the present handsome premises, which are beneath the Young Men’s Christian Association. The handsomely decorated frontage rises to a great height, and is one of the prominent architectural features of the town. The shop has lofty single plate-glass front, and is approached through an excellent entrance. The window display is entirely in character with the building, and is neat and refined. The interior is fitted and furnished with excellent effect, and in perfect order. The stock of high-class cloths include a liberal selection of West of Englands, Welsh, Irish, and Scotch tweeds, broadcloths, serges, tweeds, and special materials for the naval and military services. Being patronised by the elite of the town and the districts surrounding, everything is of undeniable quality. The cutting out is entrusted to skilled artists, who are versed in the very latest methods of scientific cutting, as now adopted by the mogt fashionable firms in the West End of London. The cutting-rooms are at the rear of the premises, the tailoring part being done at the workshop. No. 8, Quay Street, by a competent staff of the best repute. In addition to catering in a superior and intelligent manner for the wants of the gentry, the clergy, and naval and military officers, a thoroughly well founded reputation is held for the graceful and perfect garments turned out. Close attention is also given to all kinds of liveries. Mr. John Jenkins, who is the sole proprietor, continues to trade under the title of Messrs. Jenkins Brothers, and in catering for a wealthy and distinguished clientele, does so with perfect success and with unostentatious courtesy.


MR. GEORGE BIRT founded his extensive business as a wholesale grocer and provision importer about seven years ago, his first establishment being in Gladstone Street. In 1886 he removed to his present address, where he has found satisfactory accommodation for his large and increasing trade. These premises were originally two separate warehouses, but Mr. Birt bought them and converted them into one large establishment to suite his special requirements. There are three spacious floors with a basement, and the warehouse contains every convenience to facilitate the handling of goods, communication between the several floors being maintained by a hoist running from bottom to top. The counting-house and the private offices occupy the ground floor in part, and the rest of the building is devoted to the storage of goods. Mr. Birt holds one of the largest and most varied stocks of groceries, provisions, and Continental and Colonial produce in the district, and his establishment has separate rooms for teas, sugars, rice, and other commodities which enter largely into the trade. His list of specialities is an unusually comprehensive one. The business in its entirety is one of the very best concerns of its kind in Cardiff, and is personally managed by Mr. Birt, whose sound practical experience and well-known energy have enabled him to rapidly attain a leading position in the trade with which his name is now so prominently associated. He has within the last few months made a great alteration in his terms of trading, which has been a great success, and caused considerable increase in the volume of his trade.

The following is a copy of a circular letter he has sent to his customers and others in South Wales:— THE DEMAND OF THE TIMES. Alteration in the terms of business. George Birt, Wholesale Grocer and Importer of Foreign and Colonial Produce, Hope Street, Cardiff, desires to thank his numerous customers for past patronage and to inform them and the retail grocery trade generally, in South Wales, that after careful consideration he has decided to make an alteration in his terms of trading. In future all goods will be sold at the lowest minimum profit on actual cost for nett cash in seven days, which he is convinced will be greatly to the advantage of the purchaser and seller. The age for long credit and large profits is past. THE DEMAND OF THE TIMES is short credit and small profits. As he is a direct importer of provisions, sugars, &c., &c., and also a cash buyer, this new nett cash system with its freedom from bad debts, enables him to give the full benefit thus derived to his customers. Two price lists will be issued weekly, a sundry list, and a provision and canned goods list, which will contain quotations based upon the seven days nett cash system. By looking carefully through the price list buyers will be able to see the advantages accruing to them by tins modern system of trading. All country orders will receive personal attention and be placed free on rail or boat in Cardiff.


IT is now upwards of forty years since this house commenced business at Newport, where its establishment in High Street holds a leading position. On the retirement of Mr. E. Fennell, the founder of the business, two brothers took the Newport shop under their charge, and Mr. A. G. Fennell assumed control of the Cardiff house, which has been advanced to the front rank of the trade by his energy and ability. Thus the two places are practically distinct and separate, though the firm-name of E. Fennell & Sons is still retained by both. The premises in Queen Street, Cardiff, comprise a spacious and handsome shop, specially fitted up for the requirements of the trade, and kept in a state of perfect order and cleanliness. Here is always to be found a large and well-selected stock of fish, poultry, and all game in season, and the establishment has worthily acquired an eminent reputation for the choice quality of everything it supplies in these important lines. Messrs. Fennell also manufacture ice on an extensive scale at their works at Newport, and in this department do a large trade, supplying hotels, families, and other consumers in all parts of the town. In its entirety this business is of a distinctly first-class character, and its connection is developed among the leading residents of Cardiff and the district generally. We may also add that Messrs. Fennell own very extensive salmon fisheries at Goldcliffe, situated seven miles from Newport, and which have been in the family for about twenty-five years. Mr. Fennell personally superintends everything in connection with the establishment and its steadily-growing trade, and his long experience and sound practical knowledge of his business enable him to cater for the requirements of his large and influential clientele in a thoroughly satisfactory manner.


MR. J. R. Wood inaugurated his present thriving concern some ten years ago in Castle Street, and subsequently entered upon his present eligible premises upon the opening of the Castle Arcade. Mr. Wood won his laurels as a scientific optician of the highest order of merit by long and faithful service as a manager in the world-famous house of Messrs. Negretti & Zambra, of London. It was he, moreover, who initiated the optical business in Great Malvern, of Malvern glass celebrity, so that he came to Cardiff with brilliant credentials, and has ever since taken the lead in its optical trade as the only practical scientific optician in the town. His premises comprise an elegantly appointed shop, augmented by a special sight-testing room at the rear, and a photographer’s dark-room. The shop is heavily stocked with a thoroughly representative selection of optical goods in the way of spectacles and eyeglasses, reading and burning lenses, telescopes, microscopes, &c., philosophical and mathematical instruments, &c. In the spectacles department Mr. Wood’s name has already become famous throughout the Principality for his axis-cut periscopic pebbles, whereby all flaws are excluded, and these are specially ground by experts for his use. In purchasing spectacles Mr. Wood thoroughly tests the purchaser’s eyesight, providing exactly the variety of glasses calculated to strengthen and preserve the vision, and supplying glasses to suit each eye, so as to make them co-ordinate correctly. Even in the matter of frames he sees that his customers are accurately fitted, so as to ensure the maximum of comfort, and devotes as great attention to the requirements of persons purchasing a 3s. 6d. pair as to those who are prepared to pay their guineas. In addition to his optical business Mr. Wood does a very substantial trade as a dealer in cameras, lenses, dry plates, chemicals, &c., for photographers, and as an expert manipulator gives free lessons to purchasers of apparatus, to whom also he affords the use of his well-equipped dark-room, already mentioned, gratuitously. His business in all its branches is in a particularly flourishing condition, and all its affairs are administered upon principles which have won for him the confidence and liberal support of a very large and influential clientele.


THIS busy and prosperous concern was originally founded by the present proprietor as long ago as the year 1864, and is the principal grinding business in South Wales, having been from year to year developed and consolidated with satisfactory and progressive success. The premises consist of a roomy and commodious shop fitted with a handsome plate-glass front, and neatly and attractively appointed and arrayed for the effective display of a large and comprehensive stock of all kinds of cutlery, the selection of which betokens evident judgment and experienced knowledge of the trade. Mr. Staniforth also undertakes all the usual business connected with the trade of a working cutler, and he gives special attention to the repairing of table and pocket knives, while the work of grinding is conducted on the premises upon a large scale with the auxiliary aid of a powerful gas-engine. He has a first-rate name for the high-class thoroughly reliable quality of all the articles he supplies, as well as for the finish and general excellence of workmanship. He is warmly and substantially supported by a valuable and influential connection in the district, not only of Cardiff itself, but a wide area round the vicinity. Mr. Staniforth is a thoroughly practical business man, possessing long experience and an intimate knowledge of every branch of the cutlery trade, and he is much looked up to in commercial circles by all who have the advantage of his personal acquaintance.


AMONG the most popular and noteworthy of Cardiff’s hostelries may be specially noted the Colbourne Hotel at Cathays, a large and comfortable house which has for some years been conducted with conspicuous success by Mr. George Jenkins. The present proprietor first assumed the reins of management here in the year 1888, and having quickly established himself as a general favourite, with an extensive and high-class connection among visitors to Cardiff, he has since steadily increased and developed the popularity of his excellent house. The Colbourne Hotel is a large and substantial circular-fronted building of attractive appearance, constructed of red bricks, and having a frontage of somewhat over two hundred feet from end to end. There are three entrances to the conveniently-arranged bars and buffets, and five to the hotel itself, admitting also to the very comfortable billiard-room, a handsomely-furnished apartment provided with a fine table by the well-known firm of Messrs. Pottinger, of Bristol. There are six bedrooms, the house being mainly frequented by guests who have been accustomed to make it their headquarters when in Cardiff for a number of years regularly. There is also a roomy and commodious club-room, affording seating accommodation for one hundred and twenty persons, and mention must not be omitted of the capital stabling, which is in every way on an equality with the high-class and complete character of the house in all other respects. Mr. George Jenkins has a capital cellar selected with the judgment and discrimination of a veritable connoisseur, and he does a very busy general trade as a wine and spirit merchant. He is personally an active and energetic business man of the highest standing, and while he enjoys a high reputation in commercial circles he is no less esteemed and respected in the intercourse of private friendship* and acquaintance.


AFTER a period of about fifteen years of sound practical experience as conductor of a similar business in Liverpool, Mr. Geo. A. Seccombe opened his present establishment in Queen Street on the 5th March, 1892, and has already achieved such a brilliant success that he now finds employment for a staff of fourteen efficient assistants, and no less than seventy workers in the various departments represented. These include, in addition to a high-class fancy drapery section, well-organised departments for dresses, dress-making, family mourning, mantles, millinery, and ladies’ outfits, for each of which none but skilled and experienced hands are engaged, the whole of the work produced passing under the critical supervision of the proprietor. The premises occupied present a singularly attractive double-fronted series of tastefully-dressed show-windows to the important commercial thoroughfare in which they are fortunately situated; while within doors everything is arranged with a view to the prompt service and general convenience of patrons. Each department is replete with the latest and most fashionable novelties in its line, and each has its array of special features, affording exceptional advantages to purchasers. Show-rooms are provided for ladies’ costumes, mantles, and millinery, and workrooms beyond, where a staff of accomplished modistes are busily engaged in the production of modes and robes illustrating the newest Paris and London fashions. The operations of the business cover a very wide and comprehensive area, and the admirable organisation of the whole establishment speaks highly for the careful attention bestowed by Mr. Seccombe upon the administration of a business which, offers every assurance of a bright and prosperous future career.


ORIGINALLY projected under the style of J. Marsh, in the Bute Road, in the year 1858, this representative institution can claim to be the oldest-established, as it certainly is by far the largest and best-organised, concern of its kind in Cardiff, its present talented proprietor, Mr. James Marsh, being indeed the first to form a complete undertaking establishment in the district. The premises comprise a well- appointed suite of offices in St. Mary Street, where all orders are booked, and promptly attended to, and of extensive stabling and coach-houses, with twenty-five boxes, and accommodation for forty fine funeral horses in Rawden Mews, Rawden Place, Canton. Attached to these mews are large workshops, elaborately equipped with planing and sawing machines driven by a powerful gas-engine, and calling into active requisition the services of a large staff of skilled and experienced hands for coffin-making and coachbuilding. The firm operate upon strictly equitable principles, undertaking the provision of everything necessary for the complete conduct of funerals, including attendance, and employing, to use their own terms, those persons only whose conduct shall be such as to render the performance of the solemn funeral duties alike delicate, decent, and, although economical, respectable. Their tariff of ordinary charges is divided into six classes for adults and a separate series of charges for children, and all these charges are inclusive. Mr. Marsh himself attends to supervise every funeral, or is represented by a thoroughly competent deputy. The trade controlled is one of very considerable volume, and is patronised by all classes of the community, and all the affairs of the business are conducted in a manner which has won for Mr. Marsh the confidence and esteem of all those who have had the privilege of his acquaintance.


UNRIVALLED for position, foremost in reputation, this famous house, under the experienced direction of Mr. David Anthony, takes its place in the front rank of pharmaceutical enterprises. The foundation of this well-known emporium was laid some thirty-five years ago, and passed into the hands of the present proprietors in 1870; it is therefore one of the oldest established businesses in Cardiff. During this period the management has been characterised by a keen appreciation of public requirements, attended by a systematic endeavour to meet those requirements in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Situate, as the pharmacy is, in the centre of a busy town, and occupying, as it does, such a commanding position, the demands made upon its resources are necessarily great; but, great as they are, so ample is the stock, so able the staff, so admirable the system, that the pressure and strain of a great business is fully and easily met. Skill, tact, energy, and order can do wonders. The premises of the Royal Drug Stores are extensive and arranged with an eye to the quick and easy despatch of business. The shop itself is handsomely fitted with everything necessary for carrying on a pharmacy of the very highest class. The stock is of a most comprehensive description, including drugs, chemicals, perfumes, toilet requisites, surgical appliances and specialities, all of first quality and in amazing variety. The drugs supplied from this store have ever been noted for their unvarying purity and excellence. The dispensing department is under the immediate personal superintendence of the firm. By their system of checking prescriptions, errors in dispensing are rendered impossible, and the public guarded against the slightest danger. Messrs. Anthony & Co. having also had considerable experience in Continental pharmacies, dispense foreign prescriptions at very moderate charges.

Among the specialities there are some preparations manufactured by them which have attained a world-wide celebrity; such, for instance, is a mixture called “Liverina.” The name of this preparation to some extent explains its use; as a cure for biliousness, flatulency, indigestion, and all disorders of the stomach and liver it is absolutely without a rival. Their “Spa Saline” has earned a great reputation as a corrector of acidity, feverishness, constipation, and other digestive ailments. They have also an extraordinary demand for Dr. Moor’s gout and rheumatic mixture. This famous prescription, dispensed for many years by Messrs. Anthony & Co., is now patented by them and sold under the Government stamp; the action of this medicine in cases of gout or rheumatism is said to be something astonishing. Another great favourite with the public is Anthony’s syrup of wild cherry, the quickest remover of coughs and other chest affections ever known. Their compound syrup of hypophosphites, too, is much sought after by sufferers from debility and consumption, and Le Rois’ Blood Elixir also sells well for poverty and impurity of the blood. As an external application for sprains, bruises, and stiff joints, Le Rois’ baumolina is in very great demand. Anthony’s quinine and camphor pills are a wonderful cure for headache, toothache, or neuralgia, and an excellent general renovator in cases of nervous debility and bodily weakness. If only taken in time they never fail to check influenza, and cut short colds or hay fever. Messrs. Anthony also turn out splendid samples of orange quinine and pepsine wines: sufferers from dyspepsia should make a note of this.

The stock of perfumery and toilet requisites at the Royal Drug Stores is remarkably extensive and elaborate. Among so many articles of first-rate quality, it must seem a difficult matter to award the palm of merit to any particular invention, yet there is a test and a fair one too, by which the relative superiority of some specialities may easily be determined; this test is public approval, and the amount of this approval may be gauged by the extent of the demand for the favoured article. For this satisfactory reason Messrs. Anthony & Co. are enabled to point out several specialities in this department for which the demand is exceptionally great. Among them we first notice “Savalina,” a beautiful cream for the hair; it is neither greasy nor soapy, the freedom from which is a great advantage in goods of this description. This preparation imparts a gloss and brilliancy to the hair attainable by no other means; it is considered the very “prince” of hair restorers, nourishing and promoting its growth in a really marvellous manner. Among hair-dyes that prepared by Messrs. Anthony & Co. yields to none in producing a permanent and perfectly natural colour. Queen of toothpastes is “Yum-yum,” famous everywhere for giving a dazzling whiteness to the teeth, and clothing the breath with fragrance. This elegant requisite is contained in a handsome pot, embellished with a charming portrait of the most fascinating of the “Three little Maids from School,” in ‘The Mikado.’ Those who desire a really good soap should obtain the “Star cream soap,” manufactured specially for the Royal Drug Stores; this soap cannot fail to please the most critical, it is absolutely pure, delicately perfumed, and exercises a most beneficial action upon the skin, while its very moderate price brings it within the reach of everyone. Anybody having lost a good complexion can have it restored by applying to Messrs. Anthony & Co. for a bottle of Albanian balm. This unique production of the chemist’s magic art invests the most faded skin with more than its pristine beauty, and restores lost complexions to their disconsolate owners. An elegant and necessary adjunct to the toilet-table is Dr. Abernethy’s eucalyptus smelling bottle. In all cases of catarrh, headache, or sudden faintness these bottles prove a great boon; they are delightfully pungent, deliciously scented, and most useful for cutting short unwelcome fits of drowsiness.

It would be impossible to enumerate here a single tithe of the agreeable and serviceable specialities to be found at the Royal Drug Stores, and even if we could do so, the limited time and space at our disposal would do them but scant justice. There is, however, one topic more upon which it is necessary to say a few words, and this is upon the subject of wines. From their knowledge of the great Continental wine markets, Messrs. Anthony & Co. have hitherto failed to understand why good sound wine should be sold at such an extravagant price; moreover, as it frequently came within their province to advise sick and delicate persons as to the class of wine they should take, it finally occurred to them to adopt a means whereby a really good wine could be obtained in Cardiff at as low a price as it is sold on the Continent. This desirable end was reached by accepting the agency for Antonio’s Italian wines. Being, therefore, at the present time in close and constant communication with the best sources of supply, they can offer wine at a price hitherto unheard of; in fact, at the very same price as is paid for an inferior and probably adulterated specimen of British wine. It is needless to say this has proved a great boon, not only to those who are taking wine medicinally, but also to the general public, who now can participate in a benefit which was formerly the almost exclusive privilege of prosperous persons. The wine supplied in this department of the Royal Drug Stores is pure juice of the grape, imported from Italy and the South of France, and bottled on the premises. By this means all the middleman’s profits are entirely done away with, and these good wines reach the consumer almost at first cost. These fine ports, sherries, and clarets are not fortified by the addition of alcohol; they are in a perfectly natural state and come direct from the grower. They are now sold as low as one shilling per bottle, a marvellous price, considering what is usually paid.

The “Royal,” as conducted by Messrs. Anthony & Co. is a drug store in the truest and widest sense of the term. It comprises within its limits not only the professional skill of the duly qualified chemist, but also the business tact, commercial insight, and ability to move with the times so characteristic of the commercial world. These qualifications have insured for Messrs. Anthony & Co. a most gratifying result in the past, and form the basis of an undoubted increasing success in the future.


THIS business is the oldest of the kind in Cardiff, having been established over a quarter of a century. The head depot is at the above address, and is situate opposite the church. The premises consist of a fairly large shop, with a spacious plate-glass front. A most effective display is made of sewing-machines, knitting- machines, washing and wringing machines, children’s carriages, mailcarts, &c., all of the best material and workmanship. On the first floor are the fitting-rooms, where all kinds of repairs to machines are promptly executed. At the rear is a commodious warehouse and packing-room, and there is also ample basement accommodation for storing reserve stock. The selection of the machines named is such as to meet any requirement and almost any purse. Every machine is thoroughly tested before it leaves the premises. Excellent terms are offered to cash purchasers, and for deferred payments the terms are equally favourable. Mr. Thomas is the sole agent for Cardiff and district for Messrs. Bradbury & Co.’s famous machines. He keeps a complete stock of accessories, all kinds of fittings, and silks, cottons, and threads by the best spinners. He is also the sole agent for the new Harrison patent knitting-machine, which gained a triumphant award at the Paris Exhibition; also for the “Eclipse” knitting-machine, manufactured by Shepherd, Rothwell & Hough, of Oldham, said to be the most effective machine in the market, and which obtained a gold medal (London) 1885. The washing, wringing, and mangling machines combined in one are most worthy of the attention of those who desire economy in labour, saving of clothing, and perfect cleanliness. All mangles and washers are fitted with the new patent mangle board holder, and better value could not be found. There are all the latest novelties and improvements in bassinettes, mailcarts, and children’s carriages, light, strong, and handsome. There are two important branches, one at 62, Taff Street, Pontypridd, and the other at 34, High Street, Treorky. Mr. Thomas conducts his business on sound and honourable principles, and owns the confidence of a large and influential clientele.


THIS is one of the largest and oldest businesses of the kind in Cardiff, having been established over half a century. Originally it was owned by the proprietor of the old Cardiff Arms, now the Angel Hotel, who continued to conduct it up to 1886, when it was taken over by the present proprietor, Mr. W. C. Chick. The premises are in a central position in Westgate Street, and are very extensive. The stables afford accommodation for fifty horses, which are taken in by the day or week at moderate charges. The stables are admirably arranged, sanitation and ventilation being carefully looked to, while the health and comfort of the animals are made matters of close study. There is a large yard, and there are commodious coach-houses. In the latter there is a first-class collection of modern vehicles, well-built, of good design, and in really admirable order. Private carriages, busses, brakes, hansoms, &c., are supplied on the shortest notice, while open and closed cabs are always ready. Contracts are entered into for the letting of horses, traps, wagonettes, &c., either by day, week, or longer periods, and steady and reliable drivers only are kept. The establishment has long been the recognised resort of all those desiring a good “turn-out” on reasonable terms. In all parts of the town Mr. Chick is spoken of with respect, while the courteous and attentive way in which he attends to all matters of business bring him ever-increasing Iatronage and support. He pays special attention to bait horses.


MR. POWELL has been for many years established at his present address, where he occupies offices, and has long and valuable experience and intimate practical acquaintance with every branch of his profession have enabled him to secure the appreciation and confidence, as well as the cordial and substantial support, of a very large and influential connection, especially in circles interested in shipping matters. He has one of the oldest businesses of the kind in Cardiff, a port which has, of late years, been rapidly rising in prosperity and importance; and his professional training and natural business acumen have, on many occasions, enabled him to render invaluable services to firms who have from time to time entrusted their interests to his unwearying and conscientious care. In matters connected with shipbuilding and engineering Mr. James R. Powell is universally recognised ma a foremost authority, and great reliance is placed upon his technical knowledge and sound judgment, his decision in professional matters once given being invariably accepted as final. Mr. James R. Powell is widely known in Cardiff and the Bristol Channel ports, and bears a good reputation as a sound business man in every way to be depended upon in professional matters, while in his private and personal relations he is alike respected and esteemed by all who enjoy the privilege of his personal friendship or acquaintance.

Telephone No. 579.

ORGANISED as far back as the year 1863, this prosperous concern has, since the decease of its senior partner, Mr. Courteney Clarke, in 1889, been conducted under the sole proprietary control of Mr. Charles Edwin Dovey, F.C.A., under its original style and title as above designated. The premises occupied consist of a private gentleman’s residence converted into a suite of offices, and afford every accommodation for the transaction of a large and steadily increasing business, which may, with every justice, be stated to stand as one of the leading concerns of the kind in Cardiff; and in support of that statement it may be mentioned that, in addition to acting as auditors for a large number of the leading companies and private firms in South Vales, Messrs. Clarke & Dovey have represented the sheriff of the county for the past five-and-twenty years. Altogether, a staff of fourteen well-qualified clerks and others is constantly employed under the personal direction of Mr. Dovey, who undertakes the investigation, adjustment, balancing, and auditing of books and accounts with a careful accuracy and despatch that have won for the firm the confidence and support of a very large and influential clientele. No house could have won by more honourable methods the eminent reputation and distinguished position which this firm has so long and so deservedly enjoyed.


MR. JOHN ROSSER established himself professionally at the above address in 1890. For about twenty years prior to that date Mr. Rosser had been a colliery manager, and although his services were much sought after in that capacity, he decided to devote himself exclusively to the exercise of his profession as a mining and civil engineer. Being possessed of an influential personal connection, he speedily found himself entrusted with important commissions, and a steady and remunerative professional business found its way into his offices. As a mining engineer he has been very successful, and his experience, ingenuity, and resource have been of the utmost service to not a few mine owners and lessees in this neighbourhood. It should be added that Mr. John Rosser is a gentleman most highly esteemed in his profession, and greatly respected by his clients and in general commercial circles.


This is not one of the latest results of commercial enterprise in this district, but is an hotel with a sound reputation of close upon forty years’ duration. The Imperial is admirably situated in a convenient and desirable part of the town, and is decidedly attractive from an architectural point of view. The premises are ample in size, and the various departments are arranged with every regard to the accommodation and comfort of patrons. There is a large and imposing entrance hall, with handsomely fitted-up bar on the ground floor, together with a spacious grill-room, which is every day between the hours of 12.30 and 3 p.m. thronged with something like a hundred diners. There are no less than fourteen separate tables in this department, which in the case of dinner parties or banquets can be placed together and will thus afford accommodation for a large number of people. Adjoining is an overflow-room, in which about a score more can be seated. The billiard-room is conveniently situated opposite the entrance, and contains two magnificent tables by Messrs. Burroughs & Watts. In close proximity are two skittle alleys, and these are liberally patronised by the shipbrokers and merchants who frequent the hotel.

The cuisine is a leading feature here. All the delicacies in season are to be found in Mr. Price’s larder. A popular ordinary is held at this hotel, and from the social amenity and geniality which always prevail, it has come to be known as the “harmonious ordinary.” It takes place at 1.30, and Mr. Price himself invariably presides, while a gentleman well known at the docks has for fifteen years officiated, almost without exception, as vice-president. It is by no means an exclusive party, and visitors receive a hearty welcome. The viands are of the best class and the serving everything that can be desired, and for the price, 2s., no better ordinary, consisting of soup, fish, joint, entree, and sweets can be obtained in South Wales. The superior excellence which marks the catering at this hotel is to be attributed in no small degree to the close personal supervision which Mrs. Price gives to this department. The coffee-room is on the first floor, and it is intended shortly to enlarge this apartment, and also to make a new smoke-room adjoining. The keeping accommodation consists of some twenty-five large and well lighted and ventilated bedrooms. The suite of private apartments command perfect seclusion and quiet, and ladies staying in the hotel have free use of the drawing-room, in which there is a first-class Brinsmead piano. Every care is shown to guests, a staff being kept of twenty-five trained and competent servants, many of whom have been employed in the hotel for ten or eleven years, and have thus become familiar with the wants and requirements of regular visitors. There are good bath-rooms and ample accommodation for horses and vehicles. Mr. Price is assiduous in his endeavours to give entire satisfaction to his patrons, and how well he has succeeded is plainly shown by the ever-increasing popularity of the establishment over which he so ably presides.


THIS thriving concern was founded by the father of its present able and energetic proprietors, Mr. A. G. Stephens and Mr. F. A. Stephens, some twenty years ago. Nos. 38 and 40, Royal Arcade consist of two spacious shops converted into one. The fine ground floor, which extends backwards for a considerable distance, is used for show-room purposes, and communicates, by means of a lift, with a commodious store-room above. No. 26, also in the Royal Arcade, is a handsomely appointed single shop, of similar character to the larger one already mentioned. No. 24, High Street Arcade was opened along with the Arcade, then just completed, six years ago, and consists of a spacious shop projected on precisely similar lines to its sister establishments in the Royal Arcade. All of these depots are most attractively arranged to hold and display an enormous selection of all the latest novelties in toys, albums, cabinet and leather goods, bicycle-horses, mail carts, and particularly fancy china and nick-nacks of every description, fully ninety per cent. of which are imported from the leading and most renowned manufacturers in France and Germany. Messrs. Stephens’s trade has been principally cultivated amongst the best families in Cardiff and its surroundings, without the aid of advertising, and counts amongst their most distinguished patrons the Marchioness of Bute and many other members of the aristocracy. A large staff of civil and efficient assistants is employed, under the vigorous personal direction of the partners. The entire business is most capably and energetically directed, and all its affairs are administered in a manner that is well calculated to preserve all the creditable traditions of the house, and to sustain it in the public favour it has so long and so worthily enjoyed.


ESTABLISHED in 1878 in the premises still occupied, the above concern has been developed with notable energy and tact. A good name has been secured for the thoroughly reliable character of everything handled and for the honourable treatment all customers receive. The premises occupied consist of a large shop, with fine plate-glass windows, and a compact suite of offices, with extensive warehouses at the rear. The cellarage extends for a long distance under Queen Street Arcade, and is admirably adapted to keep its extensive and valuable contents in the best condition. The bonded warehouse is at 3, West Docks. A large and valuable business is controlled, exclusively wholesale and export in character. Mr. Carey is a man of wide experience in everything relating to his trade, and his selections are made with no less judgment than taste. His transactions are made at first hand, and, buying direct on a large scale, he is in a position to quote prices which will compare favourably with those of any similar establishment. The firm are the sole proprietors of the celebrated “Galore” Irish whisky, which combines many excellent characteristics and possesses such properties as render it acceptable to connoisseurs of widely different tastes. As exponents of this branch of trade, the firm hold extensive and valuable stocks, including choice and rare sherries and ports, sparkling and still wines, clarets of every kind, and champagnes by all the most famous makers, as well as all the leading and best-known brands of brandy, Scotch and Irish whisky, gin, and rum. The firm are agents for some of the most celebrated champagne growers, such as Deutz & Geldermann, Ernest Irroy and Paul Ruinart, and also for “Lorne” Scotch whisky.

Mr. P. W. Carey is the sole proprietor of this noteworthy house. He occupies a position of prominence in local trade and commercial circles, and by his just and equitable methods he secures the esteem of all who come into business contact with him. Although actively employed in the control of an extensive and engrossing business, Mr. Carey is a prominent figure in the municipal and public life of Cardiff. For more than twelve years he has been connected with the Corporation, and for six years has efficiently discharged the onerous duties of an alderman of the County Council, and was elevated to the magisterial bench on March 23rd of the present year. Mr. Carey is one of Cardiff’s best-known and most respected citizens.


THIS fine family and commercial hotel was established in the year 1867, and acquired by the present proprietory in 1888. It is conducted under the control of a limited liability company, having a board of six directors, with Mr. Lascelles Carr, of the ‘Western Mail,’ as chairman. The Royal is certainly one of the largest and handsomest hotels in Wales, and the superb building it occupies in St. Mary Street is the loftiest in Cardiff, the extreme height above the street level being no less than one hundred and ten feet. The main frontage is one hundred and sixty feet long, and there are also frontages of seventy-two feet in Wood Street, and one hundred and sixty-six feet in Westgate Street. The building is of massive design and construction, Portland stone, Bath stone, and polished Aberdeen granite being the principal materials; and the ground area covered is 13,440 superficial feet. From the flat top of the central roof may be obtained unsurpassed views of the Bristol Channel, Llandaff Cathedral, and the whole of the surrounding country. Access to this roof has been greatly facilitated by the new passenger lift. Recent improvements include the erection of a magnificent buffet and suite of baths on the ground floor; a noble banqueting-hall (seventy feet long by, thirty-eight feet wide) on the first floor; a band-stand and serving counter adjoining, with cloak-room, &c. The new banqueting-hall can accommodate between three hundred and four hundred guests, and is decorated and furnished throughout in the most artistic and sumptuous style. It is used principally for the numerous public dinners and banquets that take place at the Royal Hotel, and greatly adds to the popularity of the house for gatherings of this kind.

The “Royal” has one hundred and twenty bedrooms, and few hotels in Great Britain surpass it in accommodation. Its appointments throughout are upon a superb scale, and the various public rooms are models of comfort and luxury combined. The smoking-room will interest many on account of its unique ceiling. This was originally white, but by the continued influence of the fragrant weed it has now assumed the colour and polish of a well-used meerschaum pipe. Very good care indeed is taken of the many commercial men who have long patronised the Royal, and for their convenience there is a commodious and well-furnished “commercial-room,” with a large writing-room adjoining. Opposite the fine entrance-hall is a very snug and tastefully fitted bar, called the “Cathedral Bar,” from the fact that its windows are filled with beautiful stained glass. The large and well-lighted billiard-room has two full-sized first-class tables by one of the best makers. The coffee-room and dining-room on the first floor are fine apartments, and the second, third, and fourth floors contain a very large number of sitting-rooms and bed-rooms, singly and en suite. All the sanitary arrangements of the hotel, and the precautions taken to guard against fire, and to quell any outbreak that might occur, are as perfect as care, money, and skill can make them. The safety, comfort and general convenience of guests are the constant study of the company and of their able and courteous representative, Mr. Bernard Harman, who is one of the most painstaking and popular of managers, and whose careful supervision of the whole routine of the house is greatly appreciated by visitors.

For many years the Royal Hotel has been noted for its excellent cuisine, which department is under the charge of a thoroughly competent chef, and the cellars contain a valuable stock of selected wines of the choicest quality. The work of the hotel is performed by a numerous and efficient staff, and a night porter is always in attendance. A strictly moderate tariff of charges is not the least notable of the many advantages which, coupled with good management and courteous attendance, have made the Royal Hotel at Cardiff one of the most popular and successful first-class hotels in the Principality.


MR. BEVAN first laid the foundations of his thriving and flourishing operations somewhat over ten years ago, and he has since from year to year steadily and progressively increased and developed the scope and extent of his business undertakings with the most highly satisfactory results. His premises, which are very roomy and commodious, comprise a splendidly fitted-up shop, containing an excellent display of the various articles requisite in a business of this description, and at the rear are spacious workshops extending to a depth of one hundred and twenty feet, as well as extensive yard accommodation. Mr. Bevan has a very favourable reputation in the trade and employs none but the most skilled and carefully selected workmen. He has made a speciality and particular study of sanitary work, and does a large business in the fitting of hot and cold water baths, the fixing of electric bells, &c., and in this department all the most modern principles and latest inventions are turned to advantage in the best manner. Estimates are given for all kinds of work connected with the various branches of the plumbing and kindred trades, and while from time to time contracts of considerable magnitude are undertaken, equal attention is also devoted to smaller matters, such as jobbing work in all branches and the prompt and efficient repairing of water pipes and taps, &c. Mr. Bevan gives close and watchful supervision to all the details of the work undertaken from the commencement to the finish. He is a thoroughly practical man, of long and valuable experience of every branch of the trade, and he enjoys the fullest confidence and substantial support of a very large and influential connection, while in his private and personal relations he is alike esteemed and respected by all with whom he comes in contact.


PROJECTED upwards of a century ago in Angel Street, the business, even then in a flourishing condition, was acquired about twenty years ago by the late Mr. Thomas Powell, who developed it with such energy and ability that, after the lapse of three years, a removal was made to the present more convenient and commodious quarters. Since Mr. Powell’s decease the business has been continued with unabated vigour by his widow, who is now the sole owner of the valuable undertaking. The premises occupied consist of a spacious well-appointed sale and show department very fully stocked with a vast and varied selection of goods, the characteristic feature of which is that they are, without exception, all produced from exclusively the best materials that it is possible to procure for money, and are fashioned by skilled and experienced hands. In addition to saddlery and harness, and equestrian equipments of the highest grade, the firm produce all kinds of superior leather goods, such as gladstone, kit, brief, open-mouthed, fitted bags and portmanteaus of every description, leather trunks, and jewel cases, purses, pocketbooks, and the like; and they are also makers, on a very large scale, of steam driving-belts, engine and machine mill-bands, single edged, double, interlined, grooved, sewn, or spotted, and copper-riveted; and deal also in improved machine-stretched leather of the best tannage, for the “composite” double interlined belts, the treble belts, and the “endless” band for portable engines, as well as of copper-riveted hose (delivery and suction), vulcanised indiarubber driving bands, hose, sheet, and washers; English and foreign strap butts, white hides for cutting laces and white hide laces, brown hides for cutting laces and brown hide laces, copper rivets and burs of all sizes, strap screws, Green’s belt fasteners, best gut bands, hooks and eyes, Harris’s patent belt fastenings, limed hide rope bands, leather for all mechanical purposes and for ships’ use, rigging hides, sail hides, and service hides; and in each and every one of the commodities kept the firm pride themselves upon selling none but the very best goods at the lowest possible prices; and it is upon these lines that they have built up a connection which extends over a large area, and has endowed the house with a fame which it is manifestly Mrs. Powell’s resolution shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in days to come.


REPUTED to be the oldest-established drapery business in Cardiff, this thriving institution was for very many years carried on by Mr. James Herne, with marked success, in the High Street, from whence, on the expiration of the lease in 1880, the present eligible quarters were secured and entered upon, and the business conducted under its present style and title upon the retiral of Mr., James Hetne by Messrs. H. J. and G. W. Herne. The premises occupied were erected upon the site of one of the ancient hostelries of the town, hard by the old town wall, which terminated Cardiff in its former pig-market, but which is now continued, as Queen Street, as one of its leading commercial thoroughfares. They comprise a large handsome four-storeyed building, affording exceptional facilities for a very fine window display, and the spacious and lofty ground floor of which extends backwards for a distance of about one hundred and twenty feet, and is augmented by large show and work rooms on the floors above, the whole of the interior arrangement being excellently appointed in the most modern style. In addition to general everyday drapery goods the departments represented embrace morning and evening dresses, tailor-made gowns, mantles and millinery in all the latest Paris and London fashions, silks, satins, and all the newest and most seasonable dress fabrics, family mourning, ladies’ lingerie and wedding trousseaux, hosiery, haberdashery, &c. Messrs. Herne’s whole business presents a remarkable type of substantial success worthily achieved, and, under the careful yet always energetic and enterprising management of its estimable proprietors, develops continuously in all its resources and operations, an exceptionally large and valuable trade being done amongst the better classes of the community for many miles around.


THIS business is one that has long been highly popular, and was founded by Mr. S. Grey as far back as the year 1849. On his retirement he was succeeded in 1882 by the present owner, his son, Mr. William Grey, to whose energetic enterprise the subsequent success of the concern must be mainly ascribed. Throughout the whole career of the establishment it has always held a leading place among the chief houses in the trade, and the business has been continuously conducted upon lines which have been instrumental in determining a large family connection of the very best class. Mr. Grey’s business is accordingly confined to the supply of exclusively the primest ox-beef and wether mutton, veal and lamb in due season, pork and pickled tongues, and in short, all the items incidental to a thoroughly superior class of trade. The premises occupied consist of a fine double-fronted shop, handsomely fitted throughout, and sanitarily perfect, the stock of prime meat in neatly-dressed carcasses and joints presenting at all times a singularly attractive and inviting appearance. The business in all its details is conducted with exemplary energy and ability, and a review of Cardiff’s business men would indeed be sadly deficient should the just mention here recorded be omitted therefrom.


THIS business was established about three years ago, at the above address, by the present proprietors, who for sixteen, years have been established at 13, Fenchureh Buildings, London, E.C. The premises in Cardiff occupy an excellent position for trading purposes, and are very extensive, the street frontage measuring forty feet, while the building extends to the rear a distance of one hundred and thirty feet. The cellars run the whole distance. A suite of offices — private and general — fitted and furnished with a certain amount of elegance, are situate up-stairs, and there is an extensive store and sale-room. The firm, having for so many years catered for the shipping community, have become thoroughly conversant with all its requirements; and it is no more than justice to state that the manner in which they provision ships is productive of the highest amount of satisfaction. They hold in stock an immense variety of goods of the best quality, which have won their way by their own merits into the confidence of a large number of ship-masters. They are specially noted for the superior brands of tinned goods. A competent staff is employed, and all orders — large or small — are got out with commendable promptitude. The business is under the personal management of one or the other of the partners, who work alternately between Cardiff and London. Seeing that the business has been so recently opened in the former place, the firm are to be heartily congratulated upon the success achieved, which has been brought about by real enterprise, integrity, attention, and courtesy. The members of the firm are Mr. George Brodie and Mr. J. T. Brodie.


IN conjunction with a general builders’ and contractors’ business of long standing and substantial connections, that of the architectural and monumental stone mason has since the year 1872 been most ably and vigorously pursued in Cardiff by Mr. John Haines, who entered upon his present eligible premises some eighteen years ago, having previously been located in its immediate neighbourhood. They comprise a spacious show-room heavily stocked with monuments, church tablets, crosses, headstones, and a vast variety of designs in granite, marble, limestone, sandstone, &c., all of which are remarkable for their chaste forms and finished workmanship, and Mr. Haines is at all times prepared to submit designs and estimates for similar or any specified kind of stonework, either on a large or small scale, and to carry out contracts for building every description of public buildings and private residences, for which he employs a large staff of skilled hands. To the rear of the show-room are the extensive and well-equipped workshops; and the magnitude of his business operations may be correctly estimated when it is stated that he here finds employment for no less than one hundred hands in the various departments. His business extends practically throughout Cardiff and the county, and stands as a conspicuous example of substantial success worthily achieved; while personally Mr. Haines is everywhere respected, as much in virtue of his well-known integrity and honourable business methods as for his many estimable personal qualities.


THIS noted house was founded upwards of twenty years ago by its present sole principal, Mr. Masters, and has been raised by his energy and enterprise to a position of prominence and popularity at least equal to that occupied by any other house in Great Britain. Mr. Masters has developed a trade of very far-reaching dimensions, and the parent establishment in Cardiff has thrown out sturdy branches all over South Wales, until at the present day the depots of this pushing firm are to be found in Swansea (18 and 19, Castle Street), Newport (39 and 40, High Street), Merthyr Tydvil (114 and 124, High Street, and 1, Market Square), Pontypridd (80, Taff Street and 24, Market Square), Aberdare (11, Cannon Street), Pontypool (George Street), Abergavenny (70, Frogmore Street), Llanelly (17, Stepney Street), and even as far away as Hereford, where the firm have a shop at 11, High Street. At Cardiff, Messrs. Masters & Co. have their headquarters in a noble building, situated in the principal street, and forming a complete modern warehouse upon the most approved plan. This fine four-storey block covers a large space of ground, and is splendidly arranged for business purposes, all the appointments and fittings being in the best style and taste, while no expense has been spared to secure the convenience of customers and to provide every facility for the conduct of an unusually large and comprehensive trade.

The departments are as follows:- (A) bespoke or ordered goods; (B) mechanics’ clothing; (C) hats, caps, bags, portmanteaus, and waterproof goods; (D) ready-made clothing of every description; (E) gents’ mercery; (F) juvenile clothing. Each of these departments represents a speciality of the firm, and each is perfectly organised within itself, so that its own special requirements can be attended to with all promptitude, and without interference with any other division of the business. In the bespoke department visitors will find a remarkably large and varied stock of goods to select from, embracing cloths in all the latest patterns, shades, and textures; and these stylish fabrics are made up in the very best style of the day, the firm’s cutters and tailors being men fully qualified by experience to carry out the requirements of a first-class trade. Mechanics’ clothing at Messrs. Masters & Co.’s establishment signifies good, sound, well-made garments, made to wear well, and calculated to give every satisfaction to working-men. In ready-made clothing this firm show one of the finest stocks in the Principality, and no one can fail to note how neatly these garments are made and finished, how well they are cut according to the prevailing mode, and how attractive and tasteful are the patterns of the cloths in which they are produced. Every necessity can be satisfied in this department, and the prices leave no margin for the play of competition. Some of the prices asked here for really reliable goods are so low that only the resources of a great house and the rapid turnover of an enormous trade could make them possible.

The firm have long devoted special attention to juvenile outfitting, and few know so well as they do how to dress the “boy of the period” neatly, tastefully, and economically. Besides supplying all outward garments, Messrs. Masters & Co. furnish hats, caps, and every requisite of minor outfitting, including all the various articles that come under the head of “gents’ mercery”; and the customer having made his complete selection, can obtain from the same firm a capital bag or portmanteau to pack his belongings in, and can furthermore equip himself with any style of waterproof garment his fancy may suggest. Altogether there are fifteen thriving establishments under the control of this enterprising firm, giving employment to a small army of shop assistants, clerks, and workpeople, and enjoying the confidence and patronage of a vast clientele in the busiest and most populous towns in the Principality. As the business has steadily and continuously increased from the first, there is every reason to expect that its growth and expansion will be maintained in the future. Mr. Masters, the esteemed head of the house, is one of the most active and energetic business men in Cardiff, and is unremitting in his attention to the great concern he has so successfully developed. At the same time his enterprise finds scope to exercise itself in other directions, for he is the owner of one valuable colliery, and holds the post of chairman of directors in connection with another. Personally he is a fine example of that class of progressive merchants and traders whose spirited energy and sterling principles are bearing Cardiff onward and upward to a place among the most prominent of modern commercial towns.


PROJECTED twenty-seven years ago, the business has for the past twenty years been vigorously promoted at its present eligible quarters, and for the past two years and a half has been under the sole proprietary control of Mr. Lemuel Lewis Roberts, trading under the style and title above designated. The premises occupied comprise a spacious elegantly-appointed shop and show-room on the ground floor, very heavily stocked with works of art of great merit in the way of paintings and engravings, curiosities, and articles de vertu; artists’ colours and requisites of every kind, principally from the celebrated London firm of Messrs. Winsor & Newton; and a very select series of samples of picture-frames, mirror-frames, and the like, some of which are perfect masterpieces of the modern carver and gilder’s craft. The elaborately-equipped workshops are located on the floor above, and here Mr. Roberts, with a full staff of skilled workmen, operates on a very large scale as a carver and gilder, and maker of picture and other frames, from the cheapest varieties to the most costly and recherche special designs. Subsidiary to the business a very considerable trade is done in re-gilding work, and in the restoration and re-lining of old pictures, for which Mr. Roberts has won a well-merited and widespread renown. Personally Mr. Roberts is a gentleman of recognised ability and long practical experience in connection with the important branch of business to which his attention is now so vigorously and successfully directed, and under his capable administration a distinct advance has been achieved in each department of the business, and the full confidence won and retained of a very widespread and valuable trade and general connection.


SINCE the establishment of this fine business by the present proprietor a little time ago, most satisfactory progress has been made. Considering the long connection Mr. John has had with the trade in Cardiff, and his well-known ability in all the branches of the same, this is not to be wondered at. For over forty years Mr. John was connected with two well-known local firms of leather factors, Messrs. C. W. David and Messrs. David & Sloper. He has the able assistance of his son, Mr. Charles John, who has also an experience of nineteen years of the trade. The premises consist of a good-sized shop and show-room, conveniently situate at the above address. In the stocks held there is ample variety, both in light and heavy leathers, which are seasoned by the most approved and advanced processes. The bulk are specially suited to the requirements of boot and shoe makers and saddlers. There are all kinds of goods appertaining to the curriers’ business, also of the greatest utility, these having been purchased direct from some of the best-known manufacturers. Mr. John is also intimate with many of the wholesale leather factors whose goods bear a high standard of excellence. The connection that he has built up by his ability, application to all details of the business, and strict integrity is already of a substantial and influential order, and under such favourable conditions cannot do otherwise than steadily increase.


MR. DAVID MORGAN, the present sole proprietor, founded this important concern about thirteen years ago, starting in a very small way. The whole premises then were only half the size of the present carpet department, and at the commencement Mr. Morgan had only three assistants, whereas he now gives employment to over one hundred hands, all of whom dine daily on the premises. The business has, indeed, become one of the largest concerns of its kind in the Principality, and the premises have been constantly added to until they now comprise an establishment of five floors and a basement, two hundred feet long in all, and having a frontage of over one hundred feet to the Hayes. The large and handsome plate-glass windows afford opportunity for a fine display of the goods dealt in by the firm, and this display is always as tasteful as it is attractive. Structurally, the premises leave nothing to be desired. A splendid light is obtained by means of well lights, and in every respect the establishment is a fine type of a large modern drapery emporium. That Messrs. Morgan & Co.’s business has not by any means ceased growing is attested by the fact that a further extension of the premises is just now being made, which, when completed, will add a ground space of fifty-five feet by one hundred feet to this already exceptionally extensive establishment.

The business carried on by this enterprising firm embraces all branches of the drapery trade as it is generally known at the present day, and its comprehensiveness will be understood when we say that the departments represented include:—Linens, calicoes, sheetings, muslins, dress stuffs, cloths, silks, velvets, crapes, prints, flannels, blankets, counterpanes, curtains, carpets, floorcloths, laces, ribbons, gloves, shirts, scarves, ties, mantles, shawls, millinery, and straws, flowers, feathers, haberdashery and trimmings, umbrellas, stays, underclothing, knitted woollen goods, and hosiery. In each of the above departments Messrs. Morgan & Co. show a splendid assortment of choice goods, carefully selected in the best markets at home and abroad, and including all the latest novelties for each season. In millinery, mantles, and jackets the newest styles from Paris and London are displayed. For dresses, silks, prints, and general drapery this house enjoys a great and well-earned reputation, and shirts, gloves, and hosiery are also among the specialities in which it excels. Each department is under the control of a thoroughly qualified and experienced buyer, who is responsible for everything connected with his particular section of the business. Mr. Morgan himself acts as buyer for one department. Special show-rooms are provided for the mantle-making, millinery, and dressmaking departments, in which the firm make a remarkably interesting display, and all work in these lines is done on the premises by a thoroughly skilful staff, well trained in the requirements of a high-class trade.

The furnishing department has been very successfully developed, and Messrs. Morgan & Co.’s stock of carpets, hearthrugs, and floorcloths is one of the most varied and best assorted in Cardiff. The great features which distinguish this business in its working methods are - (1) That it is entirely a ready-money trade, no credit whatever being given, and the lowest cash prices being asked for goods of perfect reliability. (2) That the very best value it is possible to obtain for money is given to customers in each department. (3) That no attempt is made to press people to buy any particular article. (4) That Messrs. Morgan & Co. do not advertise, and never had a so-called “sale,” their method being to rely entirely upon the reputation they have acquired as suppliers of first-class goods at the lowest cash prices consistent with reliable quality. Upon these lines they have built up a trade which extends all over Great Britain, and Mr. Morgan still has the pleasure of seeing customers coming regularly to his establishment who patronised him during the very first week of his opening, some thirteen years ago. The whole business is personally managed by Mr. Morgan, who has been in the trade all his life, and who is not only a thoroughly experienced and capable merchant, but also a courteous and obliging gentleman who never spares any effort to meet the wishes and promote the convenience of his patrons. To his energy, practical skill, and sound principles is due the fact that this house has risen more rapidly, perhaps, than any other drapery concern in South Wales.


FOR the past four years and a half Mr. Alexander Lawrence has been conducting at the above address one of the most popular and successful photographic studios in Cardiff. His establishment in Queen Street is situate in the best part of Cardiff, and comprises a large and splendidly-lighted studio, with the necessary working departments in connection, all provided with the newest and best appliances of the art. There is, of course, a waiting-room, admirably appointed in every respect, with the advantage of a fine lawn for “taking” large groups. Outdoor work of every kind seems to be a speciality of Mr. Lawrence, but it may truly be said that he attains an equally high standard of excellence in all branches of photography, and all his work is characterised by great beauty of finish. Mr. Lawrence is particularly successful with young children, and enlarging and painting in all their branches are done on the premises under the direct personal supervision of the principal. The patronage of a large and influential local and district connection is enjoyed, and Mr. Lawrence’s Studio is one of those establishments which gain constantly in reputation and clientele as they become more widely known. The well-merited success of this business proves once more that really good work can be turned out by a conscientious artist at reasonable prices, and that for such work there is always a demand.


MR. W. PEDLER, of the Royal Arcade, commenced business here in the year 1867, and he has built up a large and substantial trade, not only in umbrellas of every description, but also in walking-sticks, and all kinds of leather goods for the use of travellers. Mr. Pedler’s establishment in the Royal Arcade is as well known as any in Cardiff, and affords excellent facilities for the conduct of an extensive and high-class business. The stock kept here embraces a splendid assortment of gentlemen’s and ladies’ umbrellas in all materials, and at prices to suit every requirement; also a large variety of walking-sticks and canes, including malaccas and every fashionable and popular stick in the market; and a full range of leather bags and satchels for ladies and gentlemen, these goods, like everything else in Mr. Pedler’s shop, being of the best workmanship and finish, and of thoroughly reliable quality. Umbrellas are made, re-covered, and repaired on the premises, and sticks and canes are dressed, polished, and ferruled to suit customers’ requirements. Mr. Pedler’s “hospital” for infirm and decrepit umbrellas is a thriving institution, and is doing a great work, some five thousand “patients” being cured annually of all sorts of ailments peculiar to tin umbrella family. This repairing department is a great feature of the business. For high-class umbrellas at moderate prices this house leads the way, the assortment being one which it would be very difficult to surpass in variety, and impossible to excel in sound quality and good value.

One of the great secrets of the success of this large and flourishing business consists in the fact that all the work of manufacturing and repairing is done by skilled hands on the premises, under Mr. Pedler’s personal direction. The principal is ably assisted by his son, Mr. Wesley Pedlar, in the management of a business the influential connections of which now extend all over Wales and the border counties of England. Mr. W. Pedler, the head of the house, has distinguished himself by writing a delightful little brochure which he has entitled, “The Book of the Umbrella.” Plenty of amusing anecdote is mingled with the more matter-of-fact contents of the little volume, and there is not a dull page from one cover to the other. Mr. Pedler has a capital style, easy, natural, and unaffectedly humorous. He is, moreover, a master of his subject, and has a great deal to say thereon that will be both new and interesting to the general reader. “The Book of the Umbrella” has received highly complimentary press notices; and, among others the Marquis of Bute (to whom a copy was sent) wrote to Mr. Pedler congratulating him upon his work. If every historical and anecdotical review of articles in general use were as well put together and as entertaining as “The Book of the Umbrella,” the interest of the public in the familiar objects of daily life would be greatly quickened increased. This enterprising tradesman has a branch establishment at No. 3, Royal Arcade. Here, in addition to the umbrella, stick, and leather bag trade, we find a very superior hairdressing, shaving, and shampooing business. This is popularly known as “Pedler’s Royal Saloon.” The appointments and attendants here are all that can be desired by the most particular or sensitive person. Perfumes and toilet requisites from the best and most celebrated houses are displayed in elegant and choice variety.


DATING back in its foundation to the year 1790, this prosperous concern, having passed through many mutations, was acquired by Mr. G. Jenkins, and by him developed for a period of eighteen years with singular success, until about eighteen months ago it passed into the hands of Mr. J. Nolcini, who had for twenty-five years previously conducted a similar business, which he had inherited from his father. Under Mr. Nolcini’s vigorous and skilful control the business has already shown extraordinary developing tendencies, notwithstanding that it has always been the leading concern of its kind under his own and the regime of his immediate predecessor. The premises occupied are very extensive, and in every point of character and situation precisely adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business. They consist of a large and substantial four-storeyed building, the ground floor of which is admirably appointed as a high-class pastrycook’s shop, and at all times presents a particularly inviting appearance from the elegant display made of plain and fancy breads, wedding, birthday, and ornamental cakes, for which the firm enjoy an unsurpassed reputation, and command a trade which extends to all parts of the Principality, and even beyond, blancmanges, jellies, and other table delicacies, superior pastry and confectionery, British wines, and conserved fruit, much of the latter of which is grown at Mr. Nolcini’s beautiful residence and estates, the Villa Pasatempo, Lake of Como, Gravedona, in Italy, and all kinds of toothsome dainties. On the first floor there is a capitally ordered luncheon room, while at the rear stands the five-floored factory, replete with all the most modern baking and other machinery and appliances, for the production of the various items already enumerated, and calling into active requisition the services of a large staff of expert and experienced hands under Mr. Nolcini’s careful and competent supervision. The trade controlled is one of very considerable volume, extending to all parts of the town and its surroundings, and being principally cultivated amongst the resident aristocracy and gentry; and all its affairs are administered in a manner that is well calculated to preserve all the creditable traditions of the house and to sustain it in the high public favour which it has so long and so worthily enjoyed.


THIS busy and flourishing concern was originally founded by the present firm about twenty-eight years ago at Frederick Street, where the business was developed and consolidated with much success for a period of five years, when the firm transferred the headquarters of their steadily growing and expanding operation to the present address. The house occupied by the firm, like many others in Queen Street, was originally a private dwelling, but it was rebuilt in 1885 in a manner more suitable for the requirements of a large business house, and extensive workshops were constructed in the rear. Mr. Newton was one of the first to develop Queen Street into what it is to-day, by pulling down his old-fashioned premises and himself building his present handsome establishment. The shop and show-rooms are large and roomy, and the interior fittings and appointments are attractive in appearance and conveniently arranged. A thriving and prosperous trade of the best class is done not only in the town of Cardiff itself but over a wide area of the whole Principality, and the correspondents of the firm may even be numbered as far away as the Gold Coast, and Cape Town, &c., a large number of orders reaching Messrs. J. Newton & Co. from constituents abroad who have their requirements regularly exported to them from England. The trade is entirely bespoke in character, and in addition to their very viable reputation for high-class garments for gentlemen’s wear on ordinary occasions, they have an excellent name for the making of hunting breeches, ladies’ riding habits, and liveries, &c. Whether in superiority of style and fit, in durability and tastefulness of materials, or in neatness and finish of workmanship, Messrs. J. Newton & Co. alike excel, and while they have the cordial and substantial support of a valuable connection of old standing, and therefore rank high in commercial circles, the principals are also very popular locally, and are greatly esteemed and respected by all who know them.


THIS business, which has become one of the largest and most important of the kind in Cardiff, was founded some ten years ago, by the present proprietor. The central and commodious premises consist of a substantial building of four-storey elevation, having an excellent street frontage of forty feet, and extending to the rear a distance of sixty feet. The ground floor is well arranged as a sale-room, and here also are the neat offices. The floors above are used for the purposes of stocking, packing, &c. The business is thoroughly taken in hand by the proprietor in person, who, by his long and practical experience and enterprise, is enabled to cater to the requirements of a large community with the greatest amount of satisfaction and success. His supplies are received from the very best quarters, and always arrive in a fresh and sound condition, while the selection, all the year round, is a most liberal one. All kinds of superior fruits and vegetables are dealt in, the former being made up of British and foreign varieties, and adapted either for cooking, preserving, or for dessert purposes. Mr. Reid has very extensive transactions in the best grown potatoes, and constantly receives heavy consignments, including choice varieties for planting. The services of an extensive staff are required, such as warehousemen, clerks, carters, &c., each branch being carried out with commendable expedition and accuracy. The connection drawn together is of a most important and influential description, and is steadily increasing. The business is wholly wholesale, and stands amongst the first and largest businesses of its kind in South Wales and West of England. Mr. Reid has gained the hearty respect of all who know him, not only for his courtesy, but likewise for his strict integrity.


AFTER a period of seventeen years of the soundest practical experience in the business, Mr. E. W. Roberts opened this representative house some nine years ago, and has succeeded in developing its interests to such a marked degree that it now stands as one of the leading institutions of the kind in the Principality. These workshops face St. Mary Street, and are augmented by a handsomely appointed shop and show department in which a very fine display of pictures is always en evidence, and where artists’ colours and materials, and picture frames of every description are always available. The workshops are provided with all the most modern appliances for the rapid and efficient production of picture frames of every conceivable kind, from the cheapest to the most recherche and costly, and call into active requisition the services of a staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen, whose labours are most carefully superintended by Mr. Roberts. In order to indicate the magnitude of the trade carried on, it may be mentioned that Mr. Roberts produced and distributed no less than twenty-seven thousand picture frames last year. He undertakes all kinds of repairing and re-gilding work, and his picture restoring and re-lining stands facile princeps in the trade at Cardiff, and commands a trade which extends throughout Wales and even into England. In all departments of the business Mr. Roberts maintains an excellent standard of character and reliability, and the entire patronage enjoyed by his house is fully consistent with the high principles upon which the affairs of the concern have always been conducted.


FOR many years Mr. Carter’s Fish, Fruit, Game, and Oyster Establishment in St. Mary Street has been generally recognised as one of the most attractive institutions of Cardiff, and as occupying a pleasantly conspicuous position in its leading thoroughfare. The premises are of spacious dimensions, and have, in their external and internal arrangements, been admirably adapted to the requirements of the different branches of the business, and especially to the keeping of perishable articles of food. While on one side of the shop there is an ample display of the finest game and the freshest of fish, in all the varieties which are afforded by the course of the seasons, the other is occupied by an equally admirable assortment of the daintiest and the most luscious of British and foreign fruits. Everything in the establishment is in harmony with the absolute excellence which characterises the whole of the stock, and with the high class of the patronage bestowed upon the firm by the most distinguished families in the town and the surrounding districts. Mr. Carter has always been in a position to secure for his customers the pick of the wholesale markets, whether for foreign or home-grown goods, and he has availed himself in the fullest degree of the improved locomotive advantages, both in reference to land and water communication, which the marvellous commercial advancement of Cardiff has recently brought to the town. His supply of oysters, at various prices, ranging from the delicate native to the succulent Blue-point, is most copious, and his oyster-rooms, which are situated on the first floor, with a pleasant outlook into the busy thoroughfare, are most comfortably appointed, with marble-topped tables, and all the other appetising appliances which add zest to the consumption of the delicious bivalves. This, like the rest of the establishment, is delightfully illuminated by the electric light. Mr. Carter’s establishment is in every respect a model of what such an emporium should be, and the numerous staff of experienced assistants are careful to imitate the excellent example of the principal in their uniform courtesy and zealous endeavour to meet the requirements of customers of all classes.


MR. JONES has held a leading and prominently representative position in local circles for nearly forty years, having first established himself at the above address as long ago as the year 1853, and he may well look back with pride upon his long and honourable career of practical work and usefulness. His premises, which are favourably situated in an excellent business position, are roomy and attractive in appearance, having an excellent plate-glass front, and the interior fittings and appointments are convenient and well arranged for the purposes of a high-class trade. The stock is large and comprehensive, including all kinds of drugs and chemicals of the best and purest quality, as well as a complete assortment of patent medicines and proprietary articles, and a varied supply of perfumery, toilet requisites, and all the many little sundry articles which are likely to be asked for in a large chemist’s establishment of the best kind. The dispensing department receives the most scrupulous care, both as regards accuracy and the quality and purity of the drugs employed in compounding physicians’ prescriptions and family recipes, and Mr. Jones makes a speciality of the careful and skilful extraction of teeth. He has a very favourable reputation throughout a wide area of the surrounding district. Mr. John Thomas Jones is a gentleman of high professional and scientific attainments as well as a clever and capable man of business, and he is well known locally, and greatly esteemed and respected by all with whom he comes in contact.


MR. WILLIAM MORTON’S first-class establishment was organised about five years ago by its present proprietor, under the style and title above designated. The premises were specially constructed to meet the exact requirements of the business, and present a singularly handsome facade with a double frontage, which is fully availed of for display purposes, and forms one of the most attractive features of the busy thoroughfare. Within doors evidences are everywhere apparent of the care and attention displayed in providing for the reception, prompt service, and general convenience of patrons, the whole of the five floors being elegantly appointed throughout in the most modern style in the form of saleroom below, and tastefully-ordered show-rooms and well-equipped work-rooms on the upper floors. The stock of goods held and displayed is perfectly exhaustive of every branch of fancy drapery in the way of silks, satins, laces, ribbons, feathers, flowers, haberdashery, &c., to the exclusion, however, of heavy goods. Millinery and dress and costume making in all their branches is carried on under the able supervision of Mrs. Morton, and the work produced is unsurpassed of its kind, and fully up to date, stylish articles at strictly reasonable prices being the main feature of the entire business. Altogether a staff of no less than seventy-five civil and efficient assistants and workers is engaged in the various departments, and nothing could be more commendable than the order and system which prevail. The trade controlled extends to all parts of Cardiff and the country for many miles around, and the entire business is conducted with marked ability and energy upon principles that are well calculated to promote the prosperity of the house, and to sustain it in the public favour it now so deservedly enjoys.


THIS most superior business was established by the present proprietor, Mr. J. W. Pyle, about six years ago, at the above address. The premises have an appearance equalled by few business places in the borough, the shop having three handsome windows, and a frontage of forty feet. The distance to the rear is very considerable, and, with the bakery, a large space of ground is covered. The shop has a most prepossessing appearance, the stands, cases, countering, fixtures, and general appointments being tasteful and refined. In addition to the above, Mr. Pyle has another fine shop at 45, Lower Cathedral Road, which is equally well fitted. Each place at all times contains a tempting array of pastry and confectionery, made in the very highest grades of the art, and which for delicious flavour and purity have established a reputation second to none in the neighbourhood. Mr. Pyle has a number of valuable recipes for rare dishes, which are only to be had from him. He has become in particular noted for his choice bridal, christening, and birthday cakes, which are made to order up to any size. Other notable specialities are in superior Milk, Brunswick, and Vienna bread, and pure Gluten digestive bread. A great favourite, too, is the wholesome pure wheatmeal bread, which possesses the highest feeding properties combined with a most grateful flavour. The general variety of confectionery is all of the best quality, whether for wedding breakfasts, suppers, balls, or any other purpose. The bakery is arranged on the most improved principle, and is a model of cleanliness. Experienced hands are engaged under the personal supervision of the owner, who possesses a sound knowledge of all the different branches. Each shop is courteously managed, and the combined turnover reaches large proportions. The connection is an extensive and superior one, and extends to all parts of the town and district. Great praise is due to Mr. Pyle for the able manner in which he has so quickly established his reputation, and the cordial support and respect accorded to him is in every way richly deserved.


AMONG the notable houses whose names have become closely and creditably identified with the growth and development of the modern high-class tailor’s craft and calling in Cardiff, there are perhaps few that have attained to such high distinction as the one which, organised some forty years since, and for many years conducted in the High Street, is to-day under the vigorous control of Mr. E. J. Baker. The premises occupied were specially constructed for Mr. Baker, and are acknowledged to stand, in the matter of equipments and facilities for the execution of good work, second to none in the provinces. The capitally appointed shop is heavily stocked with a very fine selection of woollen fabrics in all the latest, patterns and most fashionable varieties, while in the workshops adjoining Mr. Baker employs none but workmen of recognised ability and experience. In addition to gentlemen’s attire for all occasions, Mr. Baker has won a well-merited renown for his uniforms, hunting breeches, and habits, and holds an appointment as tailor to the Glamorganshire Rifle Volunteers, and every garment that emanates from his establishment possesses an individuality of style, fit, and finish that can only be imparted by a perfect master of the sartorial art. Personally Mr. Baker is a member of the board of the Master Tailors’ Association of Great Britain and Ireland, and he conducts his large and valuable business in a manner and upon principles that are well calculated to preserve all the creditable traditions of his house, and to sustain it in the public favour it has so long and so deservedly enjoyed.


THIS leading business was established thirty-five years ago by Mr. R. Enoch, at the above address, where a large and influential connection was steadily built up by him. In 1889 the present sole proprietor, Mr. Thomas Williams, came into possession, and has continued to extend both the operations and reputation of the concern. The premises have a good frontage to the street, the shop being fitted with a very handsome modern plate-glass front. Inside the shop the appearance is of a very taking description. The fittings and furnishings are bright and refined, and there is always an air of prosperity and good management about the place. Beneath the shop are commodious cellars, which are of great value for stocking the wines, spirits, beers, &c. There is also a good warehouse at the rear for reserve stock. Here, too, is the well-arranged stabling and cart-house. Mr. Williams, who has the advantage of a practical knowledge of the trade, and who has made it his close study, is a sound judge of groceries and provisions, both of which he deals in very extensively. He is constantly receiving large consignments from the most approved quarters, which he retails at the closest market prices. The agency is held for the renowned firm of Messrs. W. & A. Gilbey, a fine and representative assortment of their wines and spirits being always on hand, including many favourite brands of champagne, cordials, British and foreign wines, See. He also deals largely in sparkling beer, both in cask and in bottle. The connection is both local and district, a fair share of the better-class customers being found among the well-to-do families of the locality. Mr. Williams is a shrewd, and at the same time, courteous tradesman. His successful catering is due to the observation he has maintained as to the requirements of his customers, by whom he is respected and esteemed.


THIS model “home from home,” which was established in the year 1878, has, under the vigorous yet judicious regime of host Wynn, been developed into one of the most successful undertakings of its class in the town. In years gone by Mr. John Wynn was himself a “knight of the road,” and having from his extensive experience as a guest garnered a vast amount of knowledge as to the ways and means for rendering the traveller’s life a happy one, he at once, on acquiring the Dumfries Hotel, set about to make full use of his accumulated store of information. The wearied “drummer,” to use a trans-Atlantie term, after a heavy day’s business, thinks naught of anything save supper and sleep, and both are available in perfection at the Dumfries, for Mr. Wynn justly prides himself upon the high excellence of his cuisine, and it may be safely stated that there cannot be found in all Cardiff cleaner or more comfortable bed-chambers than the complement of thirty which form part of the Dumfries Commercial Hotel, and over and above this it must be mentioned that Mr. Wynn is even ultra-careful to see that his guests are provided with thoroughly well-dried and aired bed-clothing, such a thing as damp sheets being unknown in his establishment, for all the linen as it comes from the laundry is carefully hung in a specially-constructed drying and airing chamber, heated by hot-water apparatus. The commercial-room is certainly one of the best of its kind in the Principality, being provided with the best forms of desks and facilities for writing and transacting business, racks filled with all the railway and steamboat time-tables, and all the little details which experience alone can hope to supply. There are good stock-rooms, conveniences for the storage of luggage, a fire and burglar-proof strong-room for the safe deposit of valuables, a fine billiard-room, with two full-sized tables, a smoking-saloon, office, and suite of kitchens, which are reputed to be among the largest and best equipped of their kind in Cardiff. A moderate tariff, unexceptionable attendance, and the air of comfort and homeliness that pervades the whole place, marks out the Dumfries as the hotel par excellence in Cardiff for the temperance traveller, and it is manifestly Mr. Wynn’s resolution that the high reputation and substantial success he has already achieved shall not only be well sustained but steadily enhanced and continuously developed in days to come.


-MR. THATCHER’S business originated as far back as the year 1819, the founder being r. Samuel Marks. The present proprietor, who had previously been in business for seven years, a little higher up the street, bought the concern about seventeen years ago, and has since conducted it with great ability and success, fully maintaining the high reputation it has so long enjoyed. The commodious premises occupied are admirably suited to the requirements of a business of this kind, and the well-appointed shop contains a large and valuable stock of chronometers, watches, clocks, opera and field glasses, marine glasses, compasses, and all manner of nautical instruments, charts, stationery, &c. Everything supplied at this establishment is of first-class quality, and besides selling his own reliable and approved chronometers, Mr. Thatcher is agent for all the principal chronometer-makers, so that any well-known make can be at once obtained through him. Special attention is given to the rating of chronometers, to the adjusting of iron ships’ compasses, and to the cleaning and repairing of clocks, watches, and nautical instruments. All instruments while on shore are insured against loss by fire. Mr. Thatcher is a thoroughly practical master of his scientific trade, and employs an efficient staff of skilled hands, all work being done on the premises under his own careful personal supervision. His establishment is, we believe, the oldest of its kind in Cardiff, and is patronised by the Portuguese Government, and by a large and important nautical connection.

TELEGRAMS: “Emporium, Cardiff.”

THIS prosperous joint-stock concern took origin from the Wheeler & Wilson Sewing Machine Company Agency, and was incorporated on the 1st May, 1890, with the late W. Horton Hutchins as managing director, and Mr. John Jones as secretary. On the death of the former in April, 1891, Mr. E. H. Walbrook was appointed joint manager with Mr. J. Jones. The Company still act as the sole agents for Messrs. Wheeler & Wilson’s celebrated sewing-machines, and operate on a very large scale as providers for cash, or on the easy payment system, of the “Caligraph” typewriter, all manner of musical instruments by both English and foreign makers of note, jewellery of every class and grade, bicycles and tricycles, mangles, and domestic machines of every conceivable kind. Their headquarters in Duke Street are, in every point of character and situation, precisely adapted to the requirements of a very brisk, superior business of the kind, and consist of a spacious and commodious double-fronted shop of good depth, affording ample accommodation for a very heavy stock of the goods already mentioned. The Company, moreover, own depots at Tonypandy, Mountain Ash, New Tredegar, and Barry, and altogether command a very large and widespread trade amongst families possessed of moderate means, for whom their business was especially projected, and amongst whom its undoubted benefits are duly appreciated; and it is manifestly the Company’s resolution that the high reputation they have won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in days to come.


THIS splendid business was established by the present proprietor, Mr. E. J. Poole, about seven years ago. The premises at the above address are among the most prominent of those devoted to trading purposes in the town, and consist of a very spacious single-fronted shop. Above are conspicuously displayed the Royal Arms and the Prince of Wales’ feathers, Mr. Poole having on different occasions been honoured with royal patronage. He has supplied Her Majesty with barons of beef from her own prize bullocks, of which he had been the purchaser, and has received other orders from time to time. He has also supplied H.R.H. the Prince of Wales with saddles of mutton from prize sheep. There is at all times a most tempting display of prime beef and mutton, the proprietor drawing his supplies from the herds and flocks of noted breeders and farmers. His men are thoroughly competent, and the meat is sent to customers in a firm and splendid condition. There are important branches at 5, Glebe Street, Penarth, and Holton Road, Barry Dock. A capital delivery service has been organised; families and shipping are supplied on the most reasonable terms. Shipping is also supplied with live pigs, poultry, and vegetables. This is without doubt one of the largest and most important wholesale and retail concerns of the kind in Cardiff, and Mr. Poole has to be congratulated upon achieving such marked success in such a short period. This has been accomplished by real enterprise, energy, and ability, together with honourable dealings.
The telegraphic address is “Poole, Butcher, Cardiff,” and the telephone No. 8.


ESTABLISHED in 1885, this business has steadily increased. It is conducted in large and admirably appointed premises at the corner of Richmond Road and Castle Road, Roath. They consist of a fine range of stabling and loose boxes, coachhouses, haylofts, a well-fitted-up office, and every facility for the successful working of the business. Mr. Hayman has a large stud of good, sound, and reliable horses, suitable for riding or driving, and a large number of open and close carriages, dogcarts, broughams, cabs, and wagonettes for picnic parties. Both horses and carriages are always turned out in excellent order, and would do credit to the private establishment of any gentleman. The drivers are men of reliable character, and remarkable for their politeness, attention, and punctuality. The business throughout is managed with great enterprise. Mr. Hayman has secured the confidence and support of an excellent connection, and both residents and visitors to Cardiff will find many and manifest advantages in his terms and prices. There is a large and admirably conducted butcher’s business adjoining, of which Mr. Hayman is the proprietor.


THIS highly important business has occupied a prominent position in Cardiff since 1858, in which year it was opened in the above premises. These are very extensive, and possess a commanding appearance, being of three-storey elevation, and having an excellent street frontage. The well-stocked and well-managed shop is sufficient indication of the large and superior trade carried on. At the rear is the well-appointed bakery, where fancy bread and biscuits are made. The most scrupulous cleanliness is observed throughout, and the ovens are constructed on the most approved system. This department is made the leading feature of the trade, and certainly is worthy of the renown it enjoys. On the first floor of the building are the stores, devoted to jams, pickles, sauces, and tinned goods, these being of the first quality, and from the best-known manufacturers. On the second floor are the tea-rooms, where some of the finest growths are blended. Mr. Benjamin is most careful in the selection of his teas, his long experience enabling him to admirably anticipate the tastes of his patrons. There are also general stores on this floor. The adjoining shop is devoted to confectionery, and is very tastefully and temptingly laid out. A great speciality is made of wedding and birthday cakes, the flavour and appearance being excellent. There is a grocery department at Holmsdale Street and at Tudor Road. Mr. Benjamin takes personal management of the business, displaying an amount of enterprise, energy, and ability that stamp him as one of Cardiff’s prominent and successful tradesmen.


PROJECTED in the year 1868 by the late Mr. H. Sweeting, and now carried on upon its safe and sound original lines by his widow, Mrs. E. Sweeting, this prospered business still stands as the representative institution of its kind in Cardiff, and enjoys the liberal support and patronage of the most Hon. the Marquis of Bute, K.T., Lord Windsor, and the leading aristocracy and gentry of the district. The premises occupied are most eligibly situated, and at all times present a singularly attractive double frontage of tastefully dressed windows to the busy thoroughfare. Within doors the elegantly-appointed emporium is heavily stocked with a thoroughly representative selection of silk and felt hats, clerical hats, tweed helmets, tweed and boys’ hats and caps of every kind, by all the leading makers of the day; hosiery and gloves in great variety, and of all the best types; shirts both ready-made and made to measure by expert hands, of which Sweeting’s “Desideratum” pattern is worthy of special mention; collars, cuffs, and ties; and, in short, every item incidental to a thoroughly first-class outfitting business. To the rear is the gentlemen’s hair-cutting an£ shaving saloon, while on the first floor is the ladies’ and children’s hairdressing room, and both of these departments, together with a complement of five excellent hot and cold water bath-rooms, are sumptuously appointed, and embody all the latest and best improvements, and together constitute the finest saloons of the kind in Cardiff. The workshops, where the shirts, collars, &c., are made, are augmented by a laundry department, and the hair-dressing saloons similarly have their executive department, where expert workers are retained to do all kinds of ornamental hair-work. The entire establishment is thoroughly representative of its important line of operations, and all its affairs are administered in a manner well calculated to preserve all the creditable traditions of the house.


OPERATIONS were originally commenced by Mr. Baber in 1882 in the Cowbridge Road, and for the sake of greater convenience the present premises were occupied in 1892. These consist of a substantial red-brick building three storeys in height, at the rear of the proprietor’s residence, and comprising ground floor fitted up as engine-house, with compact gas-engine of five horse-power by Griffin of Bath. The first floor is used as a sawmill, and is equipped with circular and other saws, and the second floor contains extensive planing bench, and other mechanical appliances driven by power. The third floor is utilised as the painting and finishing department, and numerous sets of blinds in various stages of completion are to be seen here. Several competent men are kept in constant employment, and these work under the close supervision of the proprietor himself. A large and increasing trade is done, and everything sent out by this house can be relied upon for sound material, good workmanship, and thorough finish. Many new patterns have been introduced by Mr. Baber, and he is fully recognised as an enterprising and capable man. In the matter of venetian blinds he is particularly well known. All orders receive careful and prompt attention, and customers can rely upon every satisfaction being given. Estimates are supplied for every class of work, and a competent person is sent out to take measures when desired. Stocks are kept of the various goods manufactured, including yellow pine and oak Venetian blinds, gauze wire blinds, parlour or dwarf blinds, outside blinds of every kind, spring shop rollers in metal tubes, &c. Mr. Baber is a thoroughly practical man, and every class of work placed in his hands is well and honestly done, and by his close attention to business and prompt execution of orders he secures the esteem of all who come into business contact with him.


HOLDING a leading position in the woollen and outfitting trades, this eminent firm date their history back as far as the year 1838, when the business was founded by the father of the present proprietors. Though it originated on the same spot in St. Mary Street, the concern was at first upon a much smaller scale than it now is. From time to time the premises were enlarged and improved to meet the requirements of a growing business, and Messrs. Jotham’s present establishment is certainly unsurpassed by any other of its kind in England or Wales. The premises present a magnificent frontage to the street, and are especially attractive with their two immense plate-glass windows, affording every facility for tasteful display. There are two entrances, and the ground floor show-rooms have a long rearward extension, being lighted internally by means of-three well-lights from above. On the first floor there are two fine show-rooms devoted to the bespoke tailoring department, and in connection with this there are very commodious fitting-rooms and cutting-rooms. Several departments find accommodation on the ground floor, the principal ones being hosiery, hats, readymade clothing, and the special juvenile clothing department. In each of these sections the visitor will always find a stock of great variety and unexceptionable quality, fully illustrating this notable firm’s resources as high-class complete outfitters. Beyond the showrooms, at the rear, are situated the spacious and perfectly appointed workshops, and beyond these again are the stables and the caretaker’s house, the premises extending into Baker’s Row.

The whole establishment is elegantly appointed, and every detail of furnishing and general equipment, sanitary arrangement, &c., has been carried out in the very best modern style. Every convenience exists, not only for customers, but also to assist the staff in the routine of an exceptionally large and comprehensive business, and the entire organisation of the place indicates the intelligent and enterprising outlay of a very large amount of capital. Vast stocks are held in this fine establishment, and each department displays all the latest and most attractive novelties of the season in its particular line. There are spacious basements, in which all goods are received and unpacked, thus avoiding any disorder or untidiness in the show-rooms. Messrs. Jotham & Sons enjoy a high reputation in all branches of their trade for first-class quality, style, and novelty in everything they sell, as well as for the reasonable nature of their charges. They are especially famous as juvenile clothiers and outfitters, and show stocks in this connection of great variety and attractiveness. The bespoke tailoring branch is also most capably conducted. Messrs. Jotham & Sons employ the best workpeople and most experienced assistants, and they manage their extensive business in a manner securing the full approval of a large and valuable clientele in Cardiff and the surrounding district. Mr. T. W. Jotham and his brother, Mr. F. H. Jotham, are the principals of the house, and take an active personal part in the administration of its affairs.

Both the partners are gentlemen of marked ability and enterprise, and hold a prominent position in the mercantile community. Mr. F. H. Jotham was at one time a member of the Cardiff Town Council, in which capacity he (like his father before him) rendered excellent and disinterested public service. Recently he has been elected, unopposed, a member of the Glamorganshire County Council for Penarth (South Division), the district in which he resides.


THIS highly important business was established by the present proprietor in 1884. The premises occupied consist of a large and heavily-stocked sale-room, having appropriately furnished offices above. There are also spacious stock and sale rooms at Dowlais Chambers, West Bute Street, near to the Exchange in Mountstuart Square. Mr. Kerman is looked up to as one who is thoroughly conversant with every branch of the trade in which he is engaged, and the continual increase of his business may be taken for proof certain that he is affording ample all-round satisfaction. As a marine surveyor and arbitrator he exhibits the largest amount of ability and sound judgment. He is also engaged in the manufacture of hydraulic cup leathers. Of these he is the only producer in Wales. The leathers turned out by him are considered to be as nearly perfect as possible. Mr. Kerman has on hand an extensive stock of brass engine-fittings of every description, brass condenser tubes and ferrules, vulcanised fibre valves, asbestos manhole joints, piston rings, Taylor’s patent metallic joints, wooden condenser ferrules, zinc plates, hose pipes in canvas, leather, and rubber, &c. All the above are specialities, and are widely known for their excellence and many merits. The agency is held for the following important firms; Caledonian Tube Company, Glasgow; Vickers’s non-corrosive engine oil and cylinder oil; Roberts’s patent lubricating packing; Moseley’s patent “Duriflex” high-pressure packing; Baird’s patent propeller; and Richards’ patent plastic metals; these agencies covering the Western and several other districts. Mr. Kerman was manager for sixteen years for the old and renowned firm of Messrs. Elliot and Jeffrey. He is the inventor of Messrs. Elliot, Jeffrey, & Kerman’s patent piston rings and springs, and Herman’s patent gauge-glass ring. Under his keen and practical management the business is extending on every side. Orders are executed with a prompitude that is commendable in the highest sense of the word. Every branch of the business bears the impress of excellent control, and the elevated position Mr. Kerman now occupies is in every way richly merited.
Telegrams: “ Universal, Cardiff”; Post Office Telephone No. 47.


THIS old-established and highly respected house was founded in the year 1841 by Mr. James Trotter Barry, and is now conducted by that gentleman’s two sons — Mr. J. T. Barry, junior, and Mr. Edwin Barry — tradiog under the above title. The business was commenced at No. 9, Duke Street, and No. 8 was subsequently added, so that the premises now comprise two spacious and handsome shops, divided by a passage. The stocks held are of the highest quality throughout, and present a superb appearance. They comprise the following principal section:- (1) Watches of the best English and foreign makes, in gold and silver. (2) Clocks, for the drawing-room, dining-room, hall, office, &c., turret clocks being also a speciality of the house. (3) Jewellery of all descriptions, gold, silver, plated, jet, &c., displaying the newest designs and most elegant workmanship. (4) Fine silver goods, including forks and spoons, tea and coffee sets, dessert and fish knives and forks, cups, salvers, epergnes, &c., &c. (5) Electro-plated goods of the best quality, comprising spirit-stands, cruets, biscuit and tea caddies, waiters, tea and coffee services, spoons and forks, &c. Besides the above Messrs. Barry have developed several other important and interesting departments in which they show many high-class productions in fancy cabinet goods (such as desks, work-boxes, jewel-cases, dressing-cases, &c.), fine leather goods, albums in great variety, optical and mathematical instruments, &c.

Presentation plate forms one of the leading specialities of this firm, and goods of this class can be produced to order on the shortest notice. Specialities and novelties of a character suitable for presents will always be found in Messrs. Barry’s stock in very large variety, and the establishment has become a recognised source of supply for such wares. In the matter of presentation work the firm under notice enjoy very high repute, and they have had the honour of making the various caskets presented by the Corporation of Cardiff to personages of distinction, amongst others, the casket presented to Sir David Evans, late Lord Mayor of London, together with the Freedom of the Borough of Cardiff, in July, 1892. It is noteworthy that the work entrusted to Messrs. Barry in this very special department has been secured by them in open competition. It may be mentioned that this firm have recently erected the fine four-dial public clock in the Cardiff Market — a piece of work the contract for which was also secured in competition. Among other departments of this fine old business we note those for indoor and outdoor games of various kinds. In this connection Messrs. Barry supply all requisites for chess and draughts. Repairs of all kinds receive careful attention, skilful workmen being employed on the premises under the personal supervision of the principals, who are thorough masters of the trade in all its details. The house of Messrs. James T. Barry & Sons has long maintained its leading position, and continues to enjoy the patronage of a wide and influential clientele in all parts of South Wales. Moreover, the firm are frequently in receipt of orders from old patrons who have left the district, and many of whom! are now resident abroad.


THIS business was established by the present proprietor in 1885, and from its very commencement has always done a large trade. The premises consist of a large warehouse with a frontage of fifty feet and extending to the depth of one hundred and thirty feet. A number of hands are constantly employed and, owing to the nature of the business, these are for the most part women, but there are also three carters and two travellers employed. Mr. Young imports fruits, vegetables, and potatoes very largely, and all the year round business with him is brisk in the extreme. The reputation in which he is held, and the success which attends his efforts, are alike due to his untiring and careful management. The business is constantly increasing, and a large and important connection has been established. All orders receive the most strict, prompt, and punctual attention, and Mr. Young’s numerous customers put the most implicit confidence in his acting for their best interests, and this trust is not misplaced, nor has it ever been, nor is it likely to be, abused. The proprietor most carefully considers the full requirements of his clients.


TWENTY-FOUR years ago was founded the well-known and world-renowned business of Mr. Julius Bregartner, Tailor, Hosier, Hatter, and Woollen-shirt Manufacturer. The extraordinary reputation of this establishment has secured for it a business of truly fabulous proportions. Here can be obtained at a short notice complete outfits for travellers to any part of the world, every detail of which is carefully studied and supplied ready for any distance or climate. No article consistent with the business of clothier can be applied for but will be found in stock, or made to order with all despatch and at terms which bear favourable comparison with those of other establishments in the Kingdom. The premises comprise a large shop fifty feet in length, with handsome plate-glass front and well-appointed interior, literally filled with a most valuable stock, consisting of goods of every possible description, with show-rooms above also devoted to stock. Apprentices’ outfits and slop-chests are made one of the special features of the business, and these are supplied at the lowest possible prices. Notwithstanding the enormous amount of the turnover, the business is not confined to the home trade only, as large quantities of goods are exported to South Africa and America. The sole proprietor, Mr. Julius Bregartner, devotes his personal attention to the management of the concern; and he is a gentleman well known in the district, of high business reputation, and greatly respected by the local community.


THIS business was established in 1882 by Messrs. S. A. and James Baragwanath, the present proprietors, Mr. S. A. Baragwanath conducting the Cardiff house and his brother the Birmingham business. A very large trade is done at both branches, involving the employment of a large staff. The offices and warehouse are of necessity of very large dimensions to enable the firm in any way to cope with the immense demand made upon their resources. The extensive connection that Messrs. Baragwanath Brothers have causes the stock to be constantly changing hands, and thus ever requiring fresh supplies. The trade done is in English and foreign fruits and potatoes, and also they are flower, game, and rabbit salesmen. Messrs. Baragwanath are also general commission agents, and are frequently called upon to conduct large sales outside their own particular line of business. The most punctual and prompt attention is paid to any orders and instructions with which they are favoured. The whole of the business, at both houses, is personally superintended by the partners themselves. They in all respects consult their clients’ welfare, and in return retain their esteem, confidence, and patronage. The branch of the business at Smithfield Market, Birmingham, is conducted on similar lines to the Cardiff business, and is managed by Mr. James Baragwanath.


THE distribution of glass and china of every class and grade, from the cheapest and commonest varieties to the most expensive examples, finds admirable illustration and exemplification at Cardiff at the hands of Mrs. W. H. Bibbings, who continues to carry on the first-class business which was organised by her late husband two-and-twenty years ago. The premises occupied consist of two spacious shops thrown into one, and affording exceptional facilities for a very grand window display. Within doors the vast variety of goods is most effectively and tastefully arranged, and a very large surplus stock is held in the ware-rooms above. Mrs. Bibbings caters liberally for all classes of the community, and is accordingly very largely patronised. Her stocks are selected with great judgment and care, and every article sold is priced at the very lowest figure consistent with equitable trading. She, moreover, does a very substantial business in providing good sets of glass and china on hire, for dinner parties, banquets, and other large festive functions, and altogether controls a very widespread and most desirable trade, upon principles that are well calculated to continuously promote the prosperity of her house, and to sustain it in the public favour it has so long and so deservedly enjoyed.


THIS important and high-class business was founded about thirty years ago, and has had a highly successful career under the able management of its sole principal, Mr. A. M. Campbell. The present premises have been occupied about seven years, and afford every accommodation for a large and superior trade. They comprise a spacious and handsomely appointed shop, well stocked with choice fruits, vegetables, tinned fruit, &c. In these goods Mr. Campbell does one of the best trades in South Wales, and his stock is unsurpassed in quality and variety. The business is conducted upon first-class lines exclusively, and all its operations receive the personal attention of the proprietor, whose long practical experience has made him a thorough master of his important trade in all its details. Mr. Campbell has worthily gained his prominent position in the trade in Cardiff, having catered carefully and enterprisingly for a connection which extends all over the district, and at the present time his house enjoys that substantial reputation which attaches only to those establishments that have honestly won the confidence of the public.


A HIGHLY important branch of commercial business, and one of special necessity to the shipping trade, is that of ship insurance, and a well-known and prominent firm is the West Coast Steamship Insurance Association, at the above address. The objects of the Association are the mutual insurance of every class of steamships against any of the innumerable accidents and perils of the sea. The Association also provides for latent defects, and against circumstances of every description which may result in loss. In the various classes of insurance the attention of all ship-owners may be directed to the following:— Vessels insured under section A, which covers total loss; under section B, for general average; under section C, for damages by collision; and under section D, for particular average. Members may enter in any or all of the above sections, as the liability in each is distinct. Certain allowances are also made for vessels waiting for freights, or laid up in port during repairs. The secretary of the Association is Mr. M. Dunn, who is a native of a northern port, and is well known in South Wales and district, and to the shipping insurance world. He is fully conversant with all details of shipping insurance, and gives careful and prompt attention to all business entrusted to him, and he is closely identified with the shipping interests of Cardiff.


AFTER an extended experience in the glass and china trade at Swansea, Mr. William Dobbs, in the year 1867, migrated to Cardiff, where he opened his always popular depot in Queen Street, and continued to carry on a particularly profitable business for many years in premises not far distant from his present eligible quarters. Like many others, his emporium is located in what was once a private residence. Attractive from without in virtue of the tasteful window display made, the spacious shop, which extends backwards for a distance of some hundred and twenty feet, with a width of twenty-two feet, is still more alluring within, for here may be inspected a thoroughly representative stock of glass and china, both useful and ornamental, amidst which very many rare and exquisitely beautiful examples of the glassworker’s and potter’s art may be examined; some of them of venerable age, others fresh from the factories both at home and abroad, and all of these goods are moderately priced. As a consequence of this Mr. Dobbs enjoys a very large and most desirable patronage, drawn principally from the best families resident in the town and county; and he conducts his business in all its details in a manner and upon principles that have won for him the esteem and confidence of all those who have come into commercial contact with him.


THIS busy and enterprising firm first commenced operations in the year 1888, and having quickly made their name known for the excellence of the goods supplied in their establishment, they have since, from year to year, increased and developed the scope and extent of their considerable operations with the most highly satisfactory results. The premises occupied by Messrs. Allsopp & Co. are very roomy and commodious, and consist of a substantial three-storey building of red brick, which is known as the Cloth Hall. The trade done is exclusively for cash, and very large quantities of readymade clothing and men’s mercery are handled. The shop is of bold and commanding appearance, and there is a fine warehouse at the rear, while the extensive basement is also used for storage purposes. A busy and flourishing trade is in operation, and the firm is supported by a very large and widespread connection, and is looked upon as one of the most important and prosperous houses in this line in the town. Mr. G. H. Allsopp, the principal, devotes close and watchful supervision to all the details of the business. He is a very capable and energetic gentleman, and is greatly esteemed and respected in commercial circles.


THIS thriving and rapidly-growing concern was originally established by Mr. Lewis about five years ago, and is located in a roomy and commodious building of the considerable dimensions of one hundred and fifty feet long by sixty feet wide, having in addition an extensive and conveniently arranged yard. There are large and completely fitted and equipped carriage body-making shops and painting and finishing departments, and at the rear a capital smiths’ shop. There are also very spacious show-rooms situated in Clare Street, where some splendid specimens of the coachbuilder’s craft are displayed, and afford ample evidence of the elegance, lightness, and strength which Mr. Lewis makes it his study to combine in the work sent out from his establishment. A staff of upwards of twenty first-class workmen are constantly and regularly employed under the close and attentive personal supervision and direction of the principal, who is himself a thoroughly practical man of valuable experience and thorough practical knowledge of all branches of the trade. Although Mr. Lewis has only been established in the Tudor Carriage Works for comparatively a few years, he has built up a very sound and influential connection by whom his good workmanship and careful attention to all details are cordially and substantially appreciated, and he is universally looked up to and respected as one of the most promising of the rising business men in the town.


THIS important business originated upwards of fifty years ago, and has been in the hands of the present firm for the past thirty-seven years. Mr. Daniel Lewis, formerly the sole proprietor, is now retired from the business, but he remains one of the best-known public men of Cardiff, and is the oldest Alderman in the Corporation. He was joined by his son under the style of Daniel Lewis & Son, but in 1882 the present title of Lewis & Lewis was adopted, the son and nephew (Messrs. D. E. and J. P. Lewis) becoming joint principals. Since then there has been no change in the firm, and under the administration of these able and energetic gentlemen the business has been continuously developed until it is now one of the most important concerns of its kind in the district. The premises in Duke Street are well adapted to the requirements of a large and comprehensive furnishing trade. They contain a number of spacious show-rooms, which display to advantage a remarkably large and attractive stock of house furniture of every description, and after an inspection, of these goods the visitor becomes aware that Messrs. Lewis & Lewis are in a position to supply every requisite for the equipment of a house in any style. Cabinet furniture, upholstered goods, carpets, curtains, and decorative fabrics of every kind all come within the scope of the firm’s operations. Messrs. Lewis & Lewis are practical manufacturers, and have large works close to the Taff Vale railway station, where they carry on their industrial operations upon a large scale, these being the only extensive furniture works located at Cardiff.

The trade controlled is a high-class one in every way, and the house has a reputation for artistic and inexpensive goods, moderate prices being judiciously associated with a high standard of excellence and beauty. The stock held by Messrs. Lewis & Lewis is, in its entirety, one of the finest of its kind in the Principality, and will be found to embrace goods suitable for any residence. Many of the firm’s special productions are of rare elegance and great value, and the greatest care is bestowed upon every department, all work being carried out under the immediate supervision of the principals. Few houses enjoy a more valuable connection, and the trade extends to all parts of South Wales. In addition to this, Messrs. Lewis & Lewis have many customers at a considerable distance, and frequently receive orders from patrons residing abroad. It ought to be mentioned that one of the most successful features of this firm’s business consists in the manufacture of special articles of furniture to order. In this class of work they attain the best possible results and enjoy a great reputation.

Daniel Lewis, Esq., the respected founder of this house, now devotes his attention entirely to public affairs, in which his record has been long and honourable. In 1879 he filled the high office of Mayor of Cardiff with credit to himself and advantage to the borough, and at the present time he is one of the Justices of the Peace for the county, besides holding several other public positions. On the occasion of the Marquis of Bute occupying the position of Mayor of Cardiff, Alderman D. Lewis was unanimously selected to fill the post of deputy-mayor during his lordship’s term of office. To show his appreciation of the services of the worthy alderman, it may be mentioned that, his portrait in oils was presented to the Cardiff Council by the Marquis. The frame bears a tablet with the following inscription “Presented to the Cardiff: Corporation by the Most Honourable the Marquess of Bute, K.T., Mayor of Cardiff, 1890-91, in recognition of the services rendered to his lordship by his deputy, Ald. Daniel Lewis, J.P.” Messrs.
D. E. and J. P. Lewis, the present members of the firm, are thoroughly capable and Enterprising business men, and their continued success is a source of satisfaction to their many friends in Cardiff and Newport.


THIS highly important business was established in 1849 by Mr. H. T. Beck. This gentleman was succeeded in 1855 by Mr. W. Hern. In 1871 Mr. Samuel Hern (nephew of the last-named gentleman) was admitted into partnership, and in 1876 became the sole proprietor, continuing to trade under the title of Messrs. W. & S. Hern. The premises occupied consist of a handsome Suite of three rooms, fitted and furnished in a most superior manner. There are ten competent clerks employed, and the business is one of the largest of the kind in the district. For many years, a reputation of the highest order has been held for the ability displayed on all matters relating to the house agency department. The only register of houses, &c. for sale or to let, published in South Wales is issued by this firm under the title of the ‘South Wales Property Gazette.’ The firm undertake every branch connected with the management of house and landed property, and carefully look to the interests of clients. They are well known as thoroughly competent auctioneers, and public and private accountants and auditors, in the two latter capacities being employed by many of the leading local and district companies.

Mr. Hern also holds the following highly important posts, and discharges the duties connected with them in such an efficient manner as to win ever increasing confidence and esteem:- He is a director of the Provincial Tramway Company of Cardiff, Portsmouth, and Plymouth; chairman of the Glamorgan Bill-posting Company, and the Mart Auction Company; secretary of the Cardiff Borough Building Society; and agent for the leading fire and life, mortgage, and financial assurance companies. Of pleasing and courteous disposition, he has many friends and admirers, while his strict integrity causes him to be honoured by all having transactions with him.


SINCE the firm of Messrs. Brockington & Co. was established by the principal, originally at 29, Castle Arcade, there has been no occasion for the ladies of South Wales generally to make costly pilgrimages to Redfern’s, or Other London West End shrines of fashion, in order to obtain “tailor-made” garments of the highest class of artistic workmanship. So widely has this fact been recognised that removal to far more commodious premises, situated as above, has become imperative. Before lighting the sacred lamp of high sartorial art in Cardiff, Mr. W. J. Brockington had become a past-master in all the mysteries of his calling, having studied all the cunning devices which are known in the best ladies’ tailoring establishments of London, and the resorts of fashionable gaiety in the West of England. The elegant appearance of Mr. Brockington’s business premises is in harmonious keeping with the high-class character of his business. They comprise an elegantly-appointed shop with some thirty feet of plate-glass frontage, and a depth of some fifty feet. To the rear of this there is a ladies’ room, with every convenience for the reception of patronesses. The upper floors are utilised as cutting and tailoring departments, where accommodation is provided for a large staff of highly-skilled and experienced workmen. During the short time which has elapsed since Mr. Brockington’s establishment in Cardiff, he has succeeded in creating for himself the best possible connections. Experience has proved to the most fastidious that the materials and the workmanship supplied at this establishment are alike of the highest quality, while the prices charged for articles of the deftest cut and the most exquisite finish are far below those quoted for goods of a similar quality in Bond Street, Oxford Street, or Regent Street. The same artistic faculty which ensures Mr. Brockington’s success in dealing with ladies’ habits, costumes, and braided jackets has enabled him to introduce to the satisfaction of connoisseurs, several specialities for gentlemen in the form of hunting, walking, and fishing suits. His lengthened experience has given him all the technical knowledge and skill necessary for the production of perfectly accurate naval and military uniforms, while his excellent taste in clerical costume has been approved of by the highest authorities, and his original designs for liveries show a high degree of artistic ingenuity. All the work done in the establishment is carefully supervised by the principal, and therefore bears the supreme stamp of excellence. Mr. Brockington’s uniform courtesy and his zealous enthusiasm in his profession have won him many friends and the complete confidence of all his customers.


THIS highly important business was founded in 1883 by the present proprietor. The premises occupied are on the Merchants’ Exchange, Bute Docks. Mr. Stangala is principally engaged in exporting coal and iron, which are shipped to all parts, and which are from some of the best collieries and ironworks in South Wales. All kinds of commissions are undertaken in connection with these two important commodities, these being carried out with business promptitude. Mr. Stangala is also occupied, to a considerable extent, as a shipbroker, and in various other branches of a similar nature. In all these he has all along shown himself to be thoroughly conversant with the details, and has built up a large and decidedly influential connection. In addition to the many duties involved by such a variety of important branches, he is also the. Vice-Consul of the Turkish Government, filling the position with ability. He likewise holds the agency for the mercantile Greek fleet for chartering and buying. There are branches at Newport and Swansea, which are of material aid to the head establishment at Cardiff. The telegraphic address is “Stangala, Cardiff,” and Scott’s and Watkins’ codes are used. As a courteous honourable, and energetic gentleman, Mr. Stangala is held in that large amount of respect that is due to sterling personal merit.


ORIGINALLY projected by its present able and energetic proprietor in the same busy thoroughfare some four-and-twenty years ago, the commercial development of this thriving concern became so rapid that about seven years ago Mr. Powell found it necessary to make considerable extensions, and accordingly entered upon the present eligible premises, now familiarly known as Devonshire House, conveniently located hard by the Wyndham Arcade. Mr. Powell has; built up his reputation, and determined a very large and essentially high-class trade to his house, by making it a hard-and-fast rule to sell none but the very finest goods procurable from leading markets of the day. Here may be inspected, in th6 most perfect condition, an exhaustive supply of superior groceries, teas and coffees of the finest brands and blends, choice Continental comestibles and Colonial and Indian produce, American canned goods and table delicacies of the highest order, prime provisions of every kind, and the finest of butter and cream, derived direct from Devonian dairies; and in this last-named line Mr. Powell does by far the largest trade in the district. His business has, as already suggested, been built up upon the intrinsic merits of his goods, and is carried on with great energy and ability upon a thoroughly sound and straightforward system, and is well calculated to secure for future continuance the large and influential patronage he now so deservedly enjoys.


THIS establishment was opened in 1888, and the business has been very carefully and successfully developed until it is now an important and leading one of its kind. The hotel occupies a prominent position, and is conveniently located for all classes of visitors, being close to the Great Western Railway Station. The premises consist of an imposing structure of four storeys height, built of Bath stone and ornamented with polished red granite columns, and having a frontage of sixty-three feet into St. Mary Street. Proceeding by the main entrance on the ground floor, one comes to an extensive and exceedingly handsome restaurant. This apartment is about sixty feet long by twenty feet wide. The floor is paved with mosaic tiles, and the walls are panelled with painted tiles representing romantic and picturesque places and artistic “bits” in various parts of the Kingdom. The room is magnificently fitted up with mirrors, glass, sideboards, marble-top counter, and silver grill, while a fountain imparts a delicious coolness to the place. Adjacent is the dining-room, which is sixty feet by twenty feet in dimensions, has fine stained-glass windows, and affords ample accommodation for one hundred and fifty guests. A fountain is likewise playing here. Close at hand is the carving department, fitted up with the newest things in carving and heating tables. The commercial-room is on the first floor, and is charmingly upholstered in saddle velvet, and adjoining is a nice writing and reading room. The coffee-room is furnished in the antique style, and the tables are tastefully ornamented. This room is lighted by four fine windows, and splendid views can be obtained of the Bristol Channel and the surrounding neighbourhood. The smoke-room is large and comfortable, and is provided with chess-tables and every requisite and convenience. The bedrooms on the second floor are about forty in number, and are neatly furnished in the same comfortable manner. The kitchen is on the roof, whereby the objectionable smell of cooking which pervades some hotels is altogether avoided. The kitchen is forty feet square, and built entirely of white vitrified bricks.

The hotel offers every convenience both to commercial men and private visitors, and neither in excellence of service or moderate charges can “Barry’s” be readily beaten. The catering leaves nothing to be desired, all the delicacies of the season being every day provided. This department is presided over by three experienced chefs, while the wants and wishes of guests are attended to by a well-trained staff of close upon forty waiters and waitresses. The sanitary arrangements of the establishment are perfect. A hydraulic lift by Waygood, of London, conveys persons and luggage from one floor to another, and the entire premises, from roof to cellar, are illuminated by electricity, no gas being now used. Mrs. Barry, the genial and able proprietress, spares no pains to give entire satisfaction to her patrons. Without being obtrusive, her influence is felt in the management of the hotel down to the smallest detail, and to her care, forethought, and administrative skill the marked success and increasing popularity of the hotel is mainly due.


THIS well-known business was founded in the year 1881, and was for some time carried on in Westgate Street. The proprietor, who was formerly manager of the Cardiff tramways, is possessed of an exhaustive knowledge of the business in which he is so largely engaged, which enables him to most successfully compete with any other firm. The stables contain accommodation for fifty horses, and are clean, well ventilated, and have all the improvements in sanitation. There is ample choice of every description of open and close carriages, and special carriages are kept for weddings. Neat dogcarts are among the stock, and Mr. Hurley is the proprietor of the magnificent drag “Perseverance,” which is sent out, with four horses and two attendants, for daily excursions, and as a speciality for weekly and longer trips. There are breaks of all kinds, suitable for picnic or pleasure parties. The branches of the business are all fully embraced. Horses are kept at livery, and horses and carriages are let by the day, week, month, or year. The terms throughout are very reasonable, and customers may implicitly rely upon the conduct of the horses and the sobriety and trustworthiness of the drivers. The depots are at the following addresses:— Park Mews, Park Place; Northcote Mews, Richmond Road; and Penarth Road. The telephone connections are Nos. 510, 531, and 544. The business is smartly managed, being under the personal supervision of Mr. W. C. Hurley, who is the sole proprietor, and who is justly regarded as one of Cardiff’s most enterprising and prominent tradesmen.


IN the list of commercial firms that flourish in the busy town of Cardiff a place should be assigned to the business of Mr. M. F. Sparks, which has for a number of years occupied a good position in connection with the china, glass, and earthenware trades. This business, to which the name of the “Bon Marche” has been given, was originally established in the year 1882, and has since been steadily developed and expanded with the most satisfactory results. The premises are advantageously located in a very favourable business position at 111, Queen Street, and are very central and convenient. The shop is of attractive appearance, having a handsome plate-glass front, and the large and comprehensive stock, which has been selected with evident care and much judgment, is skilfully and tastefully displayed. The articles shown include china, glass, and earthenware of every description. It may not be out of place to mention a line that has been very much appreciated in the “Davenport” dinner service, made of beautiful ironstone, with safety handles and covers, which is shown in all the newest colours and patterns; also fine specimens of Doulton and Coalport. Matchings are also carefully attended to, and a busy department is occupied in the letting-out of table glass, china, &c., on hire. The “Bon Marche” is well known for choice and reliable goods in every class at moderate prices. This business is conducted under the direct supervision of Mr. M. F. Sparks himself, who is an energetic business man. Personally he is very well known in commercial circles and respected by all with whom he comes in contact.


DATING back in its foundation to the year 1827, when it was organised and subsequently carried on for many years by a Mr. Thomas, this representative pharmacy, after having been successfully developed by Mr. W. Cross, eventually came under the vigorous control of its present able and energetic proprietor, Mr. J. Munday, who had previously won his laurels in the profession as the trusted manager of the Pharmacie Beral, in the Rue de la Paix, Paris. The premises occupy the commanding corner site formed by the junction of Duke Street and High Street, to both of which busy thoroughfares it presents a fine expanse of most tastefully-dressed windows. The fine corner entrance leads into a spacious handsomely - appointed shop, fitted and stocked with a remarkably large and comprehensive series of not only English but French and American medicines and pharmaceutical preparations, drugs and chemicals, all of which are of standard strength and ascertained purity. In addition to these there are, of course, all the popular medicines, toilet requisites, &c., of the day; medical and surgical appliances and invalids’ requisites and chemists’ sundries. Prominence, moreover, is given to a variety of very valuable proprietary articles manufactured by Mr. Munday, which have not only won for him a widespread local reputation, but are very largely used in all parts of the Kingdom and abroad, Mr. Munday being represented in London by Messrs. Wilcox & Co., of 239, Oxford Street, W., and by other well-known agents in all the principal towns of the United Kingdom, by M. Beral, 14, Rue de la Paix, Paris, and by Messrs. Perry & Co., 97, Kalverstraat, Amsterdam. Amongst these, special mention must be made of Munday’s Viridine, which not merely relieves, but painlessly and radically removes corns and warts and all kinds of kindred callosities. Then there are Munday’s liver pills, Munday’s anti-rhumine in the form of smelling salts, for the cure of colds in the head, influenza, &c.; Munday’s compound phosphated elixir of quinine, which is reputed to be an excellent nerve and brain stimulant and tonic: Cross’s vegetable balsam, for coughs, bronchitis, &c.; Cross’s gout and rheumatic pills; Cross’s Canadian liniment, for rheumatic pains, sprains, &c.

In his purely professional department Mr. Munday operates in every branch of pharmacy and devotes the most careful and competent attention to the dispensing oi physicians’ prescriptions and the compounding of family recipes for either English or foreign formulae, his long practice in Paris having rendered him familiar with all the details of Continental dispensing. To conclude, his business in every detail is most capably and energetically conducted upon a thoroughly sound and well-balanced basis: and all its characteristics are those of a house whose nature has been influenced and whose methods have been formed by a constant catering to the needs and requirements of a very large, widespread, and essentially superior class of patrons.


AFTER over five years’ experience in the trade in London, and twenty years’ experience in Sherborne, Dorset, Mr. Bishop came to Cardiff about three years ago, and opened the attractive and well-organised establishment in which he has been so successful from the first. The premises occupied in Duke Street are well adapted to the purposes of a first-class saddlery trade, and the spacious and admirably appointed shop displays to advantage a very complete stock of saddles, harness, whips, and all riding and driving requisites. The house under notice has several important specialities, which have met with much favour in sporting circles and among equestrians generally. For example, here is that clever invention of Mr. Bishop’s, the “Digby-Pelham” bit, for curious-mouthed horses, more especially those with one-sided mouth; this bit, having an entirely new bearing at the side, renders the animal most pleasant to ride and drive. Another very valuable bit invention of his is a riding or driving curb, whereby the rein-loop without touching the rein can be shifted either way so as to make the bit either severe or most easy; this great improvement renders it necessary to have but one in use instead of having different sizes. And this is supplemented by many other patterns in bits, to suit all requirements. Among other notable articles are safety stirrups, anti-clothing and crib-biting straps, Bishop’s “B.V.H.” harness paste, improved Indian Numnah for ease and comfort to the back, yearling halters and breaking-tackle, the “Perfect” girth, Bishop’s excellent and effectual saddle dryer, &c., &c.

Mr. Bishop manufactures and supplies horse clothing of all patterns and qualities, riding leggings of excellent shape and finish, tail scissors to prevent irregular cutting, horse measures, in the form of walking-sticks, blackthorn sticks, natural crops, whips of every description, boots for horses’ joints, solid leather portmanteaus, brief and cash bags, dress-baskets, and hat-boxes, and travelling-cases of every kind. Mr. Bishop’s newly invented (and protected) kit-bag has proved itself to be, without doubt, the greatest success. This is naturally accounted for by the very large number of people travelling compared with those who keep horses. The advantages of this bag over all others may be thus briefly summarised:- one side thereof is perfectly stiff, and, connected with this, in the inside, is a large pocket for holding shirts and other linen, which under no circumstances can be crushed or soiled, and can be taken out without removing anything else. It is most easy to carry, and but little heavier than the actual weight of its contents. The frames are all guaranteed of Sheffield make, yet the cost is but little more than the old-fashioned Gladstone bag, and does not require repairing. Mr. Bishop is also the patentee of a waterproof driving or riding coat, which is admirably adapted for protecting the legs and body from rain. His hunting-apron is acknowledged by all who have used it to be the most perfect article of its kind, and most easily adjusted, being quite free from straps. A leading speciality is also made of driving-gloves, these being all hand-made, and of the finest and softest leather. In many of these goods his well-known inventive capacity is exhibited, and in all articles the most reliable materials and workmanship are embodied.

In the shop Mr. Bishop has a particularly fine collection of driving-whips in what is known as “rabbit-bitten” holly, mounted with silver and gold. These whips are much sought after, but are very scarce, and Mr. Bishop’s collection of them is the largest and best in Great Britain. Mr. Bishop holds important testimonials from many masters of hounds and leading men in hunting circles, and his goods find their way to almost all parts of the world. Few men can show a more interesting collection of sporting antiquities, sporting prints, paintings, &c. For the convenience of patrons, a registry is kept of horses, carriages, and servants, so that persons can be promptly supplied in these respects. Mr. Bishop is a large exhibitor of saddlery and harness at agricultural and horse shows throughout Great Britain, and he has never been beaten in competition. For six successive years he has carried off the first prize at Cardiff, and many other first prizes have testified to the genuine merit of his goods. Mr. Bishop has thought it wise to apply for a patent for his double harness, which need only be seen in use to be appreciated. The great advantage is that horses’ necks are not rubbed at the top from the great weight of Hame tugs, the very simple hook fastener being done at the splinter-bar, the trace running through a loop in the pad, as in tandem harness. Every portion of this double harness can be connected and used for single. Possessing a sound practical knowledge of the trade in all its details, Mr. Bishop personally supervises every operation of his business, and by his ability and straightforwardness he attains m the full confidence of all his customers at home and abroad.


MR. MATON has only been established at the above address a little more than two years, having commenced operations here in March, 1891, but he has already obtained a sound and recognised position in the foremost rank of local commercial circles, and the scope of his busineess, already of considerable importance, shows every sign of further steady and progressive increase and continuous development. The premises are advantageously situated in Park Hall Buildings, and are roomy and commodious, and of handsome and attractive appearance. The shop has a large double front fitted with expensive plate-glass and the interior fittings and appointments are very elegant and conveniently arranged. The stock is very valuable and tastefully chosen, the selection showing much artistic perception and experienced judgment. The varied and comprehensive list of articles shown includes engagement and wedding rings and dress jewellery of every description, as well as English, Swiss, and American watches and clocks of all kinds and a heavy stock of sterling silver articles de luxe and best electro-plate, he making a speciality in this line of the latest novelties and nicknacks for wedding and birthday presents. There is also a first-rate assortment of spectacles, eyeglasses, &c., as well as opera and field glasses, thermometers and barometers, photographic apparatus, and similar articles. There are extensive workshops on the premises, and repairs of every sort are promptly, skilfully, and carefully executed by skilled and experienced workmen. Mr. Maton has an excellent name for the superior quality of the goods he supplies, as well as for the fairness of his prices, and he enjoys the favour and support of a widespread and influential connection of the best class. He has a thorough practical knowledge and experience of every branch of the trade, and is a member of the British Horological Institute of London. Personally he is well known and very popular locally.


AFTER an experience extending over thirty years in various parts of the country, Mr. J. R. Robertson some two years since opened his present prosperous business in Duke Street, and has since then developed an exclusively high-class trade which extends practically to every part of South Wales, although, of course, it is most largely developed in Cardiff and its immediate surroundings. The premises occupied consist of a spacious elegantly-appointed shop, very heavily stocked with a very choice selection of fashionable fabrics, and are augmented by well-equipped work-rooms, and with every convenience for measuring and fitting on. Mr. Robertson is highly reputed alike for ladies, and gentlemen’s, tailoring, both departments receiving the most assiduous attention, and his general clientele is developed largely among the best families resident m the neighbourhood, and a large measure of his success is due to the fact that not only is he himself a thoroughly practical tailor and cutter, competent to supervise every detail of the business, but every man employed by him is a soundly experienced, skilful, and capable exponent of the tailor’s art, and is chosen a member of the working staff by reason of his qualifications in these respects. Every lady’s garment and habit made is fitted on by an expert fitter, and all garments, whether for ladies or gentlemen, receive the personal and exhaustive consideration of Mr. Robertson himself. In gentlemen’s tailoring he also excels, and commands a most important business, executing only first-class work, and giving to each garment a style, fit, and finish that can only be imparted by a perfect master of the sartorial art, and in this department he makes a speciality of hunting breeches and gaiters, and stands unsurpassed for the superiority and high finish of all his productions.


THIS great industry was established in 1874 in the commodious premises still occupied. The members of the firm are Mr. J. H. Corfield and Mr. D. Morgan, both of whom have a thorough technical knowledge of all the departments of the many-sided business in which they are engaged. As General Building-material Merchants and Builders’ Ironmongers they have, by their large manufacturing resources, and by the comprehensive stocks of building requisites which they always hold, been enabled to benefit to the fullest possible extent by the extraordinary demand for new commercial and residential premises which has existed in Cardiff throughout the last two decades. Their premises at the Parade, Tredegarville, and Metal Street, Splottlands, cover a considerable area, and comprise extensive yards, show-rooms, and offices. The offices are furnished with telephone communication, and with all the other appliances of modern device for facilitating the despatch of the extensive commercial transactions of the house. The telephone number is 602, and the registered telegraphic address is “State, Cardiff.”

In the spacious yard are always held large stocks of roofing slates, tiles, pipes, and other bulky building materials. A fine display of stoves, ranges, and other internal fittings is made in the handsomely appointed show-rooms. Messrs. Corfield & Morgan have also a large industrial establishment in Metal Street, where, by the aid of powerful steam-engines, they produce large quantities of slate, marble, and moulding work. Here they employ all the necessary labour-saving machinery and mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type. The economies thus- effected in the several manufacturing processes are, therefore, material, and enable the firm to give very moderate quotations for productions of the best finish. The high artistic value of the chimney-pieces and other specialities which are produced in these works is testified to by the gold prize medals which were awarded to the firm, one by the Society of Architects at the Cardiff International Exhibition of 1885, and the other at the Building Trades Exhibition in London in 1889. Notwithstanding the economies made through the use of a first-class working plant, the output of Messrs. Corfield & Morgan necessitates the employment in their Metal Street works of about fifty hands, many of whom are highly skilled experts in their several departments. This, however, does not exhaust the producing resources of the firm. They execute a large amount of most artistic monumental work in the roomy premises which they occupy for that purpose in the Great Western Yard, using for the purpose large stocks of the finest granite and marble. They likewise hold large surplus stocks of roofing slates. The notable success which has been achieved by this firm is chiefly due to the careful personal supervision which the principals bestow upon all its numerous details, and to the zeal which they display in meeting the special requirements of each of their numerous customers. In this way they have gained the implicit confidence of a large number of the leading firms of builders, not only in Cardiff, but throughout the whole of South Wales.

Furnivall & Son, Chemists,
118, Castle Road, Cardiff.

This notable and important business was founded by the present senior partner, Mr. W. Furnivall, in 1872. For some time he has had in partnership his son, Mr. W. Heber Furnivall, who is an associate of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. The partners occupy a large and very handsome shop, having a fine double plate-glass front. The interior is fitted with taste and refinement, while the goods are particularly well arranged. Among the stock will be seen the productions of many leading manufacturers and inventors, and there are all the sundries on hand pertaining to a first-class establishment of this kind. The members of the firm exercise great care in the selection of their drugs and chemicals, buying from the best wholesale houses only. They hold a large stock of the most approved English, American, and Continental patent medicines, proprietary articles, &c. The shop is noted for its choice perfumery, toilet requirements, fancy soaps, brushes, sponges, specialities for the nursery, invalids, &c.. Messrs. Furnivall & Son are the sole proprietors of a valuable preparation that is widely known as the “sailor’s friend,” or American pain cure, sold at one shilling per bottle. It has proved a thorough master of toothache, neuralgia, cholera, diarrhoea, spasms and cramp. The proprietors have the testimony of Engineer Rolands that he sold the cordial at half a guinea a teaspoonful. This gentlemen further states that it was cheap at the price, as it saved the life of the purchaser. But Messrs. Furnivall’s principal speciality is the American Cough Elixir. This is without doubt a splendid remedy, which has been steadily increasing in reputation for the last fifteen years, and is now in much demand in all parts of the United Kingdom. A vast number of testimonials have been received by the proprietors. We quote only two or three as a sample. Mr. Mence, of Coveny Street. Cardiff, says:— “I was suffering from a severe cough. It came on generally at night, so that, I could obtain no proper rest, but am glad to say your infallible Elixir has completely cured me. I only took one bottle as it was quite unnecessary to take more. I can and do recommend it as a certain remedy to all who suffer from cough or tightness of the chest.” Mr. Trewent, of Blenheim Place, Neyland, says:— “Your Cough Elixir is a grand remedy for coughs and colds. Especially is this the case in the distressing cough which follows that dreadful malady, influenza. You are at liberty to use this testimonial if you think fit to do so.” Mr. Barron, Waterford, Ireland, says:— “Please send me a 2s. 9d. bottle of Cough Elixir. It is a splendid remedy.” Mrs. Shears, of Northcotte Street, Cardiff, gives the practical testimonial of always using it herself, and also sending it to her friends in all parts of the country. Medicine-chests are supplied and refitted for sea on the most reasonable terms, and the utmost reliance may be reposed upon all the articles supplied. Both the partners have had much experience in their profession, and hold a deserved reputation for their skill and ability. Their connection is a far-reaching one, and by all having dealings of any kind with*them they are greatly esteemed and respected.


THIS most conveniently situated, comfortable, and well-patronised hotel stands at the corner of Upper Station Terrace, in Queen Street, almost directly opposite the Taff Vale Railway Station, and also within one minute’s walk of the Rhymney Railway Station. The premises have just undergone extensive alterations, and the hotel is now not only attractive in appearance and admirably arranged for business purposes, but it is, in the very truest sense, “a home from home.” The hotel proper contains drawing, dining, and private sitting rooms, thoroughly retired and elegantly furnished bedrooms with sitting-rooms en suite, bath-rooms, lavatories, &c., of the most modern construction, together with smoke and luncheon rooms, and spacious restaurant. The hotel is extensively patronised by commercial travellers (than whom no better judges of what an hotel should be are to be found), for whose special accommodation there is a first-class commercial-room, besides other conveniences. The hotel enjoys a high repute for the excellence of its cuisine and the superiority of the wines, &c., and a most important feature to recommend it is the strict moderation of the scale of charges throughout, whilst another important recommendation is the perfection of the sanitary arrangements, which leave nothing to be desired. Both trams and busses pass the hotel every few minutes to all parts of the town and suburbs. Mr. and Mrs. Jones (who for many years were connected with the “Rummer”) are exceedingly well known in Cardiff and the district, and are popular and respected. They are indefatigable in their efforts to ensure the comfort and convenience of their guests, always anticipating their wishes and wants, and this fact has popularised the hotel and added much to the extent of its patronage.
The hotel is in telephonic communication with town and district (No. 632).


MR. THOMAS carries on the business of a very busy cooperage, and is the largest stave importer and cooper in South Wales. Mr. Thomas first laid the foundation of his thriving and prosperous operations some fifteen years or so ago. The premises consist of an extensive range of spacious sheds and workshops, with steam saw-mills and ample yard accommodation, while the establishment at Christina Street is also very roomy, and specially adapted for the making of vats, rounds, squares, mash-tuns, coolers, &c. Some thirty or more skilled and competent hands are employed. Mr. Thomas is ably assisted in the supervision and management by his son, Mr. W. Thomas. He also manufactures shives upon an extensive scale, and keeps a large number of brewers’ casks of all sizes ready in stock; also a large stock of brewery workshop requisites, viz., splayed hoops, screw and rivet bushes, coopers’ rivets, cases for repairing, &c. Mr. Thomas also is a dealer in petroleum and oil barrels, and exports in large quantities, and does a very extensive trade. He is much looked up to and very popular in commercial circles, and is alike esteemed and respected by all who have the advantage of his personal acquaintance.


THIS progressive business was established by the present proprietor in 1888, on the premises mow occupied. These are commodious, and admirably meet the requirements of the trade. The shop has an attractive plate-glass front, and an effective display is made in the window. The shop is very heavily stocked with a number of high-class and serviceable goods, all containing the most improved principles. The most noticeable of these will be found in hot and cold water baths, lavatory stands and basins, electric and other fittings, closets, and every description of gas-fittings. The firm has established a sound reputation for the excellence of work in connection with all kinds of plumbing and gasfitting, skilful and experienced men only being employed. The workshops are at No. 246, Castle Road, are fully equipped With all the necessary appliances. The firm pay special attention to sanitation and ventilation, and have become known over a large area for the thorough manner in which they complete all the details in connection with these two important branches. Thoroughly practical, and giving careful personal attention to all details, the firm have succeeded in building up a large and superior connection, and have earned a name for enterprise, courtesy, and sterling ability.


THIS well-known business was established in 1863, on the premises still occupied, by Mr. Trounce. These comprise spacious and well-furnished private and general offices on the ground floor of the building, which is very conveniently situate. The business has long held a very prominent position, and has become recognised as a substantial and well-managed concern. Mr. Trounce has extensive transactions, both as a shipbroker and a ship-owner. In the former department he has gained distinction for the great ability he has all along displayed, this being acquired by long and practical experience. Another very important branch is the foreign money bank and exchange, much resorted to by the shipping community. This department, like all the others undertaken by Mr. Trounce, is conducted in a most thorough manner. The value of foreign money is carefully posted daily, and may be taken to be entirely reliable. Drafts are issued on American and Continental cities, and various other services are rendered. As an old resident of Cardiff, and as one of her conspicuous commercial men, Mr. Trounce carries the respect of a large portion of the community, his genial disposition further increasing his popularity. He has been a member of the Cardiff Corporation for fifteen years, and is the sole representative in Wales for Messrs. Thomas Cook & Son, and other large shipping firms.


THE well-known firm of Mr. W. D. Podesta was established by the present proprietor some fifteen years ago, and from its very inception has enjoyed a career of uninterrupted prosperity. The premises consist of large sheds and workshops of very large dimensions, and covering a considerable area, which in busy times afford employment to from seventy to eighty hands. He also has similar workshops at Penarth and Barry. As well as being general ship repairers and spar and mast makers, the firm are also shipwrights, shipsmiths, brass, copper, and tinplate workers, and in the various departments do a very extensive trade, which is ever on the increase. Boats of all lengths are kept in stock, and Mr. Podesta is a maker of double and treble main and windmill pumps. The stock also comprises a large assortment of steering wheels, galley stoves, chains, anchors, and ships’ fittings generally. All work entrusted to this firm is executed with the utmost despatch, and when finished invariably gives satisfaction. Mr. Podesta personally superintends all the details of the business, and has none but good workmen about him. He has secured a most influential and widespread connection. It is such houses as this that are the recognised exponents of the various branches of the shipping trade, and it well deserves the prominent position which the enterprise and ability of its proprietor has so unerringly attained.


STARTED in business about forty-five years ago, and about four years ago removed from 41, Queen Street to the premises now occupied by him, which were specially built to meet his large and increasing business. The premises comprise a spacious shop, admirably appointed throughout to hold and display a large stock of paperhangings of every class and grade; all kinds of oils, colours, paints, and modern decorative materials, in which he carries on a very substantial wholesale and retail business. At the rear of the shop are the well-equipped works in connection with his business as an operative painter and decorator, which is probably the oldest, as it certainly is the most extensive, of its kind in the town. He undertakes, by contract or otherwise, all kinds of house, church, and other decorations, employing a large staff of skilled and talented workmen for the execution of such work. Mr. Jenks has won a high reputation for the refined and artistic manner in which he has carried out the several works entrusted to him in Cardiff and district, the most recent of which is the Town Hall, Brecon. Indeed, upon all questions relating to the branches of industry he so adequately represents Mr. Jenks is consulted as an authority and export, and this, added to his influential position in commercial and social circles, has been often urged as a reason why he should fulfil some public function, but hitherto he has been compelled to decline all such honours, on account of the great demand made upon his time by his business, which, although the most substantial of its kind in the district, is still rapidly growing under his vigorous and judicious policy of administration.


MR. STOCKDALE entered upon his present career of activity in the year 1885 at No. 1, Westgate Street. His excellently-made boots and shoes constructed upon morphological principles soon won for him a widespread and well-merited renown, with the result that his business increased with such rapidity as to render it imperative for him to make considerable extensions in order to meet the growing demand. He accordingly, about two years ago, entered upon his present eligible quarters, which are conveniently located directly opposite to the Empire, and comprise a spacious well-appointed shop, heavily stocked with boots and shoes for ladies, gentlemen, and children, and for all occasions, all of which are effectively displayed and availlable at strictly popular prices. To the rear of the shop are his well-equipped work-rooms, where a staff of skilled and experienced craftsmen is fully employed in making his celebrated anatomical boots and shoes to order, and in executing repairs of all kinds. Mr. Stockdale’s reputation has been built upon the solid foundation of genuineness in all the goods made and supplied. He uses none but the very best materials, and bestows upon them the most superior hand-work, with the result that his boots and shoes are renowned for both elegance, durability, and perfect fit. Although every facility is provided upon his premises for measuring and fitting-on, he undertakes, upon receipt of a postcard to that effect, to wait upon customers at their own residences, and spares no effort to give entire satisfaction. In this, way he has succeeded in forming a firmly-established business of the very best class, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well-sustained but steadily strengthened and consistently developed in days to come.


THIS business, the oldest in Cardiff, which was founded in 1870 by Mr. John Williams, has long held the distinction of being the leading concern of the kind in South Wales, a position of which the proprietor is pardonably proud, and easily maintains. The original premises were in North Street, those now occupied being acquired some years ago. The shop has a very neat and attractive appearance, and is adorned with numerous specimens of the handiwork of the firm. Above the shop is the well-appointed workshop. Mr. Williams, as a designer and engraver, enters fully into every branch of his calling. That he is possessed of much skill and originality is apparent by the constant succession of real novelties he produces, all of a highly meritorious character. Many of his pronounced successes have been associated with illuminated addresses for public bodies, for which his services have many times been called into requisition during the past few years. They are beautifully executed, and worthy of the reputation borne by Mr. Williams. Very artistic and delicate work is done in the way of arms, crests, and monograms, which are designed and executed in the higher grades of the trade. Inscriptions are also made in gold and silver plate. Several of the handsome brass tablets in the Cardiff Museum, and also the Cathedral, and many churches in the district, are the workmanship of Mr. Williams, who is also responsible for a number of tablets in the cathedrals, churches, and public buildings of South Wales, his connection ranging for a great many miles around Cardiff. He is employed by the local and district jewellers to do fine work connected with the trade, and is kept generally fully employed. It must not be overlooked that he does effective work in brass and zinc plates, for offices, &c., at reasonable prices. As a courteous, obliging,' and straightforward gentleman, Mr. Williams is respected by all who know him.


MR. BARR first laid the foundations of his busy and flourishing operations about the year 1880, when he occupied premises at 74, St. Mary Street, and ten years later he removed to his present larger and more commodious establishment, which had previously been a private house like most of the houses in Queen Street, and was then converted to suit the requirements of the tailoring business. The shop is of handsome and attractive appearance, and fronted by expensive plate-glass windows and door. There are also extensive workshops in the rear, in which a competent staff of skilled and experienced workpeople are constantly employed. A busy family trade of the best class is carried on both in town and country, and Mr. Barr has the appreciative and substantial support of a very widespread and influential family connection. A special feature is made of breeches-making, and of civil, naval, and military uniforms, as well as clerical garments, liveries, and ladies’ jackets, costumes, and robes. Mr. W. S. Barr has at all times studiously and carefully maintained a very high reputation for sound and finished workmanship, and durable and tastefully chosen materials, and their perfect fit and good style are universally acknowledged. Personally, Mr. W. S. Barr is a, gentleman of valuable experience, and a thorough practical knowledge of every branch of the trade. He is very attentive and energetic in the supervision and management of all the details of his affairs, and is a smart, active, and capable man of business. He is well known and much looked up to in local commercial circles, and in the intercourse of a very extensive private and friendly acquaintance he is universally respected and greatly esteemed.


MR. PRUST has been in business over twenty years, and for the past twelve years has been located at the present address. The premises occupy a prominent position, facing the Broadway. They consist of a roomy and appropriately fitted and furnished shop, with fine plate-glass front. A very comprehensive stock of pure drugs and chemicals is on hand, selected with matured judgment from the leading manufacturers and wholesale houses. There is a full complement of the most approved British and foreign patent medicines, and a liberal assortment of perfumes, articles for the toilet, nursery requirements, soaps, and the thousand and one articles which constitute a first-class chemist’s establishment. Mr. Prust has become one of the best-known chemists in Cardiff, chiefly in connection with several highly valuable remedies of which he is the proprietor and manufacturer. The merits of these in and around Cardiff have become so thoroughly founded that they stand in no need of introduction. They are the result of careful and patient experiment, and honestly perform all that is claimed for them. His Children’s Fever Mixture has marvellous effect in bringing out the disease, and reducing the temperature in a very short time. It may be safely given in cases of feverish cold, measles, scarlatina, mumps, teething, &c., and has been used with most signal success on countless occasions. It is well worthy of a trial. His pulmonic lung restorer is, in its way, equally efficacious. Mr. Prust has introduced and manufactures Whitehorn’s American Fruit Citrate, a most cooling and refreshing effervescent aperient, suitable for both sexes and all ages. It is adapted for all seasons and all climates, and will keep for any length of time. Press and public endorse its merits, as many bona-fide testimonials held by the proprietor prove. One of his most pronounced successes is the Infants’ Food, pure, nutritious, health-giving, and strengthening. It is in almost universal demand in the neighbourhood, and bears one of the very highest names. Other well-known specialities are his Children’s Cordial, Infants’ Dusting Powder, and Children’s Cough Mixture. In 1874 Mr. Prust was elected a member of the Pharmaceutical Society, and is now a member of the conference. He takes great interest in tooth extraction, and his long experience has made him most skilful in this department. Courteous to all, and kind and considerate to his' poorer customers, he is at once one of the best-known and popular tradesmen in the town.


THE house of Messrs. Goldie Brothers was constituted about four years ago by the association in business of Mr. Frank Goldie and his brother, Mr. Llewellyn C. Goldie, both of whom are perfect masters of photography up to date, and who have laboured to such good purpose that they now operate under the distinguished patronage of H.S.H. the Duke of Teck, H.R.H. the Duchess of Teck, the Princess Victoria, the Most Hon. the Marquis of Bute, and many other notabilities, and enjoy the confidence and liberal support of the elite and best families of Cardiff and of South Wales generally. The premises occupied in Queen Street are most eligibly situated, and in every particular precisely adapted to the requirements, of a very high-class business of the kind. They comprise an elegantly-appointed show-room and sale department, where, in addition to a very charming display of photographs taken by various modern processes, they hold a very choice selection of artists’ colours by Messrs. Winsor & Newton, of London, and other leading colourmen, and every description of artists’ materials and requisites. The carefully-ordered dressing-rooms, replete with every convenience fen: the comfort of patrons, and the elaborately-equipped studio, are situated at the rear, and here Messrs. Goldie operate in every branch of their beautiful art with a tact and skill that has been effectual in winning for them the eminent position and high reputation which they now so deservedly enjoy.


THIS select and fashionable house has had a highly successful career since it was first founded by the present proprietor, Mrs. M. Samuel, about a quarter of a century ago. For the past ten years the business has been conducted in its present eligible premises, which occupy a fine situation at the corner of Queen Street and Charles Street. Here all the most recent developments of the great centres of fashion are promptly and accurately illustrated, and Mrs. Samuel displays enterprise and progressive spirit in personal visits at periodical intervals to Paris, London, &c., in order to obtain the latest styles in ladies’ apparel, and place them before her patrons early in each season. There are commodious work-rooms on the premises in Queen Street, where Mrs. Samuel employs a numerous staff of skilful and experienced modistes, dressmakers, and mantle-makers. All work here produced is in the newest style, and is entirely of the best class in quality and finish. Mrs. Samuel’s establishment has gained and worthily maintains a leading position. Its stocks are of the choicest quality, and most carefully selected character, and it enjoys the patronage of a large and distinguished clientele. The trade done extends all over South Wales, besides which the house has many valued customers residing in distant parts of the world. Personally conducted by Mrs. Samuel, whose taste and experience are well known, this establishment is equally creditable to its proprietress and to the town, and it has long been a recognised leader of fashion in Cardiff.


MR. W. I. VAUGHAN inaugurated his business some six years ago, developing it with such success that he found it necessary to very considerably extend his accommodation and working plant and staff; and, accordingly, some three years since, he entered upon his present eligible premises in Queen Street. Here he holds a spacious handsomely-appointed shop, in which a thoroughly characteristic display is made of all kinds of plumbers’ requisites, sanitary and hot-water engineers’ appliances, and a splendid series of beer-engines and modern bar-fittings. At the rear of the show-room, but quite distinct therefrom, are Mr. Vaughan’s large and elaborately equipped works, where he holds a large staff of skilled and reliable craftsmen in constant readiness to execute work in any part of the country. Mr. Vaughan operates in every branch of his important industry, but, if anything, excels in his speciality of bar-fitting, being prepared to undertake the complete fitting and furnishing of cellars, bars, and the like, in the most sumptuous manner; and such a high reputation has he gained for the high excellence of his work that he has already been selected by all the leading hotels and licensed victualling-house keepers, not only throughout Cardiff and South Wales, but extending as far as Taunton in Somersetshire, as the plumber par excellence to do their bar-fitting work.

In Cardiff splendid examples of Mr. Vaughan’s bar-fitting work may be seen at the following places: Dowlais Hotel, Cardiff; Exchange Restaurant, Cardiff: Ship and Pilot Hotel, Cardiff: Cardiff Arms Hotel, Cardiff; Royal Hotel, Cardiff; Bridge Hotel, Cardiff; T.V.R. Refreshment Rooms, Cardiff; Universal Hotel, Cardiff; Barry Hotel, Barry; Barry Dock Railway Refreshment Rooms; Victoria Hotel, Barry; Whitchel Hotel, Cadoxton; Royal Hotel, Cadoxton; Victoria Hotel, Ferndale; Royal Hotel, Meardy; Commercial Hotel, Meardy; Bailey’s Arms Hotel, Ystrad: New Inn Hotel, Pontypridd: King’s Head, Ystrad: Pandy Hotel, Tonypandy; Thistle Hotel, Llwynpia: Castle Hotel, Treherbert; Coldstream Hotel, Cardiff; Well’s Hotel, Cardiff; Royal Exchange Hotel, Cardiff; Royal George Hotel, Chepstow; Railway Hotel, Crumlin; Queen’s Hotel, Blaina; Waterloo Hotel, Newport; Cardiff Cottage, Cardiff; Langland Bay Hotel, Langland Bay; Osborne Hotel, Langland Bay; Marine Hotel, Barry Island; Aberdare Junction Refreshment Rooms: Gelly-Galed Hotel, Llwynpia; Viaduct Hotel, Crumlin; South Wales Hotel, Swansea; Trehavod Hotel, Havod; Hereford Arms Hotel, Maindee, Newport; Great Western Hotel, Cardiff; Philharmonic Restaurant, Cardiff; Market Tavern Hotel, Cardiff; Corporation Hotel, Cardiff; Blue Bell Hotel, Neath; Full Moon Hotel, Neath; Wye Bridge Hotel, Monmouth; Museum Hotel, Swansea; Bush Hotel, Nantyglo; Mitre Hotel, Brynmawr; Castle Hotel, Blaenavon; Castle Hotel, Tredegar; Griffin Hotel, Brecon; Farmers’ Arms Hotel, Abergavenny; Grange Hotel, Cardiff; White Hart Hotel, Llanelly; Railway Hotel, Pembroke Dock; Barry Dock Hotel, Barry Dock; County Hotel, Ebbw Vale; Ffatdau Hotel, Pontycwmmer; Llanharran Hotel, Pontycwmmer; Squirrell Hotel, Pontycwmmer; Ship Hotel, Barry: Windsor Hotel, Merthyr Vale; Union Hotel, Aberavon; Navigation Hotel, Treharris; Crown and Sceptre Hotel, Brithdir.

Mr. Vaughan has recently added a cabinetmakers’ shop to his manufacturing premises, where all the woodwork incidental to his bar-fitting business, such as counters, &c., is dealt with. He is also the patentee of a most valuable device for the drawing off of liquids and other ingredients from bottles and vessels of every description. For the rest, his business is conducted with marked ability and commendable enterprise, upon a thoroughly sound and well- balanced basis; and all its affairs are administered in a manner that is well calculated to secure for future continuance the influential connections so worthily won and consistently maintained.


THIS highly important business was founded in 1886, by Messrs. Martin Berg & Co., on the premises still occupied by the sole remaining partner, Mr. E. Martin, trading as Messrs. E. Martin & Co., Mr. Berg having retired in 1892. The suite of offices are well and neatly fitted, and are provided with all modern conveniences, and wherein a competent clerical staff is employed. Mr. Martin is an accomplished and enterprising man of business, and during the few years he has been established has caused his name to become widely known and respected. He is thoroughly conversant with all the duties connected with ship-broking, and has the entire confidence of a number of important clients, being well known in shipping circles in all parts of the world. A large and valuable trade is carried on as general merchants, Mr. Martin having facilities for supplying every description of British manufacture on the shortest notice, and on the most favourable terms. Such enterprise and ability as is displayed by such a firm as the one under notice have done much to conduce to the great prosperity and development of Cardiff, and Mr. Martin’s name will always be associated with progress, integrity, and sterling personal worth.
The telegraphic address is, “Martinus, Cardiff.”



FOUNDED originally by Mr. Edward Clarke about the year 1842, the concern was carried on by him for over forty years, and eventually, in 1880, it came into the hands of the founder’s son, Mr. W. Clarke, who is now the sole proprietor of this noteworthy business. The premises occupied at Llandaff comprise a large stone-yard, with wood-carving shop, modelling shop, and carpenters’ and joiners’ shops, all well arranged and admirably equipped with the most useful appliances for their several purposes. Here Mr. Clarke employs a skilful staff, the members of which work under his own careful personal supervision, and here he produces those fine examples of ecclesiastical art work which have made his name so widely known in the Principality. Marble, stone, alabaster, oak and other woods are the principal materials wrought in, and very beautiful work is turned out in architectural sculpture and decorative carvings for church use. Among the ecclesiastical work turned out from Mr. Clarke’s establishment is a fine reredos for Nicholaston Church. This is in alabaster, marble, and mosaic, from designs by Messrs. Halliday & Anderson, Cardiff, and is an exceedingly chaste and handsome production. For the same church there have been modelled at this house three statuettes, one of Dr. Pusey, one of Canon Liddell, and one of John Keble, and also a beautiful medallion portrait model of the present Lord Bishop of Llandaff, the Right Rev. Dr. Richard Lewis. Other specialities of Mr. Clarke’s interesting art industry are pulpits, fonts, monuments, &c., and in all these branches of work he attains a high artistic ideal both in design and finished workmanship. Mr. Clarke directs the entire business in person, and is very successful in meeting- the varied requirements of his numerous patrons. He is well known in the district, and much esteemed for his artistic talent and sound business qualities.



AMONG the leading trading houses in the thriving town of Penarth a distinctive and leading position is occupied by the well-known establishment of Mr. T. Emlyn-Jones, of Glebe Street and Ludlow Street, Furnishing, Manufacturing, and General Ironmonger, also Plumber, Gasfitter, Bellhanger, Smith, and Hot-water Engineer. The origin of the business goes back to 1879, and the present proprietor came into possession in 1887, and bringing to bear upon the business a thorough knowledge of every branch, succeeded in raising the house to a height it never before occupied. The connection has been increased both in extent and value, and the resources of the house extended on a very liberal scale. The premises now occupied are ample in size, and in every respect fully adapted to the varied character of the business carried on. They comprise a large front shop — sixty feet by twenty-four feet — stocked with general ironmongery goods, ranges, tools and cutlery; while in the windows an attractive display is made of gas-fittings, chandeliers, gasaliers, and electro-plated articles. A compact suite of offices is at the rear of the shop, and adjacent is a warehouse filled with oils and colours. The basement is very extensive and is stored with Scotch castings, grates, troughs,. &c., and mill-puff, cotton-waste, and feathers for stuffing beds and mattresses, as well as a large supply of sheet zinc and corrugated iron. At the back another warehouse, of equally large size, is filled with sanitary appliances of every description, roofing felt, galvanised tanks, and other similar articles.

As showing another branch of this many-sided business, it may be noted that in the yard are two capacious tanks of petroleum and benzoline, which are connected with the front shop by means of two of Dale’s well-known patent measures as preventives against fire. There are, besides, two other store-rooms equally replete with a miscellaneous collection of goods, as well as warehouses and show-rooms on the first floor, containing principally bedsteads, mattresses, bedding of every description, and marble mantelpieces and grates. The workshops are well arranged and large enough in extent to find accommodation for ten workmen, six of whom are plumbers, the whole superintended by a foreman who is the proud owner of a first-class certificate from the Royal J Guild, London, 1891, and is also a prominent member of the committee of the Central Association of Plumbers, Cardiff. The fitting and smiths’ shops are in Salop Street, also the iron-warehouses. As may be gathered from the foregoing, an extensive and valuable business is being conducted here, and, in fact, of its special kind, this is the most important concern in the district.

Mr. Emlyn-Jones, from his long connection with the trade, has acquired an intimate acquaintance with the best sources of supply, and his selections are noted for their varied character, and the reliable quality of the goods. The best of everything belonging to this business is to be found in these ample stores, and prices are such as cannot fail to induce business. In builders’ ironmongery the house is particularly strong, as well as in tools suitable for every trade and craft, and though in such a diverse accumulation it is difficult to single out anything for special mention, references should be made to the choice collection of electro-plate from the best-known makers of Sheffield and London, the fine display of Sheffield cutlery, and the large selection of guns and revolvers from the most noted manufacturers. There are “wringers” and mangles, bassinettes, mailcarts, travelling-trunks, and a hundred and one desirable articles which we cannot find room to specify. Experienced workmen are sent out to do all kinds of work, gas-fitting, plumbing, electric (and other) bell-hanging, smiths’ work, tin-plate work, and hot-water engineering; and estimates are freely supplied on application. All work is guaranteed to be well and satisfactorily finished. The connection has been built upon the sure basis of reliable goods, favourable prices, and careful and prompt attention. Mr. Emlyn-Jones gives the business his close personal supervision, and thus insures perfect satisfaction to his customers in every respect. In all his dealings he is strictly fair and straightforward, and he is universally respected by all who come into business connection with him for his ability, courtesy, and personal worth. Mr. Emlyn-Jones has carried out the work of fitting many of the large residences in Penarth; carrying out the hot and cold water engineering, plumbing, and gasfitting, &c.; he has lately carried out the contract for fitting the splendid mansion of Philip Morrell, Esq., at Penarth. The fittings of the Local Board offices, which were built in 1891, were undertaken by Mr. Emlyn-Jones, and were completed in a most creditable manner. The firm are contractors to the Local Board of Penarth, for supplying goods, and carrying out work of all kinds, and to other public bodies in the district.


THIS hotel is charmingly situated, near to the sea, which it faces, and in close proximity to the Windsor Gardens, which, extending for some distance along the cliffs, afford a pleasant resort to the hotel visitors, who have at all times free access. The building was erected in 1887. It possesses a handsomely furnished coffee-room, of noble proportions (one hundred feet in length and forty feet in width), opening upon an ornamental terrace, which commands an extensive view of the Bristol Channel with its ever changing scenes, a well-appointed drawing-room and cosy reading-room (also facing the sea and communicating with the coffee-room); a comfortable smoking-room, and a large and commodious billiard room. The last-named room contains a superb table by Burroughes & Watts, furnished with all that firm’s latest improvements. On the upper floors are sitting-rooms and bedrooms fitted up with every regard to comfort and elegance, while the bathrooms, lavatories, and sanitary arrangements are deserving of unqualified praise. Mr. J. L. Kerpen, the lessee, has had a life-long experience, and spares no effort to ensure the comfort of his guests. The menu is all that can be desired for a first-class hotel. Breakfasts, luncheons, dinners, and teas are provided at a fixed tariff, and arrangements can be made for board by the week, including all table d’hote meals, from £2 10s, with special terms for a prolonged stay. To the stranger who has never visited this lovely spot, it may be told that it is only four miles distant from Cardiff, and accessible by omnibus from the Great Western and Taff Vale Railway stations every fifteen minutes. In scenery and climate it is totally different from Cardiff. The winter is bright and mild; myrtles grow luxuriously in the open, and roses bloom all the year round. The country has quite a Devonian appearance, and the salubrity of the climate is such that the death rate is second only to that of Malvern. The neighbourhood, too, abounds in places of interest and picturesque attractiveness. The patrons of, the “Esplanade” include many of the most influential families in Cardiff and the Principality, and as a resort for pleasure and for recruiting health it has no equal.


IT IS a matter of vital importance to the commercial interests of the country, and to the benefit of the vast working population, that the provision trade should be in a most perfect condition as regards the excellence and general quality of the goods. That the trade is rapidly increasing in this district can be seen by the number of firms that have been established during the past three or four years, one of the chief being that of Messrs. Evans & Morgan. This firm has only recently been established, but such has been the energy and ability displayed in the management of affairs that it has already built up a very widespread trade, has earned a sound reputation, and is looked upon as a prosperous and rising concern. The premises are admirably adapted to the working of the business, and consist of a large double-fronted shop, the interior of which is fitted up in a superior manner, and very fully stocked with every description of grocery and Italian goods and provisions of all kinds. At the rear is a large bakehouse, fitted up with “Decker” ovens, and above the shop are spacious warehouses completely filled with reserve stock. Adjoining these premises, at 41, Ludlow Street, is the butcher’s shop, where meat of the best quality can always be obtained. Messrs. Robert William Evans and Taliesin Morgan are the individual members of the firm, and their ability and energy are plainly apparent in their surprising success. They devote the strictest attention to business, and from the first they have taken a position of eminence in the trading world.


AMONG the chemists practising in Penarth a prominent position is occupied by Mr. J. Blake Benjamin, whose establishment is situate in Glebe Street. Mr. Blake Benjamin commenced business in this direction in 1889, and so assiduously and ably has the concern been developed that a large and influential connection has been secured. The premises occupied consist of a large double-fronted shop with handsome plate-glass windows in which are displayed a tastefully arranged selection of the many attractive looking articles which make up the chemist’s stock. The fittings in the shop are specially noticeable, seeing that the handsome mahogany show-cases in use here were conspicuous exhibits in the Birmingham Exhibition of 1886, whilst every provision has been made for the comfort and convenience of visitors. At the rear of the establishment are the dispensary and laboratory, and still further rearwards are several capacious warehouses well filled with a variety of goods. Mr. Benjamin has had a long experience in the business, and is well acquainted with all the best sources of supply. The drugs are kept under the best conditions, and the frequent changes in the stock, owing to the briskness of the trade, insures their constant freshness. An important feature is made of the dispensary department. Prescriptions and family recipes are dispensed at all hours by duly qualified persons, the utmost care and accuracy being always exhibited. The assortments of proprietary medicines kept at this establishment are unequalled in Penarth, and everything vended is offered at the lowest store prices. Among the leading specialities of the house may be noticed a solution of bismuth and solution of bismuth and pepsine; syrup of the phosphates, syrup of the lacto-phosphates: syrup of senna pods, a safe and simple laxative; eucalyptus toilet vinegar, and an antiseptic violet powder; and the well-known dentifrice water. This establishment, too, is famous for its choice selection of first-class perfumery. There are also varied and ample supplies of invalid requisites, surgical appliances, deodorisers, spray producers, tooth, hair, and nail brushes, and general nursery and toilet requisites. The connection of the house extends to all the principal families in the district, and its constant increase is a manifest proof that Mr. Blake Benjamin, by his courteous attention, reliable goods, and favourable prices is giving every satisfaction. Mr. Benjamin occupies a position of considerable prominence among local chemists and druggists, by whom he is held in great respect, and by all who know him, whether in business or private life, he is esteemed for his ability, public usefulness, and strict personal integrity.


THIS superior business was founded in 1887, by the present proprietor, on the premises now occupied. Mr. Baker, an enterprising and experienced man, has made his saloons most comfortable, and has introduced into them many modern luxuries, which are very highly appreciated by the superior class of customers who resort to the place in increasing numbers. The shop has two fine plate-glass windows, in which are displayed a choice variety of perfumery, toilet requirements, specimens of hair work, and many useful novelties incidental to the trade. There is also a carefully selected assortment of stationery — plain and fancy, also many pleasing novelties in fancy goods, suitable for purposes of presentation. Mr. Baker also deals in tobacco and cigars, and places before his patrons excellent value in British and foreign cigars, cigarettes, &c. There is a neatly fitted hair-dressing and shaving saloon:- and a private room for ladies, Competent and civil hands wait upon all customers, all being done that is possible for their comfort. In dressing the hair of ladies the latest prevailing styles are adopted. All kinds of ornamental hair work are executed on the premises; also wig-making. Mr. Baker has a good, reputation for his skill in making up ladies’ combings, these being to any design required. A superior business of this kind fills a want long felt in Penarth, and the proprietor is reaping the reward of his enterprise, courtesy, and ability.


THIS extensive and superior business was established by the present proprietress, Mrs. Emlyn-Jones, in 1871, and Was formerly carried on at Brecon. The present premises have been occupied for about two years. The shop has a neat and attractive double front, and a fairly large interior, which is exceedingly well arranged, and a well-chosen and useful stock may always be found here. There are three leading departments, fancy drapery, millinery, and dressmaking. The first-named is replete with all the goods expected to be found in a first-class, establishment of this kind; and which represent many of the choice productions of some of the best English and Continental houses. The assortment of millinery, too, is on a most liberal scale, and includes many dainty novelties of the newest kind. Ladies’ complete outfits are exhibited, together with many pretty designs in children’s dresses, pinafores, &c. The show-room for the millinery is on the first floor, and is tastefully and conveniently arranged. Here will be found the very latest in mantles, both as regards style, colour, and material. There is a highly competent staff of milliners and dressmakers, these being under the experienced personal supervision of the principal. Good and artistic work is promptly turned out, and at strictly reasonable charges. Mrs. Jones is the agent for the “platinum” anti-corset, the wearing of which allows of an excellent figure without tight lacing. Eminent authorities speak of it as being the “the grandest thing for women ever invented,” and “a boon and a blessing to all the sex.” She is also the agent for the “platinum” dress-bones, and the “sanitary” ventilating dress preserver. Mrs. Jones controls an extensive and exclusively high-class connection that extends to all parts of the surrounding districts, and to Barry. The business is conducted with the utmost courtesy, and with sound commercial and artistic success.


AMONG the rapidly rising seaports of the West, Swansea, with its large maritime and manufacturing interests, holds a prominent position, and commands a share of our attention in these reviews. Next to Cardiff, Swansea is the largest and busiest of the ports of South Wales, and its progress has been in some measure coincident with that of the great borough on the Taff, for its growth in commercial wealth and importance has been largely the outcome of the present century. Although the actual history of the town dates back to a very early period, its picturesque castle having been built as long ago us the eleventh century, Swansea as we know it to-day is essentially a “town of the period,” an alert, enterprising and go-ahead place, esteemed as a pleasant summer resort, and famous throughout the world for its copper and tin-plate industries. It is, therefore, as a modern community strongly imbued with the commercial spirit of the age that it makes its chief claim to consideration in these pages.

To the visitor Swansea conveys a favourable impression at first sight, being a well-built and orderly town, with well-paved streets, good lighting arrangements, and ample facilities of internal and local transport. There are numerous public buildings of a handsome character, besides many large and stately business establishments reflecting high credit upon their proprietors; and the town enjoys the advantages of sound municipal government. All its local institutions are admirable, and, in common with the rest of Wales, its educational facilities are of a superior order. The spirit of progress is strikingly manifested on every hand — in the work of street improvement, in the erection of hew and handsome buildings, and in the enlargement of business premises. Such a spirit must exercise a beneficial influence upon the material affairs of the community. We can trace it in the multiplication of large and well-managed business enterprises in Swansea from year to year, and in the intelligence and foresight that mark the conduct of all these undertakings. There are mercantile houses in Swansea which would be a credit to any English or European city, and most of these notable concerns have attained their full development during a period m which the energies and abilities of the people of Swansea have been brought to a state of maturity under conditions which they themselves have in a large degree created and fostered.

Having the advantages of a fine natural site and the beginnings of an excellent harbour, Swansea has made great progress as a seaport, and is now very largely identified with the shipping trade of South Wales. Increasing demands in this direction have resulted in the carrying out of important harbour improvements,
and at the present time the accommodation for shipping is considered very satisfactory. A steady increase during recent years in the tonnage of shipping entering, and clearing at this port, and an equally marked augmentation of the value of the export trade, point to the fact that Swansea continues upon the upward road; and in these times, when so much is heard of commercial depression, it is gratifying to find, a place which still shows signs of healthy progress. Between 1884 and 1890 the export trade of Swansea was nearly doubled in value, and of this export the principal features were local products, such as tin-plates and copper. The metallurgical industries have here found a congenial home, owing to the convenient proximity of coal, and the superior railway and shipping facilities which operate so much to the advantage of manufacturers.

Copper smelting has long been carried on here upon a large and important scale; indeed, this industry seems to have been located at Swansea as long ago as the seventeenth century, and to have continued there ever since. There are numerous large works engaged therein, and these display a perfection of organisation and equipment, showing how thoroughly the requirements of the trade have been studied and provided for. The copper product of the Swansea, smelting works is distributed throughout the world, and is held in very high estimation in all markets. The same may be said of the local output of tin-plates, which is enormous. Great improvements have been effected in this important industry, which has attained its highest perfection in Wales, and the tin-plates bearing the brands of the leading manufacturers of Swansea and district have the reputation of standard goods in all quarters of the globe. Lead smelting and the extraction of silver also engage the attention of some notable firms in Swansea, while the manufacture of iron, steel, zinc, and the building of rolling-stock for railways, are other industries in which the town has achieved celebrity. Many general trades are well represented in Swansea, and such is the enterprise displayed by local firms in the various lines of domestic supply, that every necessary and every luxury of life is here obtainable at the lowest current rates — a state of affairs which enables the residents of the district to confine their patronage to local institutions with the most satisfactory results in all respects.

MORRISTON, named after its founders, the Morris family, is in the north-eastern suburbs of Swansea, and is well situated on Swansea Bay, near the mouth of the River Tawe. It is closely associated with the typical industries of the district, and several exceedingly large and important tin-plate, copper, iron, and other works are located here.




THERE can he no doubt that the capacity to engage successfully in trade, and to develop large and flourishing mercantile undertakings is inherent in some men, just as it is entirely lacking in others. The truth of this is repeatedly proved by the successes of the former class and the failures of the latter, and each year, as competition in all branches of trade becomes keener, the commercial faculty or aptitude: above referred to will be recognised as an increasingly valuable heritage to the people of this country — a country whose national greatness so largely depends upon the prosperity of our national commerce. No one who has, as we have done, extensively surveyed the great representative trades of Britain can fail to appreciate the force of the much-quoted: Baconian maxim, “that a man must make his opportunity as often as he finds it.” The merchant will, often find his chance of success waiting for him, and if he be sharp and quick-witted, he will perceive it, seize upon it, and profit by it. But quite as frequently he will have to make an opportunity for himself, and as a matter of fact, our most successful traders are those who do this in preference to adopting the policy of Mr. Wilkins Micawber, and “waiting for something to turn up.” Swansea affords scope for the exercise of this sort of enterprise, just as do many other British manufacturing centres, and in the vast business of Messrs. B. Evans & Co. we have a striking example of what has been accomplished in this busy town by men who have taken the initiative, and carved their own way to fortune. The great concern under notice owes all its prosperity to the fact that its proprietor has always shown a strong spirit of progress, and has from the first been a leader rather than a follower in the important trade with which his name has so long been identified.

The house of Messrs. B. Evans & Co. was founded at No. 3, Temple Street in 1865 by Mr. Evan Evans, and was taken over a year later by his brother, the present principal, Mr. Benjamin Evans. Since 1867 the business has been conducted under the title it now bears. In 1866 the adjoining premises, No. 2, Temple Street, were burnt down, but in the following year they were rebuilt upon a larger scale, and then comprised a spacious shop with a good double frontage and massive plate-glass windows. Here the business was further energetically developed, and after about two years the firm annexed a large three-storey warehouse at the rear, which latter is now used for the display of ironmongery. In 1874 Messrs. Evans commenced the erection of their fine premises in Caer Street (from the clever designs of Mr. A. Bucknall, architect, Swansea), and this handsome block was completed and opened in 1875. A year later the lease and stock of Messrs. Cook, Son & Co. were purchased. This was a firm trading at No. 1, Temple Street, and soon, afterwards that establishment was reopened under Messrs. Evans’s proprietary, becoming an important part of their constantly-growing premises. The year 1878 saw a further extension of the concern, by the purchase of the stock and shop of Mrs. Roberts, a well-known mantle-maker, milliner, and costumier, of 4, Temple Street, and that business was duly added to Messrs. Evans’s undertakings. In January, 1882, the firm acquired the stock and premises of Mrs. Hughes, whose old-established business, at 4, Castle Bailey Street, was a valuable acquisition. These premises now form Messrs. Evans & Co.’s baby-linen department. Six months later they bought the stock and premises of Messrs. Morgan, Williams & Co., at No. 6, Temple Street, and in 1883 the business of the Sporting Depot Company, together with the premises of that concern, at Nos. 1 and 2, Castle Bailey Street, was duly annexed. Still continuing their enterprising policy of extension, Messrs. B. Evans & Co. built, in the middle of 1884, large new premises at the rear of their Temple Street establishment, these being devoted to the lace trimmings and fancy goods departments. At the same time they took No. 1, Caer Street, and opened it with travelling requisites and fancy leather goods. In 1885 were added Nos. 15 and 15a, Castle Square.

In 1886 the firm made the most important addition to their existing premises by building the fine block, Nos. 36, 37, and 38, Goat Street. These are the most imposing business premises in Swansea, and were erected by Messrs. Thomas, Watkins & Jenkins, from designs by Messrs. Seward & Thomas, Swansea and Cardiff. They comprise a noble five-storey structure, rising to a height of sixty feet above the level of the pavement, and the materials employed in the building - Portland stone, buff Ebbw Vale bricks, and red bricks for bands and window arches — give the edifice a remarkably handsome appearance. The interior comprises a series of spacious and lofty floors, finely decorated, admirably lighted, and appointed throughout in the best modern style. These premises are chiefly devoted to the display of cabinet furniture. At the rear of the ground floor is a splendid show-room for furnishing ironmongery, and a fine staircase gives access to the Temple Street premises, and to a large saloon which is converted into a bazaar, and lounge at Christmas time. At other seasons this room forms part of the furnishing department. The carpet shop in Caer Street is accessible from here, and on this floor it will be noted that all the departments north, south, east, and west of the block are connected. The basement of the Goat Street premises, which is reached by a broad stairway, has been fitted up as a packing and receiving room. All goods sold and intended for delivery are sent down here from the different departments by means of a powerful lift, and after being duly checked and packed, are forwarded to the loading-stage, which admits of the carts and vans entering large doors facing Goat Street.

The delivery system of a great business like this is manifestly a matter of great importance, and Mr. Evans has made every arrangement to ensure its efficiency. His stables are probably the finest in South Wales, and were specially built for him by Mr. David Jenkins, late of the firm of Messrs. Thomas, Watkins & Jenkins, from designs by Mr. H. C. Portsmouth, of Swansea. They have a handsome frontage to Frog Street, and include a most comfortable ten-roomed dwelling-house for the foreman. On the left of this house is a large entrance gateway, spanned by a graceful arch. The yard inside is paved with Staffordshire paving-bricks, and the heaviest downpour of rain is at once carried away into the drains. Further to the rear is a spacious shed, about twenty feet high. The yard is chiefly used for grooming the horses. Two sides of it are devoted to stabling, the third being occupied by harness-rooms and a washing place. The stables afford splendid accommodation for about fourteen horses, there being twelve stalls and two looseboxes. All the sanitary arrangements are perfect, the construction of the entire place being in accordance with the very best modern ideas in such matters, and thorough ventilation is secured by three of Boyle’s large-size air-pump ventilators, fixed on the roof, in addition to the windows, fanlights, &c. The stalls, mangers,
&c., were supplied by Messrs. Musgrave & Co., of London and Belfast, and all these fittings are of the newest improved type, while the walls are tiled with green-tinted glazed tiles, producing a very bright and clean effect. The harness-rooms and other incidental departments are all equally complete in their appointments, and the loft is reached by a stairway from the wash-house, thus obviating all risk of the fumes from the stables passing into the fodder. The chaff-cutter in the loft is worked by a three horse-power gas-engine. On the opposite side of the yard is a loosebox called the “ambulance box,” and used only in the case of sick horses. The van-shed is very commodious, having an area of twelve hundred square feet, and is capable of containing twenty vans. Mr. Evans offered a prize of ten pounds for the best horse's head carved in stone. This was won by a person living at Bridgend, and the sculpture is to be placed over the gateway, with a suitable motto. Altogether these fine stables are well worthy of a visit, and they speak volumes as to the kind treatment accorded to the horses belonging to the firm. These are valuable animals, of which Mr. Evans has every reason to be proud, since they have won several prizes at the different shows in the district. Mr. Reed is the foreman of the stables, and for the past seventeen years he has performed the duties of his post with a conscientious care that is, we are sure, duly appreciated.

Having thus briefly glanced at a remarkable and highly creditable outcome of Mr. Benjamin Evans’s enterprise, we may now revert to our consideration of the business premises, which we left at the packing department. The whole of the first floor, most effectively lighted by eight large plate-glass windows, is devoted to furniture, and contains one of the finest stocks to be found in the Kingdom. The second floor has a handsomely-fitted refreshment-room, much appreciated by ladies when shopping, and adjoining this are ladies’ retiring-rooms, exclusively reserved for customers. These conveniences have deservedly met with the approval of patrons, and are noteworthy evidences of the firm’s enterprise and progressive views. On this floor also is the large dining-room for the employes of the house, access thereto being by a private staircase. The domestic departments of the establishment occupy the top floor, and we particularly noted the excellent equipment of the kitchens, which have been fitted with the most approved appliances by the eminent firm of Messrs. Benham & Son, London. The sitting-rooms and bedrooms for the resident staff are all admirably furnished, and the firm have two additional houses for the accommodation of their lady assistants. Mr. Evans has certainly looked very carefully after the health, comfort, and general well-being of his staff, the members of which are fortunate in having taken service under so considerate an employer.

By the continuous process of improvement and enlargement which Messrs. B. Evans & Co. have carried on with so much energy and enterprise during the last twenty-five years, they have built up a drapery, outfitting, and furnishing emporium which, for magnitude and completeness, has few equals in the provinces. The firm have considerably over two acres of floor space at their disposal, devoted to an enormous trade in general drapery, silks, woollen and cotton fabrics, costumes, mantles, millinery, ladies' and children’s outfitting, gentlemen’s, mercery, travelling requisites, and everything coming within the scope of complete house furnishing. Yet even here the expansion of the concern does not show signs of ceasing, for the firm having made arrangements with the Corporation of Swansea for the widening of Castle Bailey Street, a very large portion of the premises have been demolished, and the site is now in the hands of the builders for the erection of the finest block of commercial architecture to be found in Wales or the West of England. The architect is Mr. J. P. Rowlands, and the builders are Messrs. David Jenkins & Sons, but the whole of the designs, plans, specifications, and proposed fittings are the result of the careful study and experienced knowledge of Mr. B. Evans himself. The style of the new block, which will have a grand and extended frontage in three streets, is Renaissance, and the general effect of the whole block, both inside and out, will be unusually fine and imposing, as well as thoroughly adapted to the requirements of the business and the convenience and comfort of customers. The main entrances will be in Temple Street, Castle Bailey Street, and Goat Street, in addition to many additional convenient entrances. The general organisation of the whole premises, their equipment, and the disposition of the many departments leave nothing to be desired, and display a regularity and system indicating a very profound knowledge of the trade, and a highly efficient administration.

Within the limits of space at our disposal here it would be idle to attempt a detailed description of the many features of interest that daily attract hundreds of visitors to Messrs. B. Evans & Co.’s spacious shops and show-rooms. To many of our readers such a description would have the flavour of a “twice-told tale,” so widely known is this great emporium; while the few who have yet to make acquaintance with the resources of the house under notice would, perhaps, not thank us for anticipating the treat that is in store for them. For the present it may suffice to say that Messrs. Evans have gathered together one of the largest and most complete drapery stocks in the provinces, and have made all their selections for the current season with a degree of judgment that bespeaks their minute acquaintance with all the great sources of supply for the goods in which they deal. We have already briefly intimated the nature of these goods — the whole scope of the drapery and fashion trades is amply covered, and to this is added a furnishing department which forms in itself a large and flourishing business. Each section of the enormous stock exhibits the latest novelties appertaining to its particular class; and the whole represents the intelligent investment of a vast amount of capital, as well as the exercise of rare gifts of perception, and the employment of profound experience in the art of buying. The goods in the various departments range from those of inexpensive character up to the richest and most costly: but all the time there is careful attention paid to quality, and even the cheapest lines are thoroughly reliable. No firm in the country offer better value to all classes of customers, and it is one of the chief characteristics of Messrs. Evans’s business that it caters equally well for the opulent and for those who study economy in making their purchases. Every customer is assured of fair dealing and genuine worth for his or her money, and in this we find the secret of the large degree of public confidence that has been reposed in this enterprising and straightforward firm.

We commend Messrs. Evans & Co.’s emporium to our readers as a grand type of a modern drapery establishment, the resources of which are limited only by the demands of its clientele. It exemplifies the tendency of the present age to concentrate many businesses under one management, and in this it consults public convenience while it follows popular precedent. The turnover is immense, and to facilitate the routine of the many departments between three hundred and fifty and four hundred hands are constantly employed. In 1866 only twenty assistants were required — the comparison is sufficient to indicate the growth of the business. Many of the firm’s employes have fine talents, apart from their daily avocation, and they have organised and carried out various entertainments at the Theatre Royal, Swansea, whereby some £600 have been added to the funds of local charities. An establishment possessing the power to thus largely benefit deserving objects in its neighbourhood undoubtedly deserves the popularity it enjoys. We note with satisfaction that all the employes of this firm are in a measure interested in the business — that is, to the extent that Mr. Evans has for the past two years been putting into practice an excellent profit-sharing scheme, the bonuses arising from which are distributed among the employes every March. This tends to give the staff an interest in their duties over and above that which they must feel in working for so important a mercantile concern, and for so kindly and thoughtful an employer as their respected principal.

We need hardly add that Messrs. B. Evans & Co. enjoy the support of a remarkably large and widespread connection. Their establishment is regularly resorted to by immense throngs of customers from all parts of the county. Indeed, it has been aptly termed “the Whiteley’s of Wales,” and the name of “Evans” is truly a “household word” for many miles around the town and district of Swansea. The head of this great concern, Mr. Benjamin Evans, has certainly much to be proud of in the result of his untiring industry, for it is entirely owing to his active energy — his capacity to make opportunities as well as to take advantage of existing ones — that the business has attained its present colossal proportions and far-reaching influence. His wide and comprehensive knowledge of the trade, gained originally in some of the best houses of London and Paris, has been employed with rare judgment and splendid effect; and his inflexible integrity and straightforwardness have given him a clear title to his more than ordinary success. We understand that, although he has frequently been pressed to enter public life, Mr. Evans has always declined to do so, and has consistently adhered to his policy of devoting all his time to the personal supervision of his business, none of the details of which, however minute, escape his comprehension. A great and truly capable merchant is often a real benefactor to his community when he follows unswervingly the course in which his powers most conspicuously display themselves; and, though we do not doubt that a man of Mr. Benjamin Evans’s stamp would be a valuable acquisition to any public body to which he might give his adherence, yet we are of the opinion that he renders at least an equal service to his fellow-townsmen in devoting all his energies to the development of a business which is unquestionably of the highest domestic usefulness in this town and neighbourhood. Besides, it must not be forgotten that the very extensive building improvements Mr. Evans has carried out in the course of extending his commercial operations and resources constitute in themselves a valuable and permanent benefit to Swansea, and are duly appreciated as such.

Owing to the fact that the head of the firm has to give so much of his attention to the department of finance in connection with his business, he has, necessarily, to be represented at times by some competent and responsible person, able to efficiently superintend the general working of the concern. The duties of this important lieutenantcy are most zealously and effectively discharged by Mr. John White, a gentleman of special tact and experience, who has for the past eighteen years deservedly enjoyed the confidence of his chief. His methods of discipline and administration, like those of Mr. Evans, are at once firm and kindly, hence he, too, is fully appreciated and respected by the employes of the firm. The many patrons and friends of this notable house will watch with interest its future progress on those lines of sound and honourable commercial policy by which it has advanced to its present condition of prosperity and good repute.


IN every important seaport, such as Swansea, there is a large field for the operations of a well-organised and ably managed engineering and dry-dock concern like the one named above. The Swansea Dry Docks and Engineering Company, Limited, controls a business of excellent standing which was formerly in the hands of Messrs. Pyman, Watson & Co. In 1883 the present limited liability company was formed, and started with a capital of £70,000, in fourteen hundred shares of £50 each. The value of the investment thus offered is shown in the fact that all the share capital was subscribed at once. The directorate of the Company comprises the following well-known and influential gentlemen:— T. Cory, Esq. (chairman), J. Cory. Esq, L. Gueret, Esq., J. Clarke Richardson, Esq., J. W. Pyman, Esq., T. E. Watson, Esq., and D. Villiers Meager, Esq., the last-named gentleman taking the place of his father, the late Mr. G. B. Meager. The Company’s Registered offices are situated at the Albion Dry Dock, and the general operations at the works, as well as the routine of the business in both an industrial and commercial sense, are under the direct supervision of an experienced manager, Mr. Charles Watson. Both the dry docks of this notable concern are admirably situated and splendidly equipped. The Albion Dry Dock (well known as “the Slip” ) is inside the North Dock, from which it opens, and its capacity may be judged when we say that it has held the largest barque in the world - the ‘Lord Templetown,’ of Belfast. The dock is four hundred and eighty feet in length, and specially wide, affording ample space for painting and drying purposes. Adjoining are large works, fully equipped for the construction of marine boilers, tanks, and other ironwork. The Globe Dry Dock, which is also the property of this Company, was opened in 1870, and is situated inside the South Dock. It is a fine dock, four hundred feet long by forty-six feet wide at the entrance, and is provided with all the necessary workshops and best appliances. The Company have carried out many large and important contracts for repairs, one of the heaviest of these being the repairing of the iron ship ‘Agnes Lilian.’ The ‘ss. Thanemore’ was another of the very large-sized vessels that have been docked here. In addition to their boiler works, &c., the Company have large iron and brass foundries. Altogether, several acres are occupied by the Company’s establishments, which are in every respect admirably organised, and present an aspect of activity indicating the magnitude and importance of the business carried on. Both the Albion and Globe Dry Docks are so planned that they can be divided, should it be required for comparatively small vessels. The Company are large employers of labour, amounting sometimes to a thousand men. All the affairs of the concern are most capably and energetically administered, and general confidence has been gained and preserved by the execution of first-class work at moderate prices, and by unfailing promptitude in the fulfilment of all orders undertaken.
Telegrams for this Company should be addressed: “Albion, Swansea.”


THE central fact in reference to Mr. Essery’s honourably prominent commercial position, which was established in 1848, is that he has sole right of sale of the original celebrated “Cox’s vein” malting coal, and of this horticultural and hop-drying anthracite. On the qualities of the former the ‘Brewers* Journal,’ page 632, December 15th, 1891, in the course of an article headed “Antiseptic Vapour from Special Vein of Anthracite,” remarks:— “This deep malting anthracite contains nearly double the antiseptic property of the famed ‘big vein.’ The superiority enables maltsters to realise a saving of say twenty-five per cent, by using half coke for burning with it, producing the results achieved by using expensive big vein without the mixture.” This is really of paramount importance to maltsters and should have their most careful investigation, and wherever tried has given entire satisfaction, corroborated by the numerous certificates in his possession. Mr. Essery has deserved well of those who are interested in the advance of the industrial and commercial progress of South Wales by the persevering manner in which he has successfully urged the advantages of using his original anthracite for a variety of purposes for which, previously, gas coke had been chiefly employed. He has shown that his hard and large anthracite, which in combustion is entirely without smoke, gives much greater heat than this coke, has greater durability, and ensures increased cleanliness and a diminution of labour. It is guaranteed twenty-five percent, more durable than cheaper sorts. It is now largely used in the houses and gardens of the nobility and gentry in all parts of the country, at the principal maltings in the United Kingdom, and also by hop and orchid growers and nurserymen. Mr. Essery holds many autograph certificates from gentlemen of the most distinguished social position, testifying to the practical economy which is effected by the use of his anthracite. He delivers the coal in trucks, bearing his own name, direct from the colliery, with the railway guarantee for weight. Mr. Essery also controls a business in large Welsh smokeless boiler and smithy coal. Mr. Essery has also made a recent discovery as to the special adaptability of his anthracite for the manufacture of bricks, &c., especially in the kilns known as Jungs. In an article on “Anthracite for Brick burning” the editor of the ‘British Clay Worker’ writes under date November, 1892:— “We have on many occasions advised our subscribers to try the effect of anthracite as a remedy for many of the troubles they meet with in burning their goods. We are glad to see that Mr. William H. Essery, of Swansea, is prepared to supply a first-class anthracite to brickmakers at the lowest possible price. It is claimed that this anthracite is almost pure carbon (about ninety per cent.), and its advantages in giving intense heat and being smokeless must be patent to all. Brickmakers would do well to give this anthracite a trial.” The analysis of this anthracite renders it essentially the clay manufacturers’ fuel, not only because of its great durability and intense heat, but its affinity to the clay itself, which is often found embedded with the vein, may be the great secret of producing such a smooth thoroughly-burnt brick. As before stated, Mr. Essery sends the coal out in trucks bearing his name, and particular attention should be given by purchasers to this fact. His business premises are situated on the first floor of an extensive building in Cambrian Place, which was formerly the Custom House.
The telegraphic address is “Essery, Swansea.”


THIS energetically conducted enterprise was initiated upwards of forty years ago. Mr. Grey, the general manager, has a thorough technical knowledge of all departments of the business, acquired during a connection of twenty-eight years with the firm. The premises comprise an admirably appointed suite of general and private offices, which are furnished with all the modern requisites for facilitating the despatch of the extensive commercial correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous transactions of the house. The show-rooms are on the first floor of the premises, and are handsomely appointed in harmonious keeping with the beautiful character of their contents. The stocks held by the firm are at all times large and varied, consisting for the most part of such articles of use and luxury as, being manufactured in Europe, find a ready sale in the great markets at home and abroad, with which Messrs. Primavesi & Sons have most intimate relations. They include the finest descriptions of earthenware, china, and glass. The firm ship general merchandise, viz., cutlery, electro-plated ware and hardware, clocks and watches, ship chandlery, saddlery, japanned and papier-mache goods, nautical, optical, philosophical, surveying, and musical instruments, chandeliers and lamps, looking-glasses, soft goods, paints and oils, and all kinds of fancy goods. Messrs. Primavesi are well represented in the potteries, where at Stoke-on-Trent they have an extensive warehouse, which gives special facilities for home trade. They have also an agency for export purposes at Gracechurch Street, London, whilst their close business connections extend throughout different parts of the world. Their extensive and intimate relations with many eminent manufacturing firms enable them to put their customers on the best possible footing as regards prices. There is no mercantile house of such standing as that of Messrs. Primavesi & Sons with a more honourable record. The firm has, of course, been in active existence throughout the whole of the period which has witnessed the marvellous development in the commercial and industrial importance of Glamorganshire, and they have been able, through their high reputation, to avail themselves to the full of the advantages of that development.

Hedley’s Collieries Company, Colliery Proprietors,
12, Cambrian Place, Swansea.

One of the best-known concerns in the coal trade of South Wales is the Company named above, which ha3 made very rapid progress since its establishment in 1890. The mines are situated at Coed Franc, near Neath. In 1891 a drift was driven a distance of about four hundred yards to the celebrated and widely-known semi-bituminous coal known as “Hedley’s” four-feet vein. This coal has now secured a firm footing in the French market, although it was only reached nine or ten months ago. It is also being shipped to Italy and to a number of English coasting ports. Wherever it is used it instantly secures favour by its all-round excellence as an economical and effective steam coal. The coal taken from this vein is also adapted for household use, and is beginning to have a large sale for this purpose. The following analysis of “Hedley’s” four-foot vein by Messrs. G. S. Merry & Co., assayers, Swansea, will indicate its valuable properties.

Top Coal.		 			Bottom Coal.  86.60 		Carbon			 87.14   4.90		Hydrogen			  4.10   2.60 		Oxygen and Nitrogen 	  4.58   1.20		Sulphur			  0.98   4.70	 	Ash				  3.20
------ ------
100.00 100.00 Carbonisation.
84.20 Coke 84.65
15.80 Volatiles 15.35

At the collieries the general equipment and working organisation are excellent, and employment is given to a large number of men, which number will gradually increase as new places are opened up. There are facilities for raising one thousand tons of coal per day, and the place is under excellent management. The proprietors of the business are H. Morton Hedley, Ernest Hall Hedley, J.P. for the county of Glamorgan, and J. Hall Hedley. The head offices are at 12, Cambrian Place, Swansea.
Telegraphic address: “Hedleys, Swansea.”


THIS eminent firm commenced operations in 1868 at the Worcester Works, which have gradually assumed their present vast proportions under the influence of able and energetic management. About ten years after the establishment of these works the firm acquired the Upper Forest Steel and Tin-plate Works, also at Morriston, and these two concerns have been amalgamated with the greatest success. At the Worcester Works there are now ten mills in operation, while the Upper Forest Works have twelve mills; and all the wonderfully interesting processes of the tin-plate industry are here seen in their most perfected modern aspect. Mr. William Williams is also the managing proprietor of the Morlais Tin-plate Works, Llangennech, which alone produce two thousand boxes of tin-plates weekly. The Worcester and Upper Forest Works turn out, together, about thirteen thousand five hundred boxes of tin and terne plates per week, making an annual production of over seven hundred thousand hundredweights. In 1887 Mr. Williams further enlarged his industrial facilities by erecting a large plant consisting of eight Siemens open-hearth furnaces, capable of producing about twelve hundred tons of steel weekly, and to this is added a bar-mill, worked on the most modern principle, and able to turn out eleven hundred to twelve hundred tons of bars per week, of the finest quality. The reversible engine used for driving this plant is a magnificent one of twenty-five hundred horse-power, and an idea of the wonderful efficiency of the process of bar-making as here carried on may be gathered from the fact that an ingot of steel weighing about eleven hundredweights can be converted into a bar of from one hundred to one hundred and thirty feet in length in the space of two and a half minutes. Most of the firm’s output of steel bars is used in the making of tin and terne plates at the Worcester, Upper Forest, and Morlais Works. The surplus is sold to the neighbouring tin-plate manufacturers.

The two works at Morriston are of great size and superb equipment, and present an example of general organisation which, for the purposes of the industry carried on, may be regarded as practically perfect. The buildings cover over twenty acres of ground, and comprise all the departments incidental to the commercial and industrial routine of this vast business, the whole being most systematically planned. It is not every day that one can see a red-hot ten-hundredweight ingot of steel picked up and rolled into a ribbon almost in the twinkling of an eye, and many noted authorities on metallurgical matters have profited by opportunities afforded them of inspecting the wonders of the Worcester and Upper Forest Works.

Messrs. William Williams & Co.’s business is one of those concerns the growth of which is continuous, and in view of this fact it is satisfactory to note that there is ample space for future enlargements of the works. There are about forty acres of supplementary land included in the firm’s property, in addition to the ground covered by buildings, and the place presents a wonderfully busy scene, railway lines encircling it on every side, and affording communication by many sidings with the Midland, the Great Western, and the North-Western systems. The firm have three large locomotives of their own constantly employed on the private lines inside the boundaries of their property, and every possible convenience exists for the handling of raw material and the despatch of finished goods. Close at hand are the River Tawe and the Swansea Canal, and these waterways are also pressed into the service of the works. Upwards of two thousand hands are employed by the firm, and it will in some measure indicate the vastness of the industry carried on when we say that the daily consumption of coal exceeds three hundred tons. As to the actual nature of the processes of tin and terne plate manufacture, nowhere do they receive a greater amount of careful attention than at Messrs. Williams’s works, every plate having to be handled by different hands about fifty-five times. Various qualities of tin-plates are produced to meet different requirements, and the products of the several works engaged in the trade are recognised by their brands. Among these brands none are more highly esteemed than those of Messrs. William Williams & Co., viz., “UF,” and “JB,” for tin-plates, and “Worcester” for terne-plates. The latter are more extensively manufactured, perhaps, than any other terne-plates in the world, and have an immense sale, especially in the United States. The “JB” tin-plates also enjoy great favour throughout the United Kingdom, the Continent, and America.

Messrs. William Williams & Co. control an enormous and steadily increasing trade in the principal markets of the world. They spare no effort to maintain the high standard of quality that has always distinguished their goods; and their warehouses at Morriston are stocked with such a large quantity and variety of their manufactures that even the most extensive orders can usually be executed and despatched without the least delay. This great concern is equally distinguished by the perfection of its working organisation, the excellence and high repute of its productions, and the efficiency and sound judgment of ifs administration. The founder and sole principal of the business, William Williams, Esq., J.P., personally superintends all its operations, and to his energy and ability its great development is unquestionably due. Mr. Williams is essentially “a man of the times” — active, enterprising, fully alive to all the requirements of the trade in which he is engaged, and quick to perceive and put into practice the best methods of meeting the same. His sterling qualities as a business man and his spirited action in public matters have made him equally popular and respected in this busy and progressive neighbourhood. He is a Justice of the Peace for Glamorganshire, and for the county borough of Swansea, a member of the County Council, vice-chairman of the Glamorganshire Banking Company, Limited, a director of the Swansea Gas Light Company, and of the Swansea Chemical Company, Limited, and was Mayor of Swansea in 1884-85. The immense works over whose operations he now presides with so much skill and judgment are the largest of their kind conducted under one proprietary in a district of great manufacturing activity, where industrial and commercial enterprise moves on in many and varied channels to a common prosperity.
Telegrams for Messrs. William Williams & Co. should be addressed: “Glantawe, Swansea.” The firm’s telephone is No. 382.


THIS well-known house was founded in the year 1870 by its present sole proprietor, and has had a highly successful career under his able and energetic management. Large and well-appointed premises are occupied at the above address in Waterloo Street, affording every facility for the display of goods; and this establishment, together with another in Park Street, contains remarkably extensive and varied stocks, embracing everything connected with the departments of general drapery, millinery, haberdashery, hosiery, umbrellas, toys, fancy goods, &c., &c., besides a great quantity of school copy-books, in which he does an immense trade. The business in all the above-mentioned lines is one of great magnitude, and is entirely wholesale in character, the operations of this house being confined to supplying retail and other dealers, among whom it has wide and valuable connections. One of the leading features of the business consists in fancy wools of all kinds, including the celebrated Dorset and Waterloo yarns, for which there is always a large demand. He has also developed a special line in Birmingham goods for all domestic purposes. Altogether, the stock is one of the most comprehensive to be met with in the Principality, and in the toy department there is probably no other house in Wales which can show such a wide range of new and attractive goods. The demand for toys is permanent and almost unvarying, and his vast selection of novelties is eminently successful in this department. In all parts of South Wales this house has customers, and its travellers cover a wide area of country in their regular journeys. Mr. Jenkins personally manages the entire concern, and ensures its continued progress by his enterprise and care. His thorough knowledge of the trade has enabled him to make his business one of the most complete and useful undertakings of the kind in this part of the country, and the success he has achieved is as well merited as it is substantial.


THE extensive and important brewing concern carried om under the above title has been constituted by the amalgamation of two large and old-established businesses. The company was formed in 1890 to take over the business of the Orange Street Brewery Company and that of the Glamorgan Brewery Company, the chairman being Albert Mason, Esq., J.P., ex-Mayor of Swansea, while the managing directors are H. W. Crowhurst, Esq., and F. D. Mears, Esq. Mr. W. Hopkins James is secretary to the company. A very large and flourishing trade is carried on, not only in brewing, but also in the importation and supply of wine and spirits, and the manufacture and bottling of aerated waters, &c. The company are likewise agents to some of the principal Burton brewers. They are proprietors of the Swansea Aerated Water Manufactory, which is situated in Orange Street, and has an excellent equipment of the best modern machinery. Another valuable property of this company is the South Wales Hop Bitter Ale Company, carrying on its operations in Little Madoc Street. The speciality in this latter branch of the business is a very excellent non-intoxicant hop-bitter ale which has met with great success, being very wholesome and palatable. The company’s brewery premises for the production of their celebrated mild and pale ales, bitter ales, and double stout are situated in Orange Street, and are large and well equipped. This establishment was entirely renovated in the early part of the year 1892, all the old plant being removed, and a fine new twenty-five quarter plant taking its place. In this way the latest improvements have been introduced, and the brewery may now be classed among the most effectively organised in South Wales. It is also admirably built and commodiously planned, affording every facility and convenience for the large industry to which it is devoted. The premises include spacious cellars, besides hop stores and malt warehouses, and there is an excellent supply of pure water, drawn from an artesian well on the property. In Little Wind Street and Oystermouth Road the company have extensive bonded stores, where they keep a vast stock of wines and spirits of the best quality, these goods being all carefully selected, and supplied to the trade upon favourable terms. Altogether the business is one of great magnitude, and has widespread and old-established connections. Six travellers are employed in addition to several buying agents, and the company’s affairs are all very systematically and enterprisingly administered under the personal supervision of the experienced managing directors.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Invicta, Swansea.” Telephone No. 85.

Telegraphic Address: “Milnes, Swansea”; Telephone Nos. 49 and 9.

FOUNDED in 1872, the eminent firm of Messrs. Dyne Steel, Milnes & Co. have taken their place at the head of the hardware trade in Swansea, and have secured, moreover, an international reputation. In 1892 the business passed into the sole charge of Mr. George Stephenson Milnes, a gentleman who has acquired much valuable experience in the trade, under whose able and enterprising administration the connections of the house have been extended in all directions. The premises of the firm, Cornwall House, Exchange Buildings, comprise one of the largest show-rooms in South Wales, having splendid plate-glass windows, giving on the main thoroughfare. The firm are agents for the world-renowned Worthington Pumping Engine Company, examples of whose manufacture are exhibited in the show-room. They also make a speciality of electrical and gas engineering, and in these departments act as sole agents for the far-famed Brush Electrical Engineering Company, Limited, and the Campbell Gas-Engine Company, Limited, who are the manufacturers of the most simple gas-engine yet introduced, the principal features being that there are no slides, no noisy cams, greater regularity of speed, and if necessary has an ignition at every revolution. Other goods represented include engines, boilers, hydraulic and other lifting jacks, Weston’s patent blocks, rope and chain blocks, crabs, sack hoists, Giffard’s and exhaust injectors, steam fittings and pressure gauges, Ramsbottom’s and Wilson’s patent piston rings, lift and force pumps, Abyssinian pumps, blowing and ventilating fans, steam, water, gas, and boiler tubes, punching and shearing machines, portable forges, bolts and nuts, ratchet braces, tube expanders, engine counters, &c. The firm are also manufacturers of corrugated-iron roofs and girders, bridges, framed roofs, pit and general ironwork, &c. The bulk of the business, however, lies in the export of all descriptions of machinery and hardware to Italy, Malta, and other Mediterranean ports, the Baltic, Chilian, and Spanish markets. In all these ports the firm have influential correspondents, while they possess also most valuable connections at home, and carry out contracts for Her Majesty’s Government.


THE extensive collieries which for a good many years have been in active operation near Seven Sisters, Neath, produce a quality of coal which for certain purposes is specially useful. They have been for some time back, and still are, the property of Mr. David Thomas, whose important business is conducted under the style and title of the Nant Merthyr Coal Company. The commercial headquarters of the firm are at 17, Adelaide Street, Swansea, and are, therefore, situated in the centre
of the principal mercantile quarter of the town. They comprise a well-appointed suite of general and private offices, with all the requisites for facilitating the work of the efficient staff of clerks employed. The registered telegraphic address of the house is “Nant, Swansea.”

The coal of the Nant Merthyr Colliery is of the best quality for steam, furnace, and lime burning. The “Nant Merthyr” coal is specially adapted for blast furnaces, and three-fourths of the quantity used in the Cumberland district is drawn from Nant Merthyr Colliery. The demand is very extensive, and for the supply of the markets the firm have complete shipping arrangements, not only at Swansea, but also at Briton Ferry and Port Talbot and Llanelly. The mechanical appliances at the colliery are of the most complete character, and a large staff of experienced workmen, under efficient management, is employed.


MR. WATKINS originally commenced business in High Street in the year 1865. He was not long before he made his mark among his competitors, and as business began to flow in additional accommodation became necessary, and a removal was made to the present quarters in 1870, and his house may deservedly claim to take a leading position in the trade. The premises are well located for the control of the business, being in close proximity to the railway station. They comprise a well-appointed suite of offices on the ground floor, together with spacious and well-lighted printing offices, lithographic-rooms, and commodious warehouses and stores. The equipment is the result of the proprietor’s long experience and liberal and progressive policy. It includes the latest and most improved machines for letterpress and lithographic printing, which are driven by a horizontal steam-engine of twelve horse-power. There has also been provided the best kind of machinery used in bookbinding, ruling, paging, cutting, and for making books. A large number of hands are kept employed, and a highly creditable system of organisation and discipline is maintained in every department. Every description of printing is undertaken, from the plainest handbill to the most ornamental and elaborated specimen of artistic work, and in each case superior workmanship can be always relied on. The litho work is accurate and well finished, and a very good name has been secured for the illustrated pattern-books and price lists turned out. The firm is largely occupied in the manufacture of account-books, ledgers, invoice and day books, journals, &c., and all their productions are well known in the trade for durable work, excellence of material, and good appearance. A portion of the manufactory is set apart for the making of paper bags for confectioners, grocers, and others, and occupation in this department is found for several skilled hands. Much enterprise has been manifested in introducing every suitable improvement, and the success of the house in this direction has been richly deserved. The stocks held embrace varied supplies of every description of paper — printing, tea, news, and wrapping. These have been obtained from the best sources of supply, and, being bought in large quantities and under advantageous conditions, are offered at such prices as cannot be surpassed elsewhere. The firm handle every description of stationers' sundries. The business includes the wholesale, and extends for many miles round Swansea, three travellers being kept constantly on the road. Mr. Watkins, who is assisted in business by his two sons, is a widely experienced and practical man, and every department of his comprehensive business receives the benefit of his able personal supervision. He occupies a position of considerable prominence in trade and commercial circles, and is noted for the just and straightforward methods which mark all his dealings.


MR. THOMAS T. PASCOE’S career as a coal exporter extends over about twenty years, and, therefore, includes the period of the two decades during which the most marvellous advances have been made in the industrial and commercial importance of the Swansea district. The premises in the town comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, with an efficient staff of clerks. The firm ship to all parts of the world coal in very large quantities, especially of such descriptions as best selected malting coal, large anthracite for lime burning, hothouses, hop-drying, iron-making, smith coal, large Aberdare steam coal, &c. Mr. Pascoe is personally well known, and held in high esteem in the best industrial and commercial circles of South Wales and Monmouthshire. Notwithstanding the heavy claims which his own business makes upon his time and attention, Mr. Pascoe finds leisure to devote to the interests of the community. He was for three years an active member of the Swansea Town Council, and has done much valuable work on the committees of that body.


THIS business was founded over fifty years ago and for many years successfully conducted by the late Mr. B. Goodall, and was taken over by the present proprietor in 1882. The establishment occupies an excellent position in the High Street (No. 18). On the ground floor is a spacious and handsome shop, with fine plate-glass frontage. The interior is fitted up in a very superior style with marble slab counters, glass show-cases, and other appropriate appointments; a convenient office is located at the rear of the shop. On the first floor is a large show-room, principally devoted to the display and storage of china, glass, and earthenware. The stock here includes many beautiful examples of Dresden and other china, dinner, breakfast, and dessert services, toilet sets, flower vases, beautifully decorated Bohemian and Hungarian ware, Dresden figures, Matlock, Majolica, and Worcester porcelain, Japanese goods, &c., &c. The premises also contain extensive storage accommodation for provisions, wines, and spirits, bottling department, tea-blending room, and every convenience for the effective working of a large and increasing business. The leading lines include general groceries, tea, coffee, fruits, spices, biscuits and confectionery, provisions, all the best-known proprietary articles, jams, jellies, pickles, sauces, preserved meats, fruits, and vegetable extracts, and all the specialities of the leading manufacturers of comestibles. Mr. Gale is also the agent for the following firms:— Burgoyne’s Australian wines, Gilbey’s wines and spirits, Carton’s Bristol ales and stouts in casks or bottles, and for Guinness, Allsopp, and Bass, the Peatmore Scotch whisky, Coleman’s Meat and Malt Wine.

In the provision department is a fine stock of Harris’s Wiltshire bacon, Irish and Wiltshire hams, &c., Stilton, Gorgonzola, and Cheddar cheese, &c. Mr. Gale is a very extensive and judicious buyer, and, dealing directly with the manufacturers and producers, he is enabled to give his customers the advantage of all intermediate profits, and to offer goods of a quality and at a price with which it is impossible for small dealers to compete. The house has long enjoyed a special reputation for the excellence of its teas. The stock in this line includes the finest growths of India, China, and Ceylon, and some of the most delicate flavoured teas which generally find their place only in the Russian market are to be met with here. Mr. Gale gives his special personal attention to this department. All samples are liquored and tasted by him personally, and judiciously blended to meet the requirements of his trade. In this department is a large new machine called Parnall’s Patent Blender, which has a capacity for intimately mixing one hundred and twenty pounds of tea in five minutes. A leading speciality is made of blending the finest brands of coffee, and in this department Mr. Gale probably does the largest business in South Wales, his yearly output amounting to many tons. The roasting is all done in London by professional roasters, and received quite fresh from the roasting cylinders. The trade controlled is of the highest class, and of a widespread and steadily growing character. The establishment is in connection with the telephone system, so that orders can be at once despatched to any part.

Mr. Isaac Gale is well known and highly esteemed in Swansea as a courteous and enterprising man of business; and the old and high standing of the house in the commercial world, together with the invariable excellence in quality of its numerous specialities, is calculated to constantly proeaoce the best interests of its numerous supporters and to retain that which has always fallen to its lot.

The Graigola Merthyr Company, Limited (late Cory, Yeo & Co.), Colliery Proprietors and Patent Fuel Manufacturers,
Chief Offices, Cambrian Place, Swansea.

In connection with the great coal trade of South Wales, mention must be made of the large and important business now carried on under the style of the Graigola Merthyr Company, Limited, with head offices in Swansea. This representative and old-established concern was founded over thirty years ago by Mr. Thomas Cory, the present chairman of the Company, and the late Mr. Frank Ash Yeo, member of Parliament for the Gower division of the county, and was registered as a limited liability company in 1885. F. Cory Yeo, Esq;, J.P., is managing director, and J. Roberts, Esq., J.P., is consulting engineer and manager to the Company, while the office of secretary is capably filled by Mr. W. T. Farr, a gentleman of extensive practical experience in the coal and fuel trade. The Company’s principal works are situated at North Docks, Swansea, and are fitted with a large and valuable plant of the most modern machinery and shipping appliances. Employment is given here to about four hundred men, and the industry is systematically organised in every respect, excellent facilities of transport affording conveniences for the receipt of raw material and the quick despatch of the prepared fuel. The large resources of these busy works are supplemented by another establishment at Clydach, on the Midland Railway, where the manufacture of patent fuel is also carried on, the combined capacity of Swansea and Clydach works amounting to some sixteen hundred tons per day.

This Company’s fuel is of superior quality, and their brand (the “Locomotive”) is widely and favourably known. The collieries of the Company are situated in the Swansea Valley, and produce about fifteen hundred tons of steam coal daily, the “small” being used for the manufacture of patent fuel. In coal the specialities of the concern are Cory’s Graigola Merthyr steam coal, Graig Merthyr steam coal, nut steam coal, all of which have a high reputation at home and abroad. It is a well- known characteristic of the Company’s Graigola vein coal that it is the cleanest seam of any in the great South Wales coalfield, and as a natural consequence the patent fuel manufactured from it occupies a position second to none. In South Wales steam-coal life it is recognised that the celebrated Aberdare four-foot coal stands first in all Continental markets, and in like manner the Graigola fuel, Locomotive brand, takes equal prominence. A large staff is regularly employed at the collieries, which are equipped with every appliance to maintain their efficiency. The Graigola Merthyr Company, Limited, are doubtless the largest shippers of coal and patent fuel in the port of Swansea, and they send their product in vast quantities to the Mediterranean, Baltic, and French ports, and also to well-nigh all parts of the world besides. The business is most capably administered in all its operations, and is one of the leading industrial and commercial undertakings in this flourishing town, employing a large amount of labour, and enjoying general confidence and the support of a world-wide connection. Thomas Cory, Esq., the respected chairman of the Company, is a Justice of the Peace for the borough of Swansea, where he has been well known and highly esteemed for many years. The managing director, F. Cory Yeo, Esq., is also in the commission of the peace, and is a member of the Glamorganshire County Council, and both are proprietary trustees of the Swansea Harbour.


THIS leading firm originated in the year 1880, and its career has been a very prosperous one from the first. Mr. J. Buckley Wilson had formerly carried on a large practice as an architect in London and Bath, and Mr. Glendinning Moxham had been established in Swansea prior to the formation of the partnership. Both gentlemen brought to bear upon their respective departments a valuable fund of technical and practical experience, and their co-operation has been attended by the most gratifying results. As architects and surveyors the firm have gained public confidence and approval in all parts of South Wales, and this is particularly satisfactory when we remember that both Mr. Wilson and Mr. Moxham have worked very hard to qualify themselves for the professions they follow, and have taken high degrees therein. They have given the most ample proof of their abilities in the numerous important and extensive works they have carried out from time to time in various parts of South Wales, and it is very pleasing to note that in their principal designs this firm never forget that the element of art is an important one in all architecture worthy of the name, the result being that their conceptions are marked by grace and beauty, as well as by features implying strength and practical utility.

Among the many fine structures which testify to the taste and skill of Messrs. Wilson & Moxham are the following:— (1) Swansea Eye Hospital, which, after a close inspection by the leading authorities on the treatment of the eye, has been pronounced the finest of its kind in the Kingdom, the plan of the building being ingeniously convenient, while the sanitary arrangements are above criticism. (2) The arcade between Goat Street and Waterloo Street, concerning the facades of which a local paper has justly said that they are “very quaint and interesting, and not only attract the eyes of visitors and residents alike, but they form a welcome addition to the architectural achievements of the modern town.” (3) The new bank premises for the South Wales Banking Company, at Llanelly — a most elegant and at the same time a dignified structure, with an antique tiled front and many evidences of the thought and good taste that have been brought to bear upon the design. (4) The beautiful new church at Ystalyfera, a remarkably neat and graceful example of the modern Gothic style, which was illustrated in the ‘Architect’ not long ago. The New Market of the borough of Swansea is to be erected at a cost of £20,000, according to the designs worked out and submitted by Messrs. Wilson & Moxham. This very important commission was gained by the firm in open competition, and it is not too much to say that their designs bid fair to fully justify the choice made by the borough authorities. It is a tribute to the merit of this excellent architectural conception that it was selected for illustration in the ‘Building News’ of November 8th, 1889, the drawings in that journal showing the interior view of the new building, with its vast area entirely unobstructed by pillars or columns, and also the ground plan, and a perspective of the exterior. When this new market is completed it will rank among the most imposing erections of the kind in the Kingdom. The first schools built under the new Intermediate Act were designed by the firm under notice, who here gained another victory in open competition. These schools were approved by the County Councils and by the Charity Commissioners. Several churches, vicarages, villa residences, business premises, and other notable edifices in and around Swansea bear witness to the abundant resources, versatility, and unfailing artistic taste of Messrs. Wilson & Moxham.

As surveyors the firm also hold a high place, and have done a great; deal of important work in this country and on the Continent. They recently completed a survey of the celebrated Morfa Copper Works, which are the largest in the world. Messrs. J. B. Wilson & Glendinning Moxham have a branch office at Llanelly. They enjoy the support and confidence of a widespread and influential connection, and both the principals of the firm are well known and respected in South Wales as gentlemen of high standing and thorough attainments in all branches of their dual profession.


THE well-known and energetically conducted business of Messrs. Williams & Michell was founded by these two gentlemen some thirty years ago, and the firm have ever since maintained a very high reputation as iron and metal and tin-plate merchants and oil importers. Mr. Michell died in 1880, and the business has since been entirely in the hands of the surviving partner, Mr. E. S. Williams. The extensive premises comprise a suite of general and private offices, of much external and internal elegance. They are furnished with all the requisites for the prompt despatch of the important transactions of the firm. To the rear are the warehouses, ample enough to permit of the careful and systematic arrangement of the heavy stocks held by the firm. The stocks always include bar, sheet, and hoop iron, brass and copper sheets, block tin, ingot copper, and spelter, tin-plates, large tinned, terne, and galvanised sheets, brass and copper tubes, spades and shovels, sheet and pipe lead, and composition gas tubes, sheet zinc, black and galvanised gas and water pipes, iron, zinc, and copper nails, iron, tinned, galvanised, brass, and copper wire, steel files, chains, anchors, vices, anvils, screws, nuts, bolts, rivets, and washers, white and red lead, and white zinc, linseed, olive, colza, and train oils, tallow, petroleum, resin, and turpentine, &c. The commercial connection of the firm extends throughout the whole of the Swansea district, and they also control a large export trade.


THIS business has been in operation for many years, having been originally established by the present head of the firm in Garden Street in 1874, and subsequently removed to the more commodious and central site now occupied at 69, High Street in 1886. The premises at this address are situated immediately opposite the Great Western Railway Station, and comprise large shop fitted throughout in modern style, and providing ample and convenient accommodation for an extensive business of this character. The establishment is daily supplied with all kinds of fresh and salt-water fish in season, of which large quantities are received daily, the firm having correspondents in all the leading markets, from whom they obtain consignments of produce for sale on commission terms. In addition to their extensive business as salesmen the firm are also owners of the well-known smack, the ‘Pathfinder,’ a handsome and speedy boat, specially built for trawling purposes, in which it is engaged principally in the bay and other local fishing-grounds. A large wholesale and retail trade is controlled by the firm in each department of their business, the substantial patronage of an influential circle of the resident gentry, hotel and restaurant proprietors, and the general public having been secured by Messrs. Jones in all parts of the town and surrounding districts. The business is of a thoroughly substantial and successful character, and under the able management of the individual members of the firm, Mr. J. D. Jones and his two sons, Mr. Alfred and Mr. Walter Jones, the concern has achieved a well-deserved prominence in the ranks of our leading local business houses.
The telegraphic address of the firm is the appropriate word, “Herrings,” and all communication reaching Messrs. Jones & Sons through this medium receive promptest and most careful attention.


ONE of the best-known and most important commercial concerns in Swansea is that of Messrs. James Jones & Co., the old-established wholesale grocers of Goat Street. This firm’s extensive business was founded in the year 1867 by Mr. James Jones, and has continued under that gentleman’s control down to the present day. Large and commodious premises are occupied at the above address, affording every facility and convenience for the conduct of an unusually extensive trade, and immense stocks are held in all departments, the leading lines embracing tea and provisions, spices, arrowroot, almonds, farinaceous foods, rice, oatmeal, peas, barley, hominy, beans, various kinds of seeds, patent goods of every description, biscuits, liquorice paste, confectionery, canned meats and fruits, dessert fruits, oils, extract of meat, sauces, pickles, cocoa, isinglass, and gelatine, all kinds of papers for wrapping purposes, twines, and an extensive variety of household sundries. From the above list it will be seen that Messrs. James Jones & Co. carry on their trade upon a thoroughly comprehensive scale, and hold supplies sufficiently large and varied to enable them to meet all the demands of their customers with unfailing promptitude. The firm has long maintained a high reputation for the quality and reliability of all the goods in which they deal. Every commodity is carefully selected at the best source of supply, and Messrs. James Jones & Co. have to do only with goods of creditable repute. They never lend the influence of their name to push the sale of an inferior article. In all departments the business is directed with conspicuous ability and judgment under the personal supervision of the principals, and the connection maintained is widespread and influential in all parts of South Wales.

James Jones, Esq., the head of the firm, is a Justice of the Peace for Glamorganshire, and has filled the important office of Mayor of Swansea. He is at the present time an Alderman of the borough and a member of the Harbour Trust. Mr. Jones is interested in three very large tinplate works, his connection having extended over many years. But it is in his philanthropic work that Mr. Jones takes most interest, and there is no movement of any importance for the benefit of his fellow-creatures that has not his ready and most willing support. He is a prominent Freemason, in which body he has held high position. He is also equally to the fore with the Grand United Order of Oddfellows, the success which has attended this body in the district being due to Mr. Jones’s well-known energy and perseverance. Some few years ago he became connected with the Manchester Unity, and has raised this institution from the small number of ten members up to the position which is now recognised as one of the strongest in the Swansea district. He persuaded large bodies of men to join, and where the initiation fees were beyond the reach of applicants, he generously paid them himself. This lodge, which is called after his name, the “James Jones Lodge,” has a worthy head, and the members meet every year at Mr. Jones’s hospitable residence. Our view of this gentleman’s private establishment is taken from a photograph showing one of these meetings. Few residents in this busy and progressive community are held in higher esteem, and whose excellent public services have won for him the respect and confidence of all his fellow-townsmen.


FOUNDED in the year 1864, this well-known house attracts attention as one of the leading concerns engaged in the wine, spirit, and beer trades at Swansea. The premises occupied are well, situated in Wind Street, and are very extensive, comprising a sale-department, with warehouses, spacious cellarage, and every convenience for the conduct of a business of more than ordinary magnitude. Messrs. Fulton & Co. operate in connection with several very widely-known and influential houses, viz., Messrs. Fulton, Dunlop & Co., Cardiff and Penarth; Messrs. Dunlop, Mackie & Co., Bristol; Messrs. Findlater, Mackie & Co., London, Dublin, Brighton, Manchester, and Rochdale; and Messrs. Mackie & Gladstone, Birkenhead, Liverpool, and Birmingham. From all these firms the same description of goods at similar prices can be obtained. Reverting to Messrs. Fulton & Co.’s Swansea warehouses and cellars, we find them heavily stocked with a large and carefully-selected assortment of foreign wines of the beet growths and vintages, besides choice brandies, whiskies, and other spirits. In the beer department the firm do a large trade in ales in cask and ales and stout in bottle. They also supply Pilsener Lager Beer, and Duncan Gilmour’s non-alcoholic Hop Beer. The ales, both in bottle and in cask, are of the best description, and come from such famous breweries as those of Bass, Worthington, and Allsopp; while Guinness’s stout in bottle is a speciality. Schweppe’s, Summers’, and other eminent makers’ aerated waters are also largely handled by this firm, whose operations take in practically every branch of the wholesale wine, spirit, and beer merchant’s trade. No house has a better reputation for uniform and reliable quality in its supplies, and probably none in Swansea controls a larger volume of business. The connection is widespread and well established throughout the town and surrounding districts, and the following regular deliveries are made:— in Swansea and neighbourhood daily; the Mumbles, Tuesdays and Fridays; Llanelly, Wednesdays: Neath and Briton Ferry, Thursdays; Pontardulais, Fridays; Swansea Valley, Saturdays; Brynamman and district, fortnightly. The whole business is personally supervised by Mr. Fulton, who is a gentleman of high standing in the trade, and possessing a comprehensive knowledge of all its details.


THIS business originated about half a century ago under the proprietorship of Messrs. Matthew Brothers & Co., and was taken over by Mr. John Taylor in 1865. In 1885, owing to its continued success and development, it was converted into a limited liability company, the directors being William Stone, Esq., J.P. (chairman), R. D. Burnie, Esq., M.P., Julius Smith, Esq., and Henry Hunt, Esq. Mr. John Taylor, the former sole proprietor, retains the office of managing director, and continues to assist the progress of the concern by his energetic and judicious methods of administration. Very large and commodious premises are occupied in Castle Square, an additional large area being added on the formation of the company, to meet the requirements of an extended sphere of operations. The fine four-storey building has a noble frontage to the square, and the site is undoubtedly one of the best in the busy part of Swansea. The block extends rearward as far as the Strand, a distance of two hundred and fifty feet, and the spacious interior affords ample scope for the systematic arrangement of the numerous departments, and for the convenient disposal of the enormous and varied stock.

The company’s special departments embrace tea, general grocery, cigars, brushes, electroplate, jewellery, watches, china, glass, cutlery, perfumery, and patent medicines. The company have introduced several new features which are greatly appreciated. For example, they have established on the premises a saloon in which customers can partake of light refreshments at very moderate charges. Besides the leading departments briefly mentioned above, there is a hire department, through the medium of which cutlery, electroplate, table-linen, glass, china, and earthenware may be had on hire for large or small parties. There is a remarkably fine display of goods in the spacious first-floor show-room, where all the most attractive and artistic designs in glass, china, electroplate and similar goods may be inspected. On the second floor visitors will find large stocks of stationery, patent medicines, &c. Up here also is the tea-blending room, personally superintended by the experienced managing director, and fully equipped with all the requisite machinery and appliances for producing those superior blends of high-class tea for which this house has long enjoyed an eminent reputation. In its entirety the company’s Castle Square warehouse will compare favourably with any in the trade, and in its orderly condition and carefully contrived working arrangements it reflects great credit upon the management and the members of the executive staff. A powerful lift runs from the cellars up to the top floor; Lamson’s patent cash railway is in use in the shop—in fact, every modern convenience is provided to facilitate the routine of the business. The stock is undoubtedly one of the largest and best of its kind in the Principality, and a reference to the company’s catalogue and price list (containing one hundred and sixty-four pages) will show how complete it is in each of its twelve great departments, and how careful the directors have been to include in their list all goods of standard quality and good repute.

The company are sole agents in this district for Messrs. Mappin & Webb, and always show a large assortment of that eminent firm’s high-class manufactures in cutlery, plate, &c., &c. The watch and jewellery department is a survival of the old-established business of Mr. Bernard R. Hennessy, founded in 1837, and taken over by this company about six years ago. It is conducted at No. 5, Wind Street, close to the headquarters in Castle Square, and continues to maintain its old-time reputation for superior articles and first-class practical work. There is a magnificent stock of watches, clocks, and jewellery of all descriptions, and careful attention is given to repairs under the supervision of Mr. Davies, the manager of this department.

The company have a number of flourishing branches in various parts of the country, viz., four local branches in Swansea, two at Aberavon, one at Taibach, one at Dover, one at Weymouth, one at Stourbridge, and one at Kidderminster. Their connection in each case is an extensive one, and the total amount of business done is exceedingly large. At the Swansea headquarters about fifty hands are employed, while an efficient staff under an experienced manager is attached to each branch. The arrangements for the delivery of goods are excellent, and the whole business is conducted in a systematic and thoroughly practical style which greatly enhances its usefulness to the public. The managing director, Mr. John Taylor, is very popular in Swansea, and enjoys the respect and confidence of all the company’s patrons, as well as of his colleagues in the management of the business. He has done a great deal by his energy and sound judgment to promote the interests of the shareholders and to place this important concern upon a firm basis. In the work of administration Mr. Taylor is ably assisted by his son, Mr. John Henry Taylor, and an excellent staff, who take a very active interest in the company’s trade.


SOME of the ramifications in the new developments of the metal trades in South Wales, occasioned by the marvellously rapid advance of the industrial and commercial importance of the district, may be studied by an observation of the methods adopted by such enterprising houses as that of Mr. Thomas Simm, Metal Broker, of 26, Castle Street. Mr. Simm established his already successful business in 1887, and by the aid of his thorough technical knowledge of the trade, and his exceptional business aptitude, he has already made a strong position for himself in certain departments of the metal trades of the district. His premises comprise a suite of handsomely appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with all the requisites for the rapid despatch of the large amount of correspondence and other clerical work necessitated by the numerous transactions of the firm. A staff of efficient clerks is employed. Mr. Simm has created a very important and extensive business in the buying and selling of new and second-hand machinery and old metal in general, and is also the largest importer of palm oil in South Wales, which is largely used for the tin-plate trade. In this connection he has made the tin-plate trade his speciality, and controls the transfer of large quantities of the working plant employed in that industry. The convenience of his customers is materially enhanced by the holding of large stocks of palm oil, &c., at the Dock Wharfage, Swansea, and other Welsh ports. Mr. Simm’s commercial relations now extend throughout the whole of South Wales and the West of England. Through his unvarying courtesy in his business transactions, and his untiring zeal in serving his clients by meeting their requirements, he has obtained a large measure of personal popularity which stands him in good stead throughout a large circle of customers which is ever widening.


THE above business was established in 1862 by the above-named gentleman in Christina Street and Oxford Buildings, and removed to the present address in 1891. The premises here comprise a spacious suite of well-appointed offices (general and private) admirably equipped with every convenience for the rapid despatch of business. Mr. Daniel has a splendid practice as a mining engineer, valuer, and estate agent. He has the charge and management of a vast amount of valuable property, and among other appointments he is mineral agent for the Earl of Cawdor, Stackpole Court, Pembroke; the Middleton Hall Estate, Colonel Lewis, J.P.; F. Lort Phillips, Esq., Lawrenny Park, Pembroke: the Western Merthyr Coal and Fuel Company, Limited, 12, Old Jewry Chambers, London, E.C.; estate and mineral agent for A. P. Saunders-Davies, Esq., J.P., Pentre Boneath, R.S.O. Mr. Daniel is also consulting engineer for Messrs. R. B. Byass & Co., Tewgoed Collieries, at Cwmavon, near Port Talbot; the Bryndu Coal and Coke Company, Limited; Messrs. Joshua Williams & Co., Aberdylais, near Neath; the Trimsaran Company, Limited, near Kidwelly, South Wales; the Sterry’s Mountain Colliery Company; and several other important undertakings. Mr. Daniel was engaged, in the year 1870-71, in conjunction with his late partner, Mr. Evan Daniel, and also with the late Mr. William Adams, mining engineer, Cardiff, in assisting to report to the Royal Coal Commissioners on the quantity and duration of the South Wales coalfields, and for this purpose had to visit nearly the whole of the collieries in this extensive district, as well as having to take observations on the unexplored parts of the coalfield, thus giving him ample opportunity of making himself thoroughly acquainted with all the resources. He is the only surviving engineer that was connected with this important subject, it having taken about nine years to perform. Mr. Edward Daniel possesses the advantage of long professional and practical experience. He occupies a very prominent and influential position in social and business circles, and takes a keen and active interest in all matters that affect the industrial and commercial prosperity of South Wales. Mr. Edward Daniel is a director of the Swansea and Mumbles Railway and Pier Company, and is also a Justice of the Peace for the county of Glamorgan.

Proprietress, Mrs. Jones.

The enterprise of Swansea is well shown in the ample and excellent hotel accommodation that is to be found in the town. No locality in the Principality is better provided in this respect, and among the various aspirants for public honour few have been more successful during the last few years than the well-known Longlands Hotel in St. Helen’s Road. The establishment became recognised for the efficiency of its management, and a continued increase in the business was the result. Mrs. Jones, the manageress, was mainly responsible for this pleasant state of affairs, and some four months ago she took over the business, and is now carrying it on entirely on her own responsibility. It is now regarded as one of the leading and most popular hotels in the town, a fact fully justifying to the ability and enterprise of the proprietress. The hotel is a handsome and attractive structure three lofty storeys in height, and occupying a prominent and convenient position, being within ten minutes’ walk of the Great Western station, whilst tramcars from all the principal parts of the town pass its doors every five minutes.

The main entrance, which looks upon the St. Helen’s Road, is approached through a neat garden, and the visitor on entering will perceive that the arrangement is complete in every respect, showing great judgment and taste. There is a splendidly-appointed smoke-room, and commodious commercial and coffee rooms, as well as a fine private bar. A first-class billiard-room is attached to the hotel and has been fitted up with one of Burroughes & Watts’s celebrated improved tables. A special feature is made of spacious and well-lighted stock-room and show-room, and so well are these appreciated by the commercial community that they are very rarely unoccupied. The private apartments are furnished in suitable style, and afford that privacy and comfort which are so seldom to be obtained in an hotel. The bedroom accommodation extends to about twenty-five beds which, it need hardly be said, are, like the rest of the establishment, kept in a well-managed and thoroughly enjoyable state. Hot and cold baths are provided, and the sanitary arrangements have received the utmost attention. It should be stated that the bar entrance is quite distinct from the main entrance, thus adding to the privacy and quiet for which the hotel is noticeable. An excellent staff of well-trained servants is kept, and the wishes and requirements of guests are quickly and deftly attended to. The cuisine is a prominent feature of the house, while a very choice stock of the best wines, spirits, and cigars is always on hand.

The hotel, both in its arrangement and accommodation, is specially adapted to the commercial and family trade, and every comfort and convenience joined with privacy and moderate tariff will be found at the popular Longlands Hotel. Mrs. Jones is well known in hotel circles as an efficient manager and caterer. She has had a long practical experience and is prompt to introduce every improvement that will tend to the comfort and pleasure of her guests. Her enterprise, ability, and courtesy have been rewarded with a well-deserved success, and the respect and esteem of her rapidly increasing patrons.


THIS very extensive and important concern was started here in the year 1870 by Messrs. Jones & Rocke, in connection with similar businesses at Wrexham and Chester, and was acquired by the present firm about twelve years ago. During late years considerable alterations have been made in the premises, the enlargement of which from time to time has afforded scope for the development of the business upon a scale of great magnitude. The latest addition to the establishment takes the form of a large four-storey warehouse, facing the Strand. This substantial and commodious brick, iron, and cement structure is one of the best-built business edifices in Swansea, the utmost care having been taken in its construction, and it affords admirable warehouse and office accommodation. Even the extensive flat roof is utilised for storing water, and for drying wools, yarns, and flannels. The ground floor is divided into two parts, one of which is used for the reception and delivery of all goods connected with the business, while the larger portion is devoted to receiving and dealing with the sheepskins, which are the all-important commodity of this industry. Here we find the water-pits, and everything pertaining to the first process in fellmongering, viz., the washing, liming, and cleansing of the skins. This having all been duly attended to, the pelts pass on through other departments, the general equipment of machinery and appliances being very complete. One process consists in pulling the wool off the skins, and this is done with great care and skill, the several colours and qualities of wool being accurately sorted and kept distinct. The wool is then dried and stored away in wool-bins until it is required for manufacturing purposes; while the skin is preserved and prepared for the use of the leather-dresser. The first floor of Messrs. Parry & Rocke’s fine new building constitutes the wool store.

The second floor is the warehouse for manufactured articles, and here are made up and packed for despatch the goods specified in the numerous orders received daily from the firm’s travellers, of whom there are three always “on the road,” covering the whole of North and South Wales and Monmouthshire. The firm have also a resident representative at Liverpool, who looks after the surrounding district. The third floor of the building under notice is divided into two large rooms, in one of which from forty to fifty young women are busily engaged in the knitting of hosiery, using machines of the most improved type. The other room on this floor is the weaving department, with a complete equipment of hand-looms, Messrs. Parry & Rocke adhering closely to the Welsh method of producing hand-woven flannels, and thus maintaining the unrivalled reputation of the Principality for this class of woollen textiles. To the rear of the new building stands the four-storey mill, fully equipped with modern steam-power machinery of the most efficient character. There is also a power-loom shed here, with a fine outfit of looms. Messrs. Parry & Rocke have also dye-works, where the raw wool is dyed in fast colours, such as red, black, and navy blue.

Altogether this business is at once a unique and highly interesting one, as well as a thriving and prosperous enterprise, and it is conducted throughout upon a thoroughly sound basis. Every process is carried out in the firm’s own works, from the initial treatment of the raw sheepskin to the completion of the finished yams, hosiery, flannels, shawls, tweeds, blanketings, &c., all of which are turned out in various kinds and qualities. Very large stocks of manufactured goods are held by the firm, and these are very carefully and systematically stored, thus enabling the largest orders to be promptly and accurately executed. All the productions of this house are protected by their registered trade-mark, the Prince of Wales’s “Feathers.” Messrs. Parry & Rocke control an exceedingly large and widespread trade, enjoying the support and confidence of a most valuable and influential connection. Their goods stand very high in public estimation, and gained the highest awards at Paris and London, 1885, the only two exhibitions at which this house has competed. The principals of the firm are Mr. T. P. Parry, J.P., and Mr. Frederick Rocke. These gentlemen are widely and favourably known in Wales, both in a commercial and a public capacity. Mr. Parry has been three times Mayor of Oswestry, where he resides; and Mr. Rocke is an Alderman of the Swansea County Council.


MR. EDWARD ILES has introduced into Swansea the important industry of the manufacture of scales and weighing-machines. Mr. Iles brought to the town invaluable experience, gained with the world-renowned house of Messrs. H. Pooley & Son, of Liverpool. The premises occupy a commanding position at 25, Nelson Street, and also at the corner of Plymouth and Singleton Streets. Abutting these important thoroughfares is a well-lighted show-room, in which are displayed a large number of weighing-machines of the most improved type, and scales suitable for all trades. Attached are workshops equipped with all the necessary appliances for the manufacture and adjustment of all descriptions of scales and balances. Mr. Iles’s productions all display expert and finished workmanship in their construction; and he has secured the support of many influential public bodies, amongst which may be mentioned Her Majesty’s Commissioners for Prisons, and the Swansea Corporation. Special attention is devoted to the manufacture of weighbridges and pit-top machines, which are also kept in repair by contract. Mr. lies is agent for Messrs. H. Parnall & Sons, of Narrow Wine Street, Bristol. He has introduced an important innovation into South Wales by adopting Bristol prices and discounts as the basis of his tariff, and how well his methods are appreciated by the trade his continuously increasing volume of business abundantly testifies.


HOTELS play such an important part in the life of the modern world that it is of the highest consequence to every progressive town and city that it should possess a satisfactory complement of these temporary abiding-places for travellers, visitors generally, and business men. Swansea is well provided in this respect, and presents to our notice a capital example of the first-class family and commercial hostelry in the Royal Commercial and Family Hotel, so successfully conducted in High Street by the late Mr. Chester Row. This favourite house was founded about thirty years ago, and under able management its reputation has been more than sustained. Indeed, this establishment is not now second to any other in the Principality in the estimation of those who appreciate substantial comfort and good living at moderate charges. Every modern improvement, both in the laying out and general equipment of the hotel, has been called in requisition to promote the comfort and convenience of guests, and in the general details of appointment and domestic organisation it may be truly said that the Royal under able management leaves little or nothing to be desired by the most fastidious guest.

The premises are spacious and of handsome appearance, and have an excellent and central situation. Internally they are elegantly appointed in faultless taste, and always with a manifest desire to combine real comfort and luxury with beauty and artistic refinement. The man who cannot with satisfaction “take his ease in his inn” under the favourable conditions here presented would indeed be hard to please. To adequately describe the Royal Commercial and Family Hotel in its improved modern condition would require the columns of one of Swansea’s enterprising newspapers rather than the brief space here at our disposal. We shall not therefore make the attempt, but will leave it for our readers to judge for themselves regarding the hospitality and many good points of this excellent house. They will assuredly not be disappointed.

An idea of the resources of the Royal may be gathered from the fact that two hundred guests can dine at one time in its spacious and beautifully decorated salle-a-manger. As to the conveniences abounding in the establishment, they are “legion.” For example, there is direct telephone communication with Swansea, Bristol, Cardiff, Cheltenham, Newport, Pontypridd, Merthyr, Llanelly, Aberdare, and Neath, the hotel telephone being No. 56. We also noticed a letter-box adjoining the office. This has been provided for the advantage of guests, and is cleared six times daily. The sanitary arrangements throughout the hotel are perfect, being upon the very best modern principle. The cuisine and wines are unexceptionally good, the attendance is efficient and intelligent, the management courteous and painstaking. Commercial gentlemen will find that special provision has been made for them, there being no less than ten stock-rooms for their use. Ladies and gentlemen travelling for business or pleasure cannot do better than patronise the Royal, which is equally well organised as a family hotel, and affords every facility for long or short periods of residence upon reasonable terms. A night porter is always in attendance, and the servants of the hotel render every assistance to travellers on arrival and departure. The proprietors spare no personal effort to ensure the satisfaction of their guests, and it ranks among the best known and most popular hotels in South Wales. The Royal has never enjoyed greater favour than it has under the present management, and there is a marked and continuous increase in its already large and valuable clientele, the result, no doubt, of the careful and capable manner in which they are directing the affairs of the house.


THE above house was founded four years ago by Mr. William Thomas, the present sole proprietor. Under energetic and judicious management the business has steadily increased in importance and influence. The premises utilised consist of a three-storey block of buildings extending some eighty feet to the rear. The offices, which face into Gloster Place, are large and handsomely appointed. The warehouses and stores are at the rear and on the two upper floors. The stocks held are exceedingly large and of the finest quality. Mr. Thomas is thoroughly conversant with his business, and all his goods are bought and are selected with an intimate knowledge of the requirements of customers, and patrons will always find prices here to be among the lowest that prevail. The stocks include ample and varied supplies of tea, coffee, fruits, bacon, ham, lard, butter, and cheese, &c. Mr. Thomas is agent for Idris & Co.’s pure mineral waters, which are supplied in syphons and bottles; also for their fruit cordials. He is sole agent in Swansea and district for the famous Royal Amaranth Bitters. It should be noticed that a special line is made of oatmeal, the firm being the exclusive vendors of David Graham & Co.’s Scotch oatmeal, and are also proprietors of the famous pure Welsh oatmeal (Blawd Ceirch Cymreig). Messrs. Thomas & Co. are sole agents in Wales and Monmouthshire for N. James Brownlie’s Glasgow biscuits and cakes. They are also agents for the celebrated Highbridge Bacon Factory’s, Limited, hams and bacon. The trade done is wholesale and shipping. The connection of the house is widespread and valuable, extending throughout the whole of South Wales, and among the principal shipowners. Four representatives are kept constantly on the road, and a staff of some twenty or thirty assistants is employed in the warehouses, all orders of whatever magnitude receiving prompt attention. Mr. Thomas is an energetic and enterprising business man, liberal and fair in all his dealings, and is highly esteemed in social and mercantile circles. He is noted for his active participation in all movements having for their object the improvement and welfare of his fellow- townsmen. Among other offices he has held is that of director of the Albion Permanent Building Society, a position he has now occupied for some years.


FOR the past twenty years a large and steadily increasing engineering business has been carried on at the above address by Mr. John Legg, who has gained a high reputation in and around Swansea for his excellent work as a sanitary, electrical, and mechanical specialist. Mr. Legg occupies spacious and commodious premises in Nelson Street, and his show-rooms display a fine stock of lamps, chandeliers, sanitary fittings, gas and electric light appliances, &c., all of the latest and most improved design. A large variety of telephones of the best make form an important speciality in this stock, and an upstairs show-room exhibits many excellent novelties in sanitary fittings of a highly efficient character. At the rear of the shop are spacious workshops fitted with powerful and efficient machinery driven by a handsome “Fielding” gas-engine. The adjoining shop (No. 17, Nelson Street) shows a large stock of water-fittings and various other goods of a similar nature. A speciality here is a sectional model in porcelain of a new closet which Mr. Legg introduced about three years ago, called the “Swansea” closet. This is a highly effective apparatus, the improvements of which are sufficiently important to recommend it for general adoption.

Mr. Legg’s business, in all its departments, is of a high-class character, calling for the use of the best materials and workmanship throughout. The whole of the sanitary and electric work for Madame Patti-Nicolini at Craig-y-nos Castle was executed by him. Pearson’s Search Light, giving a description of the home of the Queen of Song, says:— “The sanitary arrangements at Craig-y-nos Castle are simply perfection,” and recently Mr. Legg has been commissioned to fit up a long telephone line at the same palatial residence, thus enabling Madame Patti to speak to London or Paris. Mr. John Legg has many important agencies, the chief of which may br briefly ennumerated:

(1) Agent for the Fielding Gas Engine (Otto principle), made by Fielding & Platt, of Gloucester, sizes up to three hundred and fifty indicated horse-power, for Dowson or coal gas. The special features of this excellent and favourite engine are its positive self-starting gear, great strength and rigidity, large wearing parts, and economy in gas and oil.

(2) Agent for Norton’s patent “Abyssinian” Tube-wells, which gained the gold medal (highest award) at the Health Exhibition. A large number of these wells were put down by Mr. Legg to supply the town of Swansea with water during the drought of 1888, and the following excerpt from Engineering will show what he has carried out in this line of business:—“Extensive Tube-well Water Supply.— For the last three years Swansea has been more or less short of water owing to the reservoirs giving out, and during the drought of 1887 the Corporation had ten three-inch Abyssinian tube-wells put down by Messrs. Le Grand & Sutcliff, of London, to meet immediate requirements, in addition to some sixty of these wells which were put down in various parts of the town for local wants. This summer the scarcity of water having again become serious, Mr. R. H. Wyrill, the Borough engineer, determined to adopt the Abyssinian tube-well system upon an extensive scale, and erect a permanent pumping station. The site selected is at Brynwilock, about six miles out of the town, where trial tubes had proved the existence of extensive water-bearing seams, at from thirty-five feet to forty feet below surface, which when tapped, overflowed. Altogether forty-eight two-inch tube-wells are being put down, of which forty are already driven, and a supply of about a million gallons per diem obtained. These wells are placed twenty-five feet apart, along the side of the town main, on either side of which the Corporation has an easement of six feet, and the wells are connected to two horizontal receivers each about six hundred feet long, laid immediately over the town main and meeting at the pumping engine in the centre. The work of sinking the wells is being energetically carried out by Messrs. Le Grand & Sutcliff’s representative, Mr. John Legg, Engineer, Nelson Street, Swansea, and the engineer in charge is Mr. Joseph Vevers, formerly with the Leeds Waterworks. The town of Swansea, with its population of one hundred thousand, is indebted to Sir H. H. Vivian, MJP , who owns the adjoining property, for the handsome manner in which he has come forward and temporarily furnished steam power to work the pumps.”

(3) Agent for the Consolidated Telephone Construction and Maintenance Company, Limited, whose head offices are at 109, Farringdon Road, London. By this agency Mr. Legg is enabled to sell free of all royalties telephones for offices and works, for mines and collieries, for mansions and private houses, for hotels, theatres, churches, and for military purposes.

Mr. John Legg is a thorough business man, as well as a practical master of his trade in all its details, and he directs the affairs of his house with conspicuous ability, enterprise and judgment, personally supervising the execution of all orders, and sparing no effort to ensure the satisfaction of the many valued patrons whose support and confidence he enjoys. He has also been intrusted with important work by Her Majesty’s War Department and “Lloyds.”


AN eminent mining engineer who has professionally established himself here is Mr. Morgan W. Davies, who during the past ten years has created for himself a reputation second to that of none of the profession in this district. His premises are conveniently situated in Adelaide Street, where they comprise a suite of elegantly-appointed offices, admirably adapted to his requirements. Mr. Davies has devoted his exceptional abilities chiefly to anthracite coal mining, and has largely assisted in the commercial development of that fuel. He has achieved distinction as a specialist in regard to the processes of breaking and classifying anthracite coal into nuts and other sizes. In this regard he is engineer and manager of twelve or thirteen of the most important anthracite collieries in the district. Mr. Davies has also devoted considerable attention to foreign coal and metallurgical mining, and is frequently consulted in London in regard to the possible products of mines in all parts of the world. His London offices are at 7, Victoria Street, Westminster. It may be stated that Mr. Davies is a member of Mineral Industries of France. In the multiplicity of his professional engagements Mr. Davies still finds time, like other distinguished busy men, to devote considerable attention to literature, and is a special correspondent of, and contributor to, “Engineering.”


THIS celebrated brewery was founded upwards of fifty years ago, and has been under the control of the present limited liability company since 1887. The administration of the concern is in the hands of a board of five directors, of which the chairman is David Davies, Esq., ex-Mayor of Cardigan, and member of the well-known firm of Davies Brothers, wine and spirit merchants, Cardigan. Mr. William Davies is secretary to the Company. The Swansea Old Brewery is a very extensive establishment, covering a large area of ground with its yards and buildings. The plant, machinery, and appliances are of the best modern type, the place having. been thoroughly refitted by Messrs. George Adlam & Sons, of Bristol. Besides the brewery itself, and the various outbuildings incidental thereto, there are spacious cellars, in which the Company hold immense stocks of their different “brews,” none of which are sent out until they are in perfect condition. These beers have long enjoyed an eminent reputation in and around Swansea, and their good name is fully sustained under the present proprietary. They include three grades of “Mild Ale,” “Crystal Bitter,” “Light Bitter,” two qualities of “India Pale Ale,” and three qualities of stout, the “Invalid Stout” being specially celebrated for its strengthening and nourishing properties. The utmost care is exercised in the brewing of the different beers named above, and the excellent results obtained are due to the very favourable conditions under which they are produced. Only the best malt and hops are used, and the Company have the advantage of a splendid water supply. During the severe drought of 1887 their wells supplied a large portion of the water used in Swansea for household purposes.

As a testimony to the superior quality of the Swansea Old Brewery beers, we may say that they were awarded a prize medal and diploma at the London Exhibition of Beers in 1888. Furthermore, samples of these beers were submitted for analysis to Mr. William Virtue, F.C.S. (Oldbury), and to Mr. W. Morgan, Ph.D., F.C.S., F.I.C. (Swansea), two eminent analysts; and in each case the report sent in has been highly favourable. These reports are printed in extenso on the Company’s pricelist, so that all may see the results of the analyses in full. The Swansea Old Brewery Company control a very large general and family trade, and the affairs of a constantly increasing business are administered with conspicuous skill and judgment. Among the brewing concerns of South Wales this one holds a position of distinction which has been well earned and is being worthily maintained.


THE business of this well-known and popular firm of accountants, auctioneers, &c., was established in 1874 by Mr. John F. Harvey under the title of Messrs. John F. Harvey & Co.; the firm have come to be regarded as the leading house in this line in Swansea. Mr. John F. Harvey is a well-known and popular auctioneer, conducting sales of landed property, houses, stock, and other valuables in all parts of the town and district. As chartered accountants they have a splendid practice amongst the leading merchants, bankers, manufacturers, insurance companies, &c., and are also trustees in bankruptcy. At No. 4 and 5, Goat Street, Messrs. Harvey & Co. occupy a spacious suite of well-appointed offices (general and private), and have the largest auction-rooms in the Principality, where goods may be warehoused prior to sale or otherwise. An efficient staff of clerks and correspondents are busily employed. The firm have acquired the very highest reputation for the excellent manner in which all the business transactions are carried out, and the constant care exercised in watching the interests of their numerous clientele. Mr. John F. Harvey, who is an Associate of the Institute of Chartered Accountants, is a gentlemen well known and highly esteemed in Swansea, and has always taken a keen and active interest in all matters that affect the prosperity of the town and district. He is the secretary to the Swansea and South Wales Land Society, Limited, and manager of the Trades Commercial Bank, Limited, whose registered offices are at the above address, and is also treasurer to the Swansea Liberal Club.


MR. BROWN commenced upon a comparatively small scale in 1879, and he has worked with such excellent effect that his business is now one of the most extensive of its kind in the Principality. Large and handsome premises are occupied in Oxford Street (No. 62), and here Mr. Brown exhibits the resources of his general ironmongery, cutlery, and tool departments, showing a splendid stock of builders’ and joiners’ metalwares, tools, and brass goods, besides choice productions in electroplate, fine cutlery, &c., &c. The array of these goods in the spacious show-rooms on the first-floor is eminently attractive, and here also we find a splendid show o£ ornamental stoves, majolica tiling, new designs in baths and mantelpieces, tiled hearths, fire brasses, fenders, kerbs, &c., &c., besides a brilliant display of lamps, mirrors, gas and electric light fittings, in all the most artistic patterns. A warehouse adjoining the shop, and measuring about one hundred feet long, contains a vast stock of builders’ ironmongery, grates, ranges, paints, oils, and general heavy goods, and another warehouse adjoining this is stocked with rain-water goods and fittings. On the upper floors of the warehouse are kept large supplies of furnishing ironmongery, galvanised-iron goods, gasfittings, and joinery tools, while one spacious room is devoted to boilers, saucepans, and all manner of kitchen and household utensils. At No. 21, Oxford Street is a fine gas-engine, and a dynamo machine for lighting by electricity Mr. Brown’s three establishments. At this address there is a most comprehensive stock of sanitary appliances, embracing all the latest novelties. Mr. Brown is a qualified plumber of high standing, enjoying large patronage and excellent repute as a specialist in domestic sanitation. Other features of the heavy stock at No. 21, Oxford Street are nails, cisterns, ovens, lead piping, iron piping, cooking-ranges embodying the best patented improvements, &c. There is also a smiths’ shop, with three forges, lathes, drills, and other machinery used in making and repairing bicycles and tricycles.

The cycle department is conducted at “The Padlocks” Cycling Depot, No. 10, Nelson Street. These premises comprise two fine show-rooms for cycles, one for new machines, and one for second-hand~ In each there is a very large stock to choose from, as may be judged when we say that Mr. Brown is sole district agent for many of the foremost Coventry makers, including Singer & Co., Premier Cycle Company, the Rudge Cycle Company, the Coventry Machinists Company, Messrs. Bayliss, Thomas & Co., Messrs. Taylor, Cooper & Bednell, also the St. George’s Engineering Company, of Birmingham, the Raleigh Cycle Company, of Nottingham, and numerous other noted manufacturers. These cycle show-rooms, having a floor space of six thousand square feet, are the largest in South Wales or the West of England, and always contain about four hundred new and secondhand machines. Mr. Brown supplies machines on easy terms for cash, or on the hire purchase system. He also sells everything in the shape of cycle accessories, executes repairs, warehouses machines at moderate charges, and generally renders very great services to cyclists in this vicinity.

Mr. Brown has gone in largely for electric lighting, and has made this a special feature of his business. He undertakes the supplying of complete electric light plant for works, collieries, churches, mansions, ships, shops, public buildings, &c., arranging the same for steam, gas, oil, or water power. Upwards of sixty installations have already been designed and carried out in South Wales, a fact which testifies to the excellence of the work done. Electric-transmission of power, colliery signals, house bells, telephones and telephone lines of any length in town or country, and electro-medical apparatus, all come within the scope of Mr. Brown’s electrical department; and price lists, plans, estimates, &c., together with testimonials, will be sent anywhere on application. In its entirety Mr. Brown’s business is a concern equally creditable to its proprietor and to Swansea, and we have pleasure in chronicling its continued increase in all departments. The whole undertaking comes under the personal supervision of the experienced principal, who is locally well known and highly esteemed by the large and valuable connection whose support and confidence he has so worthily gained.


THE business over which Mr. F. H. Glynn Price presides has been in existence close upon half a century, and during the whole of that time has maintained a representative standing. Originally founded by Mr. Francis Price, on his demise, which took place some nine years ago, he was succeeded by his son, Mr. F. H. Glynn Price, who occupies premises in a good position in St. Helen’s Road. Mr. Price is thoroughly experienced in every branch of the profession in which he is engaged, and is fully qualified to take up every kind of business connected herewith. He is well known for the ability and judgment he exercises in the letting or mortgaging of land, and for the matured, knowledge he brings to bear in all negotiations with regard to mines and minerals. For the last forty years this house has acted as land and mineral agent for the Duke of Beaufort’s Glamorganshire estates. Mr. Price is a member of the South Wales Institute of Engineers. Surveying forms an important part of his business, and everything connected therewith is transacted in a skilful, conscientious, and thoroughly satisfactory manner. A business man of no inconsiderable ability, Mr. Price is everywhere regarded as an important member of this useful and honourable calling. At the present time he is a member of the Harbour Trust, also of the Board of Guardians’ Assessment Committee. He likewise occupies a seat on the Glamorganshire Sea Fishery Board-


THE foundation of this highly successful enterprise was laid some twenty-five years ago, and since that date the business, under the energetic management of the proprietors, has been developed with extraordinary skill and ability to its present position as the largest concern of this description in South Wales. Messrs. Auckland’s premises are centrally situated in the principal thoroughfare, and comprise a lofty and imposing building of five storeys, having a frontage to the street of thirty feet, and extending hack a distance of sixty feet, with handsome plate-glass windows effectively arranged for the display of a splendid selection of ladies’, gentlemen’s, and juvenile boots and shoes in all the newest and most fashionable styles. The interior is finely appointed throughout in modern style, and is fully furnished with every convenience for the several sale departments on the ground floor, the upper portion of the premises being reserved for spare stock, of which immense quantities are stored. The goods submitted for inspection include every description of wear for all classes. Some idea of the magnitude of the firm’s operations may be better gained by a few details of the contents of the warehouse for ordinary business purposes, a total stock of some fifteen thousand pairs of boots and shoes being the average number held by Messrs. Auckland. All goods are personally selected by Mr. Auckland, jun., purchasing directly from the leading houses for cash to the amount of between two and three thousand pounds’ worth at each trip. This system of buying enables the firm to offer exceptional advantages to the public, and by strictly adhering to cash payments for all goods purchased at their establishment, they are in a position to guarantee the highest standard of uniform quality and value in every article supplied. Messrs. Auckland have also successfully established a substantial wholesale trade, in which their connection includes many of the principal buyers in the district, in addition to the enormous retail patronage they enjoy from all classes of the inhabitants of the locality. The business is admirably organised in each department of the concern under the able and efficient management of Mr. Auckland, jun., whose thoroughly experienced knowledge of the trade eminently qualifies him to undertake the successful control of an undertaking of this magnitude and commercial importance.


THIS noteworthy business was founded four years ago at the above address by Mr. Evans, who was succeeded nearly three years ago fey the present sole proprietor, Mr. Henry T. Perkins. This energetic and enterprising gentleman has made his establishment a household word in the locality, and has rapidly built up a connection that reaches to all parts of the town. At the premises in St. Helen’s Road will be found a neat and attractive-looking shop, scrupulously clean and tastefully arranged. The shop has a good single window, in which a tempting display of the various commodities dealt in is made. At the back are roomy outhouses, these also being models of cleanliness. They are delightfully cool, even in hot weather, and form first-class keeping-places for cream, milk, butter, &c. When everything is of such an excellent quality it is a matter of some difficulty to determine the speciality of the establishment; if there is one it is comprised in the stock of home-cured and country-fed bacon and hams; we doubt if there is another house in the town where the genuine article is so extensively dealt in. There are fresh daily supplies of rich Cornish, Wiltshire, and Devonshire butters, country eggs, new milk, and Cornish cream (raw and clotted). The milk and cream, for their pure, rich properties, cannot be excelled. Deliveries are regularly made to all parts of the town. The quality of the milk elicits high praise from householders generally. Every week there are large supplies to hand of genuine Caerphilly cheese, which is a great delicacy. There is also a good variety of poultry, stocked or to order. There are several assistants employed, who are well up in their respective duties, the proprietor undertaking the responsibility of the management. The manner in which the business is conducted throughout is a credit to Mr. H. T. Perkins, who is worthy of the respect in which he is held by a large portion of the inhabitants of Swansea.


THIS large and important business was founded nearly six years ago in Caer Street. Mr. Ernest Davies, who started the concern, carried it on very successfully from the first, and was eventually joined, in July, 1892, by Mr. James Jenkins. These two enterprising and experienced gentlemen are now the joint proprietors of one of the best businesses of its kind in South Wales, trading under the firm-name of Ernest Davies & Co. The firm have large and commodious establishments, which they have organised upon a most systematic plan; they are admirably appointed throughout, and the warehouses contain immense stocks of paper and stationery. The printing works are admirably arranged, and here we find the most efficient machinery and appliances, with a splendid assortment of new type, and are fully equipped in every respect to produce all kinds of commercial, general, and artistic printing in superior style and at moderate prices.

In addition to the works in Fisher Street, Messrs. Ernest Davies & Co. have a retail stationery shop, which is the most handsome and attractive in the town. This establishment, situated in Temple Buildings, has been opened by the firm to supply really good articles at moderate prices in stationery and stationers’ fancy goods, and it has been stocked in a manner displaying at once the enterprise of the principals and their exhaustive knowledge of the trade. The elegantly appointed shop displays to advantage a most varied and interesting assortment of new goods, among which the most prominent items are novelties in purses, pocket-books, card-cases, photo albums, fancy work baskets, workboxes, tourist cases, stationery cases, writing desks, the newest designs in photo frames, blotting cases, dressing cases, jewel cases, cigar and cigarette cases, ladies’ handbags, writing albums, scrap albums, photo screens, local photographs in artistic frames, and many other useful and ornamental articles. This stock is unsurpassed in Swansea for style, novelty, and moderate prices, and all its contents have been selected with rare judgment at the best sources of supply. Messrs. Ernest Davies & Co. also keep here an unrivalled stock of commercial and general stationery, account books of every description, copying presses and stands, files, &c., in which they can offer the highest inducements to those who appreciate genuine quality and the most reasonable charges.

Messrs. Ernest Davies & Co. may truly be said to possess the most complete facilities for meeting the requirements of their patrons in every department of the trade. They can execute with the utmost promptitude any orders for stationery and fancy goods, and can turn out with equal ease and despatch all descriptions of printing, from a lady’s visiting card to the largest poster or the bulkiest trade catalogue. Account-books are a speciality, and are turned out in best style. Many skilled and experienced hands are employed, and an extensive and constantly-increasing business is carried on, the connection being an influential and valuable one. The well-ordered and highly interesting establishment in Temple Buildings is under the personal management of Mr. Haines, who has been connected with every branch of the stationery trade for many years past. The principals of this flourishing arid progressive business are to be congratulated upon the marked success that has attended their efforts to build up a first-class trade upon lines consistent with economy to the purchasing public.


THE above business was established upwards of forty years ago by Messrs. L. L. & T. Bullin, and during the whole of this period the firm have maintained a position of the very first rank in this important line of business. The premises in Heathfield Street are eminently adapted to the purpose, and comprise a long range of excellent stables and looseboxes, coach and carriage houses, a large covered yard, haylofts, harness-rooms, a well-appointed office, and every facility for the successful working of the business. The firm have a very fine stud of good, sound, and reliable horses, suitable for riding and driving, ladies’ hacks, hunters, and ponies. The “rolling stock” consists of a large number of open and close carriages, hansom and other cabs, phaetons, breaks, dogcarts, wagonettes, wedding equipages, and funeral carriages of every description. Private carriages are kept and horses taken into livery at reasonable rates. Both horses and carriages are turned out in excellent condition, and would do credit to the private establishment of any gentleman. The coachmen and drivers are men of reliable character and remarkable for their punctuality and unobtrusive attention. The firm have an excellent old-established connection, and number among their patrons professional gentlemen, the clergy, the leading merchants and manufacturers, and the elite of society in Swansea and the district. The business is conducted with commendable ability, and the proprietors adequately maintain the eminent reputation which has always been the distinguishing feature of their long and deservedly successful career.


THE above business was established in 1875 by the present proprietors. Mr. John Jones is the managing partner, to whose thorough technical knowledge of the business and commercial aptitude its present honourably prominent position is entirely due. The premises, which are conveniently situated in Fisher Street, comprise a well-lighted show-room on that important thoroughfare. Attached are offices, the works being situated at the rear. The latter are equipped with the latest and most improved machinery, adapted to the requirements of the various departments of the industry. These include well-arranged shops for smiths, wheelwrights, body-makers, painters, and trimmers, and in each department a staff of thoroughly skilled workmen is employed. The firm submit drawings and estimates for any description of vehicle and it will be found that their prices compare most favourably with those of London and Bristol houses. Repairs receive special attention, all orders being executed with promptitude, in a style displaying expert and finished workmanship in every detail. Messrs. John Jones & Co. also supply all descriptions of coach accessories and furniture, including Bird’s Patent Noiseless Indiarubber Tires, as used by the Prince of Wales, indiarubber break blocks, carriage aprons, cushions and trimmings in morocco leather, &c., lamps in all patterns and mounts, rein rails, break and door handles, and circular glasses for broughams. The leading characteristics of all vehicles built by Messrs. John Jones & Co. are gracefulness of outline, lightness, and finished workmanship, and it is these qualities, combined with moderate charges, which have gained the house the support of influential families resident in Swansea and for many miles round.


THE above noteworthy business was founded about half a century ago by Mr. Edward Hammett, who carried it on for some years, when he was joined by his son, Mr. T. D. Hammett. On the retirement of Mr. Hammett, senior, the business was acquired by his son on his own account, and [he] now remains its sole head. Very extensive premises are occupied, comprising a substantially built three-storeyed structure, having a frontage of over thirty feet, and a depth of one hundred and fifty feet. This extensive accommodation is devoted principally to storage space, the handsome and well-appointed offices being located on the ground floor and facing into Quay Parade. Mr. Hammett always has on hand a very varied and high-class stock of grocery goods, provisions, and general shipping outfits. British, Continental, and American produce are all represented, the stock being fresh and well selected, the principal feature being the large election of bonded stores. Mr. Hammett buys in the best markets, and the range of goods he keeps enables him to fulfil contracts to any extent. The connection is largely confined to Swansea, but it also extends to other shipping towns on the Welsh coast, and the trade is on a large and constantly developing scale. Mr. Hammett has had large experience in the business, and having a complete knowledge of its every feature, and also being possessed of great enterprise and much business aptitude, he is in a position to command the confidence and support of an influential body of patrons. He is held in much respect by all such, as well as by his more intimate friends.


THE prominent position which is held in the mercantile community of Swansea by Messrs. Pearse & Brown as commercial stationers, general printers, and account-book manufacturers is the outcome of a long series of records to which the present firm may claim to be the heirs, for the business which they conduct was founded early in the present century. Upwards of forty years ago the business came into the hands of Mr. E. Pearse (now deceased), who continued to carry it on until 1857, when he was joined by Mr. W. E. Brown, who is now the active principal of the firm. The premises which they now occupy were built in 1857. There is a spacious double-fronted shop, with printing and binding works, together with warehouses, under the same roof. The shop is well arranged and appointed, and contains, together with store-rooms, heavy stocks of mercantile and general stationery, together with an assortment of fancy goods. Messrs. Pearse & Brown are the publishers of the carefully compiled “Swansea Tide Table.” They have held this property since 1856. The work is well known in the shipping world, and has been regularly issued for upwards of a century. They are also licencees for the sale in Swansea and neighbourhood of the shipping forms issued by H.M. Customs, as well as appointed agents for the sale of the Ordnance Survey Maps. The depot of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge is also at their establishment.


AS a great centre of business Swansea is fortunate in the possession of many accountants of exceptional ability and experience, and prominent in his profession stands Mr. Samuel Taylor, who opened his now prosperous business in the year 1877 in Castle Street, and has just recently removed to the present address, which is conveniently located in Temple Street, near the General Post-Office, and is consequently most centrally situated. His premises comprise a handsomely-appointed suite of offices, affording every facility for the rapid and effectual transaction of business, and here with a staff of fully-qualified clerks, Mr. Taylor — who is a Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants — operates on a large scale in every branch of accountancy and auditing work, and enjoys a very large share of the best patronage in the borough. He, moreover, acts as the accredited representative of the Manchester Fire Insurance Company, the Edinburgh Life Insurance Company, the Phoenix Fire Insurance Company, and the Scottish Accident Insurance Company, for all of whom he has transacted substantial business during the past few years. Mr. Taylor’s business is of a high-class character, and all its affairs are administered in a manner displaying a due regard for the eminent reputation already acquired, and a firm determination to maintain and preserve the same.


THE headquarters of the posting business in Swansea is at Rutland Street Livery and Posting Stables, of which Mr. William Pike is the well-known and worthy proprietor. The business was established as far back as 1805, and was a house of great repute in the old coaching days. Mr. Williams held possession for many years, and was succeeded by the present proprietor, in whose hands it has been since 1877. The premises occupied are conveniently located, and consist of a substantial block of buildings, comprising offices, stabling, coach-houses, harness-rooms, and haylofts. The stables have been built upon the latest principles, and are provided with every sanitary arrangement; they afford the best possible accommodation for the stud of thirty horses which Mr. Pike possesses. Every facility is to be found in the various departments, among which may be noticed a gas-engine for driving the chaff-cutting machines. The spacious coach-houses are well fitted up, and are occupied by a first-class selection of vehicles, including landaus, broughams, sociables, chars-a-banc, cabs, cars, breaks, wagonettes, and omnibuses. A valuable posting business is controlled, and its continued increase shows unmistakably that patrons are receiving every satisfaction. The vehicles on hire are in every case well built and handsome in appearance, and the horses, either for riding or driving, are such as cannot be readily surpassed at any public establishment of the kind. The men Mr. Pike employs will be found civil, obliging, and smart. Special and becoming liveries are provided for the men on particular occasions, such as weddings, which latter branch of the business the proprietor has laid himself open to carry out in first-class style and at charges which cannot fail to give satisfaction.

Pleasure parties and business and professional men can be promptly supplied with suitable turn-outs. Mr. Pike owns the sole rights to ply at the Great Western Station, and orders are received at the Rutland Street stables for the railway omnibuses. A special department is made of funerals, and hearses, Shilliberes, plain or with glass sides, and mourning coaches of the latest construction, together with suitable black steeds, are supplied on the shortest notice. It is to Mr. Pike that Swansea is indebted for the introduction of the modern form of funeral carriage. The connection of this time-honoured establishment extends throughout Swansea and for many miles round. Mr. Pike is an able and experienced business man, and under his well-directed and spirited management the future of the house is well assured.

Mr. Pike is the sole proprietor of the Prince of Wales Drill Hall, in Singleton Street, Swansea, premises which contain the largest floor space in Swansea (1,350 feet). It has a full dramatic licence, and is most suitable for banquets, balls, bazaars, concerts, flower-shows, or any public entertainment. There is a minor hall which is acknowledged to be the handsomest room in the town for select dancing, dining, or tea parties. The kitchens are large, and admirably fitted with cooking range and other appliances. Particulars as to hire, &c., are available at any time on application to Mr. Pike’s manager, Mr. W. L. Pennell, 37, Wind Street. Mr. Pike has long been honourably distinguished in the public life of the district, and at the present time is an alderman of the County Council of Swansea, a harbour trustee, and lieutenant-colonel of the 3rd Glamorgan Volunteers.


THE business of this well-known firm of auctioneers, valuers, estate agents, &c., was established nearly forty years ago by Mr. John Beynon, who was afterwards joined by Mr. Frederick Franklin Meager, when the firm assumed the present title. The senior partner retired from business last year, and Mr. Meager is now the sole proprietor, the business being still carried on under the tide of Beynon & Meager. The firm occupy a spacious suite of well-appointed offices, general and private, located on the first floor of the Victoria Chambers, Oxford Street. Messrs. Beynon & Meager undertake sales by auction in all parts of the town and district of live and dead farming stock, household furniture, and other property. Sales of horses and cattle are also held periodically at the Jeffrey’s Arms Hotel. The firm also have a splendid practice as estate agents, surveyors, agricultural valuers, and arbitrators. Mr. Meager is well known and highly respected in the district. He is very popular as an auctioneer. Although frequently pressed to accept public office, Mr. Meager has hitherto declined, his business requiring all his attention. He nevertheless takes a keen and active interest in all matters that affect the prosperity of the town and district. Mr. Meager is a gentleman of thorough business qualifications, well understanding the value of the reputation which for so many years the firm has enjoyed.


THIS well-known house was established in 1882 by Messrs. Davies & Fitt, and during the interim it has gained a more than local celebrity as one of the largest and most popular commercial and family temperance hotels in this district. Mr. J. E. Fitt is now the sole proprietor, and under his close attention and vigorous dispensation the popularity of the hotel is being fully maintained. The hotel is an elegant and handsome four-storey building conveniently located opposite the Great Western Railway (High Street) Station. The premises comprise a splendid entrance-hall, extensive and well-lighted dining-room, having a marble-top bar counter forty feet in length, and coffee-room twenty-five feet long, handsomely furnished and admirably lighted with three fine windows. The new commercial-room is a superior apartment, comfortably fitted up and capable of accommodating some forty gentlemen in style. The smoke-room, too, deserves special notice for the liberal supply of papers and periodicals it contains. The bedrooms number about forty, and are models of cleanliness and comfort. The excellence of the cuisine is a marked feature of the establishment and one which has added in no small degree to its prosperity. All the delicacies of the season are to be found in the larder, and the cooking and serving are of a superior and high-class character, while the tariff is admittedly as low as any similar establishment in the Principality. There is an ordinary every day at 1.30 which is much patronised by business men and visitors. Picnics and wedding parties are also catered for. The Grand has always been a favourite “staying” place with commercial gentlemen visiting Swansea. The stock-rooms are spacious and well lighted, and are very rarely unoccupied. Mr. and Mrs. Fitt make the welfare of their guests their first consideration. Their experience in the business has been long and of the most valuable character. For home comfort, attention, and moderate charges the Grand Hotel is second to none in South Wales.


MR. DEANS has recently commenced business at the above address, with, one of the most refined and useful stocks of the kind that has been introduced into Swansea. To those who can appreciate the artistic combined with the useful, his well-ordered establishment is a source of never-failing attraction, while an opportunity is afforded of witnessing the immense strides made during recent years in the manufacture of stationery. The shop has a good single plate-glass window, with a most tastefully-arranged interior. The stock is entirely new, and contains absolutely the latest novelties and improvements. The stationery department embraces all kinds of goods for commercial, legal, scholastic, and general purposes. The fancy goods are most chaste, and are well adapted for presentation purposes. There are all kinds of drawing materials and instruments, including books, blocks, moist colours, mathematical instruments, &c. In books there are elegantly-bound Bibles, church services, Prayer-books, hymnals, &c. In this department may be included the texts, Sunday-school reward tickets, &c. The cases contain handsomely-bound books by standard authors, the poets, valuable and authentic books on the sciences, theology, &c., as well as a superior and carefully-selected stock of Sunday-school reward books by the most eminent publishers. There are all the necessaries for the science and art and private and public schools. The principal newspapers, magazines, &c., are promptly and regularly supplied to order, while orders for all kinds of plain and fancy printing are executed with praiseworthy expedition. Such is the nature of the stock, and the courtesy and attention of Mr. Deans, that a high-class connection has already been formed, and one that is rapidly increasing.


IN a seaport like Swansea a good steam-tug service is a matter of prime necessity. Very important services in this respect are rendered to the shipping interests of the town by the “Stag” Steam-tug Company, which is represented by Mr. Peter Whiteside as managing owner. This business was established by Mr. Whiteside about ten years ago, and the admirable manner in which its duties have been performed have constituted the company one of the most highly appreciated institutions of the port. The position of Mr. Whiteside’s offices is most convenient for the purposes of the business; and they are furnished with every necessary convenience for the transaction of affairs. Mr. Whiteside is the owner of two powerful tugs, the “Stag,” and the “Staghound,” which respectively have engines of twenty-five and of thirty horse-power nominal. The “Staghound” has just been built, and, being supplied with all the latest improvements which marine engineering and shipbuilding skill could suggest, she constitutes a model of what a vessel of her class should be. The hands employed under the supervision of the owner are all picked men, with a large experience of the often dangerous and intricate duties which they have to perform. Mr. Whiteside, who has a thorough practical knowledge of his business, is personally well known and highly respected in all the ports of the Bristol Channel. His private address is 20, Trafalgar Terrace, to which address communications, personal or otherwise, may be addressed in cases of emergency with the assurance that they will receive prompt attention.


For the last twenty-two years Mr. J. H. Nott has carried on an important and ever-extending business, in Swansea, as a ships’ plumber, brazier, coppersmith, and iron, zinc, and tin-plate worker. Mr. Nott, through his thorough knowledge of the technical requirements of his business, and the untiring zeal which he displays in carrying out the exact desires of his customers, has been able to avail himself to the utmost of the vast strides in the trade of Swansea during late years, in regard to the amount of important work which he executes, both in ships and in private residences. About twelve years ago the increase of his business necessitated his removal to the commodious premises which he now occupies. These comprise a suite of well-appointed offices, with a convenient warehouse and a well-equipped workshop to the rear. Every requisite labour-saving appliance of the most approved modern type has been supplied, so that the industrial processes are performed under the most favourable economic conditions. The firm are enabled therefore to make the most moderate quotations in their estimates, which largely accounts for the marked success which they have achieved. About eighteen experienced workmen, several of whom are highly trained specialists, are constantly in Mr. Nott’s employment, and are always under his watchful supervision, so that the principal is in a position personally to guarantee the excellence of all the work done in connection with his establishment. Amongst the specialities of which he has a thorough knowledge, and with which he constantly deals, either in manufacturing or repairing, may be mentioned all lavatory appliances, cisterns, tank pumps, brass deck flanges, head and bilge pumps, copper boilers and steamers, lead water marks and figures, copper funnels for stoves, copper and lead scuppers, baking pans, tin measures, brass handrails, bushes for rudders, galvanised-iron ventilators and funnels, side lamps, binnacles and binnacle lamps, &c. Mr. Nott has also a splendid connection, amongst builders and private families, as a practical plumber, gas, hot-water and sanitary engineer, &c. He has always kept himself thoroughly abreast of the most modern improvements in the various departments of his trade, and has every facility for the installation of electric bells, speaking tubes, &c. Mr. Nott is personally well known throughout the Swansea district, and is highly respected for the sterling integrity which characterises all his transactions.


THIS excellently-managed establishment, whose success is the result of an exceptional amount of ability combined with a thorough technical knowledge of the wholesale trade in fish and game, was founded in 1840 by Mr. Thomas Benson. The members of the present firm, who succeeded in 1883, are his sons, Messrs. Thomas and John Benson. The headquarters of the house at 10, High Street comprise a finely-proportioned sale-room, well stocked with every variety of fish and game in season. Handsome plate-glass windows, and massive marble-topped counters and slabs are in keeping with the excellent quality and bounteous supplies of necessaries or luxuries for the table which Messrs. Benson ransack sea and land to procure. The offices are fitted with telephonic communication and all the other devices of modern invention for facilitating the despatch of business. The telephone number is 94, and the registered telegraphic address is, “Benson, Swansea.” They have permanent offices at Milford, and during the season, at Grimsby and Lowestoft. Messrs. Benson Brothers have likewise a thoroughly equipped branch shop at 170, High Street, Swansea. They are owners of steam trawlers, employed in procuring fish for their trade, and were pioneers in the introduction of screw trawlers into the district. Everything in the surroundings of this admirably appointed establishment, from the spacious curing-houses and curing stores, to the cooperage, in which a large number of barrels are constantly being made or repaired, is in keeping with the magnitude and the high class of the business. Ample ice-stores and wells furnish refrigerating adjuncts, and there is excellent stabling for the horses employed by the firm. The business relations of the firm extend throughout the trade within a wide radius, including a large portion of Glamorganshire and adjacent counties. In the mackerel season the untiring enterprise of the house is illustrated by the running of their own “carrying” steamers. To their warehouses arrive daily great supplies of fish from all parts of our coasts.


ORIGINALLY established in 1873 as Messrs. G. & S. Marquiss, the business passed entirely into the hands of the present proprietor in 1889. The premises occupy an excellent position in Oxford Street (No. 46), and comprise a spacious and well-appointed shop, together with office and well-equipped workshops at the rear. Mr. Marquiss holds a very large and thoroughly representative stock of paperhangings and wall coverings in all the newest and most fashionable designs, plain sheet and stained glass, paints, varnishes, and decorators’ materials of all kinds. Mr. Marquiss takes a special pride in his display of paperhangings, and it is impossible to look upon the many exquisitely beautiful and varied designs, with their wonderfully blended and thoroughly subdued yet rich colourings, without acknowledging them, to be works of art of the highest order. Mr. Marquiss has an excellent old-established connection. An efficient staff of experienced hands are regularly employed, and with the superior facilities at command, he is enabled to carry out contracts and work of any magnitude on the shortest notice, and with every attention to economy. Mr. Marquess possesses the advantage of long and thorough practical experience. All the work is carried out under his direct personal supervision. He is an active and popular man of business, and a much respected member of the mercantile community, amongst whom he takes high rank.


MR. A. HURN commenced business on his own account in April, 1892, at the Mineral Water Works, Northampton Lane. Mr. Hurn has had an experience of an exceptionally long and valuable character, and in his new venture he brings to bear many qualifications which cannot fail to insure its success. For thirty years he held the responsible position of manager at Bett’s well-known mineral-water works in this town, and in every department of the manufacture he may be said to be equally at home. Operations are carried on in large and commodious premises, consisting of a two-floor block of building. The ground floor has been thoroughly fitted up with filling and corking apparatus and plant and machinery of the best and most modern description, the whole being driven by a four horse-power engine. It should be said that the equipment has been supplied by Messrs. Heywood & Tylor, the eminent London engineers. The first floor contains stock-rooms and warehouses, and is in every way well adapted and arranged for the business. Already a considerable connection has been secured, and the business is rapidly growing. Everything the proprietor is turning out is of first-class quality. The produce is recognised in the trade as the best of its kind that skilled experience and attention can produce. The factory is remarkably clean and tidy, and every process of manufacture is carried out under responsible supervision, so that the absolute purity of the article can always be guaranteed. The stocks held embrace superior soda-water, lemonade, potash-water, ginger ale, hop bitters, &c., &c. Mr. Hurn gives his close personal attention to every branch of the business, and takes every care that science or experience can suggest to maintain the uniform excellence of his beverages. All orders are promptly filled, an ample force of skilled workmen being employed. The proprietor, in addition to his great practical skill, is a thoroughly enterprising and persevering man, and this, with his straightforward methods of business, cannot fail to secure him a continuance of that prosperity he has already initiated.


MAINTAINING an eminent position among the leading grocery establishments of Swansea, this prosperous business is in many ways a remarkable instance of what industry and well-directed enterprise can do, in raising the fortunes of a house from a comparatively small beginning to one of great magnitude and importance. Organised in the year l869 by the late Mr. Danial Evans, the business, at his decease some ten years later, was acquired by the present able and energetic proprietor, who was but sixteen years of age when he lost his brother, but nevertheless entered into his work with a native genius and indomitable energy which has proved effectual in overcoming every obstacle, and rising triumphant, with the result that Mr. Evan Evans is now the sole proprietor of an enormous business, having branch depots, each of which has already paid for its erection and installation, at the Castle Provision Stores, Evans’s Terrace, Dinas Plasmarl; the Household Stores, Waunarlwydd; 18 and 19, Hawarden Buildings, Landore; Manselton, Cwmburla; and Clarence Buildings, Strand, Swansea. In addition to these — each of which is self-maintained and under efficient management — Mr. Evans holds vast warehouses and stores at Richards Place, Swansea, from which all the retail shops mentioned are supplied, and a large wholesale trade connection adequately catered for.

The headquarters in High Street extend backwards for a distance of about two hundred yards to the Strand, and consist of a large and substantial three-storeyed building, admirably divided into show-rooms, offices, and warehouses, and appointed throughout in the best modern style, while a good service of horses and vans is maintained for the delivery of orders to all parts. Groceries and provisions of every conceivable kind are exhaustively represented, and none but goods of the best quality are permitted to emanate from the establishment. Mr. Evans’s connections and facilities are of a superior character altogether, enabling him to offer special advantages to customers, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. He is well known and highly esteemed in trade circles, as an enterprising and thoroughly capable business man, liberal and fair in all transactions, and well deserving of the substantial success he is achieving.


THE above business was established in 1862 by the late Mr. David Davies, father of the present proprietor, who acquired it on the death of the former in 1880. Commodious premises are utilised as stores and warehouse, consisting of a substantial two-storey building, which offers large accommodation for the comprehensive stock which is carried. It includes feeding-stuffs of all kinds for horses and cattle, such as hay, straw, oats, Indian corn, oil, cotton and linseed cakes, bran, crushed Indian corn and other foods, barley, wheat, and oatmeal, maize, Spratt’s dog and poultry food, Old Calabar foods for dogs and poultry, Thorley’s and Beechey’s foods for cattle, besides moss litter, &c., &c. Mr. Davies conducts both a wholesale and retail trade, and undertakes forage contracts. He is forage contractor to the Bath and West of England Agricultural Show. A splendid and flourishing business is conducted, Mr. Davies supplying patrons in all parts of the town and surrounding districts. He has a corn store in the Swansea Horse Repository, in Oxford Street, which he conducts on highly successful lines. The proprietor personally superintends the business. Possessed of a complete knowledge of the requirements of the public in this line, he is always able to supply what is by general consent admitted to be best suited for the purpose required. He is widely known in the town, and is much esteemed for his many excellent qualities.


MR. GORDON commenced practice about eight years ago at Post Office Chambers, and rapidly acquired a well-established position in his profession, securing as clients many of the leading land and mine owners in the Principality, and steadily extending the scope of his operations over a wide area of the district. Three years ago Mr. Gordon removed to the more commodious and centrally situated offices he now occupies at 102, Oxford Street, the accommodation at this address including a well-furnished suite of rooms providing every convenience for the clerical staff and the requirements of the principal and his clients. The several departments of Mr. Gordon’s business embrace every branch of land and mining surveying, in which his extended professional experience gives him expert authority in all matters relating to the laying out of building and other estates, measurements for valuation, and similar work. In these operations Mr. Gordon has long enjoyed a widespread and valuable practice, and has secured the confidence of an extensive and influential clientele. In addition to his private practice as surveyor, Mr. Gordon occupies the responsible position of manager of the Penlan Colliery, and, as indicating his interest in local questions, has for some years served as a member of the Penclawdd School Board to the entire satisfaction of his colleagues on that body and all sections of his fellow townsmen.


SINCE 1889 the district has possessed the advantage of having a resident veterinary surgeon in the person of Mr. J. M. Stewart, M.R.C.V.S.G., who has a thorough practical knowledge of the most modern developments of veterinary science, gained after many years* experience in various parts of the country. Mr. Stewart’s premises are at Nelson Street and Oxford Street, and comprise, at the Oxford Horse Repository, a surgery, stabling, and infirmary boxes, all fitted with the necessary appliances, representing the latest improvements in veterinary surgical technology. Mr. Stewart’s practice includes the usual veterinary treatment of horses and other animals, with the aid of a thorough knowledge of the results of the most recent original research. Mr. Stewart has already attained more than a local reputation for his remarkable ability as a specialist in canine cases, and his merit, in this respect, is gratefully recognised by many leading sportsmen in all the southern counties of the Principality. In several delicate operations, such as the emasculation or cleaning of young stock and docking, the necessity for the performance of which is very frequent, a large amount of pain has hitherto been inflicted, which is almost entirely obviated by certain novel methods of treatment which Mr. Stewart has successfully introduced, thus doing away with the possibility of fractures, lockjaw, &c., so frequent by the old methods. His patrons, therefore, have an absolute assurance that, in entrusting their animals to his care, they are promoting the cause of humanity in the most practical manner possible. Mr. Stewart graduated with honours at the Glasgow Veterinary College, and several silver medals and first-class certificates testify to the zeal and success with which he went through his academic career.


HALF a century has now elapsed since the formation of this prosperous concern by the late Mr. John Powe, upon whose decease in 1878, the business passed into the hands of his experienced son, the present able and enterprising proprietor, who recently abandoned the original premises in Orange Street, in order to give scope to the rapidly expanding trade. The premises in High Street consist of a spacious attractively appointed retail depot, in which a particularly fine display of choice confectionery of Mr. Powe’s own manufacture, as well as the sweets of other famous firms, such as those of Barrett’s, Woodward’s, and others, is always en evidence. 21, College Street, on the other hand, is reserved as the headquarters, for the supply of the trade, and comprises a commodious handsomely fitted shop, with ample storage accommodation for a very heavy stock on the upper floors. The manufacturing department is located at the Strand, and consists of a large steam factory, elaborately equipped with a plant of the most modern machinery and appliances by Messrs. Brierly, which is capable of producing no less than fifteen tons of assorted sweets per week.

Whilst manufacturing sweets of every kind, Mr. Powe has won a widespread and well-merited renown for his Everton toffee, walnut rock, almond toffee, and French almond rock; and has recently made a speciality of a most toothsome and delicate sweet called “Creamona,” which is prepared from a basis of pure clotted Devonshire cream, which he receives in large consignments by steamboat three times a week direct from Devonshire dairies. A sample of this “Creamona,” from which large profits can be made, is sent post free to retail dealers in any part of the Kingdom, upon receipt of a postcard or letter; and so universally well has the delicacy sold that a very considerable business is done in this item alone. In addition to a good local retail and wholesale trade, Mr. Powe promotes his business in all parts of the Principality, through the agency of a full staff of travellers, and at his works and depots finds regular employment for a staff of about thirty hands. For the rest, the business is conducted upon the soundest commercial principles, and is steadily advancing in prestige and position under thr influence of the ability and energy which mark the administration of all its affairs in the mercantile world.


As it was in 1878 that Mr. Thomas Harrison established the important business which he has since conducted in Swansea, his commercial career has extended through a large portion of the period, during which the wonderful advance in the industrial and commercial importance of the South Wales coal and iron districts has taken place. This flourishing business was founded and carried on in the same yard in which the present commodious premises are situated. In 1888 the increasing volume of business necessitated the removal to the present quarters, which comprise three ample stores and a well-appointed office, furnished with all the appliances for facilitating the prompt despatch of the extensive correspondence necessitated by the numerous transactions of the firm. Mr. Harrison is a large importer and dealer in every description of fruits in their several seasons, also potatoes, fish, and parsnips, carrots, &e. The French ports give him constant supplies of apples, pears, plums, apricots, cherries, &c. Potatoes are obtained from English, Irish, and French ports, and are held in stock and in excellent condition all the year round. Mr. Harrison’s extensive and intimate relations with growers in these several districts are such that at all times he is able to offer the best class of produce at the lowest possible rates. It is thus that he is able to control an important connection amongst many classes of retail dealers, which extends throughout Glamorganshire and the adjacent counties.


THIS important business was originally established by Mr. Robert Savage, at 52, Oxford Street, and was shortly afterwards acquired by Mr. Boyle. Ever since 1875, when he took over the control of the establishment, he has continued to steadily increase his connection. Before Mr. Boyle had advanced far in his commercial career, the volume of his business had become so considerable that it was necessary to remove to the commodious premises which he now occupies. These comprise a large warehouse, four storeys in height, with an extensive floor area. There is a suite of well-appointed general and private offices. The warehouse has floor-space ample enough to permit of the systematic arrangement of the large and varied stocks which are always held, and constitutes, in its internal organisation, a model of what a large wholesale grocery and provision establishment should be. On the ground floor are stocks of all sorts of groceries and provisions. The first floor is utilised for the storage of flour, meal, forage, &c., while a fine assortment of earthenware goods, together with large stocks of tea, paper, and spices, is to be found on the second floor. The third floor is utilised for surplus stocks. The business is entirely wholesale, and it is indicative of the energy which characterises its management that its interests are represented by the principal himself in the commercial journeys which he periodically makes throughout the district. Mr. Boyle’s relations with the producers of all classes of provisions are so intimate that he is able to place his customers upon the most favourable footing, both as regards the quality of the goods supplied, and the moderate prices charged for them.


ORIGINALLY organised in the year 1877 at Wrexham, by its present able and enterprising proprietor, this prosperous and progressive business was transferred to its eligible headquarters in the High Street, Swansea, some seven years since. In 1888 Mr. T. Woodward opened a branch establishment at 13, Oxford Street, in order to give full scope to his rapidly expanding business. The Wrexham Pork Shop, as it has appropriately been called, is in every point of character and situation precisely adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business of the kind. The premises consist of a spacious double-fronted shop of singularly inviting appearance, appointed throughout in the best modern style, and always very fully stocked with the primest dairy-fed pork, Welsh hams and bacons, glazed beef, dressed ox tongues, roast pork and boiled hams, Wrexham and German sausages, polonies, puddings, pork pies, pure lard, and pork products of every kind. At the rear there is a well-constructed warehouse and a perfectly equipped factory, where the sausages are made by machinery driven by a powerful gas-engine. Mr. Woodward has won a widespread and well-merited renown as a dealer in articles of the best quality exclusively, and commands a large family as well as an extensive wholesale trade, which extends to all parts of the borough and its populous districts. His connections and facilities are of a superior character, enabling him to offer special advantages to customers, and to execute all orders in a prompt and satisfactory manner. Personally, Mr. Woodward is well known and highly esteemed in trade circles as an enterprising and thoroughly capable business man. He is president of the Swansea Butchers’ and Cattle Dealers’ Association, and managing director of the Swansea Hide, Skin, Fat, and Wool Company (Limited).


FOR more than thirty years Mr. Andrews has been in excellent practice as an artist photographer, and during the whole of this period he has been most intimately associated with the progress and development of the industry, and all the improvements that have been introduced into the various processes. He was undisputably the pioneer of art photography in South Wales. The studio is situated opposite the Town Hall, and close to the Custom House, telegraph offices, and the Swansea Docks. The premises are in all respects suitable for photography of the highest class, and afford facilities for the exercise of every branch of the art. The reception-rooms contain many splendid specimens of photographic portraiture in all the newest styles, which well display in clearness, definition, and beauty of finish the superior skill and talent employed in this establishment. Mr. Andrews makes a leading speciality of the photographing of steamships and other vessels, either afloat or in the dry docks. In cartes-de-visite, cabinets, enlargements, and panel work Mr. Andrews’s productions are unexcelled. Perhaps enlargements from the ordinary cartes-de-visits or small photographs are the speciality to which this gentleman devotes his most careful attention, and he has been exceedingly successful in this branch. It is no uncommon thing with him to produce a perfect life-sized picture of a single person from these, or from a group, and thus produce an effect as if the person so delineated had given an individual sitting. Persons possessing photos in groups will be glad to find that portraits of individual members can be extracted in the most perfect manner, and finished in such a way as to give the idea that a personal sitting has been given. The excellent equipment of the establishment ensures the prompt execution of orders, while the prices charged are very moderate, and the satisfaction to be obtained by an artistic and accurate portrait is guaranteed. Mr. Andrews is personally very popular, and his courteous attention to the requirements of his numerous patrons makes a visit to his well-organised studio a source of interest, pleasure, and enjoyment.


MR. WILLIAMSON commenced operations at his present address some seven years ago, and has in that comparatively brief period firmly established this concern in the front rank of the leading purveyors of this class of produce in the district. The premises occupied by this gentleman are centrally situated at 85, Oxford Street, one of the principal thoroughfares in the town, the establishment presenting a good frontage to the street, and combining every advantage of space and convenience for carrying out the work of the several departments of the business. The premises are fitted throughout with the necessary appointments, including a large refrigerator, and are effectively illuminated with the electric light, the whole of the arrangements being designed on the most superior scale. The establishment is daily supplied with the primest qualities of home-fed and slaughtered Welsh and English beef, Welsh mutton, and lamb and veal when in season. In the rear an extensive manufactory is devoted to the sausage-making department, which is fully equipped with improved plant for this purpose, motive force being supplied by a powerful steam-engine, which is also utilised for driving the dynamo for generating the electric light. In addition to the departments already mentioned Mr. Williamson is also extensively engaged in the bacon-curing trade, and in supplying shipping orders for live pigs, sheep, poultry, and other provisions. A large and steadily increasing trade has been developed by the proprietor in each branch of the business, a widespread family and shipping connection having been established in Swansea and the neighbourhood, whose substantial and continued patronage and support have been secured by the exceptionally high quality of the goods supplied, and the prompt and careful attention given to the execution of all orders, wholesale or retail, which may be entrusted to this gentleman for completion.


THE precise date when this noteworthy business was founded was 1840, operations being then commenced by Mr. John Brader, the father of the present proprietor. The founder died some three years ago, and was succeeded by his son, Mr. John Brader, under whose sole proprietorship the business has remained ever since. Mr. Brader brings to his business the result of a lifelong experience, and under his vigorous control the ancient prestige of the house has been more than maintained, an important and still increasing addition being made to the patronage. Operations are carried on in a handsome block of four-storey building, prominently situated in one of the leading thoroughfares. The premises consist of a double-fronted shop, admirably fitted up with every requisite, and extending to a considerable distance to the rear. The windows are worthy of special notice for their size, and the fine display of instruments they contain. There is a spacious and well-lighted show-room on the first floor, and another at the back, over the well-equipped workshops. A first-class and valuable trade is here controlled, and the establishment is deservedly regarded as having no superior in South Wales. The stocks held are exceptionally large, and every instrument offered has been personally selected, and is fully guaranteed.

The stocks include splendid samples of all the leading English and foreign pianoforte makers — Collard & Collard, Broadwood, Erard, Kirkman, Brinsmead — and especially noticeable are the magnificent instruments made by the famous firm of Bechstein, for which Mr. Brader is the sole district agent. The harmoniums in stock comprise selections from the best-known makers, and the American organs include specimens of Mason & Hamlin, Clough & Warren, Bell, Smith, Estey, and all the most famous manufacturers* A speciality is made of supplying these harmoniums, as well as pipe organs of any size, to places of worship. These are tuned, repaired, and kept in order by the firm. Estimates are supplied free of charge. There are also large assortments of every description of wind and string instruments, and fittings in great variety. Immense supplies are kept of music, both bound and in sheets, and special attention is given to supplying new pieces as soon as published. Instruments are supplied on the one, two, and three years’ system of purchase, without any increase in the price, and any instrument in the establishment can be selected. Instruments are lent on hire for any length of time. An efficient staff of skilled workmen is kept on the premises, and repairs of every description receive prompt attention; and pianofortes, organs, and harmoniums are- tuned by contract or otherwise. In each department an extensive connection is maintained, and the firm enjoys the patronage of the highest classes in Swansea and the district. Mr. Brader is widely known as an able, courteous, and honourable business man, and is respected and esteemed by all with whom he has dealings.


AMONG the representative businesses in Swansea which claim attention by reason of their public usefulness, that of Mr. William Richards stands forth prominently. It is one of the largest and busiest concerns in the town, and dates its history from the year 1846. The original premises were taken by the tramway company, and Mr. Richards built the present fine establishment in 1881. These premises are of large extent and handsome appearance, and have a most advantageous situation facing High Street and Prince of Wales Road. The frontage is a lengthy one, and the large plate-glass windows afford superior facilities for the display of goods. Internally the warehouse is admirably appointed, and every convenience exists for the transaction of business upon a large scale. Immense stocks are held in all the departments of the trade in which Mr. Richards engages. The bakery department is a particularly important feature, as may be judged from the fact that something like two thousand cakes, buns, &c., are turned out daily. The weekly output of bread is correspondingly large, amounting to about ten thousand four-pound loaves, and among the many successful novelties introduced in this department we note a new raisin cake, which is rapidly achieving a well-merited popularity. In the bakery everything is done by steam machinery, of which there is a large and valuable plant in operation, and thus absolute purity and cleanliness are ensured. Teas also form a leading speciality of this extensive business. Mr. Richards has long been noted for his pure teas, and he continues to maintain a very high standard of excellence in this department, producing choice blends of the finest China, India, and Ceylon growths, and carefully studying all tastes with a view to meeting the requirements of every class of customers. In this he is eminently successful, and there is a widespread and steadily increasing demand upon his resources in the tea department.

Provisions of various kinds come within the wide scope of Mr. Richards’s trade, and the spacious cellars of the premises in High Street exhibit the completeness of his preparations for a large business in this line, great stocks being held in bacon, butter, cheese, lard, and other goods of a kindred nature. There is also a grist-mill, admirably equipped with the necessary machinery, and over the bakery are bins and apparatus for blending flours. Stabling is provided for fifteen horses, which, together with a number of vans and carts, are required in the delivery work of the business. Upwards of thirty competent and experienced hands are employed in the various departments, and for this staff there is ample dining-room and bedroom accommodation on the premises. Ten branches are conducted in connection with, the business, viz., at Swansea, Landore, Morriston, Manselton, and St. Thomas; and these include two butchers’ shops, which enjoy a large amount of patronage. At Caereithen Mr. Richards has a large dairy, with about fifty cows, and from this source he derives supplies of choice dairy produce; while at the same place are fed large numbers of cattle, sheep, and pigs for the butchers’ shops already mentioned. Altogether this business must be regarded as one of the most extensive and important concerns of its kind in South Wales; and it receives the regular support of a large and influential local and district clientele.

The head of the house, Mr. William Richards, is one of Swansea’s most prominent citizens, and is greatly esteemed for the energy and public spirit he has displayed in all matters affecting the welfare of the community. His popularity is evidenced by the fact that he has been a member of the Swansea Corporation since 1875, when he was elected by the remarkable majority of twelve hundred votes, five other candidates competing at the same time. He is also a Justice of the Peace for the borough, and has been an alderman since 1889. Mr. Richards takes a very active interest in the Streets Committee, of which he has been chairman for a number of years; and the fine horses so frequently seen working in the Corporation carts are the result of his judgment as purchaser of horses for the municipality. In the management of his large and important business Mr. Richards is ably assisted by his son, Mr. David Richards, a courteous and straightforward business man, possessing many excellent commercial qualities which he doubtless inherits from his respected father.


THE above firm owes its existence to the enterprise of the late Mr. Robert Hastie, who established himself in business in Swansea some seven years ago under the style of Hastie & Co. He created a valuable connection, which he successfully carried on until his decease, which occurred in the early part of 1892. Since that event the responsibilities of the business have been admirably discharged by his son, Mr. J. Cameron Hastie, who trades under the above style and title. The premises of the firm comprise a convenient office, together with workshops running through from Adelaide Street to Victoria Road, furnished with all the requisites necessary for the manufacture of the “Silicate Cotton Sheets,” &c. The registered telegraphic address of the firm is, “Hastie, Swansea.” Their principal business consists in the covering of steam boilers, pipes, cylinders, &c. It is in this connection that it becomes important to state that they are the sole district licencees for Messrs. Frederick Jones & Co.’s genuine British-made “Silicate Cotton,” or “Slag Wool,” and “Silicate Cotton Cement,” which claims to be the best-known non-conductor of heat, cold, and sound. This substance is used for covering boilers, steam pipes, exhaust pipes, cylinders, combustion pipes of gas-engines, cold- water pipes, tanks, and cisterns; for backing fire-grates and lining refrigerators, ice-houses, brewery cellars, and wine rooms, bulkheads, and underneath ships’ decks, and for pugging floors and lining walls in buildings. It can be applied woven with yarn or wire, into sheets, felted in conjunction with wire-netting. These sheets are a speciality of the firm; they are removable, and have many other advantages over other forms of covering. It can also be applied in the loose or natural form by simply packing it underneath sheet iron, zinc, wooden lagging, &c., or in the form of a cement, mixed with infusoria or fossil meal, in the same

Messrs. J. Cameron Hastie are also the sole agents, either for Wales or for the Swansea district, for several other specialities of constant use in the industrial business of the Principality. Amongst the firms which they thus represent are Messrs. Webster & Co., of the Patent Ropery, Sunderland; Mr. W. J. Robinson, of Bristol, who is a well-known importer of engine-oils, &c.; Messrs. Wallace, Cruikshank & Co., of the Carron Bank Foundry, Denny, N.B., whose castings in crucible steel and cast iron, together with other requisites for collieries, are highly appreciated in the markets; Messrs. George Argus & Co., Limited, of St. John’s Leather Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne, &c. Messrs. Hastie & Co. are also dealers in Eadie’s improved flange tubing, whose special D joint is so well known and widely used; Dodd's horse and cattle condiments, Bryant’s Indian Fluid, Morgan’s Boiler Fluid, and they likewise control a large business in new and second-hand engines, boilers, machinery tanks, &c. Mr. J. Cameron Hastie is throwing much energy and enthusiasm into the business, and the hereditary perfervidum ingenium Scotorum is once more, in his person, asserting itself in South Wales.


SWANSEA is to be congratulated upon possessing an establishment where the operations of feather dyeing and French cleaning are performed under the best possible conditions. With Mrs. Bristow’s completely adequate resources at hand, there is no need to send to long distances, thereby incurring great risks, to secure results which can be better and less expensively accomplished at home. The business which is now ably conducted by Mrs. Bristow has been established thirty years. The premises comprise a well-appointed office, centrally situated. To the rear are the industrial departments, which are supplied with all the requisites for the due performance of the necessary processes. The business carried on at this establishment differs totally from that of ordinary dye-works, the staff being engaged entirely on the dyeing of feathers and delicate fabrics. The results are proportionately satisfactory, and the work done by Mrs. Bristow is highly appreciated, not only by the trade, but by many of the most distinguished families in the Swansea district. French cleaning of every possible description is equally well executed, the work being done by highly experienced hands. Mrs. Bristow has a very large connection, which is constantly expanding.


THE above business was established, about eight years ago by the present proprietor in Oxford Street, and in consequence of the necessity for increased accommodation the more extensive and commodious premises now occupied were acquired some four years since. These have been specially fitted up in the most careful and complete manner with all the best and most improved machinery and appliances. During the last three or four years Mr. Evans has completed and has still in hand several large contracts for book printing, including hymn-books, commentaries, diaries, magazines, &c., for the Calvinistic Methodist denomination and others; he also undertakes all kinds of general printing and lithography, such as pamphlets, catalogues, posters, handbills, invoices, bill-heads, concert and ball programmes, menus, visiting cards, &c., &c. The manufacture of account-books, diaries, ledgers, memorandum-books, &c., is also extensively carried on. A very large and thoroughly representative stock is always on hand ready for immediate delivery. The trade is steadily growing, and with the superior facilities at command Mr. Evans is enabled to punctually execute all orders, and to compete on favourable terms with any firm in the trade. All the work is carried out in the very best style under the immediate supervision of the proprietor, who is well known and highly respected in Swansea as a courteous and enterprising man of business, and enjoys the confidence and support of a very extensive and valuable connection.


THIS firm are noted for the efficient manner in which they carry out every class of work intrusted to them, and the house enjoys a high and fast increasing reputation. Business operations were commenced in 1888 by the present proprietors, Mr. J. A. Bevan and Mr. W. J. Kent, who brought to bear upon their new venture the result of many years’ practical acquaintance with, and close study of, the trade. It should be stated that for over eight years both partners were in the employ of Mr. John Legg, the sanitary engineer, of Nelson Street. The premises occupied comprise stores and workshops, the whole being well fitted up with the necessary plant and apparatus. A number of skilled workpeople are kept constantly employed, and every branch of work is taken in hand in connection with the business the house is engaged in. The firm are very extensively occupied in sanitary plumbing, and as hot and cold water engineers and gasfitters. Their work in these departments is well recognised in Swansea and the district. The materials used are of the best quality, and all contracts are carried out on the most approved principles and under able and responsible supervision. Public buildings, conservatories, and private houses are fitted up with hot-water apparatus, also churches heated on the most approved principles, and baths are fixed to orders. A special department is made of electric and wire bellhanging; and colliery signals, burglary and fire alarms are put up and maintained. The show-rooms and warehouses contain a large and well-selected supply of gasfittings, including many new patterns and designs, the latest and most improved sanitary appliances, lavatory and water closets, baths, urinals, &c. The house maintains an influential connection among the local gentry, medical practitioners, and others, and possesses every facility for executing orders with promptness. The partners are thoroughly practical men, who give the business the benefit of their personal supervision in every department, and the success they have achieved is both substantial and well deserved.


THIS popular commercial enterprise was founded in 1865 by Mr. William Bright, who subsequently admitted his son into partnership, when the present title was assumed. The premises are large, appropriate, and well situated. The shop has a large Window, in which a thoroughly attractive display is made, especially in the fruit season. The whole of the spacious interior is laid out in a very suitable manner. The stocks are constantly being renewed. Here will be found a great variety of the choicest English and foreign fruits according to season, there being many delicious table delicacies, cooking and preserving fruits, &c. These are all retailed at close market prices, excellent value being given in every case. The partners have a thorough knowledge of all the various branches of the trade, taking the personal superintendence of all the operations. Several competent hands are employed, and customers are served with commendable promptitude. Messrs. Bright & Son, through their courteous and straightforward dealing, have won the hearty respect of a large portion of the community by which they are surrounded.


THIS is one of the very oldest concerns of the kind in the neighbourhood, having been founded over thirty years ago by the present sole proprietor, Mr. F. Austin, who trades under the above title. This enterprising and active gentleman has made his interesting calling his life study, and in all parts of the country is quoted as a reliable authority upon all matters pertaining to beasts, birds, and reptiles. The premises occupied lend much additional interest to the surroundings. Over the door there is to be seen a tablet bearing this inscription:- Date, 18th October, 1679, and setting forth that this is the house in which the famous Richard Nash first saw the light. This was the renowned Beau Nash, who became the leader of fashion both in Bath and in London. The spacious interior is also fully occupied with stock, and there is a good show-room on the first floor. Mr. Austin has no room for rubbish, his stock being of high quality, many first-class prize-winners having been obtained from him. Among the more notable specimens are all kinds of British and foreign birds (song or otherwise), many of the foreign specimens being of the most brilliant plumage. There are also fancy rabbits, guinea-pigs, rats, mice, dogs, cats, &c., &c. A good display is made of all kinds of cages. The connection extends all over South Wales, among fanciers, private collectors, and others. Mr. Austin has gained the thorough confident! of his clientele by his straightforward transactions, being held in high respect and esteem.


This fine hotel, founded in 1889 by its present proprietor, Mr. R. E. Jones, has become one of the most esteemed hostelries in Swansea, and has also gained a great reputation for its high-class cafe and restaurant, which are conducted upon the best modern lines. The establishment is at the corner of the Arcade in High Street, and about a minute’s walk from the Great Western Railway station. The premises form a very handsome and commodious block, with two entrances and several large plate-glass windows, fitted with handsomely decorated window screens in ground glass and polished mahogany. The interior of the establishment is elegantly and tastefully appointed, the restaurant, with its fine buffet, excellent general furnishings, and beautifully ornamented ceiling, being particularly attractive. Here luncheons and dinners are served in the best style at all hours of the day, and the menu includes the choicest viands in season. On the first floor of the premises is the coffee-room, and this floor also contains the commercial-room, a handsome and well-furnished room, admirably lighted, and well adapted to the requirements of commercial-travellers. Large alterations have been recently completed, and there is now a new feature in the shape of a fine large billiard-room lighted by electricity. There are also stock-rooms.

The Angel Hotel contains twenty bedrooms, all of which are furnished in the most complete style. The sanitary arrangements of the house are excellent throughout, and everything calculated to contribute to the comfort and convenience of visitors is brought into requisition. It is intended in 1894 to erect a splendid new block with elegant entrance to the hotel. This addition will treble the accommodation at the Angel. The tariff is extremely moderate. Mr. Jones is a most popular host, possessing the happy faculty of making his guests feel thoroughly at home, and both himself and his well-conducted house stand high in the estimation of a large and valuable clientele.

Equally successful has Mr. Jones been in his proprietorship of the Washington Hotel, St. Mary’s Street, Cardiff, a fine establishment with one hundred beds, six billiard-tables, and an excellent restaurant. This latter house is conducted with great ability and enterprise by Mr. Jones, who has made it as popular as “The Angel” at Swansea. He also has flourishing branch restaurants on another street: the Castle Cafe, Castle Street; the Midland Cafe, opposite Wind Street Theatre; and at the Mumbles, the Yacht Cafe, New Terminus, which receive a due share of patronage and are always carefully looked after by the energetic and experienced proprietor. Both the “ Angel” and the “Washington” are justly regarded as being amongst the best-managed and most comfortable hotels in South Wales.


THE increasing demand for beverages of a non-intoxicating character has in no district been more marked than in Swansea, where the steady spread of temperance principles has been the primary cause of the extensive development of the mineral water trade within the past few years. In connection with this important industry we have pleasure in directing the attention of our readers to the well-known business originally established some eleven years ago by Mrs. A. Evans. The premises in Gorse Lane comprise spacious three-storey manufactory, replete with improved modern machinery and appliances for perfecting the various processes. A plentiful supply of pure water is obtained from natural sources, and the various ingredients used in the works are of guaranteed excellence. Mrs. Evans's specialities include lemonade, soda and potass water, ginger ale and hop bitters, and other mineral and aerated waters in demand in the district. A widespread and valuable connection has long been established by the proprietress and her respected predecessor in the trade, Mrs. Evans enjoying the substantial support of many of the leading clubs, hotels, restaurants, and innkeepers in the town and neighbourhood, who are daily waited upon for orders by a staff of civil and attentive van-men employed for this purpose. The business is admirably managed, under the personal supervision of the lady principal, who has had considerable practical experience in working the several departments of the concern, and ably sustains the high reputation of the establishment for the uniform standard of its productions, which in perfect purity, flavour, and wholesome qualities are unsurpassed by those of any other local maker.


MR. RANDLES commenced business some forty-three years ago, and throughout this long business career he has uninterruptedly controlled and supervised his establishment. The premises occupied are exceptionally handsome and attractive. Possessed of a pleasing double frontage and spacious interior, facilities for the display of stock are manifold. On either side of the shop are counters, and at the immediate rear is a very superiorly equipped fitting-on department. A very high-class business is conducted: consequently the stock carried is of the most fashionable and stylish character. Everything in the way of boots and shoes, whether for ladies or gentlemen, both in English and French manufacture, is held in stock. Riding, shooting, tourist, cricket, football, tennis, and walking boots and shoes of all kinds, and suitable for every purpose, may be procured at this establishment of a quality and at a price which commend them to all.

A special department is the bespoke trade. Mr. Randles has long enjoyed the patronage of an influential section of the community in this connection, and his reputation stands high in the trade. He makes from special lasts for each customer, and guarantees both material and fit. In boots for hunting and shooting purposes he is most favourably known to a wide area. He is also agent for the “Bective,” “Adapted,” Dr. Jaeger’s and Scafe’s patent rubber boot, and other well-known styles of manufacture in boots and shoes. Mr. Randles is the sole agent also for the Golphore boot, which is highly suitable for shooting, golfing, and as a general rough weather boot, it is warranted to keep the feet and legs dry; no separate attachment, such as leggings or gaiters is required. It can be regulated to fit any size leg, and is ready at a moment’s notice for fine weather or foul. The boots afford special freedom to the ankles, are light in weight, and are specially adapted for country and general wear. The manufacturing, and a large repairing trade as well, are severally carried out on the premises by experienced and reliable workmen. Mr. Randles personally manages his business. He controls a splendid trade among the upper and middle classes of the town and districts, and by his numerous patrons, as well as by all who have the pleasure of his acquaintance, he is held in high esteem for his many excellent qualities.


A RECENT but very important addition to the carriage-building industry of Swansea has been made by the establishment of the admirably conducted business of Messrs. John W. Miles & Co., who have in the space of three years attained a reputation second to that of none in the trade in this district. The premises of the firm are well adapted to the large trade in operation. Abutting the street is a spacious and admirably lighted show-room, containing many excellent specimens of the finished work of the firm. Carriage lamps, harness, whips, and fittings of the newest designs and best workmanship are also well represented in the show-room. The works, which are at the rear, embrace a smiths’ shop, equipped with two forges, and various appliances, including improved drills and tire-bending machines. There are also well-fitted carriage-building shops. The timber store is especially noteworthy, on account of the large stock which the firm has laid in, so that all timber may be thoroughly seasoned. The body-building shop is, naturally, the most extensive department, and here may be seen vehicles of all descriptions, being built according to special designs. There is also a well-fitted upholstering department, and a dust-proof shop for painting and varnishing. Messrs. Miles & Co. manufacture every description of vehicles from the lightest dogcart to the most ponderous drag or four-in-hand. The most important speciality, however, is the “medical car,” of which the firm are the inventors and sole manufacturers. This car is certainly the most convenient ever offered to gentlemen of the medical profession. It is easy of ingress and egress, has a movable head which opens and closes at the pleasure of the occupant, is tastefully upholstered, and is fitted with an additional seat, which may be raised or let down as required, and is mounted on cee-springs, with patent wheels and axles. Estimates and designs for all descriptions of vehicles are submitted upon application, and it will be found that the firm are in a position to quote as favourably as any firm in South Wales.


THIS energetically conducted and flourishing business was originally founded about thirty-five years ago by Mr. Andrews, who, during the eleven years of his proprietorship, created a valuable connection. Mr. Andrews was followed by Mr. Sandbrook, who about three years ago was succeeded by Mr. Jenkins, trading under the existing style of the firm. The premises occupied by the firm are very extensive, and comprise a fine double-fronted shop in Oxford Street, occupying a commanding position at the junction of Oxford Street and Park Street, into which latter thoroughfare the buildings extend to about sixty yards in depth, with entrances at 9 and 10, Park Street. The interior is admirably appointed, and as the floors above the shop are utilised as show-rooms, there is ample space for the systematic arrangement of the large and varied stocks which the firm always hold of every description of general furnishing and builders’ ironmongery. The firm make a speciality of their cutlery and electro-plated goods, and they have at all times a practically unlimited selection of lamps for the choice of their customers. They are justly noted, too, for the promptitude with which they introduce every description of approved novelties in tools as soon as they are put on the market. The important and intimate relations which Messrs. Jenkins & Co. maintain with many of the leading firms of manufacturers enable them to offer their customers goods of high intrinsic value at exceptionally low prices. The industrial departments are at the rear. They are supplied with an excellent forge, and all the requisite labour-saving mechanical appliances of the latest description for the various industrial processes. The advantages of the material economies thus effected are fully shared by the patrons of the house in the form of greatly reduced prices. A staff of some twenty efficient workmen, many of whom are highly-skilled experts in their several departments, are regularly employed in electrical work, bellhanging, gasfitting, and plumbing. Mr. Jenkins is well known throughout the district, and is held in high esteem for his high commercial principles, which manifest themselves in all his business transactions.


THE remarkably rapid expansion which, during the last three decades, has taken place in the importance of the staple trades of Glamorganshire has, necessarily, given an enormous impetus to the demand, in Swansea, for increased facilities for the delivery, forwarding, and shipping of goods of all kinds. The notable increase in the population of the borough, too, has created a greatly augmented demand for facilities for the removal of household furniture, and its safe storage on the pantechnicon system. Since 1863 most valuable services have been rendered to the community, in all these different departments, by the energetic and judiciously enterprising firm of Messrs. Powlesland & Mason. This admirably conducted business was established in 1863 by the late Mr. R. B. Powlesland, who in 1875 was joined in partnership by Mr. A. Mason, who had previously gained a most extensive and valuable knowledge of the carrying trade, during a lengthened period throughout which he had been in the service of the Great Western Railway Company. Mr. Powlesland, after a most successful and honourable commercial career, died about eight years ago, and the business has since been conducted by Mr. Mason as sole proprietor and general manager.

The premises which serve as the headquarters of the firm are very extensive, and comprise large warehouses and stables, conveniently situated in Clarence Terrace. Like all the other arrangements of the firm the equipment of the stables gives evidence in its completeness of the wise expenditure of capital which has been made in order to secure the perfection of prompt and economic service. The stable department includes a substantial two-storeyed building, with thirty-six stalls and a spacious loose-box. The haylofts, corn-room, and chopping-room have been specially adapted to the storage of fodder under the best conditions, and the chopping cutter is driven by a powerful gas-engine of recent construction. The fodder is lowered by shafts, and every other requisite is provided for economising labour. These appliances include, in the yard, a weighbridge, with all the modern improvements, by Pooley. There is ample warehouse accommodation for the storage of furniture, merchandise, and property of all kinds, the charge of which is undertaken by the firm, at moderate rates, and under the best possible conditions; while large sheds have been erected for the protection of mammoth furniture vans and carts of all descriptions. Thirty-five horses, which are always kept in the best condition, are regularly employed in the various operations of the firm, which include contracts for forwarding goods to all parts of the world, while the staff of workmen regularly engaged ranges from a hundred to a hundred and fifty, frequently exceeding the latter number. The magnitude of the firm’s operations is considerably augmented by the work which they perform as local agents for the Great Western Railway Company.

Mr. Mason, like many other busy men of exceptionally high administrative ability, has, in the midst of his responsibilities, found a large amount of leisure to devote to the service of the public. He was in 1882 elected a member of the Town Council, and, during the subsequent seven years rendered such notable assistance in the conduct of public affairs that in 1889 he was created an alderman of the borough, and in 1892 he deservedly attained the supreme municipal dignity of Mayor of Swansea. He is also a Proprietary Harbour Trustee. Both in his official and his commercial capacity Alderman Mason enjoys the respect of every class of his fellow-townsmen.

Mr. S. C. Gamwell, Managing Director.

A VERY conspicuous instance of well-earned journalistic success is presented to our notice by that well-known and influential newspaper, The Cambrian, which dates its history from the year 1804, and which can claim the distinction of having been the first newspaper ever published in the Principality. The Cambrian has enjoyed a career of uninterrupted progress and prosperity, and has wielded its influence with justice, courage, and a right appreciation of the best interests of the county and the country generally, all of which has sufficed to gain for it a wide circulation, and to secure in a marked degree the approval and confidence of the public. In January, 1891, the business was taken over by the present Company, with Mr. S. C. Gamwell as managing director and editor, that gentleman having been many years previously one of the proprietors' under the firm of H. W. Williams & Co. Little can now be said of “The Cambrian” that is not already pretty generally known, and not even its political opponents can say anything of it that is not to its credit, as far as the true spirit of journalism is concerned. In politics “The Cambrian” is moderately Liberal. It is the county paper of Glamorganshire, and is unsurpassed for news, while it is locally supreme as an advertising: medium.

The price of the paper when it first started was 6d. unstamped, and 7d. stamped. It was afterwards reduced to 3d., and continued at that price for many years. About eighteen months ago the paper was considerably enlarged, and the price was further reduced to 2d., a concession to the views of present-day readers which has evidently been greatly appreciated. Not only in its special district of South Wales does “The Cambrian” circulate. It goes all over the Principality, and, indeed, to every part of the world where Welshmen have been scattered. Its post list for America, India, and all the British Colonies is a large one, and testifies to the fact that Welshmen in distant lands still like to see their old friend of former times, and to unpack its budget of news fresh, from the old homeland. “The Cambrian” devotes itself to carefully and conscientiously recording the proceedings of all local public bodies; hence the files of this journal, which are bound and preserved in the library of the Royal Institution of South Wales, are rightly regarded as the most complete and valuable history of the district during the past eighty or ninety years. The librarian of the Royal Institution declares that the successive volumes of “The Cambrian” are more consulted than any other work in the large national Welsh collection under his care.

The paper is still printed and published at the old convenient offices, No. 58, Wind Street, where, in addition to the several departments connected with the journal itself, the Company have a very large and prosperous jobbing office for the execution of all kinds of printing. The resources of this establishment are most complete, and it turns out some of the largest and finest poster and placard work produced in Wales and the West of England. A large assortment of the newest and most attractive types from the leading English, German, and American foundries has been laid in, and it is generally acknowledged that for fine-art and general printing in all its branches this Company leads the way in the district. Indeed, their work would be very difficult to excel anywhere, particularly the more, artistic kinds, and a large amount of distinguished patronage is consequently received. Madame Patti-Nicolini, when in residence at Craig-y-nos Castle, at the head of Swansea Valley, has all the beautiful programmes for the performances in her Bijou Theatre done at “The Cambrian” office, and the eminent prima donna has often congratulated the Company upon the excellent style of the work they turn out. In conjunction with the newspaper and jobbing departments “The Cambrian” Newspaper Company, Limited, do a very considerable trade in mercantile stationery.

Altogether, the business is a fully developed and admirably organised concern, reflecting credit no less upon the town than upon its own immediate proprietary; and there can be no doubt that its success and good repute will be fully maintained under the able administration of a Mr. Gamwell, who is a thoroughly practical man in every way, and has, moreover, been connected with “The Cambrian” for nearly twenty years. Both as managing director of the Company and as editor of the paper, Mr. Gamwell displays sound judgment, tact, and discernment; and in many ways he has proved himself to be eminently qualified for the important dual office he now fills in connection with this old-established and valuable journalistic property.


ALTHOUGH scarcely a decade has elapsed since the inauguration of this business, the house already occupies a position of prominence among the principal trading concerns of Swansea, by reason of the high excellence and moderate prices of all its supplies. Messrs. Henry Fowler and Frederick J. Bray are well known as practical experts in connection with the important branch of business to which their attention is now so vigorously and successfully directed, Mr. Henry Fowler devoting his attention more particularly to the London wholesale branch. Whilst holding in stock enormous supplies of the finest coffees and sugars, it is as tea merchants and blenders that the firm have won their high reputation, their intimate acquaintance with the leading markets and sources of supply enabling them to secure the pick of each season’s crops at advantageous terms, and to blend these to suit the various tastes of their customers, and sell at moderate rates. The premises occupied comprise a spacious well-appointed shop, fitted throughout in the best modern style, with an office on the first floor, and ample accommodation for blending, packing, and storing. The various blends of teas are carefully packed in cardboard drums lined with parchment, so as to remain practically air-tight, and in this perfect condition vast quantities are distributed to retail dealers, by means of a staff of travellers; while a good counter and retail family trade is transacted throughout the town and its outlying districts for many miles around. The business in all its details is directed with the marked ability and enterprise that have been so strongly instrumental in establishing its position and assuring its substantial prosperity.


AN IMMENSE trade is controlled in Swansea in coal, numerous extensive firms finding occupation in exporting the superior quality of this article for which, the district is celebrated. Among these mention should be made of the Gilfach Colliery Company, Limited, of which Alfred C. Jonas, F.R. His. S., is the managing owner. Mr. Jonas has been connected with the coal trade for very many years, during which time he has had years of close connection with Anthracite, from its production to its sale, and has always held a prominent and respected position in this the leading branch of local commerce, and has been a long time regarded as one of its most important and reliable representatives. The present premises have been occupied about two years, and consist of a well-appointed suite of offices on the first floor of 8 Cambrian Place. They are well arranged, with every requisite for the control of the business on hand. The collieries are worked on the latest and most scientific principles. The out-put is a very fair one for Anthracite, and a splendid trade is being done to almost every part of the world. The quality of the produce is exceptionally fine, and for special purposes cannot be surpassed in the whole of the Welsh coalfield. An analysis shows that this Company’s celebrated best hand-picked and selected Anthracite coal contains 92.44 per cent, of carbon, whilst its sulphur and ash are represented by 0.49 and 1.08 per cent, respectively. It is largely in demand for malting, hop drying, brewing, and lime burning and household purposes. The Company supply various classes of coals, and the special nuts for Continental and home uses stand Al as to quality. They are prepared to fill export orders of any magnitude consistent with that class of product with promptitude and at the lowest list prices. Mr. Jonas is among those patronised by the Admiralty, and enjoys one of the most valuable connections in the trade. He is thoroughly conversant with every branch of the business. By his straightforward methods he commands the renewed support of all who come into business connection with him, and no man works harder to retain or better deserve prosperity.
The telegraphic address of the house is “Jonas, Swansea,” and all communications receive immediate attention.


THIS important business was established by the present head of the firm, Mr. John Williams, in 1880, and was then located in Gloucester Place, in partnership with Mr. Davies, from whence it was removed in 1885 to the more central position now occupied. The accommodation comprises well-furnished suite of clerks’ and principals’ offices, affording every convenience for the operations of the business. The leading features of the firm’s business include several important agencies, amongst which may be mentioned those for the sale of the extra best Stanllyd big-vein hand-picked malting coals, best lime burning coal, best smokeless steam coal, and best bituminous house coal. These qualities of coal are in steady demand in the principal markets of the Kingdom, and are largely exported by the company to the leading Continental ports. Messrs. Williams & Co. are also extensively engaged in the importation of pitwood, mainly obtained from France, and supplied in large quantities by the firm to many of the collieries in the South Wales coalfield. The business in each department is of considerable magnitude and importance, Messrs. Williams having established a widespread connection in the trade, and by unremitting attention to the requirements of their clients have secured a substantial and well-merited measure of commercial success.
The registered telegraphic address of the firm is, “Williams Company, Swansea,” all communications reaching them through this medium receiving the promptest attention and consideration.


ESTABLISHED in 1852 by Mr. D. W. Johns, the concern soon gained a good position among local firms, and grew at a rapid rate upon the most substantial basis. The business was acquired by the present proprietors in 1835, the co-partners being Mr. D. W. Johns and Mr. J. R. Johns. The premises at Broad Quay are large and commodious, and are used for the storage of bricks, tiles, cement, and all kinds of fireclay goods. The Beaufort yard covers rather more than half an acre in extent, and is conveniently located as the South Docks, possessing every facility for receiving or forwarding goods by water or rail. The stocks held are of immense bulk, consisting mainly of every description of British and foreign timber. There are well-appointed offices at both places, and telephonic communication is maintained between them, the number being 37. A numerous and competent staff of clerks is employed, and a valuable and fast-increasing business is controlled. The timber held by the firm is always of the best growth, and is duly seasoned before being sent out. Large consignments are received from Canada and the Baltic ports, and the facilities generally are of an unequalled character for doing an extensive and valuable business. Ample stocks, too, are held of bricks, slates from all the best-known Welsh quarries, tiles, sewage pipes, chimney-pieces, firebricks, &c., &c. A branch house has been established at Combmartin, North Devon, where ample supplies are held, and where a very important business has been developed. The connection extends throughout the whole of South Wales and to many English counties, and is of a substantial and valuable kind. The partners are thoroughly conversant with the different branches of their business, and the concern, in its entirety, receives the benefit of their long experience and wide knowledge. Both as business men and private citizens they are held in the highest esteem in and round Swansea, and the success they have achieved is a fitting reward for their industry, enterprise, and ability.


THIS business was established over thirty years ago by Mr. Edmund Nicholls, the father of the present proprietor, who retired about six years since, when Mr. F. Nicholls took it over. The premises occupy an excellent position in Waterlow Street, and comprise a spacious and handsomely appointed shop, together with extensive warehouse accommodation, a large and well-equipped bakery, and every facility for the successful working of the business. To meet the extensive requirements of the trade, Mr. Nicholls has always on hand a liberal supply of plain and fancy bread, flour and meal of the best American and English brands, the specialities of the leading manufacturers of comestibles. Mr. Nicholls is a very extensive and judicious buyer in the best markets, and with the large stock always on hand, and the superior facilities at command, he is enabled to punctually execute all orders, and to give his customers exceptional advantages. The trade, which is both wholesale and retail, is of a widespread and steadily-growing character, a brisk business being done in every department. Mr. F. E. Nicholls is well known and highly respected as a courteous and enterprising man of business, and spares no effort to maintain and extend the high reputation the establishment has so long enjoyed.


THIS superior business has held a prominent position in Swansea and the surrounding districts for the past twenty years. The present handsome and commodious premises have been occupied since 1884. The shop has an imposing-looking double front, with a tastefully fitted interior. Included in the stock are many of the newest patterns and colours in West of Englands, English and Scotch tweeds, fancy and plain worsteds, meltons, superfines, overcoatings, &c. As a thorbughly practical and artistic tailor, Mr. Joint is in the possession of a well-earned reputation. During his lengthy career he has been regularly patronised by many of the principal residents, to whom he has invariably afforded entire satisfaction. An accomplished cutter, he employs the most approved system by which a perfect fit is assured. In the spacious work-rooms, which are at the rear of the premises, every requisite appliance is provided, while a staff of competent and trustworthy hands find constant employment under the able direction of the proprietor. Mr. Joint possesses every facility for giving prompt attention to urgent orders. He constantly receives the latest fashion plates, and is quite up to date in any class of garment. All kinds of repairs and alterations are neatly and quickly executed. The business is worthy of its high standing, and is conducted on solid and straightforward principles. Mr. Joint is included among the most respected of the tradesmen of Swansea, and is well known in private circles.


AMONG the numerous superior grocery and provision stores in Swansea, the one under notice has held a leading position for many years, the proprietors displaying that knowledge of the trade that can only be acquired by long experience. The premises occupied well meet the requirements of the calling pursued. The trade is a steady-going one, having attached to it a thoroughly superior and far-reaching connection. The windows are always tastefully stocked with a representative selection of goods, the establishment altogether bearing a well-cared-for and prosperous appearance. In the grocery department there is everything necessary to meet the requirements of a good family trade. The quality throughout is excellent; the goods bearing the names of renowned manufacturers. The establishment is noted for superiority in all branches, coupled with economy. Several competent assistants promptly attend to customers, the proprietor taking personal supervision.


THIS business was established some five years ago by Mr. David Williams in the premises now occupied, which comprise a spacious and well-appointed shop with large and well-equipped workshops at the rear. In the shop and warehouse Messrs. Williams & Son hold a very large and comprehensive stock of single and double harness, cart and agricultural harness, riding and hunting saddles, ladies’ side-saddles, bits, bridles, stirrups, girths and horse clothing, hunting, riding, and driving whips, brushes, sponges, and all stable requisites. With obvious exceptions the bulk of the stock is manufactured on the premises, a large staff of skilled and experienced hands being regularly employed. Messrs. Williams & Son have always aimed at the attainment and maintenance of a high standard of excellence as a characteristic of all their work. Repairs receive prompt attention and are executed on moderate terms and with the least possible delay. Messrs. David Williams & Son have a very extensive and steadily increasing connection. They are well known as courteous and enterprising men of business, assiduous in their endeavours to give every satisfaction to their numerous patrons.


THIS business, known as the East Side Supply Stores, is the most important of the kind in the neighbourhood in which it is situate. The stores comprise a conspicuous and imposing-looking corner block, having windows facing into Fabian Street and Sebastopol Street. The building is of three floors, part being used for domestic purposes. The shop front is an excellent piece of workmanship. One window is devoted to the display of various kinds of groceries and provisions, the other exclusively to bread, and all kinds of confectionery. At the rear is a fine warehouse, chiefly used for reserve stock and heavy goods. There is also an excellent bakehouse, fitted with all the latest and most approved contrivances and ovens. The stock is of a thoroughly representative character, comprising as it does every description of groceries and provisions. The firm sell the primest provisions at remarkably low prices. Their knowledge of the markets and always paying prompt cash enables them to purchase most advantageously. They make a splendid show of tinned and bottled goods, jams, sauces, &c. Agencies are held for many renowned packet teas, notably Liquor, Mazawattee, Silverbrook, Tower, Dalu Kola and Khangani, besides which many choice blends are kept. The great speciality is the bakery department, and one with which the proprietors have worthily gained much renown. Their pure home-made bread, cakes, and buns are acknowledged to be without equal in the town. The services of several smart assistants are employed, customers being attended to with the most praiseworthy promptitude. The business is wholesale and retail, chiefly the latter, extending to all parts of the East Side. Mr. Griffiths, a genial and conscientious manager, is highly esteemed by all who are brought into contact with him.


AN IMPORTANT branch of productive industry is represented in Swansea by this old-established business, which is one of the oldest of its kind in the district, having been originally founded in 1860 by the above-named gentleman. The premises in Worcester Place comprise commodious and conveniently arranged manufactory, with spacious show-rooms on the ground floor, in which may be inspected a large stock of finished goods, the upper portion being used for the work in connection with the production of the goods for which the house is noted. These include spring, hair, wool, and flock mattresses, palliasses, feather, wool, and flock beds, in the manufacture of which only the best and purest materials are employed and superior workmanship guaranteed, thus ensuring a uniform standard of good quality and value in every article supplied. An extensive and well-established wholesale trade is controlled by Mr. Rosser, who numbers on his books the names of many of the leading furnishing houses in Swansea and the neighbouring districts. A staff of hands is employed in the manufactory, under the personal supervision of the principal, whose thoroughly practical experience of every branch of the trade ensures the efficiency and completeness of every detail of the management of this deservedly successful and prosperous concern.


A VERY important and interesting branch of artistic industry is well represented in Swansea at the extensive establishment of Messrs. Wilkes & Co., formerly Mr. C. H. Rott, who has recently been joined by his sons, the firm taking this new title. The business was established in 1863 by Mr. H. Rott, in Oxford Street. This gentleman was succeeded by Mr. C. H. Rott, in 1879, and in 1886 he removed to the more extensive and commodious premises now occupied. These comprise a spacious and well-appointed show-room, with large and well-equipped workshops at the rear. The several departments are replete with machinery and appliances embodying all the latest improvements. The firm undertake all kinds of plain and ornamental engraving, lithographing, copperplate and general printing, invoices, account and note heads, cheques, receipts, ball and concert programmes, business and address cards, crests, monograms, and initials. Door and window plates are also made and engraved, and steel dies and stamps. Mr. Rott, the manager, is personally well skilled in every branch of the business. He has an excellent old-established connection in Swansea and the district, and with the superior facilities at command he is enabled to punctually execute all orders, and to satisfactorily meet the demands of the trade and his numerous private patrons.


MR. CHAPPELL commenced business some twenty-one years since in a comparatively small way in Caer Street, but for the past sixteen years he has been located at the present address. The premises here comprise a spacious and handsome shop, fitted with marble slab counters and other appropriate appointments. To the rear of this is a well- fitted-up oyster saloon, liberally patronised in the season. Oysters are a leading speciality with Mr. Chappell. He has also a constant supply of fresh and salt water fish, and all kinds of English and foreign game in season. In the selection of his stock Mr. Chappell exercises that great care and sound judgment which come of mature experience. He buys in very large quantities direct from the sources of supply, and is thus enabled to give his customers exceptional advantages, both in quality and price. The trade, which is both wholesale and retail, is of a widespread, influential, and steadily growing character, and in addition to supplying the principal hotels, clubs, and restaurants, Mr. Chappell has a very extensive and high-class family connection. Country orders receive prompt attention. Families are waited upon, and no effort is spared to meet the convenience of customers in the punctual execution of orders. Mr. Chappell has a branch establishment, on similar lines, at Gloucester House, Mumbles. He is a well-known and highly respected tradesman, and indefatigable in his efforts to give satisfaction to his numerous patrons. Telephone No. 138.


FOR over half a century the firm of which Mr. D. G. Phillips is now the principal have held an honourable position amongst the Swansea community, as undertakers and funeral furnishers. It is natural, therefore, that, having gained the unreserved confidence of large numbers of all classes of the population, their business should have grown to the great proportions which it has now assumed. It was originally established by the late Mr. W. Phillips, and in 1890 came into the hands of the present proprietor, Mr. D. G. Phillips, who has successfully maintained all the best traditions of the house, while at the same time he has exhibited an exceptional amount of intelligent enterprise in the introduction of improved methods in accordance with the modern movement in the direction of funeral reform. The premises comprise a commodious show-room with a most comprehensive stock of all funeral requisites. A speciality is made of artificial wreaths, in the construction of which a refined and artistic taste is manifested. Inasmuch as the firm have always devoted their whole attention to the conduct of funerals, and have not diverted their energies in the pursuit of other occupations with which the business of the undertaker is often associated, they have acquired a store of valuable experience which enables them on all occasions to conduct the ceremonies of interment with due respect to the memory of the deceased, and delicate regard for the feelings of the survivors. The appliances at the command of the firm are so complete as to enable them to undertake the conduct of funerals, either in town or country, on a scale of charges which represents the highest degree of economy. Estimates are at all times furnished on application.


MR. LEYSHON originally commenced business at White Rock in 1886, and has recently removed to the more commodious premises he now occupies. The accommodation afforded comprises a spacious yard, well stocked with timber, deals, slates, bricks, tiles, and other building materials, together with large and Conveniently arranged workshop for the working departments of the trade. These include every description of carpenters’, joiners’, and cabinetmakers’ work, and all kinds of general builders’ repairs, which are executed in the promptest and most workmanlike style on the shortest notice. A new branch has just been undertaken by the principal, viz., making and repairing all kinds of wire and Venetian blinds, &c. A capital all-round business connection has been established by the proprietor in the various branches of the trade in which he is engaged, several first-class workmen being employed in the execution of orders, under the personal direction of the principal, whose thoroughly practical experience in every class of work affords a guarantee for the efficiency of every detail of the management of this deservedly successful concern.


THIS business was established about fifteen years ago by Mr. Charles Grove, the present sole proprietor. The premises now occupied were acquired some five years ago. These are very extensive, the building being of two-storey elevation, and standing in a good corner position. The shop has two commodious windows, being approached by a wide entrance. The windows display a most tempting variety of English and foreign fruits, including the delicacies of each respective season. There are choice hothouse grapes, pineapple, and every description of fruit for the dessert-table, and for preserving and cooking purposes. Mr. Grove is a well-known and successful grower of tomatoes, showing magnificent specimens. There are all kinds of fresh, sound vegetables, large supplies being to hand daily. Very artistically arranged wreaths and fresh-cut flowers are on hand, or are made up tm order. There are also large quantities of new-laid eggs. The upper portion of the premises, as well as portions at the rear, are used for domestic purposes. Behind there is an extensive plot of nursery gardens, measuring some fifty-eight feet. The gardens contain seven excellent greenhouses, which keep the shop well supplied with early fruit. The celebrated Bideford earthenware can be obtained here in large quantities, and in almost every shape, this being well adapted for painting upon. The connection is of a valuable nature, and includes a large portion of the residents of the west-end of Swansea. Mr. Grove is a tradesman who has long catered conscientiously for the public, and has his reward in substantial support and the good opinion of his fellow-townsmen.


THIS business was commenced in the early part of the present year by the sole proprietor, Mr. H. Russell, who is to be heartily congratulated upon the pronounced success that has attended his well-directed efforts. Already his connection reaches very respectable proportions, and includes many of the gentry of the district. He has established an excellent reputation for supplying nothing of an inferior quality, all his purchases being confined to the very best markets. The premises are well situate, and have a most prepossessing appearance. The internal fittings and furnishings are very handsome, and are specially adapted to the purposes of the trade. There are several marble slabs, and whitewood fittings, presenting a cool and scrupulously clean appearance. At the rear and in the basement there are large rooms, provided with every appliance for making sausages, &c. Like the shop, these are remarkably clean. Scrupulous care is taken in selecting the choicest pork, the various processes being taken in hand by experienced men. These sausages have become deservedly popular in all parts of the town. Among other well-known delicacies are the prime pickled ox-tongues, corned beef, &c., and there are fresh daily supplies of all kinds of cooked meat, tripe, &c. The beef and mutton, it should be remarked, is of the highest quality, obtained from English and Welsh animals, purchased from well-known raisers. In season there is a splendid selection of lamb, veal, and pork. The services of several assistants are required, the business in every section being conducted with remarkable ability. Mr. Russell personally superintends the whole of the operations. With his supporters he is exceedingly popular.


MR. W. WILLIAMS has for the past sixteen years conducted one of the largest businesses of its kind in the town. Eligibly located in the principal street of the place, the shop presents a very attractive appearance. Within, all the appointments are in the best modern style, and the stock, which is remarkable for its volume, variety, and artistic merit, is a collection of pretty things from the best English, Continental and American makers, suitable for engagement, wedding, and birthday presents, and for the decoration of the house and table. At the rear there is a well-equipped workshop, where electroplating in gold and silver is carried on, and all kinds of watches, clocks, and jewellery cleaned and repaired. A very important department of the business, also, is the exchange of all kinds of foreign money, which is brought to Swansea by seamen and others from all parts of the world.


A HIGHLY important branch of commercial activity is represented in this district by Mr. Alan Frazier, who has already secured a considerable share of substantial support in the various departments over which his operations extend. The several departments of the business comprise the sale by auction of all kinds of freehold and leasehold property, household furniture, pictures, wines, plate and other valuable effects, valuations for probate and other purposes, accountancy, auditing and periodical examinations of tradesmen’s books, estate agency and the collection of rents and debts, and all the general work connected with the management of properties, &c. Mr. Frazier is also local agent for the Scottish Widows' Life Insurance Company, the County Fire Insurance Company, the Sickness and Accident Insurance Company, and the National and Provincial Plate-glass Company. Although of only comparatively recent establishment, Mr. Frazier s business is being steadily developed with increasing success, and by his prompt and unremitting attention to all matters entrusted to him in his professional capacity this gentleman is making rapid headway in his practice amongst the more influential members of the commercial community in Swansea and the surrounding districts in this part of South Wales.


THE modern decorative artist's comprehensive craft, which nowadays includes all manner of distempering, painting, paperhanging, plain and ornamental glazing, and kindred operations, finds admirable illustration and exemplification in Swansea at the hands of Mr. George Marquiss, who entered upon his present prosperous career in the year 1869, at 46, Oxford Street. He carried it on by himself till 1881, when his health gave way, and he took his brother into partnership, the firm then being known as G. & S. Marquiss. In 1889 Mr. Marquiss found it necessary to very considerably increase his working facilities, and accordingly entered upon the present more convenient and commodious premises, where his business expanded with such rapidity that he is even now carrying out extensive enlargements and alterations. The premises occupied comprise a spacious shop, handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and very fully stocked with wallpapers of every class and grade, from the cheapest and plainest to the most costly and recherche designs, including fine flock papers, Japanese paper, Lincrusta Walton decorations, Anaglypta and the like, ornamental and plain glass for ordinary glaziers’ work, and for ecclesiastical and domestic windows, panels, &c., and a vast variety of paints, colours, varnishes, and decorative items and requisites of every kind. The neatly-appointed office and glass warehouse are located on the first floor, while the extensive and elaborately equipped workshops are at the rear, and call into active requisition the services of a very large staff of skilled and experienced hands. The business is in a splendid condition of progressive development, a state in which it is well sustained by the ability and sound judgment that mark Mr. Marquiss’s administration, and a first-class connection is consequently maintained, which takes effect amongst builders, architects, and private gentlemen throughout the busy borough and its populous districts for about eighty miles around.


THE business of mural advertisement management has in Swansea been reduced to a system of scientific precision by the Universal Bill-posting and Advertising Company, under judicious and energetic management. For the existence of this most convenient organisation the community are indebted to the enterprise of the gentlemen who constitute the firm. The secretarial work is also admirably performed. The premises, which form the headquarters of the Company, are conveniently situated in the busy thoroughfare of Union Street (No. 28), and comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, furnished with all the requisites for the speedy dispatch of the very considerable amount of clerical work necessitated by the numerous and often intricate transactions of the Company. It says much for the organising ability of the manager that all the business of the office goes on with perfect smoothness, and with thorough satisfaction to the Company’s numerous clients. This flourishing business was established in 1867, the original premises being situated in Fisher Street. The increase in the demands upon the resources of the Company necessitated a removal, which took place in 1885, to their present commodious headquarters. The principal business of the firm consists in the effective display of all sorts of mural advertisements. They publish, in a remarkably neat and handy form, a list of posting stations in the town and suburbs. Necessarily subject to changes at comparatively frequent periods, this list is always notably complete, and includes a very large number of hoardings of most varied dimensions in all the chief thoroughfares. Special terms are made for large contracts or long periods, and the terms of the Company will be found to be most liberal, having regard to the valuable character of the services which they perform. A large and useful experience has been gained by the directorate, in reference to all kinds of theatrical and entertainment posting. The Company also undertake the delivery of handbills, either from house to house, or in the streets. Business of all kinds in the district is much facilitated by the smart operations of this useful firm.


THIS substantial business dates back in its foundation to 1832, when the concern was originally established by Mr. E. Griffiths, who was subsequently joined in partnership by the present sole proprietor, Mr. J. Griffiths, who still continues the trade under the title so long associated with its operations. The premises occupied by the firm in High Street comprise a commodious shop with good frontage and of great depth, extending to a distance of one hundred feet to the rear, and providing ample and convenient accommodation for the sale and working departments of the business. The interior is well appointed, and is heavily stocked with a wide range of goods in the several branches of the trade, including elegantly-bound works by standard authors, devotional, and other books; plain, fancy, commercial, and school stationery; fancy goods in leather, picture frames, and a great variety of useful and ornamental articles suitable for presents, &c. On the first floor a spacious show-room is also utilised for the display of general stock, and there are also store-rooms and warehouse for reserve stock, &c. Special terms are quoted to the clergy and ministers, equal to those given by the London and other houses. The printing department is fully equipped with every description of modern type and machinery, motive force for the latter being supplied by gas power, and here the firm undertakes every branch of the typographical art in the best style. The business in each department is of the most substantial and old-established character, a widespread and influential connection having been secured by the firm, embracing the leading commercial houses, schools, and private residents in the locality. The establishment is conducted with exceptional ability in each detail of its management, a numerous staff of assistants and workpeople being employed in their respective departments under the personal direction of the head of the firm, Mr. J. Griffiths, whose long practical experience and knowledge of the trade in every branch afford an ample guarantee for the highest efficiency in the organisation of this deservedly successful concern. Mr. J. Griffiths is widely known and esteemed in local circles, having for many years represented the ward in the Town Council, and, as a member of the Board of Guardians since 1875, has rendered efficient service in the interests of all classes of his fellow ratepayers in the borough.


JUDICIOUSLY profiting by the increased demand for lubricating substances which, during the last twenty years, has naturally followed the marvellous development of the staple industries of South Wales, Mr. Price Jones has recently established, under the above style, a thoroughly equipped manufactory for oil and grease. Two spacious railway arches in the Strand have been utilised for manufacturing and warehouse purposes, and every necessary appliance of the most approved modern type has been provided. Large stocks of oil, in a great variety of descriptions, each specially suitable for particular classes of industrial operations, are always held. Mr. Price Jones has successfully made a speciality of greases, which are used, for the most part, in the tin-plate manufactures of the district. Among several firms engaged in this industry Mr. Price Jones has already established a valuable connection, which is constantly expanding. The business is, for the most part, retail, and the proprietor has important commercial relations which extend not only throughout Swansea and Glamorganshire, but into certain districts of Carmarthenshire. Mr. Price Jones gives his careful personal attention to all the details of his business, and guarantees the quality of all the goods which he supplies.


THE above business was established in 1878 by Mr. John Prosser, and being a man of large experience and great practical skill, he soon succeeded in raising his house into a position of prominence among similar establishments. At the decease of the founder the business was taken over by his widow, who still carries it on under efficient management. Ample and well-arranged premises are occupied, consisting of offices, warehouses, foundry and casting sheds. A good number of skilled hands are employed, and a good system of control is enforced throughout the whole establishment. An extensive business is controlled in the manufacture of every description of brasswork for engineers, steam users, and waterworks. The work turned out is thoroughly good in every respect, and as such holds a high place in the estimation of the principal buyers and users. The material employed is of the best possible kind, and the articles manufactured are noted for their exactness and excellent finish. A speciality is made of brass castings for ships, and the utmost accuracy and despatch can be relied upon. Bearings of every description, slide valves, slide faces, valves, &c., are turned out in great quantities, and the house enjoys a well-deserved and special reputation for its hydraulic pumps, piston rods, plungers, pinions, bells, propellers for launches, &c. In addition to every description of brasswork, castings are made to order in phosphor bronze. By reliable work, prompt attention in the execution of all orders, and reasonable prices, a good connection has been secured, and is being maintained and increased. The manager is a man of sound experience and knowledge of his craft, and no effort is spared by him to keep up the status of the house. The firm is well known for its straightforward dealings, and the success it enjoys has been fairly and honourably won.


THE metal trade of South Wales is one of paramount importance, and a well-known firm in Swansea so occupied is that named above. Operations were originally commenced by Mr. Frank Birkbeck some four years ago at Penclawdd. Mr. Birkbeck brought to bear upon the development of his new undertaking great practical knowledge acquired in a long and varied experience with every branch of the trade; and being a man of energy and much executive ability, he has succeeded in establishing a large connection which is every year growing in extent and value. The premises now occupied are centrally situated, and are handsomely fitted up throughout with everything necessary for the adequate control of a business of this description. Every kind of metal is handled, and the business is carried on upon the most approved basis. Being thoroughly conversant with the markets and buying always at the right time, he can supply anything in his line at the lowest current rates. Extensive stocks are held at Swansea Docks. They include iron and steel rails, hoop, bar, rod, and angle iron: tinplates of every well-known brand; iron, steel, and copper wire, &c., &c. An important feature is made of machinery, especially such as is used in the local mills, and Mr. Birkbeck is prepared to supply customers with any kind that may be required, as well as to purchase the same in any quantity. An exceedingly large business is controlled in the district and in various parts of the country. The London trade has increased so fast that a branch office has been opened for its better management. The proprietors of this noted house are men of wide experience and sterling business habits. They occupy a much respected position in the trade circles of the district, and every transaction in which they are concerned is carried out in an able and conscientious manner. The success they have achieved during their brief career is as substantial as it is well deserved.
The telegraphic address is “Castings, Swansea.”


IT IS now some seven years or more since Mr. J. T. Davies established himself in Swansea. His business premises are situated in the busiest mercantile quarter of the town, and comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, with an entrance in Caer Street. The offices are furnished with telephonic communication, and with all other modern devices for facilitating the prompt despatch of business. Mr. Davies is assisted by a staff of efficient clerks; but he devotes his personal and careful attention to all matters of importance in which the interests of his clients are involved. He undertakes all descriptions of metal brokering, and his substantial commercial relations have enabled him successfully to make a speciality of tin plates. His high reputation has also secured for him the special representation of several firms of the highest eminence in South Wales. Thus he is the agent for the Blaenavon Company, Limited, whose Bessemer tin bars are celebrated in all the metal markets of the world. He also represents Messrs. Berk & Co., of London, for whose sulphuric acid there is a large demand throughout the Swansea district. As the natural result of Mr. Davies’ exceptional energy and business aptitude, his connection is rapidly extending throughout the whole of South Wales. He is personally well known in the best commercial circles, and is highly esteemed by his large circle of clients.
The telephone number of his office is 112, and the registered telegraphic address is “Jaytee, Swansea.”


MESSRS. JONES founded the above business some four years ago, and every year has added to the extent of the business. Ample and convenient premises are occupied, comprising an extensive single-fronted shop, running a long distance to the back, together with several store-rooms, and every description of work is executed in a manner that cannot fail to give entire satisfaction. The house is thoroughly reliable, and all Orders receive prompt and careful attention. The stocks of machinery have been selected with a close knowledge of the requirements of the local trades, and include almost every description of plant and machinery that can possibly be required. The selections have been made from the best makers in every line. Among these comprehensive accumulations are first-class steam-engines and boilers, gas-engines, steam and hand winches, pulley-blocks, jacks, and all kinds of lifting tackle, steam pumps, saw benches, punching and drilling machines, stocks and dies, valves and gauges, and fittings of every description. These articles are all quoted at low prices, being bought in large quantities and under the best conditions. Messrs. Jones are agents for asbestos and indiarubber manufacturers, and also for Genuine Packings. They have likewise the district agency for the Cortex Calorifuge Company’s patent solid cork coverings for steam pipes. A good business is being done in both directions. The connection of the house extends throughout Swansea and to all the manufacturing and mining districts of South Wales, and, being based upon reliable articles, prompt attention, and moderate prices, its steady expansion is a foregone conclusion. Messrs. Jones are widely known in the trade circles of the district, and everywhere respected for their skill, energy, and strict business principles. They are assiduous in their endeavours to give general satisfaction, and well deserve the large measure of success they have already achieved.
The establishment is connected with the telephone system, the number being 59.


THIS notable business was established in 1879, by Mr. William Parfrey. The original address was in Orchard Street, but in 1889, to meet the grown state of the business, a removal was made to the premises in Wassail Square, and recently to 17, Oxford Street. Here there is ample room for carrying on the various branches, while the place is thoroughly equipped with machinery of a new and improved type, driven by steam-power. There are a forge, turning lathes, drilling and planing machines, &c. Mr. Parfrey shares with Mr. Drury the patent of the renowned “Malvern cycle crank,” one of the most useful modern inventions connected with cycling. Here, too, are made the “Malvern” cycles, among the fastest in the market for road riding and path racing. The mounts have a most graceful appearance, and, while being light, are remarkably strong, every part being made of the very best tempered material. They have a further recommendation, in that they are most reasonable in price. The owners, having no large advertising expenses, can afford to sell a good machine for pounds less than charged by some firms, who supply a second-rate mount. The proprietor is constantly receiving expressions of satisfaction from pleased purchasers, who recommend the machines to their friends. Repairs of all kinds are at once executed, and parts supplied at strictly moderate prices. The connection now extends over a wide area, the machines having become established favourites. Mr. Parfrey, an enterprising, energetic, and honourable man, is much respected by all who are brought into contact with him.


THIS business is an offshoot of one of the oldest of the kind in Swansea, and has recently been considerably developed by the present proprietor, who lately removed to the extensive and commodious premises now occupied. These comprise a large and well-constructed building of three floors, which has been specially fitted up in the most careful and complete manner to ensure the effective and economical working of the various departments of the business. Mr. Rosser gives regular employment to a large staff of skilled and experienced hands in the manufacture of pure bedding, spring and hair mattresses, and palliasses in all sizes. A large stock is always on hand ready for immediate delivery; the very best material only is used, and sound workmanship is guaranteed in every item of production. Mr. Rosser also undertakes all kinds of upholstery work, and with the superior facilities at command he is enabled to punctually execute all orders and to compete on favourable terms with any firm in the trade. Mr. William Rosser brings to bear upon the management the advantage of fourteen years’ practical experience gained in London, Manchester, and Bristol. He is well known and highly respected in Swansea, and widely recognised as a courteous and enterprising business man. Just as we go to press we learn that Mr. Rosser is building a new factory, which will be situated in Ffynone Street. This will be about three times the size of his present premises, and most admirably suited in every way to the requirements of the trade.


THIS important undertaking, like many similarly successful trading ventures, was originally established on a comparatively modest scale, the present head of the firm having commenced operations some fifteen years ago at Tonypandy, where he opened a clothier’s and outfitter’s business, and in order to obviate confusion in the not uncommon name, selected the trading title of “Excelsior” as most appropriate for the line he had marked out for his enterprise. After a few years of increasing and substantial progress in the Rhondda Valley, Mr. Phillips determined on extending the scope of his operations, and secured a suitable site at 38, High Street, Swansea, where he opened his present establishment in 1888. The premises at this address comprise a handsome and commodious shop, presenting a wide frontage to the street, and, extending a depth of about sixty feet, afford ample accommodation for the several departments of the business. The establishment is well fitted throughout with suitable appointments, and, in addition to the extensive space on the ground floor, contains large stock-rooms in the upper portion for the heavier classes of goods. The stock in each department is widely comprehensive and varied, to suit the taste and means of all classes of customers. All kinds of outfitting goods are also held in stock, shirts, underclothing, hats, caps, and every requisite of this kind, with the exception of boots and shoes, a line not yet included in the proprietor’s comprehensive programme.

Messrs. Phillips & Co. possess a great advantage in being in a position to buy in the best markets from the leading wholesale houses and manufacturers, thus avoiding the extortionate toll usually grasped by the voracious middleman, and enabling the firm to supply the very best quality of goods at prices immeasurably below those usually in force. A widespread connection has been established by the firm both in Swansea and the seats of industry in the locality, whose confidence and support have been gained by the exceptional standard of quality and value maintained in each branch, of their extensive trade. The services of a numerous staff of assistants are employed in the business, each of whom, it is an advantage to know, are proficient in both the English and Welsh languages, thus facilitating commercial intercourse, and enabling buyers of either nationality to obtain their requirements without difficulty or delay. The business throughout is controlled with singular enterprise and sagacity under the personal supervision of its energetic founder, who may justly claim creditable recognition for his efforts in meeting the demands of all classes of the inhabitants in this department of commercial activity by a system of equitable and honourable trading which has been deservedly rewarded with the most conspicuously successful results.

Telegrams: “Enoch, Swansea.”

ORIGINALLY organised some six years ago under the style of Messrs. Dodds, Enoch & Co., the sole proprietary rights of the concern have recently become vested in the hands of Mr. E. L. Enoch. The premises occupied are in every point of character and situation precisely adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business, and consist of a large and substantial three-storeyed warehouse, heavily stocked with goods, a special selection of which are effectively displayed in the well-appointed showroom on the ground floor. Mr. Enoch keeps in constant touch with all the leading manufacturers of the day, both at home and abroad, and his stocks of woollen fabrics and tailors’ trimmings may therefore be relied upon as including all the latest and most fashionable items incidental to the trade. Energetic and enterprising in following up every advance of the times, he thoroughly deserves the distinct success that has attended his representative house, and it is manifest that he spares no effort to preserve intact the reputation it has acquired, the confidence it has gained, and the high advantages it has secured in the possession of a large and valuable connection amongst the tailors, clothiers, and woollen-drapers throughout the busy borough and its populous outlying districts.


THIS is one of the oldest established wine and spirit businesses in Swansea. It was originally established about the beginning of the century. About forty years ago it was taken over by Messrs. J. D. Wheeler & Co., of Gloucester, of which Mr. Hall senior was principal. Mr. Hall’s son, Mr. Alfred Hall, considerably developed it, and it has recently been transformed into a limited liability company, of which Mr. Alfred Hall is the manager. The company occupies extensive premises in a good business portion of Swansea. The stock is comprehensive and embraces noted brands of ports and sherries, French, and German wines of the best vintages, and a large bonded stock. All spirits kept are of the best quality and not used until matured by age. The company buy the finest produce known to the trade, and as it has a large connection among the best families of the surrounding districts, as well as a good wholesale trade in Swansea and neighbourhood, it makes every endeavour to sustain yet more effectually that reputation so long enjoyed.

Anne Thomas, Proprietress.

ONE of the most acceptable items of information that can be tendered to fresh arrivals in any town is unquestionably that concerning the whereabouts of a thoroughly comfortable hotel, where unexceptionable attendance and a moderate tariff of charges can be relied upon, and such is the conveniently situated Castle Hotel in Wind Street, Swansea. Established over ninety years ago, the property came into the hands of Mr. Thomas some fourteen years since, and continued under his vigorous regime until 1890, the date of his decease, since then its affairs have been administered upon the same sound lines by his widow, Mrs. Anne Thomas, the present able and genial proprietress. The hotel, per se, consists of a large and substantial three-storeyed building; provided with an imposing entrance which leads to the several public apartments of the place, conspicuous amongst which is the spacious commercial-room with its writing-room attached, and safe accommodation for stock. A comfortable coffee-room, a cosy smoke-room, elegantly furnished sitting-rooms, modern bars equipped in the best style, and a complement of thirty-six clean and comfortable bed-chambers complete the menage of the hotel proper. Adjoining and affiliated to the hotel there is a luxuriously furnished gentlemen’s club, which has the advantage of a private entrance via the hotel. The hotel has become a favourite resting house for gentlemen on the road, as for private parties en famille. A staff of twenty servants is fully employed, under the careful, yet always energetic and enterprising superintendence of Mrs. Anne Thomas, who is everywhere respected as much by reason of her courtesy and well-known business integrity as for her many estimable personal qualities.


UPON the principle that “who drives fat oxen should himself be fat,” there is assuredly no more competent maker of cycles than Mr. James Parfrey, of Swansea. His achievements are well known to every student of the contemporary literature of cycling. Mr. Parfrey is the tricycle champion of Wales and Monmouthshire, and is also champion of the East Side Cycling Club. He has gained no less than fifteen gold or silver medals, three silver cups, and other prizes. He also holds the twenty-five miles tricycle “record” for South Wales, having covered the distance in one hour, forty-five minutes, and also the one mile path and grass “record” for the same district. Being thus possessed of a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the cyclist, Mr. Parfrey has been remarkably successful in providing for them.

Mr. Parfrey founded the prosperous business he now conducts in 1866. His premises were originally in Fisher Street, but the steady increase in his volume of business at length necessitated a removal, which was effected in 1887, to the commodious premises which he occupies at 43, Oxford Street, opposite the National Schools. They comprise a spacious show-room, with plate-glass display windows, which, with their varied exhibits of the specialities of the firm, form a notable point of attraction in the thoroughfare. A large stock of cycles, and of all their accessories, is always held, presenting to the intending purchaser a choice which for all practical purposes is unlimited. The industrial departments of the business are in Picton Lane, where the workshops are fitted with all the required labour-saving mechanical appliances of the most approved modern type, both for original work and for repairs, which are carefully and skilfully executed by a staff of experts. Mr. Parfrey is therefore enabled to conduct all his industrial processes under the most favourable economic conditions, and his customers are allowed to share to the full in the advantages thereby accruing, through the very moderate quotations which he makes for machines of the best workmanship and materials. Mr. Parfrey is the sole maker of the cycles which bear his name, and which — especially the “Parfrey Racer” — have gained more than a local celebrity. He is also the sole agent in the Swansea district for the celebrated “Rover” cycles.


NO business is better known in Swansea than that of Mr. J. V. Davies, whose extensive establishments are situated at 24 and 25, and 2 and 3, Arcade, High Street, and who occupies several extensive stalls in the Market Place. His shops are amongst the largest and finest in the town. His four capacious windows in the Arcade (where he was the first to commence business) are always sources of attraction. An immense trade is being done, particularly in London, Birmingham, and Sheffield goods. Mr. Davies is thoroughly familiar with all the best sources of supply, both at home and abroad, and being in constant communication with all the leading makers, novelties and new goods find their way into his hands before they are generally known in the trade. The stocks held embrace a mass of miscellaneous goods too numerous to specify. A leading line is made of electro-plated goods, and also of high-class pocket and table cutlery from the best makers. Optical goods are well represented here, the supply of opera-glasses, folders, and spectacles being very large. A noted feature with the business consists of cutting and mounting Aberystwith pebbles. A number of workmen is kept constantly employed, and every description of jewellery or optical instrument is promptly and carefully repaired. A branch establishment is kept at Llanrrtyd Wells. Mr. Davies is a man that keeps fully in touch with the wants and fashions of the times, and by his perseverance, energy, and attention to business, he is rapidly adding to the valuable connection he has developed during the two years he has been established at Swansea. He is a straightforward and honourable business man, liberal in all his dealings, and he well deserves his success.


MESSRS. E. J. DANN & CO. are the proprietors of one of the largest and most popular clothing establishments in Swansea. The business was founded many years ago by a Mr. C. Tagholm, and was taken over by Mr. E. J. Dann, better known as Captain Dann, about eighteen years since. This gentleman retired in 1888 in favour of his son, the present proprietor, who trades under the above title. The establishment, which is so well and widely known as the South Wales Clothing Stores, occupies an excellent position in Wind Street (No. 23). The premises comprise a large and attractive three-storeyed building, containing a spacious and well-appointed shop on the ground floor, with ten large and well-fitted stock-rooms above. To give a detailed account of the large and varied stock held by the firm would far exceed the limits of space at command. A few of the leading lines, however, embrace men’s and youths’ ready-made clothing of every description, best hand-made oilskins, boots and shoes of all kinds, specially suitable for seamen, seamen’s bedding and tins, and, in fact, every article necessary for a complete seaman’s outfit. Indeed, one of the features upon which the firm very justly pride themselves, apart from the quality of the goods, is the large and varied stock always on hand, and in no place in Swansea can be found such an excellent assortment and economical prices. The goods are selected with a special view to meet the requirements of seamen, and, buying as they do in such large lines direct from the manufacturers, Messrs. Dann & Co. give their customers the advantage of all intermediate profits, and can defy competition both in quality and price. The business is conducted personally by the proprietor with commendable enterprise and ability. Mr. E. J. Dann is well known and highly respected in Swansea, and spares no effort to maintain and extend the high reputation and popularity his establishment has so long enjoyed.


THIS superior business was founded fourteen years ago by Mr. William Taylor, who is the present sole proprietor. The premises occupy a first-class corner position, the shop having two good windows. The interior is fixtured with much taste and effect, while excellent arrangements are made for the convenience of shoppers. Mr. Taylor confines his purchases to the leading markets, his stock being known all over the west end of Swansea for its superior and reliable quality. In the grocery department there is every requirement to meet a good all-round family trade. There is an excellent assortment of tinned goods of all kinds, also jams, pickles, sauces, and biscuits. There is also a full complement of provisions, including prime English-cured hams, bacon, &c. There is also a good variety of home, foreign, and Colonial cheese. Mr. Taylor is an accomplished judge of tea, and keeps several favourite blends noted for their pure rich flavour. At the rear there is a commodious bakehouse, constructed on the good old-fashioned principle. The place is faultlessly dean, and affords ample accommodation for turning out large bakings daily. Several well-known specialities are produced, such as currant, seed, and sultana cakes, these being composed of the best ingredients only. The demand for the household bread steadily continues, and for quality cannot be surpassed. There are several competent hands employed, these being under the personal supervision of the proprietor. The establishment is singularly well conducted, and has accorded to it a very fair share of patronage and support. During the years Mr. Taylor has been at the above address he has steadily increased in the estimation of those by whom he is surrounded, being well known as a courteous and honourable gentleman.


ALTHOUGH this business is one of the most recent candidates of the kind for public support and favour in Swansea, such has been the masterly skill and enterprise displayed on the part of the proprietors that already a highly respectable connection has been formed, and one that is daily being added to. Messrs. James Evans and Thomas Davies, the present proprietors, commenced business in 1892, at the above address. During the short time that has elapsed they have amply proved that they are men of ability, and are in the possession of a thorough knowledge of all the branches of their calling. The premises in the Arcade are neatly and tastefully fitted and furnished, the shop being provided with a handsome plate-glass window. The firm show a well-selected stock of cloths, which are the productions of some of the leading manufacturers, and embrace their very latest novelties, both with regard to pattern and colour. There are materials for lounge suits, suits for commercial and ordinary wear, morning coats, dress suits, mourning suits, shooting, fishing, boating, &c., as well as materials for marine officers, engineers, and others. The principal fame of Messrs. Evans & Davies has been acquired by the perfection of their style and fit. The utmost attention is paid to the measurement, while in cutting out an approved scientific system is adopted. Notwithstanding the high-class nature of the material and workmanship, all the charges made are strictly within the bounds of moderation, the firm seeking their profit in an extended patronage. The work-rooms are on the first floor, wherein competent hands only are employed. Messrs. Evans & Davies are to be highly congratulated upon attaining to their great success, more especially when it has been brought about by their personal courtesy, skill, and strict integrity.


Contractor and Agent for the London and North-Western Railway Company; the Grovesend Steel Company, Limited, Gorseinon; Messrs. E. Underwood & Sons, Limited, Merchants, Brentford.
Stevedores, ships’ agents, and general hauliers, by road, rail, or canal. Locomotives, steam barges, and lighters on hire.
Cargoes of all descriptions discharged or shipped at reasonable rates.
Proprietor of the Mersey Engineering Works, Prince of Wales Dock; Office:— 1, Mount Street, Swansea.
Managing Director of the Pacific Patent Fuel Company, Limited; Works:— East Docks, Swansea.


ANY record of the commercial and industrial institutions of Swansea that may be said to have contributed materially to the business prosperity of the town, and to the every-day needs and requirements of the community at large, would indeed be deficient without due reference to the rise and progress of the notable house popularly known as The Swansea Pure Milk Company. This prosperous and progressive concern was organised in 1875, under the able auspices of the late Mr. W. T. Perkins, for the purpose of supplying the public of Swansea and its surrounding districts with milk of guaranteed hygienic purity, all of which is carefully tested before leaving the premises, to ensure both purity and quality, and, as having been subjected to a process of refrigeration, will be found to keep sweet for a longer period than ordinary milk, and is more suitable for the use of infants and invalids. The firm also supply to order raw cream, clotted cream (a speciality which they send in large quantities to all parts of the country), new-laid eggs, and the finest of butters and cream cheeses, and all goods can be thoroughly relied upon, and the firm are noted for their moderate prices. The headquarters at De la Beche Street comprise a spacious shop, with large cool rooms at the rear, appointed throughout in the best modern style, and provided with all the latest dairy appliances of the day, for the perfect preparation of the productions enumerated. Their system of organisation is complete, deliveries being effected from the headquarters as well as from their branches at Wassail Square, Swansea, and the districts of Landore, Moniston, Mumbles, and St. Thomas, &c., and a radius of ten miles around, altogether entailing the employment of a very large staff of hands, and a full service of horses and carts.

Messrs. Perkins & Co., moreover, act as the agents in Swansea for the leading Bristol brewers, for whom they transact a considerable business by the sale of their mild ales, bitter and pale ales, and porters and stouts, in casks and bottles, all of which are accounted to be unsurpassed for family use. Altogether a vast trade is kept in brisk operation, and the business in its entirety is directed with all the ability and enterprise that have been so strongly instrumental in establishing its position and assuring its substantial prosperity.



THE important works at Landore carried on by the above named Company were founded as far back as the year 1804 as a blast-furnace works, and can claim to be about the oldest of their kind in South Wales. They were originally called the Nantrhydyvilas Air Furnace Works, and were owned by Messrs. Bevan & Co. Subsequently the concern was acquired by the Morris family, the members of which have controlled it uninterruptedly down to the present day. G. B. Morris, Esq., J.P., father of the present managing partner, Mr. G. L. Morris, is still connected with the business. The works at Landore are very extensive, occupying about five acres of land, and comprising large foundries for iron and brass work, engine- fitting shops, smiths’ shops, pattern-shops, and all other characteristic features of a great ironfounding and engineering establishment. The various working departments are well equipped, possessing every improvement in the most modern class of machinery. The productive facilities in all divisions of these busy works are more than ordinarily large, and the Company enjoy the advantage of close proximity and connection to the Great Western Railway line, and also to the port of Swansea. Besides the foundries, machine-shops, and smithies with their numerous forges, these works include two large Siemens steel furnaces, with three-high rolling-mill for manufacturing tin-plate bars.

The Millbrook Iron and Steel Company employ a large force of hands, and carry on an industry of great magnitude as iron and brass founders, engineers, and makers of all kinds of steam-engines, especially of the compound type, mill castings, grain and chilled rolls, hammered iron of all descriptions, spades, shovels, &c. For all their products the firm enjoy an eminent reputation, and several of their leading specialities are well known, such as the “Millbrook pickling’ machine,” which is supplied to a great number of the tin-plate works in the South Wales district. The Company are also noted in the export markets as well as at home, and they send their manufactures to a number of the Continental ports, and to America, where they have long been held in high esteem. The business in its entirety is a large one and ranks among the most representative concerns in this part of the Principality. It is conducted with marked ability and judgment, and in all its operations it has the personal supervision of experienced managers. These gentlemen are much respected in the trade with which their firm has been so long identified.
Telegrams for the Company should be addressed: “Millbrook, Landore.”



MESSRS. WALTERS & JOHNS, the proprietors and managers of the Graig Brick Works, are both accomplished surveyors, with a large professional practice in Glamorganshire and the adjoining counties. The enterprise on which they are engaged has been carried out by the creation of the already notably successful establishment near Morriston, which they conduct under the style and title of the Graig Brick Company, which was founded in 1890, and which at the present moment has assumed a prominent position among the leading industrial institutions of the district. The works, which cover a considerable area of ground, the soil of which is admirably adapted to the manufacture of bricks of the best class, have been equipped with mechanical appliances which represent the highest developments of modern, engineering skill as applied to the industry in which the firm are engaged. They are completely fitted with the machinery known as the Scholefield patent press system, and driven by a steam-engine of fourteen horse-power. At the Graig Brick Works are manufactured the best descriptions of ornamental and other bricks. The ordinary output amounts to about fifteen thousand per day, and includes large quantities of ordinary red building bricks, and the best red facing bricks. The excellence of the working plant saves an enormous percentage of labour, but, nevertheless, the demand for the productions of the Graig Brick Works is so great as to give regular employment to an average of twenty-five hands. Although the enterprise, in the first instance, benefited very largely by the valuable business relations established by the members of the firm in their professional capacity, there can be no question that its subsequent notable development is the result of the exceptionally high quality of the bricks produced, and of the notably moderate quotations which, as a result of the economies effected by the improved machinery, they are enabled to make.

The commercial headquarters of the Graig Brick Company are in Dillwyn Street, Morriston. They comprise a suite of well-appointed general and private offices, with telephonic communication, and all other appliances for facilitating the large amount of clerical work necessitated by the magnitude of the firm’s operations. The telephone number is 396, and the registered telegraphic address “Builders.” Both the partners are personally well known and highly respected. They interest themselves largely in all movements having for their object the public advantage of the district, and Mr. Walters has done good service as an active member of the Swansea Board of Guardians.


PROJECTED about twenty years ago, this prosperous concern was acquired by its present enterprising proprietor, and under his vigorous regime has been rapidly expanded to its present proportions. The premises occupied consist of a large and substantial three-storeyed building, having a frontage of about forty feet, and extending for a distance of fully sixty feet to commodious warehouses at the rear. The shop and various show-rooms are handsomely appointed in the best modern style, and most methodically arranged to hold and display a vast and comprehensive stock of ironmongery goods, made by the leading manufacturers of the day, and comprising all manner of household hardware, cutlery, domestic utensils, and furnishing ironmongery; builders’ and cabinet makers’ ironmongery: tools for all trades; domestic machines; garden and agricultural implements; galvanised, corrugated, sheet, and tube iron, and other metals; plumbers’ goods of every description; oils, colours, and paints: brushes and brooms; lamps in vast variety; and, in short, every available article incidental to the trade. In addition to these, Mr. Williams holds a very large assortment of paperhangings, and a well-selected stock of household furniture, carpets, oilcloths, &c., specimens of which are effectively exhibited in special departments, apart from the ironmongery per se; and he also runs a branch general ironmongery store at Brynhyfryd. In every department of the business high-class quality is made a sine qua non and it is largely due to this fact that the house has become so widely popular, and that such an extensive and thriving business has been developed.


AMONG the great metallurgical industries that flourish in the vicinity of Swansea there is none more worthy of attentive consideration in these reviews of Welsh enterprise than that carried on at the Dyffryn Steel and Tin-plate Works, Morriston, by the eminent firm of Messrs. Daniel Edwards & Co. This gigantic concern, ranking among the largest of its kind in the Principality, is the outcome of one man’s untiring energy and application, and commands our attention as a splendid example of what natural business gifts and steady perseverance can accomplish by their own unaided force. Founded in 1873 by their present sole principal, Mr. Daniel Edwards, the Dyffryn Steel and Tin-plate Works owe all their perfection of organisation and their completeness of productive resource to the practical skill and long experience of their originator. Mr. Edwards has worked his way up through all grades of the tin-plate trade until he is now a recognised leader therein, and the vast works he has established at Morriston embody in their various details of plan and equipment the fruit of many years of knowledge acquired by him under conditions of hard work and laborious study. These works are situated on the banks of the River Tawe, and close to the Midland Railway Station, the facilities of transport being most complete owing to the extensive system of sidings running into and through the yards. On these sidings the firm run their own fine locomotives, one of which appropriately bears the name of the respected head of the house.

The length of the building occupied by the mills and cold rolls is three hundred and nine feet, height from floor twenty-two feet. It is admirably lighted by two rows of windows, placed close to each other. The span is sixty feet, and the roof is one of extraordinary strength. The scouring and annealing house is one hundred and eighty feet long, the tin-house and warehouse is two hundred and twelve feet long, and this brings the total length of the building up to seven hundred and one feet. In other words, to pass through the establishment from one end to the other means a walk of a little more than an eighth of a mile. The works stand on a property of about ten acres, and are equipped with eight mills and eleven pairs of cold rolls. Power is supplied by two fine engines and five large-sized boilers of the Galloway type. The two fly-wheels of the engines are each twenty-two feet in diameter and thirty-eight tons in weight. The plant also includes one ten-ton steam hammer and two five-ton, the former of which is among the finest in the country. For the production of steel bars for working into tin and terne plates, the firm have at the present time in operation two of Siemens open-hearth furnaces, and two more furnaces are in course of construction to meet the requirements of a rapidly growing trade. There are also large regenerators for purifying the gas from the furnaces, and a chemical laboratory for the careful testing of all metals and materials used in the industry.

The manufacture of tin-plates, like most other industries largely carried on at the present day, has been facilitated in many ways by the invention of various kinds of labour-saving machines. Among these it is safe to say that none has met with more general approval or achieved better results in working than the “Edwards Tinning Machine,” invented and patented by Mr. Daniel Edwards, the head of the firm under notice. The perfection which this machine has attained is the outcome of many experiments and a large expenditure, the patentee having always kept in view the enormously extended field which would be open to an invention combining a reduction of labour with prevention of waste in materials, and thus possessing a double advantage over other so-called economic machines. That Mr. Edwards has been highly successful in perfecting such an ideal machine as this is proved not only by the results obtained in his own works, but also by the testimony of many of the leading tin-plate firms in the country. The letters received from users, buyers, and consumers have been exceedingly numerous, and all express unqualified satisfaction with the Edwards tinning machine, the advantages of which may be concisely summed up as follows:- (1) No washman; (2) no pumps; (3) no grease-pot cradle; (4) no hemp: (5) no brushes. The machine is adaptable to any gearing. It is not so subject to wear as other machines, and the wearing parts can be readily and cheaply renewed, such renewals being needed only at long intervals. The fact that the whole machine can be lifted (removed) in five minutes indicates the ease with which it can be cleaned, and manufacturers will greatly appreciate its compactness. Actual figures show that this machine effects a saving of twenty per cent, by avoiding waste in metal and oil, and the services of the “washman” being dispensed with means an economy of threepence per box in the production of tin-plates. We strongly commend this excellent machine to the attention of those of our readers who are interested directly or indirectly in the tin-plate industry. It certainly seems to us to afford a means of checkmating the “McKinley tariff,” which has operated so greatly to the disadvantage of many of our leading trades. If manufacturers can effect large economy in production they may still be able to combat the heavy fiscal tax imposed upon their goods in “protected” markets, and as an economiser the “Edwards Tinning Machine” is facile princeps. As to the manner in which, it does its work we need only refer enquirers to the products of the Dyffryn Works, the various brands of which are held in universal estimation for their beautiful finish and all-round uniform excellence in every size of plate.

The Dyffryn Steel and Tin-plate Works, as we have already indicated, were specially designed by Mr. Daniel Edwards, and built and equipped under his immediate instructions and supervision. They afford employment to upwards of eleven hundred hands, and have the reputation of being the most perfectly-appointed works of the kind ever erected, both as regards their construction, machinery, &c., and also as being the most comfortable for the workmen, and the most convenient in their methods of saving labour, each of the many processes of the industry following one another in systematic succession. The British Association, which held its annual session at Swansea in September, 1880, selected these fine works for inspection, and the members of that important scientific body were highly gratified at the facilities afforded them for witnessing the interesting manufacture of tin-plates, and expressed their warm admiration of the manner in which the various processes are carried out at Messrs. Edwards’ establishment. We need hardly add that the firm under notice control an immense trade in both the home and the export markets, their manufactures being held in the highest confidence by an international connection.

The life of Mr. Daniel Edwards, J.P., founder and chief of the great industrial concern we have herein briefly reviewed, reads almost like a modern romance, and furnishes an example of perseverance, industry, and self-help which ought to be highly encouraging to all young men who stand upon the threshold of their life’s career and hesitate to engage in the struggle that lies before them. Born in 1835 at Morriston, Mr. Edwards was the third son of a stonemason and contractor who enjoyed an excellent local reputation in his trade. Many are the stories told of Mr. Daniel Edwards’ boyhood, which would well bear repeating here had we the space at our disposal, but it is, perhaps, sufficient to note that they all tend to illustrate his inherent energy and resolution, and point in the direction of the future successes he was destined to achieve. When very young “he struck out for himself,” as the saying goes, and obtained a situation in a copper-works near Morriston, where his youthful efforts gave such satisfaction that he obtained a letter of recommendation to the Morriston Foundry, where he continued until the place was closed. He then engaged in stone-dressing under his father, and later on we find him plying that craft on the Vale of Neath Railway, thus assisting in the construction of the first railway in the district. He also worked as a stone-dresser on the first dock (the North Dock) at Swansea, and subsequently was employed in the erection of the Ystalyfera Tin-plate Works, and in the extension of the Upper Forest Tin-plate Works at Morriston. There he diligently acquired the large fund of practical knowledge which he has employed to such splendid advantage in his own steel and tin-plate works at the same place. He added to that knowledge during his subsequent engagements at the Landore and the Beaufort Tin-plate Works, and after that entered into a partnership with Mr. William Williams, at the Worcester Tin-plate Works, Morriston. That partnership being dissolved after two years, Mr. Edwards was induced to undertake the supervision of the work in connection with building the new chapel of the Libanus Congregational Church at Morriston. This is the largest and most substantially-built place of worship in Wales, and its eminently satisfactory completion reflected great credit upon Mr. Edwards’ skill as a builder. Eventually he accomplished what may be regarded as the purpose of his life in founding the Dyffryn Tin-plate Works, and here he has associated his name with many of the most valuable improvements of recent years in the methods of tin-plate manufacture. For more minute particulars concerning the busy career of this “captain of industry” from the days of his boyhood onward, we commend our readers to the highly interesting account of Mr. Edwards’ life which appeared in the “Cambrian,” Swansea, May 15th, 1891, and from which we have extracted the few biographical details above given. In 1891 Mr. Edwards was placed on the Commission of the Peace — a fitting recognition both of his personal merits and of his influential standing in the world of industry. He is a liberal supporter of local charities and benevolent institutions, and a just and kindly employer; while as a business man he is admired for his energy, enterprise, and progressive spirit, and respected for the honourable and straightforward principles that have always governed his actions in commercial affairs.
The telegraphic address of Messrs. Daniel Edwards & Co. is “Dyffryn, Swansea”; telephone No, 380.


THE above business was established in 1874 by the present proprietors, under whose able and enterprising management it has shown a record of conspicuous success. The premises include, first, a fine joinery shop, some eighty feet in length, fitted with fifteen benches, and the best mechanical appliances, including circular, shaping, moulding and morticing machines of the most modern type. There is another spacious workshop, which is extensively fitted with circular saws, planing and tenoning machines, and turning lathes. In this shop is made all the joinery which, is largely supplied by the firm to builders throughout the district. There are also powerful circular saws in the yard for cutting heavy timber. The various mechanical appliances are driven by a steam-engine of twenty horse-power, and of modern construction. Other industrial departments are devoted to plumbers, smiths, and wheelwrights, and are all equipped in accordance with the latest developments of applied science. Attached to the premises are extensive stores for warehousing slates and building materials of every description. The stabling is arranged for twelve horses, and is equipped with the most approved machinery for chaff-cutting, corn-crushing, &c. Adjoining the works are conveniently arranged offices.

The telephone number of the firm is 396, and the registered telegraphic address is “Builders, Morriston.” Messrs. Walters & Johns are also surveyors, and have a large connection in this department. They are both well known in the district, and are highly respected. Mr. Walters has been for many years a member of the Swansea Board of Guardians.


THE group of towns to which we may now turn our attention exhibit some very interesting developments of the mercantile and manufacturing life of South Wales, and are intimately associated with the typical industries of this part of the Principality. They are all busy places, showing an abundance of that progressive energy which seems to be a heritage among the people of Glamorganshire; and they command our attention as centres of activity in the employment of labour and the profitable and intelligent investment of capital.

NEATH, an ancient place, and the site of a famous old Cistercian abbey, the ruins of which still attract the notice of the tourist, is a flourishing industrial town, with important undertakings in the metal trades with which this district has identified itself. Here are extensive copper and tin-plate works, besides other manufacturing establishments, giving employment in the aggregate to a large force of hands, and turning out vast quantities of goods which eventually find their way to all the principal markets of the world. There is also a large export trade here in coal and other mineral products of the neighbourhood. Neath is a town of some size, having a population of over 11,000, and it possesses the advantages of excellent railway facilities and a good situation on the River Nedd or Neath, the distance from Swansea being about eight miles in a north-easterly direction.

BRITON FERRY is the port of Neath, and is situated at the mouth of the river, in a very charming and picturesque position. It has good dock accommodation and railway facilities, and is a very promising and progressive place, bidding fair to rank in time among the chief ports of South Wales. Several industries of a large and important character have been established here and worked with marked success, and the place has a population of about 6,000.

PORT TALBOT IS a rising seaport on the east side of Swansea Bay, and is the port for Aberavon, which is situated about two miles to the north. There is a large amount of business done here, and the place has natural advantages of a notable character. Its fine floating harbour, for instance, has a great depth of water, and coasting vessels come hither in great numbers. The railway communication is excellent, and there is a good service of steamers to and from Bristol. There are important copper works at Port Talbot, and the industrial aspect of the place displays some interesting features.

MERTHYR TYDFIL, the headquarters of the South Wales coal and iron industries, is a large and populous town, occupying a situation in the midst of some of the wildest and grandest scenery of the Glamorgan hills, and in the very heart of the richest mineral region of the Principality. Its growth has been continuous during the last hundred and forty years, and its undertakings in iron and steel manufacture are carried on upon a scale hardly surpassed in the British Isles. In the town itself one meets with all the evidences of a well-governed and thriving community, and there are many well-managed business establishments here, representing a wide range of general trades, and catering in an enterprising and adequate manner to the varied requirements of a large population. Tremendous activity prevails; in the mines and iron-works of this busy district, the products of which are in universal demand.

PONTYPRIDD, in which are comprised several important Glamorganshire parishes, is a flourishing town of about 20,000 inhabitants, situated at the junction of the Rivers Rhondda and Taff. It is sometimes called Newbridge — probably in honour of the beautiful bridge which spans the Taff at this point. Like many other prominent towns of South Wales at the present day Pontypridd has grown up from the proportions of a simple country village to be a place of mark in the industrial world, and the secret of it 3 success and progress has been the mineral wealth of the district in which it is situated. The coal and iron mines of the district are extensively and profitably worked, and the town itself has become a busy and thriving industrial centre, where anchors and chains are largely made, and where the operations incidental to a variety of iron and brass working industries are vigorously carried on. There are excellent facilities of railway transport, and there is every reason to believe that the growth and prosperity of Pontypridd will be continuous, for its people are industrious and enterprising, and their various business undertakings are well advanced and firmly established.

ABERDARE, a populous market town and manufacturing centre of Glamorganshire, forms part of the parliamentary borough of Merthyr Tydfil, from which town it is about four miles distant to the south-west. It lies 24 miles to the north of Cardiff, and has excellent means of communication with that port. Coal and iron are abundant in the district, and the principal local industries are connected with the working and utilisation of those invaluable minerals. The population of Aberdare in 1891 was 38,513.

The articles which now follow will serve to indicate the nature and scope of the great industries and trades of the above-named towns by presenting a review of the history and operations of leading firms engaged therein.




A CALL by appointment at the offices of the “Vale of Neath Brewery,” situate in High Street, Neath, secures an interview with the courteous proprietor, Mr. Evan Evans Bevan, who is at present (1893) Mayor of the borough of Neath. After a critical inspection of the well-furnished and ably conducted, offices, Mr. Bevan is good enough to suggest a drive out to Cadoxton, where the brewery is situated. The brewery (of which we have annexed a bird’s-eye view), or rather a portion of the present establishment, was originally erected in 1840 at a cost of £60,000 by a joint-stock company, and after some years of trading was purchased by Evan Evans, Esq., who by skill and perseverance refitted it throughout in a judicious manner, replete with every requirement, and made considerable additions. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, the late Mr. David Bevan, the father of the present proprietor, and the concern has been in his hands since 1888. If all the beer offered for public sale were of similar quality to that supplied from this brewery, good and wholesome, there would be less heard of the grievous drunkenness which so disgraces our land. The consumption of adulterated mixtures dignified by the name of beer must be held responsible for a great deal of this blot upon our national reputation. The building itself is imposing and substantial and is fitted with none but the very best machinery and appliances in every department. The first essential is that the ingredients be of the highest quality obtainable in the market, and to this Mr. Bevan devotes the most scrupulous personal attention. Every process of manufacture is watched with jealous care, and in the result the brewery issues the very best beers and stout, which are largely consumed throughout the district.


THE business of smelting and metal refining carried on by this firm at their Mill-lands Works, Neath, was commenced many years ago by the present senior partner, and has been since largely developed under the management of Mr. Herbert S. Sutton, the elder of the two junior partners, who was a pupil of the late Mr. James S. Merry, metallurgical chemist, of Swansea, and was trained for this profession at the laboratory in the ore-yards of Messrs. Henry Bath & Son, Swansea. The firm at first dealt with metallic wastes, which arise in the local manufactories, and further on, in the reduction of metals from their native ores and in other combinations. From the metals thus obtained this firm manufactures alloys for various uses, as well as solder for tinsmiths, plumbers, &c., their makes of which are in high repute, and protected by a registered trade-mark. The works are most eligibly situated, being in close proximity to the Great Western Railway, and to the navigable River Neath. The plant which has been setup for the various purposes — some of it protected by patent — is of a kind which ensures both efficiency and economy. The experience, arising from a long business career, of the senior partner, supplemented by the junior partners, who are trained assayers, and practical in all departments of their manufacture, gives them special advantages for the carrying on of their business, and secures to them the reputation they enjoy.


ESTABLISHED some fifty years ago by a Mr. Henry Strick, the property subsequently passed into the hands of Messrs. Munro, Grant & Co., from whom it was acquired by Messrs. John Williams & Co., and finally came into the possession of Mr. Thomas Williams, who since the year 1862 has been sole proprietor, trading under the style of T. Williams & Co. The timber yard and mills are very extensive, occupying a most advantageous site between the canal and the River Neath, to both of which they have a wharf frontage of considerable depth. The works are thus placed in direct water communication with the various foreign ports whence supplies of valuable timber are drawn, and on the other hand with the vast network of towns and mining properties tapped by the canal, and over which the proprietor of the Neath Steam Saw Mills disperses his goods. Not only are considerable cargoes of timber discharged into the yard for treatment in the mills, but deals and other boarding are imported. These latter are at once stacked with the utmost precision in vast sheds, in order to secure a thorough seasoning of the wood. The massive blocks of timber stacked on the wharves are passed to the mills by means of a gantry, and a powerful crane greatly facilitates the unloading of cargo from ships lying alongside. The engine-house contains two horizontal twenty-four horse-power engines, which have full occupation in driving the numerous circular, vertical, horizontal, and other saws with which the mills are fitted. In another building is a third engine, of twelve horse-power, employed in driving elaborate planing and moulding machines. Besides this the yard boasts extensive carpenters’ and smiths’ shops, not only for the purposes of the works, but also for the use of the firm’s customers. In addition to the timber trade a very considerable business is transacted in the usual builders’ requisites, such as Welsh slates, bricks, pantiles, lathes, &c., and a staff of some twenty men find ample employment upon the works, while many horses, stabled on the premises, are used in the delivery of timber and other goods. In connection with the business there is also a large timber-yard at Port Talbot, a few miles away. The trade of both establishments is chiefly local, but of large and increasing dimensions.


THE department of business operations undertaken by the auctioneer is without question one that is of the greatest importance in all communities; and the town of Neath and the districts comprising the charming Vale of Neath, including Briton Ferry, Aberavon, Port Talbot, the Swansea Valley, and West Glamorgan, find a very able representative and exponent in Mr. William Harry Rees, an Associate of the Institute of Auctioneers, who opened his present business in the year 1867, and now holds the premiere place as auctioneer, valuer, &c., in his town and district.. Mr. Rees conducts auctions, in all parts of the town and country, of all manner of household furniture and effects, works, plant, and machinery, estates, collieries, land and house property, farming stock, &c. All classes of land and estate agency business are transacted, and among other work in which Mr. Rees is largely engaged may be mentioned confidential reporting for mortgages and other purposes, and the making of surveys and effecting valuations of estates, works, business premises, and the like, as well as all kinds of arbitrator’s and referee’s work. The business is well sustained by the ability, experience, and sound judgment that mark Mr. Rees’s administration, his qualifications being evidently well known and appreciated by the legal profession and an extensive clientele; and a first-class connection is maintained among the landed proprietors, property owners, investors, and professional and business men throughout the town and district of Neath and the surrounding neighbourhood, as well as in many adjacent towns and districts. Mr. Rees’s premises, situated in a commanding position in a main thoroughfare, comprise a well-appointed suite of general, clerical, and private offices and auction-rooms on the ground floor, and an efficient staff of assistants is engaged, under the personal superintendence of Mr. Rees; and a well-equipped printing office is attached and conducted under able direction, where auction announcements, bills, and catalogues are printed, as well as superior general letterpress and job commercial work, artistic work, and also account-book making, machine ruling, bookbinding, colour and relief stamping are executed by expert and experienced hands.


SPRUNG from a family of farmers, Mr. Llewellyn’s father, at one time a prosperous man, was forced, through agricultural depression, to settle in the town of Neath. He determined, however, to give to his son as good an education as the town could afford, and Mr. Llewellyn passed with credit both through Alderman Davies’s Schools and the Neath Academy. After some years of valuable experience gained in the well-known house of Mr. T. J. Osborne, in 1874 Mr. Llewellyn commenced business on his own account as grocer and provision merchant in Queen Street. His success was assured and rapid. The business speedily outgrew the resources of the original premises, and a removal was made to a more commodious shop in Wind Street. But even this soon proved inadequate to cope with the ever-increasing volume of business, and the two adjoining shops were added. The premises comprise three handsome shops, with a frontage of sixty feet of spacious plate-glass windows.

No. 5, Wind Street is an extensive shop, sixty feet in depth, and is splendidly lighted from the roof. This shop has been elegantly fitted by Bartlett, of Bristol, with mahogany and marble-top counters, and ornamental polished mahogany and brass shelving and fixtures. For the expedition of business the shop has been equipped with Lamson’s Patent Ball-Cash Railway. From the shop an arcade leads to the private office, and at the end of the shop is a massive mirror. This shop is stocked with groceries and provisions of the choicest brands, patent medicines, wines and spirits (Mr. Llewellyn being an agent for W. & A. Gilbey), biscuits and cakes in great variety, fruits, both fresh and dried, and brushes, fancy goods, sponges, &c. No. 7, which is a shop of equally large size, has also been fitted in a similarly elegant manner by Bartlett, of Bristol. Attached to this department is the well-appointed counting-house. No. 6, Wind Street, which has been recently completed, is devoted exclusively to the tea department. It has been fitted after the most approved metropolitan style, and is distinctly the best shop of the kind in South Wales.

At the rear of the shops is a substantially built warehouse of four storeys. The large space thus afforded is stocked to repletion with splendid selections of the goods in which Mr. Llewellyn deals. The ground floor is devoted to the storage of heavy goods, such as sacks of flour and grain, bags of sugar, cheeses, and provisions. A tramway connects this part of the warehouse with the street, and there is also a hoist in use. The first floor is devoted to the warehousing of various condiments and Italian goods, together with household requisites. On this floor, also, is the coffee store-room, very large assortments of this commodity being held. The coffee is roasted as well as ground on the premises. The roasting mill used is a patent by Parnall & Co., of Bristol. The upper floors are used as store-rooms for spices, farinaceous foods, and teas. This latter commodity enters very largely into Mr. Llewellyn’s operations. He makes his purchases with the greatest discrimination, and his stock is reputed to be one of the best in South Wales. The patent blending machine in use is also a production of Messrs. Parnall & Co., of Bristol. There is also a spacious room for the storage of fruit. In this room is a patent fruit-cleaning machine.

Attached to the premises is commodious stabling, erected upon the most approved sanitary principles. Here ample accommodation is afforded for the large number of horses and carts used in the business. Upwards of twenty-five hands are employed, and Mr. Llewellyn enjoys a very high reputation for the attention which he devotes to the comforts of those who serve him. No. 4, Wind Street, a spacious private house, has been conveniently fitted up for their accommodation. Although he possesses very extensive and valuable retail connections, Mr. Llewellyn’s business is by no means confined to this department, for he conducts a most important wholesale trade. In 1888 Mr. Llewellyn was elected a town councillor. His eminent business abilities speedily marked him out as a man of more than ordinary service. In regard to the Railway Rates Bill especially he signalised himself, by inducing the council to take prominent action in regard to the question. In 1891 Mr. Llewellyn was elected mayor, and throughout his year of office he worthily carried out his duties, with dignity to himself, and to the complete satisfaction of his fellow-townsmen.


ALTHOUGH but recently opened, “The General Supply Stores,” No. 14, Windsor Street, has become one of the most popular emporiums in Neath for the supply of family groceries, tea, coffee, and provisions. Mr. Levi James has been very fortunate in securing the large and commodious premises, No. 14, Windsor Street. The spacious and handsome shop has a very imposing plate-glass frontage of fully twenty feet, and the interior is fitted up in a very superior style. The stock is very large and comprehensive, being replete with all the best features of the various lines engaged in, and thoroughly representative of the business in all its branches, embracing a most extensive assortment of general groceries, tea, coffee, fruits, spices, biscuits in great variety; a choice selection of Italian goods and table delicacies; provisions of all kinds; hams and bacon of prime quality; English, American, and Continental cheese; jams, jellies, pickles, sauces, and all the specialities of the leading manufacturers of comestibles. Mr. James is a very extensive and judicious buyer in the best markets, and is in a position to give his customers the benefit of all intermediate profits and exceptional advantages both in quality and price. Mr. James makes a special feature of Welsh produce, and is the largest retailer of real Welsh provisions in Neath and district. An efficient staff of salesmen and assistants is employed, and no effort is spared to meet the convenience of customers in the punctual execution of orders. Mr. Levi James is a well-known and popular man of business, and has won the confidence and respect of all classes of the community.


THIS superior business was established at the above address in 1860, by Mr. John Chapple, who conducted it up to the time of his decease, which occurred in 1890. Since that time it has been carried, on by Mrs. Chapple. The premises occupied are not only commodious, but are also well adapted to the special requirements of the business. The shop has a large single plate-glass window. The whole of the interior is fitted up in a superior manner, its appearance being greatly enhanced by the scrupulous cleanliness maintained. The stock of pastry is replenished daily. It consists of numerous exquisite delicacies, mostly prepared from valuable recipes. The absolute purity of the ingredients, and the care expended upon the preparing, baking, &c., renders them as wholesome as they are acceptable. Several choice kinds of cake have gained for the establishment a high reputation. Fancy confectionery of every kind is well represented, all of the best quality. The leading speciality is the justly celebrated wedding-cake. This delicious compound has long been in almost universal request. The cakes can be made to any size on the shortest notice, and can be ornamented to any requirement. Pic-nic parties, balls, and supper parties are catered for on reasonable terms, entire satisfaction being invariably given. Cakes are made for tea parties and funeral parties. Not the least praiseworthy feature of tins complete and well-managed establishment is the courteous manner in which all customers are waited upon. Mrs. Chapple personally superintends the various operations, holding the entire regard of a substantial and influential clientele.


THE cabinetmakers’ craft, and the kindred operations of the upholsterer, undertaker and general house furnisher, find admirable representation in Neath at the hands of Mr. J. Fear Davies, who in the year 1872 acquired the thriving business which had been formed some twenty years previously by his father, Mr. Philip Davies. Eligibly located in the commanding corner position formed by the junction of Old Market Street and Church Place, abutting on the old parish church, the premises are in every point of character precisely adapted to the requirements of a very brisk business of the kind. They comprise a large and substantial four-floored building, the first three storeys of which are admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style. They contain a complete and comprehensive stock of modern furniture of every kind in suites and single pieces, from which selections can be made to suit the pockets of all classes of the community, the prices charged being in every instance based upon the lowest remunerative scale consistent with equitable trading. The topmost storey of the building is capitally equipped as a workshop, where a full staff of expert and experienced craftsmen operate in every branch of repairs and re-upholstery work, in the making of furniture of special designs, and in the production of complete funeral requisites as supplementary to Mr. Davies’s undertaking business. The trade connections of the house are of a highly influential character, and Mr. Davies is well known and respected for the deep interest he takes in both the social and commercial welfare of the district in which he dwells, and of the parish of which he is the esteemed churchwarden.


ORGANISED as far back as the year 1837 by a Mr. T. Andrew, this business was in 1878 acquired by the present able and energetic proprietor, Mr. S. Evans, who had gained his experience of the trade in assisting his predecessor. The commercial development of the concern has been continuous from the commencement. The premises occupied are in every point of character and situation well adapted to the requirements of the business transacted. They consist of a show-room, admirably appointed throughout in the best modern style, and most methodically arranged to hold and effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of goods illustrative of every conceivable kind of household, furnishing, builders’, cabinetmakers’, and general ironmongery goods, the surplus stocks of which are carefully stored in the ware-rooms on the two upper floors, and the heavy goods in the basement below. A leading feature is made of colliery requirements, and ships’ stores are held in stock in order to meet urgent demands with promptitude and completeness. Mr. Evans is also the local agent for Nobel’s dynamite and blasting gelatine, and Strange’s A 1 crystal oil, articles that are in constant demand in the district. In every department of the business high-class quality is made a feature of special importance, to which the proprietor’s attention is particularly directed; and it is doubtless due to this fact that the house has become so widely popular, and that such an extensive and thriving business has been developed.


A VERY important branch of the industrial activity of Neath is well represented in the extensive establishment of Mr. John Rees, whose business was established as far back as the year 1862 by the present proprietor originally in Church Place, and removed to the more extensive and commodious premises now occupied. These comprise a spacious and well-appointed double shop, with large plate-glass windows. There is also extensive warehouse accommodation, a well-equipped workshop, and every convenience for the rapid despatch of business. A business of a similar character had been established by the late Mr. Rowland Thomas, an ex-Mayor of Neath, who was succeeded by Mr. Price, of Bridge End. It is interesting to note that Mr. Rees was for some fourteen years in the employ of the first-named gentleman, having served his apprenticeship with him, and afterwards rose to the position of manager, which he duly resigned on Mr. Thomas’s retirement from business. After being a short time manager for Mr. Price, be started on his own account. Mr. Rees gives employment to a large staff of experienced workmen, and a very large and comprehensive stock of leather of various kinds is held. Besides all materials for boots and shoes, belting, harness, hides, &c., he keeps in stock all goods accessary for the clogging trade, as well as grindery of all descriptions. Mr. Rees is a thoroughly practical man, and exercises in the management of his business that great care and sound judgment which are acquired only by long experience. He has a very extensive and old-established connection, which is well founded on the eminent reputation so long enjoyed, and the thorough confidence established by the well-known quality and character of all the goods dealt in. Mr. Rees has long taken an active interest in the welfare of his fellow-townsmen. He sat in the council for many years, and served the office of mayor in the municipal year 1887-1888. At the expiration of his term of office, however, his health gave way, and he did not seek re-election.


IN the year 1852 Messrs. Pole & Sons commenced business at Neath as engineers and brass and iron founders. After a highly successful career of thirty-five years they disposed of their enterprise in the year 1887 to the present proprietor, Mr. Oliver H. Thomas, who trades under the title of the “Windsor Engineering Company.” The premises comprise s foundry of substantial construction, no expense having been spared in the endeavour to secure efficiency, and the foundry is replete with every requisite for the production of all descriptions of brass and iron castings. In the fitting shop are the most elaborate arrangements for the service of this important department, where a large staff of skilled artisans is employed. The machinery includes turning lathes, drilling machines, punching and planing machines, and other necessary apparatus, the whole being driven by a horizontal engine of twenty horse-power. In the smiths' shops are four forges, while there is a commodious and well-fitted pattern-shop for the use of the foundry department. An extensive trade is carried on in every species of engineering work, in addition to the brass and iron castings already mentioned. Mr. Oliver H. Thomas is also a colliery proprietor and manufacturer of patent purified coke. He is also chairman of the Jersey Tin-plate Company, Limited.
The registered telegraphic address is “Windsor, Neath.”

(Telegrams: “Stone, Neath”).

THE importation and wholesale as well as retail distribution of wines and spirits of the most popular brands, and the most noted vintages and blends, throughout the vast area comprised by the southern Welsh counties of Glamorgan, Carmarthen, Pembroke, Cardigan, and Brecon, have since the year 1879 found admirable representation at the hands of Mr. H. Stone, merchant, of Neath. Mr. Stone’s headquarters comprise stores in High Street, and cellars beneath the Post Office. The ample accommodation afforded is very heavily stocked with an enormous quantity of the choicest of wines and spirits of every known variety in both wood and bottles, representing the outlay of a very large capital. In addition to these Mr. Stone has won a widespread and well-merited renown as the sole proprietor of the “Craig-y-Nos” Scotch whisky, and the “Kilnoman” Irish whisky, as the wholesale agent for South Wales for Messrs. John Dewar & Sons’ celebrated “Old Highland Whisky,” which has been awarded no less than twenty-two medals, and as agent for Messrs. Hiram Walker & Son’s “Canadian Club” whisky, Messrs. Bass, Allsopp, and Worthington’s Burton Ales, the Anglo-Bavarian Brewery Company, Shepton Mallet, and Mr. W. J. Rogers’s Bristol ales, and Messrs. Guinness & Co.’s Dublin stout. Mr. Stone’s reputation has been entirely built up by constant and conscientious catering to the needs and requirements of an essentially superior clientele, and his house stands high in the estimation of a widespread and influential trade and family connection, by reason of the sound principles and honourable methods which have always characterised its business transactions, and it is manifestly his resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced and consistently developed in days to come.


MR. WHITTINGTON entered upon his present prosperous career in the year 1884, by opening his business in the Post Office Chambers. Five years, however, had scarcely elapsed before Mr. Whittington found it necessary to make considerable extensions in order to keep pace with his rapidly expanding undertaking, and he accordingly entered upon his present quarters. The premises occupied are precisely adapted to the requirements of the very brisk business transacted. Auctions of all descriptions of goods, furniture, household effects, merchandise, farm stock, &c., are regularly conducted, and every sale so announced under the auspices of Mr. Whittington’s name is assured of a goodly concourse of buyers. Accountant’s and auditing work, all classes of land and estate agency business, the valuation of property and effects, general commission work, and insurance agency business for the Railway Passengers, and Northern Accident Insurance Company, and Imperial Life and Fire Insurance Company, and the Scottish Equitable Life Office, are all undertaken by Mr. Whittington with credit to himself and the undoubted advantage of his numerous clients.


THE Eaglesbush Foundry and Forgos were established about the year 1838 by the late Mr. Sankey Gardner, of Neath, and were successfully worked by him for forty-five years. Upon his death in 1883 the property passed into the hands of its present holder, Mr. A. Sidney Gardner, an active and energetic man of business. Mr. Sidney Gardner finds time to devote to public interests. He is a Guardian of the Poor for the Neath Union, chairman of the Rural Sanitary Authority, and a member of the Highway Board. By way of recreation he fills the arduous position of Major commanding the 5th Company, 1st Glamorgan Volunteer Artillery. The Eaglesbush’ Foundry embraces various buildings incidental to the working of iron and brass, and the execution of orders for castings of all classes. The engineers’ shops are fitted with the newest appliances and machinery, inclusive of lathes, drilling and punching machines, &c., while in the smiths’ shop are three forges and all the usual requisites. There is a large forge-hammer, worked by hydraulic power, and employed in the production of hammered metal of all descriptions. The usual pattern and templet making shops are provided, also general offices. The output of the foundry is almost entirely utilised by the collieries and works throughout the South Welsh manufacturing districts.
The telegraphic address is “Gardner, Neath.”


DATING back in its foundation to the year 1820, this extensive business was then established by Messrs. Morgan & Gardner, and carried on by them for a considerable number of years, and when Mr. Morgan retired, the business was carried on by Mr. Gardner, and passed into the hands of the present proprietor in 1880, Mr. Couch having for twenty years previously managed the business for Mr. Gardner. The premises in Wind Street (which are the largest in the town) comprise a large and commodious double shop, admirably appointed and well arranged for the display, sale, and storage of the large and varied stock. To the rear of this are two large warehouses (which also have an entrance from Water Street), chiefly devoted to heavy iron goods. The premises are well and completely stocked throughout with general ironmongery suitable for domestic and tradesmen’s use, hardware of every description, table and pocket cutlery, electro-plated goods, fire and burglar proof safes, register and other grates, kitchen ranges, rain-water goods, gas, water, and steam tubing, and every description of rod and bar iron, galvanised tanks, bolts, and nuts, nails, galvanised corrugated and other sheet iron, wire netting and fencing, and a large assortment of paints, oils, colours, , and rope, &c., &c. The whole of the stock, of which the above are but a few of the leading lines, is selected from the best sources. Mr. Couch is an extensive and judicious buyer, and, dealing direct with the manufacturer, he is enabled to give his customers the benefit of all intermediate profits and exceptional advantages in quality and price. The trade is widespread, the wholesale and retail branches operating extensively in all parts of the town and country. Mr. Philip T. Couch is well known and highly respected in Neath, and conducts his extensive business in that true spirit of commercial enterprise which makes the interests of his customers a consideration of the very first importance. He has received very great assistance from his son, Mr. W. L. Couch, who has been in this business over eighteen years, and now takes an active part in its management.


THE history of the business dates back to its foundation in 1865 by the present proprietor, who has, during this lengthened period, succeeded in developing a substantial and progressive trade. The premises occupied comprise handsome and commodious double-fronted shop, fitted throughout in modern style, and combining every convenience for the display of the goods and the efficient working of the several departments of the business. The stocks held have been selected with great care from the best sources of supply, and embrace a choice assortment of the finest blends of new season’s teas, coffees, spices, and general groceries, and a range of Italian warehouse goods and provisions, including every description of English, American, and Continental produce of the most superior brands. An extensive and influential family trade is in operation at this establishment. Mr. Osborne, by specially catering for the requirements of all classes of the general public, has secured the confidence and support of every section of the inhabitants of the neighbourhood. An adequate staff of assistants is employed in the various departments of the business, under the personal supervision of the principal, whose thoroughly practical knowledge of the trade ensures the efficiency of the management, and has contributed in no small degree to the success achieved by this old-established and deservedly popular concern. A branch business is also in operation at 32, Church Street, Briton Ferry, which is conducted on similar lines to the head establishment, and now forms the centre of & steadily increasing and improving local trade.


THIS extensive business was established in 1881 by Messrs. Grieslaber & Co, and was taken over in 1888 by the present proprietor. The establishment occupies an excellent position in Green Street, the spacious and handsome shop is fitted up in a very superior style, and the large and valuable stock embraces a most-extensive assortment of gold and silver watches by the most noted makers. Clocks and timepieces of the best English and Continental manufacture, a choice assortment of diamond and signet rings, brooches, necklets, lockets, earrings, watch-chains and alberts, and a splendid display of silver and electro-plated goods of exquisite workmanship and refined beauty. The entire stock is of exceptional quality and of the very best manufacture. Mr. Furtwangler is a very extensive and judicious buyer, and is consequently enabled to give his clients exceptional advantages. He is also the agent for the “Dorcas” thimble, a very popular article and quite unequalled for durability. Mr. Furtwangler possesses the advantage of long practical experience, and by his spirited enterprise, genial courtesy, and considerate attention to the requirements of his patrons he has secured the confidence and support of a very extensive and high-class connection.


THIS extensive business was established by the present proprietor in 1855, originally in Wind Street, and removed to the more extensive and commodious premises now occupied in 1886. Here the fine plate-glass windows are well and tastefully arranged, and present all the interesting characteristics of a high-class pharmacy. The interior is well stocked with drugs and chemicals of well-attested purity, all the best-known patent medicines and proprietary articles, surgical appliances of all kinds, hospital and sick-room requirements; also a choice selection of perfumes and fancy soaps, sponges, brushes, and toilet requisites of every description. In the dispensing department physicians’ prescriptions are accurately compounded, and family recipes carefully prepared, the best and purest drugs and chemicals only being used. Amongst the specialities of the house may be mentioned Hutchins’s “Compound Balsam of Liquorice,” which is guaranteed to contain an ingredient possessed by no other cough mixture in the world. Its relieving effects are as immediate as its curative powers are certain. It is an unfailing and natural remedy, as palatable as its power is potent. Mr. Charles Hutchins is well known and highly esteemed for his long and honourable connection with this town; he enjoys the confidence and recommendation of the leading medical gentlemen, and the patronage and support of a very extensive and valuable connection.



THE Villiers Tin-plate Company, Limited, was founded in 1889, and started under the favourable auspices of an influential directorate, comprising W. P. Struve, Esq., J.P. (chairman), G. H. Davey, Esq., J.P., H. F. Taylor, Esq;, D. T. Sims, Esq., and M. G. Roberts, Esq. Mr. W. H. Harris fills the office of secretary and manager with thorough efficiency. Enterprisingly administered, and fortunate in the possession of skilful executive officers and ample resources, it is not surprising that this concern has advanced into the front rank of the trade. The works at Briton Ferry are new and substantially built upon the best lines for their purpose, and the plant they contain (comprising six mills and eight pairs of cold rolls, with all accessories) is of the most improved and effective modern type. The fact that most of the directors are well known as practical engineers is sufficient to guarantee the perfect organisation of the establishment in all its departments. The Company’s productions in tin and terne plates are highly esteemed, and the several brands are as follows:— “Osterley” (Crown), extra-coated charcoal; “Albert,” best charcoal; “H.J.D.,” charcoal; “B.F.,” best coke; “Sims,” best charcoal; “W.P.S.,” best coke. Also in terne-plates — “Warren,” old style; “H.F.T.,” dull charcoal; and “M.G.R.,” bright charcoal. The “Osterley,” “Albert,” “H.J.D.,” and “B.F.” brands of tin-plates are made only of specially selected best soft Siemens-Martin steel. The “Sims,” “Davey,” and “W.P.S.” brands are made of the best selected Bessemer steel. All the tetne-plates are made of the best-selected soft Siemens-Martin steel. In all cases the Company use the best and most reliable materials, and turn out a class of plates that cannot be surpassed for quality and finish by any others in the market. An immense trade is controlled, which is steadily increasing, and the Company have agents in all parts of the world. Their tin, terne, and black plates are exported to all the chief markets abroad, besides being widely distributed in the home trade. Upwards of four hundred hands are employed at the Victoria Tin-plate Works, and the establishment is capable of turning out about four thousand boxes of plates per week.
Telegraphic address: “ Osterley, Briton Ferry.”


THIS Company was incorporated so recently as 1891, and as its experienced executive had an ample supply of capital for the equipment of all the industrial departments, they represent all that mechanical skill has hitherto been able to effect in economising time and labour. The board of directors is an especially strong one, having Mr. Oliver H. Thomas as chairman, while Mr. E. W. Evans is the managing director. The other directors are Messrs. James Griffiths, Evan Jones, Richard Gill, and Thomas Francis. The premises, which are most conveniently situated on the banks of the River Neath, cover a large area of ground, and include three mills and four pairs of cold rolls, with a tin-house and six sets of tinning machines. The separate sheds, which give accommodation to these appliances, are each of large dimensions, and are most substantially built. There are also extensive fitting shops, provided with lathes and drilling and cutting machines, all of the most approved modern type. One of the lathes in this department is of special design, and as a piece of metal-working machinery, can scarcely be equalled in the district. The carpenters’ and smiths’ shops are equally well equipped. The situation of the works, so far as regards their facilities for locomotion, is a peculiarly happy one. Advantage has been taken of the riverside situation to erect a commodious wharf, and this is so close to the sorting-room that one man will be able to put in upwards of twenty-five tons between tides, and the Great Western Railway trucks run within two hundred yards of the works, with tram sidings into the premises.

The productions of the Company consist of large quantities of first-class steel tin-plates and terne-plates, the output of which reaches the high figure of about sixteen hundred boxes weekly. These goods, for the most part, reach their ultimate destinations in foreign ports through Swansea. At the present time about a hundred and thirty hands, many of whom are experts of the highest technical skill, are employed. When the third mill is in working order the number of hands will be increased to a hundred and ninety. The suite of general and private offices is well appointed, and provided with all requisites. The registered telegraphic address is, “Nidum, Briton Ferry.” Already the brands of the Company are well known in the markets of the world, and are everywhere recognised as guaranteeing standard qualities. They are as follows:— RAY (Siemens steel, second charcoal); EWE (Siemens coke); CRUX (Bessemer coke); GIANT (Siemens charcoal terne). It required only the recent improvement in the prospects of the American market with reference to tariffs to ensure a highly prosperous future for the Jersey Tin-plate Company, Limited.


THE large works and foundry of the above-named firm constitute one of the most important industrial institutions of Briton Ferry. Messrs. Taylor, Struve, Eaton & Price, who also control the Vale of Neath Engineering Works at Neath, carry on a very large system of operations as general engineers, and iron and brass founders. The business is one of long establishment, and was originally in the hands of Messrs. William Davies & Son. In 1882 it was acquired by the present firm, and since then its scope has been considerably enlarged and its connection much increased. The works at Briton Ferry are of large extent, and include specially equipped shops for the manufacture of wrought-iron annealing pots for tin-plate works. It may be said that the speciality of the Briton Ferry establishment consists in all requirements for tin-plate manufacturers, including engines, mills, chilled rolls, tinning machines, pickling machines, and the wrought-iron annealing pots above mentioned. Other manufactures for which this firm have a high reputation embrace colliery plant, pumps, winding machinery, brick machinery for silica, and also for ganister and ordinary fire bricks; steam-engines and all kinds of general engineering work; castings in iron, brass, and phosphor bronze; air-compressing machinery, &c., &c. They are sole makers of Taylor’s and Struve’s patent tinning machine, and are also sole licensors of the same. Machinery, castings, and general plant for copper works also come within the range of this enterprising firm, and Messrs. Taylor, Struve, Eaton & Price send their productions in this department to the Cape and to Newfoundland, besides supplying local copper-works. Their excellent tin-works plant and appliances are largely in use throughout South Wales, and also in Staffordshire, and are sent in considerable quantities to the Continent, as well as of late to the United States.

The works at Briton Ferry cover two acres of ground, employ nearly one hundred hands, and have excellent facilities of transport, sidings connecting them with the Great Western Railway and with Briton Ferry Dock. The Vale of Neath Engineering Works date from 1876, when they were founded by Mr. H. F. Taylor. They have been in the hands of Messrs.; Taylor, Struve, Eaton & Price since 1882. These works are large and admirably equipped and form a valuable factor in the industrial resources of the firm. Their special productions embrace tin-works plant, colliery plant, and the several items of brick machinery, general engineering, castings, &c., to which reference has already been made. The business of this well-known and highly esteemed firm is conducted with conspicuous ability and enterprise, under the personal direction of the principals, and is supported by an influential and steadily increasing connection. Its success has been thoroughly well earned, and its further progress will be watched with interest in a neighbourhood where Messrs. Taylor, Struve, Eaton & Price have gained many friends by their honourable and business-like methods.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Struve,” Briton Ferry or Neath.


THE works of the Briton Perry Steel Company, Limited, are a conspicuous feature, and travellers by the Great Western Railway detect, while still many miles distant, the tall shafts, of one hundred and sixty-one, one hundred and forty, and one hundred and ten feet respectively, from which night and day are emitted volumes of smoke and vapour indicative of the busy, unceasing labours of the human hive clustered at their base. The initiation of the business owes its origin to Mr. H. Eccles, F.C.S., and Mr. F. F. Card, the present managing directors, who in 1889 invited the co-operation of such well-known local men as Mr. W. Bevan (chairman), who is also chairman of the Ashburnham Tin-plate Company, and director of several other important local industries, Mr. Isaiah Bevan and Mr. Lewis Jenkins, chairman of the Bay Tin-plate Company. The business is still in its infancy, and has from the first commanded brilliant success. The site chosen comprises five acres of land bordered on both flanks by the Great Western Railway sidings, is admirably served by its own private wharf on the River Neath, and in close proximity to the Docks. The works consist of Siemens-Martin steel-producing plant, viz., five thirty-ton melting furnaces, gas re-heating furnaces, a reversing rolling-mill driven by a handsome horizontal reversing engine of twenty-five hundred horse-power, by Galloway, of Manchester, together with four boilers (thirty feet by eight by six), supplied by the well-known firms of Tinker Brothers, of Manchester, and Thompson, Wolverhampton, names to conjure with in the engineering world. The works contain fitting shops, all the machinery in which is driven by steam-power, smiths’ shop, with three forges, &c., carpenters’ shop, and stores, the whole being lighted throughout by electricity, including both arc and incandescent lamps. The steel bars produced by the works are used principally in the South Wales tin-plate industry, and an average weekly output of a thousand tons is obtained when the whole plant is in full operation.
The Company’s registered telegraphic address is “Ingot, Briton Ferry,” and the telephone is in constant requisition on the works.


THE premises of the Baglan Bay Company can show marvels of modern ingenuity in the arrangement and fitting of mills and machinery, and thus compensate for the lack of antiquity, the works haring been only two years in active existence. The total area of about four acres is covered by various mills and other substantial buildings, the whole of the edifices being surrounded by yards, traversed in all directions by private sidings, and directly connected with the Great Western Railway on the one hand and the Docks on the other. Three large rolling mills occupy a prominent site, with the usual complement of cold rolls, and the necessary pickling and annealing departments, with tin-house equipped with all the latest requisites. The whole of the machinery is of the most modern kind, and is of extreme value, the directors having wisely determined to spare no expense in their preliminary outlay. The necessary motive power is communicated to the mills by a vertical engine of four hundred indicated horse-power. There are also several engines of smaller size for various purposes. The buildings occupied by the mills and cold rolls have a dimension of one hundred and fifty feet by sixty, the pickling and annealing houses ninety by fifty, and the tin-house and sorting-room one hundred and ten by fifty. The workshops consist of elaborately equipped fitting department, whose lathes and other machines are driven by steam-power; also smiths’ shop, with two forges and that essential adjunct — a carpenter’s shop. The tinplates manufactured by this Company are of the very finest quality, and only the best kinds of Bessemer and Siemens steel are used in their production. The Company’s brands are:— Bessemer: BAY (coke), MOR (charcoal); Siemens: RHYD (coke), SAWEL (charcoal). The plates are used largely for home consumption, and are exported to all parts of the world.
Telegrams should be addressed: “Bay, Briton Ferry.”
The directors are Mr. Lewis Jenkins (chairman), Mr. Jenkin Hill, C.C., Mr. John Jones, Mr. R. Williams, and Mr. William Morris, who is also the able and indefatigable manager.


FORMERLY worked as a colliery by Messrs. Price, of Neath Abbey, this estate was acquired by the present proprietors in 1882. Situate near the well-known Vernon Works, at the busy manufacturing town and seaport of Briton Ferry, the position is admirably suited to the nature of the occupation undertaken. With a view to the proper treatment of the clay found upon the estate its proprietor has established an extensive level for its working, and has erected mills of the most approved modern type. A staff of experienced hands is employed upon the works, and, in order to keep pace with the exigencies of the trade, four large kilns are in use. From the kilns the bricks are drawn for prompt despatch to the neighbouring town, and also in large quantities to Swansea and the surrounding district, where the best quality of firebricks are in unfailing demand for the hundreds of furnaces with which the face of this busy country is covered. The establishment is, in its way, complete, the smiths’ shop, with its forge, &c., the offices, and other buildings being all that the most exacting business man could wish for.


PROJECTED in the year 1872 by Mr. W. D. Jones, this prosperous drapery and millinery establishment was acquired by his nephew, the present able and energetic proprietor, who, with a staff of about twenty competent hands in the various departments, caters most successfully to the needs and requirements of a very large and desirable local and district patronage. The premises occupied comprise a spacious emporium extending for a distance of fully sixty feet to the rear, where it terminates in a huge mirror, which greatly enhances the ensemble of the attractively arranged shop. On the first floor there are two elegantly-appointed show-rooms for the display of the latest London and Paris fashions in millinery and for mantles and jackets up to date, in cloth, velvet, furs, &c., the work-room in connection with these leading lines of the business being presided over by an accomplished modiste. General every-day, household, and fancy drapery goods of all kinds illustrative of the latest fashionable novelties, are prominently en evidence, and everywhere there are evidences of the care and attention bestowed by the proprietor in arranging for the reception, prompt service, and general convenience of his numerous patrons. The house develops in all its resources and operations under Mr. Williams’s careful yet always energetic and enterprising management, and a very large trade of a middle-class character is done, the firm’s valuable connections extending throughout the town and its districts for many miles around.


THIS well-known house was organised by Mr. W. D. Jones in the year 1872, since which time the commercial development of the concern has been both rapid and continuous. Eligibly located in one of the principal business thoroughfares of the town, the spacious double-fronted premises are admirably adapted throughout in the best modern style, and display to advantage a complete and comprehensive stock of superior goods illustrative of gentlemen’s, boys’, and juvenile suits and single garments of every kind and for all occasions, hats and caps by all the leading manufacturers of the day, men’s mercery of all kinds, and the numerous items incidental to a thoroughly typical outfitting depot. A large reserve stock of seasonable goods is held in readiness in the commodious ware-rooms above the shop, and the entire business is conducted in a manner which has won for Mr. Jones the full confidence and liberal support of the best families resident in the town and its populous rural districts for many miles around, and it is manifestly Mr. Jones’s resolution that the high reputation he has won shall not only be well sustained, but steadily enhanced in time to come.



THE above important industry, which gives employment to a large number of experienced workmen, was established in 1879 by Mr. D. R. David and Mr. Llewellyn Howell, both of whom possess a thorough knowledge of the requirements of the trade. The premises comprise four tin-mills, equipped with all the requisite machinery of the most approved modern type, driven by two powerful steam-engines of recent construction. They occupy in all about three acres of land, with about ten additional acres of tipping ground. The position of the works is an exceptionally favourable one for the purpose of the transport of their heavy output. They are the nearest to the Port Talbot station of the Great Western Railway, and also to the Port Talbot Harbour, to which the works are directly connected by the rails of the Port Talbot Harbour. Thence the tin-plates produced at the Taibach Works are forwarded to Liverpool by a regular line of steamships, leaving weekly, and sometimes more frequently. The goods of the firm are also sent to Swansea for direct shipment to the United States by the ocean liners. This outlet for the tin plates of South Wales is likely to regain its former importance as a result of the probable change in the fiscal policy of the United States Government. A large portion of the output of the Taibach Works also finds its way to London, Birmingham, and other English towns.

The brands of the firm are well known in the markets of the world, and are everywhere regarded as a guarantee of excellence. Within the premises is the suite of well-appointed general and private offices, which are furnished with every requisite for the prompt despatch of the considerable amount of clerical work necessitated by the magnitude of the firm’s operations at home and abroad. The registered telegraphic address is “David, Port Talbot.” The works are under the personal supervision of the senior partner, Mr. D. R. David, who occupies a leading social position in the county. He is a Justice of the Peace for Glamorganshire, and holds the rank of major in the 2nd Volunteer Battalion of the Welsh Regiment. The junior partner, Mr. Llewellyn Howell, is one of the best-known authorities on the technical questions connected with the tin-plate trade of the district.


THIS energetically conducted business was founded in 1877, so that its history has been coincident with the great development of the industry already referred to. The premises, which are known as the Aberavon Steam Saw Mills, cover a very large area, and are stocked to repletion with English and foreign timber of the best description, and with slates, bricks, tiles, drain pipes, firebricks, and other building materials of the best quality. The saw-mill itself is a fine building, some eighty feet in length, and is equipped with circular and rack saws, driven by a horizontal engine of twenty-five horse-power. Above the saw-mill is a large joinery department, equipped with six benches and all the necessary appliances. Here there is a second circular saw, used for tenoning purposes. The store-houses for the timber are arranged in accordance with the most approved system, and a very heavy stock of sawn timber, matchboards, skirting, &c., is always being seasoned. Above the offices is a spacious show-room for the display of chimney-pieces, plaster centrepieces, and other decorative appliances. There are also well-built stables for the large establishment of horses and wagons used in the business. The vast extent of his operations and his intimate relations with leading wholesale houses and manufacturers enable Mr. Davies to supply his goods at exceptionally low rates, and that this fact is recognised throughout the trade, his ever-increasing volume of business abundantly testifies.

Referring to Mr. Davies’s connection with the development of Port Talbot, it is interesting to point out a few of the works which have been executed by him, amongst which may be mentioned the Public Hall, the Unsectarian Schools, several of the tin plate works, &c., &c. To him also was entrusted the carrying out of the extensive drainage system for the whole of the Port Talbot district, as well as the water supply and drainage works for Penycae, and he has just completed the water supply and drainage works at Groes and Cwmbrombill, Margam. Mr. Davies had a long connection with municipal matters as a member of the Aberavon Town Council for about twelve years, and in 1887 and 1888 presided over that body as mayor. The exigencies of his business then compelled him to retire from active public life.



THE history of the “Merthyr Express” is, in effect, a microcosm of the records of South Wales during the last quarter of a century and more. It has been in active existence throughout the whole of the eventful period during which the great iron and coal industries of Glamorganshire have risen to the highest rank in economic importance. In every branch of this great movement the “Merthyr Express” has been energetically interested; and by the enterprising and judicious management of the proprietor, Mr. H. W. Southey, the “Express” has, throughout all these changes, held its position as an influential leader of public opinion. The paper was originally founded in 1864, by a limited liability company, with Mr. W. H. Harrison, formerly of the staff of the “Cambria Daily Leader,” as manager. This gentleman was succeeded in the management by Mr. H. W. Southey, in the month of March, 1865, and, shortly afterwards, the business was sold to Mr. David Morgan, one of the directors of the company, Mr. Southey continuing in the management. In 1868 the success of the paper necessitated larger offices, and the present premises, opposite to St. David’s Church, in the High Street, were acquired, and a new office built at the back thereof, with entrance from Post Office Lane. In 1869 Mr. Southey acquired a half-share in the property, which, under his enlightened management, increased rapidly in value. In 1874 he bought the other half-share, and so became sole proprietor.

The “Merthyr Express” was at first a four-paged Times-size newspaper. Mr. Morgan enlarged the pages immediately after he acquired the concern, and when it became the sole property of Mr. Southey, another bold step was taken by its conversion into an eight-paged newspaper, the price remaining the same. As the career of the paper continued to be proportionately prosperous, additional space had to be provided for news and advertisements, and in 1884 the pages were lengthened. Before two years, however, had elapsed it became necessary to add yet another column to the page, which involved the laying down of a new Wharfedale machine, by Messrs. D. Payne & Sons, to print the larger formes. With this extension the enterprising proprietor experienced a further increase of sales, the paper went further afield, new advertisers came to know its value as a medium for their business announcements, and supplements became a common feature of the weekly issue. To obviate the inconvenience of these latter, in 1890 yet another enlargement was decided upon. The pages were lengthened at the same time that an eighth column was added to the seven previously existing, the full sheet being thus one of the largest produced by any weekly local newspaper in the country. To meet the demands of the occasion, a No. 4 two-feeder machine was laid down by the well-known Otley firm of Messrs. D. Payne & Sons, together with a new folder of corresponding size.

The “Merthyr Express” has the leading position of all newspapers in the densely populated coal and iron district of which Merthyr Tydfil is the centre. Its regular circulation is eleven thousand copies, and is constantly increasing. The continuity of editorial and commercial management, in the same hands for twenty-eight years, has had a vital influence in promoting the success of this popular and well-established newspaper. Its politics are Liberal, of an advanced type. In connection with the newspaper there is a valuable printing and bookbinding business, and the front portion of the premises, which were entirely rebuilt in 1880, contains a shop, used for a commercial stationery business, on the ground floor, with editorial and other offices behind and above, and bookbinding and machine-ruling departments on the upper floors. The printing: offices at the rear consist of three-storey and two-storey buildings. The- plant is all of the most approved modern description, the machinery being driven by two of Crossley’s Otto gas-engines.


THE large brewing business carried on by the above firm has a history dating back over a century. For many years past it has been very successfully conducted under its present title, and enjoys the advantage of most capable management. The premises occupied are of more than ordinary extent, having a frontage of two hundred and fifty feet, and comprising a fine, substantial block of stone buildings, covering an area of about two acres of ground. The brewery is admirably equipped with machinery of a highly efficient description, affording facilities for a large output, and there is an abundant supply of water, of a quality specially suitable for brewing purposes, derived from an artesian well three hundred and thirty-six feet deep. Storage accommodation of a superior character is afforded by the extensive and well-arranged cellars of the establishment; and in addition to this there are spacious spirit stores, in one of which there are large casks, each containing two hundred gallons, besides many other hogsheads and casks of the best brands. Another store-room affords space for a valuable stock of wines and spirits in the case; and it may be mentioned that the firm have bonded stores at Bristol, London, Cork, Belfast and Greenock, at all of which places they hold considerable stocks of wines and spirits. Bottling stores, coopers' shops, smiths’ shops, and extensive stabling and cart-sheds complete the large premises at Merthyr, and make up one of the best-organised establishments of the kind in the county. As brewers, Messrs. Giles & Harrap have an excellent reputation for their high-class mild and bitter ales, and for their fine quality of stout. The firm are also well known as wine and spirit merchants, and supply very carefully selected and reliable goods in this department, their list of foreign wines, whiskies, brandies, liqueurs, &c., being thoroughly representative. The trade in its entirety is a large and flourishing one, and the house is well and favourably known to a wide and valuable connection in all parts of South Wales and the West of England.


THIS notable concern was founded upwards of half a century ago by Mr. Thomas Evans, and was acquired, in 1867, by Mr. David Williams, who, in 1883, took into partnership his nephew, Mr. William Griffiths. Mr. Williams and Mr. Griffiths still constitute the personnel of the firm, and trade very successfully under the above title. The business is one of great magnitude, and its chief feature consists in the distribution of the fine ales and beers produced at the Taff Vale Brewery. These have an excellent reputation, and are in large and steady demand in Merthyr Tydfil and the surrounding districts. Both in light malts, strong beers, and double stout the firm under notice have gained celebrity, and no finer goods are produced at any brewery in Wales. The Taff Vale Brewery is admirably equipped with a large plant of the best machinery and appliances, and the industry is carried on under the most favourable conditions. The firm are also owners of large bonded stores at the Taff Vale Railway Station. These are the only bonded stores nearer than Cardiff and Swansea, and they always contain very extensive stocks, for Messrs. David Williams & Co. are among the leading Welsh firms of wine and spirit merchants. They are especially large holders of the finest old Scotch and Irish whiskies, and always have in stock quantities of very choice brandy and port and other wines. This department of the business has been developed upon a scale of considerable magnitude, and, combined with the brewing department, places the firm in control of an immense trade, with widespread and influential connections in all parts of South Wales. The principals both take an active part in the management, and are much esteemed in the district.

Mr. David Williams, who is one of the most popular men in Merthyr, has been three times in succession High Constable of the town, and established the Merthyr Coffee Tavern Company, of which he is chairman. He is also a member of the Board of Health and of the Board of Guardians. He resides now at Henstaff Court, near Llantrissant. Mr. William Griffiths is president of the Merthyr, Dowlais and District Licensed Victuallers' Association, and he was one of the founders of the Cardiff Malting Company. We must not omit to mention that Messrs. David Williams & Co. gained a prize medal for their ales at the National Brewers’ Exhibition, London, 1890, a fact which proves that the products of the Taff Vale Brewery possess qualities that commend them to more than local approval.


THE custom of bathing is of the highest antiquity. Every civilisation of the ancient world made a feature of the bath. As long ago as the days of Homer the warm bath was in general use, and among the ancient Romans the thermae, or public baths, were held in the highest estimation. Healthy persons are those who have the cleanest and purest skins. The very best kind of bathing that can be employed is that known as the Turkish or hot-air bath. Merthyr is well provided in this respect in that excellent institution known as Pool’s Turkish Baths, situated in Lower High Street, near the Taff Vale Station. These baths were established over twenty-five years ago, and were formerly owned by a limited company, and passed into the hands of the present proprietor in 1889. They consist of a series of rooms, which have recently been renovated throughout, and are now heated and ventilated on the most scientific and approved principles, with a degree of perfection and comfort unsurpassed by any baths in Wales. The superiority of the heating and ventilating arrangements can be proved the fact that persons can sit in a temperature of two hundred and twenty degrees for twenty to thirty minutes without the least discomfort or organic disturbance. Shampooing, massage, and all other forms of treatment are skilfully carried out by an experienced attendant, and coffee and cigars may be enjoyed on returning to the cooling chamber.

The Turkish Baths are open to gentlemen every day except Tuesdays, from 9 a.m. to 9 30 p.m., and ladies’ baths on Tuesdays only, from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. There is a large swimming bath, which is the headquarters of the Merthyr Swimming Club. This is open at 6 a.m., and closed at 9.30 p.m. The baths are admirably managed, and well patronised by all classes in Merthyr. The prices charged are strictly moderate. It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the public that, in all probability, could we but ascertain the truth, that more than half the premature deaths among us are due to skin affections, which remain invisible, because their evil effects are all inward. The healthy man breathes as it were through every pore, but those who are not careful of their skins remain all their days in a semi-congested state, all the worse because unguessed. All this may be averted by the use of the Turkish bath, which is a luxury, a comfort, and a certain health- giving agency.


OPERATIONS were originally commenced in 1850 at No. 132, High Street, the present premises being occupied about four years ago. The premises consist of an extensive four-storey building, and comprise a spacious shop, seventy feet in depth, and having a frontage of twenty feet, thoroughly fitted up with every requirement and convenience for the business. The shop is stocked with a fine assortment of general ironmongery, tools for every trade, locks and keys, nails, screws, and various domestic appliances, as well as electro-plate and cutlery from the best-known makers. The show-room, above the shop, is of the same size, and contains a splendid display of marble and other mantelpieces, grates, ranges, and many novel designs in gasfittings and chandeliers. The basement is filled with heavy goods, and the second floor is occupied by a well-assorted store of every description of hollow-ware. The various departments are connected by a lift, and, generally speaking, throughout the whole establishment the greatest conveniences and facilities are possessed. These goods have been obtained from the best sources of supply, and everything vended here can be accepted as of the best quality and latest make. A number of skilled workmen are kept constantly employed, and every description of plumbing and tin-plate and zinc work is undertaken and carried out in a prompt and thoroughly satisfactory manner. Bell-hanging of every kind is done, and the house has always on hand an ample supply of oils, paints, and colours. The connection acquired during the firm’s long and prosperous career is widespread and valuable, and a branch establishment has been opened at Cardiff for the better control of the business.

Mr. Thomas is the senior partner in the celebrated firm of Messrs. Thomas Thomas & Sons, of the Acme Hoist Works, Cardiff, with London offices at 141, Queen Victoria Street. The firm have obtained a world-wide reputation for their “Safety Self-sustaining” hoisting machinery, which they have been manufacturing for many years. Experienced workmen are employed, and only the best material that has been well tested is used. Reliance can be placed upon goods emanating from Messrs. Thomas & Sons, their position in the trade guaranteeing efficient and durable work. Every description of lift, elevator, winch, and hand-crane is manufactured. The lifts require no brake-rope; an endless rope only is used for raising and lowering. The cage cannot run down nor up of itself, but it can be brought to a standstill at any moment without the slightest shock, and the lifts are perfectly noiseless. The following kinds of hand-power lifts are made by this firm:— single and double dinner lifts, luggage and coal lifts, warehouse lifts, furniture and pianoforte lifts, carriage and wagon lifts, invalid and hospital lifts, cellar lifts, and single and double sack lifts. The firm’s power and hydraulic lifts or elevators for passengers and freight possess special intrinsic advantages. They have been supplied to every part of the Kingdom, and to many foreign countries for hotels, public buildings, offices, flats, factories, workshops, mills, breweries, warehouses, granaries, stores, &c., and they invariably give the greatest satisfaction. Messrs. Thomas’s manufactures obtained the highest award at Manchester, 1879, and at Amsterdam, 1883, while at the International Inventions Exhibition, London, 1885, they carried off the only gold medal awarded for lifts and elevators for hand, gas, and steam power. Messrs. Thomas & Sons are also largely occupied in the manufacture of shafting, pulleys, and leather belting. Estimates, specifications, and plans are forwarded on application. The proprietors are men of skill in their important branch of industry, and are recognised ah thorough representatives of the trade, and they occupy a prominent position in the manufacturing circles of South Wales.
The telegraphic address of this branch of the latter business is “Acme, Cardiff.”

THIS gentleman began to practice in Merthyr Tydfil in 1884.


THE above business was established by the late Mr. J. E. Davies in 1865, and by him was successfully conducted up to his demise in 1891, when his two sons under the above title continued to conduct it in their own interests, and under their energetic management the business continues to flourish and prosper. The premises are very commodious. The shop extends a long distance back, and is handsomely equipped and tastefully arranged throughout. A spacious show-room immediately adjoins, which is also of superior appointments, it being devoted to a display of such, goods as millinery of all kinds, representing all the latest London and Parisian novelties and styles, also mantles, jackets, waterproofs, ladies’ underclothing, children’s costumes and outfits, while one portion of this room is set apart to art pottery and fancy goods of English and foreign manufacture, including leather goods, albums, writing-cases, work-boxes, bronze, metal, and electro-plated goods, &c., &c. This room is about one hundred and fifty feet in length, this large accommodation offering a splendid opportunity for effect which has not been lost sight of.

On the first floor a large room is devoted to the furnishing department, such goods as carpets, floorcloths, rugs, matting, blankets, tapestry and other curtains, &c., being well represented. Other departments represented on this floor are devoted to reserve stocks of haberdashery, hosiery, and fancy goods in general. In the basement are also large rooms, principally utilised as stock-rooms for heavy drapery goods, &c. In the front shop a general stock of the goods enumerated is displayed. The establishment is fitted throughout with an American cash railway, for facilitating the numerous transactions which are passed through the hands of a cashier.

In addition to these premises, large though they are, the firm own other extensive premises at 54 and 55, Castle Street, for stock-room and dwelling-house purposes, a number of the assistants boarding on the premises. They have also further premises at 16 and 17, Castle Street, for dressmaking, mantle and jacket making purposes. They have also stabling and coach-houses at 5 and 6, Post Office Lane, parcels being delivered per own vans twice daily to all parts of the town and districts. A splendid business is being conducted, the reputation of the house extending to a wide area among all classes of the community. The firm’s goods are noted for their freshness and excellence of selection, as they are bought in the best available markets. The business is under the direct personal supervision and control of the two partners, who have had a large experience in London and Cardiff houses of eminence and repute, which has fitted them for the heavy responsibility which attaches itself to a business of such importance as that over which they have now practical control, but which they have shown themselves capable of managing with such ability as to ensure a prosperous future for the concern.


THIS business owns the distinction of being the oldest of the kind in Merthyr, having flourished for the last half century. It was founded by Mr. Rees Lewis, father of the present sole proprietor, Mr. John Price Lewis. The interior of the shop wears a refined appearance, and is arranged with a vast amount of taste, the nature of the stock greatly assisting the general effect. There is a comprehensive stock of all kinds of commercial, legal, scholastic, general, and artistic stationery, which includes many of the latest novelties. A well-purchased selection of fancy goods is also on hand, appropriate for presentation purposes. This is the depot for the British and Foreign Bible Society, the choice and handsomely bound volumes of these eminent publishers showing to great advantage. The printing works are at the rear, and are well equipped with a first-rate plant. Style, clearness, and correctness are apparent in all work turned out, large or small. A general printing trade is carried on, especially successful efforts appearing to be made in business and show cards, plain and coloured posters, programmes, fashion circulars, &c. Account-books of all kinds are ruled and bound, pattern being closely followed when required. An old resident of Merthyr, Mr. Lewis is well known, and as well respected. He occupies a high social standing, j and is at the head of a superior and refined business, which is liberally supported.



THE unexampled growth of the industrial importance of the Rhondda Valley during the last ten years has enormously increased the amount of locomotion by road as well as by rail. Hence Mr. G. Boyles was wise in his generation when, in 1890, he established the business of a first-class and fully equipped manufacturer of all kinds of saddlery and harness. After a comparatively brief experience it was found necessary to remove to more roomy quarters. In 1891, therefore, the present commodious premises at 29, Taff Street were acquired. They comprise a commodious shop, with a spacious plate-glass window, in which are exhibited a tastefully arranged assortment of examples of Mr. Boyles’s handiwork. The shop is well appointed and substantially fitted, with a most attractive and representative collection of harness, saddlery, rugs, &c. A large and steady business is done in the sale of the durable and frequently highly-ornamental harness, which is manufactured on the premises by an efficient staff of skilled and experienced workmen, under the personal supervision of the principal. Mr. Boyles holds heavy stocks of horse-clothing and all other kinds of stable requisites. The spacious workshops are in the rear, and are fitted up with all the necessary modern appliances for the saving of time and labour. All kinds of repairs, as well as of original work, are carefully and promptly executed in his workshops. Mr. Boyles took the first prize at the show of the East Glamorgan Agricultural Society, held at Pontypridd in September, 1892, for his exhibit of saddlery and general excellence of workmanship in all the productions.


MODERN photography is well represented in Pontypridd at the well-known and popular establishment of Thomas Forrest & Sons, the Cambrian Studio, directly opposite the post-office. The premises, which were erected by Mr. Forrest, senior, specially for the business, are eminently suited to their especial purpose, having been designed more for general utility and adaptability to the business than for grandeur or ostentations display. The shop is well stocked with photographs, views, picture frames, &c. The rooms contain many excellent examples of photography which well display, in every detail of execution and beauty of finish, the superior skill and talent employed in this establishment. Amongst these may be mentioned a portrait of the late Lord Mayor of London (Alderman David Evans, now Sir David Evans), in his robes of office, executed by Mr. Forrest (who was honoured with a special sitting at the Mansion House, London), and is the only portrait his lordship has had taken by a Welsh firm. The studio is erected on the latest principles for artistic lighting and instantaneous exposures.

Messrs. Forrest undertake photographic work of every description, portraits, groups, views, buildings, machinery, animals, &c., enlargements in silver, carbon, platinum, &c. Portraits are also executed in oils, water-colours, or crayons. Tennis, cricket, and football teams are photographed on their own grounds. Family, wedding, and other groups at the studio or at parties’ own homes. Solicitors’ orders for photographs in connection with disputes as to boundaries, property contracts, hotel licences, &c., also copies of important documents or plans, receive special personal attention. Auctioneers’ orders for photographs of houses and other property or articles for sale are promptly executed. Engineers’ and contractors’ works in progress are photographed carefully and promptly. The productions of the Cambrian Studio are unexcelled for beauty, permanency, and superior workmanship; in addition to this the prices charged are very moderate, while the satisfaction to be obtained by an artistic and accurate portrait is guaranteed. Another important branch of the business is the production of picture-frames in a variety of artistic designs, which is carried out on the premises. Amateurs and the trade are also supplied with photo apparatus and materials, picture mouldings, glass, backboards, rings, &c., &c., a large and well-selected stock being always on hand. Mr. Thomas Forrest has been established here over thirty years, and his talent and executive skill are well known and highly appreciated by a wide circle of distinguished patrons. The name of Forrest, of the Cambrian Studio, Pontypridd, has become a household word throughout the districts.


THIS well-known and popular establishment was founded in 1872, and at once took a leading position in the town, which has been well maintained by an unremitting attention to the varying dictates of fashion and the requirements of a very extensive and high-class connection. The premises occupy an excellent position; the spacious and handsome double shop has a very fine frontage, consisting of five large plate-glass windows, well and tastefully dressed with high-class drapery goods and fashionable novelties in millinery, &c. The fittings and appointments of the interior are of a very superior character. The premises also contain well-equipped work-rooms, and all the accessories of a thoroughly organised establishment. The extensive and truly engaging stock of Messrs. John Evans & Co. is replete with all the best features of the various lines engaged in, and fully representative of the business in all its branches, embracing as it does a most extensive assortment of general drapery goods, costumes, and dress fabrics in all the newest styles, silks, satins, and velvets, elegant in style and rich in colour. The millinery show-rooms afford many special attractions in hats, caps, and bonnets, charmingly becoming and sweetly pretty. Indeed, the house stands unrivalled in the town for the endless variety, style, beauty, and novelty of its goods, while not the least important feature is the strictly moderate charges. Dress and mantle making and millinery are carried out in all their branches on the premises, and the extensive work-room accommodation, with every improved appliance, affords unusual facilities for supplying the largest orders in dress and costumes, wedding trousseaux, millinery, travelling outfits, or family mourning on the shortest notice and with every attention to economy. The executive staff numbers upwards of forty. The best talent and most experienced artistes are employed in the work-rooms, and the polite yet unobtrusive attention of the salesmen and lady assistants renders an inspection of the large and fashionable stock a source of real pleasure and enjoyment. A very brisk business is done in every department. Mr, John Evans gives his strict personal attention to the business, which is conducted throughout in that true spirit of commercial enterprise which makes the interests of customers a consideration of the very first importance.


THE extensive business carried on by Mr. James Coombes was established in the year 1858, and is well recognised as the leading establishment of the kind in Pontypridd. The premises occupy a splendid position in the Market Square, and in the Arcade. They comprise two spacious and handsome shops. The interior is fitted up in a very superior style with elegant yet substantial counters, stands, show-cases, and other appropriate appointments. As to Mr. Coombes’s display of cakes, biscuits, fancy confectionery, bonbons, chaudfroids, entremets, entrees, soups, jams, jellies, and other appetising delicacies, nothing can be said to enhance its many self-evident points of merit and excellence. To the rear of the establishment is a bakehouse, fitted with the celebrated “Decker” ovens by Mason, of Manchester. The principal bakery is in Gas Road, and, in addition to two pairs of the above-mentioned ovens, is replete with other machinery and appliances of the most improved description, and driven by a powerful “Otto” gas-engine. A marked feature is the scrupulous cleanliness that is everywhere apparent, and the admirable arrangements for minimising the handling of the dough. Mr. Coombes has also a dining and refreshment establishment adjoining the Town Hall, and a coffee tavern near the Taff Vale Station, High Street. A very brisk business is done at all these establishments. Mr. Coombes makes a leading feature in catering for banquets, dinners, wedding breakfasts, pic-nics, &c. These are served in the very best style, and all the arrangements carried out, including the loan of plate, table decorations, &c., on most moderate terms. Mr. James Coombes occupies a prominent and influential position in social and business circles, being well known and highly esteemed for his active exertions in promoting the best interests of the trade and commerce of the town and district. Mr. Coombes has been elected president of the Chamber of Commerce, and is still an active member. He is also a member of the local Burial Board, chairman of the Pontypridd Coach-building Company, Limited, and is a member of the Llanwonno School Board.


THE firm of Messrs. Morris Brothers, of Pontypridd, have held a high position as engineers since 1872. Of late years they have successfully utilised their thorough technical knowledge and great mechanical skill in the direction of consolidating and extending their connection in the cycling world. The premises occupied comprise two spacious and well-appointed showrooms, in which is displayed a varied and most representative assortment of cycles by many of the leading firms of manufacturers with whom Messrs. Morris Brothers have such intimate relations that they are enabled to offer to their customers a practically unlimited choice, under the most favourable conditions as to price. The extensive works which are adjacent are fitted up with a complete electro-plating plant and other necessary mechanical appliances for the manufacture of cycles, all of the most approved modern type. The whole of the machinery is driven by a powerful gas-engine of modern construction. So important are the economies effected by the aid of this excellent plant that Messrs. Morris Brothers are justified in quoting such remarkably moderate prices for first-class machines of their own manufacture that their reputation for the cheapness of their cycles has extended far beyond the limits of Glamorganshire. An example of the moderation of their rates is to be found in their very popular youth’s safety bicycle, fitted in enamel with plated parts, complete with pedals, bag, spanner, oiler, ball bearings, and cushion tires, which is offered at seven pounds ten shillings nett. The firm have successfully made a special feature of executing all sorts of cycle repairs for the trade, and in this branch of their business they have a valuable connection which extends over a wide area. Messrs. Morris Brothers also hold heavy stocks of cycle sundries and accessories, in which they conduct a large wholesale, and also a considerable retail trade. They hold the position of official repairers to the C.T.C. Their general and private offices are well appointed, and are provided with all the requisites for the rapid despatch of a large amount of correspondence.
The telegraphic address is: “Morris Bros., Pontypridd.”


THIS recently-formed business is giving every indication of speedily taking up a foremost position in the locality. The proprietors are conducting their transactions with such energy and enterprise and are giving such exceptional value that a respectable connection has already been founded. The premises occupied comprise a fairly large shop with a double plate-glass front. A very effective display is made in the windows, and in the shop the articles are very well arranged. The stock is a varied and superior one, many of the goods being manufactured on the premises. There are excellent examples of well-made pigskin saddles, light and elegant, and almost everlasting wear. All kinds of harness and every requisite for the horses and the stables are on hand, in all the latest improvements. At the rear are the two well-equipped workshops where the goods are manufactured, and where all kinds of repairs are promptly and reasonably executed. The firm issue a very comprehensive list of collars for any sized animal, horse, pony, or donkey. They have improved patent collars with round throat, the best quality, which are giving entire satisfaction. Compared to the excellence of the material and the superior quality of the workmanship, the prices charged are little short of marvellous, the partners relying on an extended sale for their remuneration. They are the agents for Elliman’s embrocation for horses, &c. As honourable and courteous tradesmen Messrs. Thomas & Jones have readily secured the respect and esteem of a large portion of the community by which they are surrounded.


IT is now more than twenty years since Mr. Prothero commenced business on the opposite side of the street, and about three years ago he built the handsome and commodious premises now occupied, which are by far the finest of their kind in the town. The building is three storeys high, and of pleasing architectural appearance. The spacious double shop has a splendid plate-glass frontage of fully sixty feet. The interior is fitted up in a very superior style, with elegant yet substantial counters, show-cases, skilfully arranged mirrors, and other appropriate appointments. The basement contains ample storage, and accommodation for curing hams and bacon. To the rear of the shop are the warehouses, also a large and well-equipped steam bakery, fitted with the celebrated Perkins Decker steam ovens, and other machinery and appliances necessary to the successful working of a large and increasing business. The establishment may be justly considered a model of its kind, and the proprietor has spared neither pains nor expense in making it such. The stock embraces a most extensive assortment of general groceries, tea, coffee, fruits, spices, biscuits in great variety, a choice selection of Italian goods and table delicacies, English, Irish, and American provisions, hams and bacon of prime quality, jams, jellies, preserved fruits and vegetables, canned salmon and lobster, soups, pickles, and all the specialities of the leading manufacturers of comestibles. The whole is selected from the best sources with great care and sound judgment, and buying in such large lines direct from the manufacturers and importers, he is enabled to give his customers exceptional advantages, both in quality and price. A very brisk business is done in every department. The proprietor’s own vans deliver goods in all parts of the town and district, and no effort is spared to meet the convenience of customers in the punctual execution of orders. Mr. Isaac Prothero is well known and highly esteemed as a courteous and enterprising man of business. He takes a keen and active interest in all local matters, and is the President of the Pontypridd Grocers’ Association, and a director of the Glamorgan Free Press.



PROJECTED in the year 1873 by its present able and energetic proprietor, the commercial development of this concern has been both rapid and continuous from the very first. Commerce House, as it is popularly known, is in every point of character and situation precisely adapted to the requirements of a very large business of the kind. It comprises a spacious double-fronted emporium, sixty feet in breadth, length seventy feet, with commodious show-rooms, work-rooms, and warehouses attached, handsomely appointed throughout in the best modern style, and most methodically arranged to hold and effectively display a complete and comprehensive stock of superior goods incidental to the trade. Silks, dresses, mantles, costumes, general every-day drapery, blankets, flannels, baby-linen, millinery, feathers, flowers, ribbons, lace, gloves, haberdashery, and the numerous other items incidental to the trade are all fully represented; while dressmaking and the production of mantles and millinery up to date, in accordance with the latest London and Parisian fashions, form a special department of the business, under the experienced supervision of Mrs. Davies and a staff of skilled modistes and needlewomen. The attendance is of the most efficient order, and is furnished by a staff of thirty competent assistants; while everywhere there are evidences of the care and attention bestowed by the proprietor in arranging for the reception, prompt service, and general convenience of his numerous customers. Every branch of the business receives the personal supervision of the principal, and is conducted with a careful competence that is well calculated to preserve all the creditable traditions of the house, and to sustain it in the public favour it has so long and so deservedly enjoyed.


THE records of this flourishing business date back to over a quarter of a century ago, when it was founded by the present sole proprietor, David Davies, to whose energy and practical capacity in mercantile affairs the concern owes the well-won prestige it has achieved in local trade circles. The premises at 2, Canon Street comprise commanding double-fronted shops with fine plate-glass windows, in which are tastefully displayed samples of the high-class goods representing the various departments of the trade. The interior of the establishment is of spacious proportions, and is fitted throughout with substantial mahogany and marble-topped counters, elegant glass show-cases, tea-bins arranged on the well system, and other appointments and requisites in harmony with the general arrangements of a high-class trade. The stocks in each department have been carefully selected from the leading produce markets, and embrace the choicest qualities of teas, coffees, fruits, spices, Italian warehouse specialities, and a great variety of general groceries and household requisites of every description.

On the provision side will be found a splendid selection of the best brands of hams, bacon, lard, butter, cheese, and other goods of the most approved quality, large reserve stocks of which are also held in the stores in the basement and rear, the latter portion of the premises extending through to Dean Street, where are located the stables, cart-sheds, &c. The first floor is also utilised as warehouse for corn, flour, and other feeding stuffs, and above this are stored large stocks of tea, spices, fruits, &c. The establishment at 21, Commercial Place is similarly arranged and fitted, and is also devoted to the purposes of the general grocery and provision trades, the adjoining premises, No. 22, being appropriated to the confectionery department, of which the leading speciality is a fine display of artistically designed wedding cakes and other examples of the pastrycook’s and confectioner’s skill. Telephonic communication has been established between the several departments in Canon Street and Commercial Place, and the entire arrangements and organisation of the concern in every detail furnish convincing evidence of the admirable administrative abilities which govern the management of this notable enterprise. An extensive and influential clientele has been established by the proprietor, whose continued confidence has been secured by the high standard of uniform quality and value of all goods supplied from these popular and widely patronised establishments.

Mr. Davies has long been prominently identified with the leading public bodies of the town, having for the past twenty years given efficient service to the ratepayers as member of the Aberdare Local Board; is a member of the Burial Board; South Wales Crown Soap Company, Cardiff; South Wales Jam Company, Cardiff; Eastern Dry Docks, Newport; and Aberdare Steam Laundry Company; and in addition to fulfilling the duties of a county magistrate, was high constable of Aberdare in the years 1886-87, and a director of the gas company and the market company, and is president of the Aberdare Grocers’ Association.


THIS popular and ably conducted hotel was long known by the name of Thomas’s Royal Temperance Commercial Hotel, and assumed the name of Royal Temperance Hotel when Mr. Davies acquired it in 1891. The hotel has been considerably enlarged, improved, and modernised within recent years, and offers commercial gentlemen and visitors every comfort and convenience to be met with in a first-class hotel. Besides fourteen airy and roomy bedrooms, the accommodation includes a spacious, lofty, and well-furnished commercial-room in which commercial gentlemen will find every convenience. It also includes a commodious coffee-room, and there are private sitting-rooms, and other conveniences. The cuisine is under the personal superintendence of Mrs. Davies, who has had large experience; consequently patrons cannot fail to be satisfied with this department. In short, commercial gentlemen and visitors will find at this hotel every home comfort with moderate charges. A porter meets all trains. Mr. Davies supervises the hotel, his tact, energy, and general aptitude being ever in evidence. Mr. Davies has also a large coffee tavern, 23, Commercial Street, near to the stations. This is well equipped with all modern improvements for the comfort of visitors, and a large business is done here.


THIS business was established by the above-named gentleman in 1878, and has since that date been steadily and progressively developed to its present successful position in the local trade. The premises comprise spacious workshops, smithy, and painting and repairing departments, combining every convenience for carrying out the work of the several branches of the trade in an extensive business of this character. Messrs. Lanman & Vicary have long enjoyed a high reputation for the superior excellence of designs and finished workmanship of their productions m every class of vehicles, and the firm also pays the most careful and prompt attention to the execution of all kinds of carriage and wagon repairs and other branches of the wheelwright’s trade which the ample resources at their disposal enable them to undertake and complete on the shortest notice. A numerous staff of about twenty skilled hands is employed in the several departments of the works in order to meet the requirements of the extensive orders constantly on hand, the firm enjoying the support and confidence of a widespread circle of influential patronage of the leading resident gentry in the town and district. The business is ably managed in each department, under the personal supervision of the partners, both gentlemen possessing a thoroughly practical knowledge of the trade in all its branches, thus ensuring the highest efficiency in carrying out all work entrusted to their skilful hands for completion.


THIS business was established some seventy-five years ago, and was purchased in 1867 by the present proprietor, originally at No. 39, High Street, and removed to the more extensive premises now occupied in 1880. These comprise a spacious and well-appointed show-room, admirably arranged for the display and storage of the large and varied stock. To the rear are the workshops, in which a large staff of skilled and experienced hands are busily employed. The shop and warehouse contain a very large and comprehensive stock of single and double harness, hunting and riding saddles, bridles, collars, reins, martingales, girths, ladies’ saddles constructed with all the recent improvements; a good assortment of whips, bits, spurs, brushes, horse clothing and stable requisites, Gladstone, travelling, and carpet bags, footballs, boxing gloves, cricket balls, &c., are also well represented. Mr. Churchill is an extensive manufacturer of leather driving-belts for machinery, &c. With obvious exceptions the bulk of the stock is manufactured on the premises. Mr. Churchill is a practical man, thoroughly conversant with every detail of the business. He has always aimed at the attainment and maintenance of a high standard of excellence as a characteristic of all his work, and this, combined with strictly moderate charges, has secured the confidence and support of a very extensive and steadily increasing connection.


IN connection with the trade in domestic supplies at Aberdare, a well-known and highly reputed house is that of Mr. J. Williams, of Cardiff Street, whose name is identified with the higher branches of the grocery, provision, bakery, and confectionery trades. Mr. Williams controls a select and substantial business in these important lines, and enjoys the support of a widespread and well-established connection among the leading families in the town and district. His premises are commodious and well appointed, and have a good situation, affording every facility for the convenient transaction of business and fulfilment of orders. Mr. Williams holds a stock of unexceptionable excellence, embracing all descriptions of superior family groceries, provisions, Italian and Continental specialities, &c., together with a large and choice assortment of confectionery of the purest quality. He buys in the best markets, and makes his selections with a degree of sound judgment that has done much to win popularity and support for his establishment. The bakery department is also a very important feature of the business, and in this direction Mr. Williams fully sustains the reputation of his house for reliability. His productions in household and fancy bread, cakes, biscuits, &c., maintain a uniform standard of merit, and have a large sale in and around Aberdare. Altogether, this business presents an example of effective organisation which attests its proprietor’s practical skill and experience, and which affords to customers an assurance that all their orders will be promptly attended to and expeditiously carried out. Mr. Williams always keeps pace with the latest advances of the trades in which he is engaged, and his enterprise and personal courtesy are much appreciated by his numerous clientele.


IT is now over forty years since this establishment was founded by the late Mr. F. Eschle, the original address being in Commercial Street, but in 1866 a removal was made to the fine premises now occupied, situate in one of the best trading positions in the town. The building is an imposing one, and is well adapted to the requirements of the trade, the shop-window being used to display a rich and costly stock of gold and silver jewellery. The interior is fitted with air-tight glass show-cases, containing a well-bought selection of ladies’ and gentlemen’s gold and silver watches, fitted with the latest improvements. There are also ladies’ and gentlemen’s watch-chains, gold and silver brooches, bracelets, lockets, charms, ear-rings, links, studs, &c. Gem and wedding rings make a brilliant show, there being many chaste devices. A very pleasing effect is created by the cased goods, these being in morocco leather and silk-lined, containing elegantly chased silver, cutlery, &c. There are also marble and other clocks, well adapted for purposes of presentation. Specialities are made of Worcester and Dresden china, and Copeland’s Spode china, these forming a truly magnificent collection, and is one of the finest in South Wales. At the rear of the shop are the workshops, where all kinds of repairs are done to watches, clocks, jewellery, &c., at very moderate prices, and with perfect skill. The sole proprietress, Mrs. H. Eschle, who is assisted by her son, takes personal management, and by a high-class and far-reaching clientele is much esteemed and respected.


THIS notable concern was founded in 1840 by Mr. Thomas Williams, and in 1880 it came into the hands of Mr. David, under whose able administration it has pursued a steadily prosperous career. The large and commodious premises devoted to the purpose of wholesale wine and spirit stores contain very extensive stocks of wines in all the best growths and vintages, together with, the leading brands of Irish and Scotch whisky and other foreign spirits, making up a supply adequate to the requirements of Mr. David’s very extensive trade in these departments. The goods are all of sound quality, being carefully selected in the best markets. The brewery is a substantial and very lofty building, containing a very fine ten-quarter plant, said to be the best in the district. This property covers an area of two acres, including the Rock Recreation Ground, the favourite local running track where two hundred yards can be covered in a straight course. All the processes of the brewing industry are carried on at the Rock Brewery under the best conditions, the arrangement of the departments being excellent, while the appliances are of the most improved type. There is a splendid water supply, and the superior qualify of this is largely responsible for the fine character of the beers and stout produced. Besides his specialities in “Home Brewed Ales” and “Brown Stout,” Mr. David brews a renowned “Invalid’s Stout,” which, is largely recommended by the medical profession, and is considered to be quite equal to the finest Dublin stout, and for which there is a large demand. He has very extensive cellarage and storage accommodation generally, and the bottling department is provided with every modern facility. All the minor, but by no means unimportant, features of the Rock Brewery establishment, such as the coopers’ shops, washhouses for casks, malt stores, stabling, carriage-house, harness-room, &c., present additional evidences of the thorough organisation of this old-established business, which is one of the most substantial and successful concerns in the district. A number of travellers wait upon the connection of the house in Aberdare and the neighbourhood, showing that a large and steady demand exists for Mr. David’s high-class beers and stout, the purity and wholesome quality of which are fully recognised in this part of the country. The entire business is personally supervised by the experienced principal, whose straightforward and honourable methods have won the approval and confidence of a large and increasing circle of patrons.


THE business which Mr. Thomas Lloyd conducts was established by him in 1878. His original premises were in the same thoroughfare as are those which he now occupies, bat at various times the growing volume of the business has necessitated the carrying out of considerable alterations, enlargements, and improvements, which have continued even since the removal, some three years ago, to the commodious quarters which Mr. Lloyd now occupies. For the convenience of certain sections of his numerous customers he has found it judicious to open out thoroughly-equipped branches at 87, Gadley’s Road, and at 22, Bridge Road, Cwmbach.

The premises at Mr. Lloyd’s headquarters comprise a commodious shop, with a fine double front and plate-glass display windows. The interior is of exceptionally large area, and the fittings are of an elegance which harmonises with the high class of the business conducted. Marble and mahogany counters, and other appliances in keeping, have been supplied by the eminent firm of Messrs. Parnell & Co., of Bristol. Large stocks are always held of the finest groceries and provisions, and Mr. Lloyd’s extensive and intimate relations with the most eminent firms of producers enable him to place his customers upon the best possible terms, both as to quality and prices. There are large warehouses in the rear, for the storage of surplus stocks, together with bottling stores for Bass’s ales and other liquors of the most celebrated brands. Mr. Lloyd has made a speciality of this class of business, and holds several important agencies, including those for Kennaway & Co.’s wines and spirits, Rogers’s noted “A.K.” ales, and Whitbread’s family ales and London cooper. He also represents the St. Pauli Breweries Company, Limited, of Bremen, for the sale of their lager beer, and likewise supplies the English lager beer of the Batheaston Brewery, Bath. Another important industry is admirably represented in Mr. Lloyd’s establishment by his commodious bakery, which is fitted with patent Decker ovens, where large quantities of excellent white and brown bread are baked, which have become justly celebrated throughout the district. Mr. Lloyd takes a warm interest in all matters affecting the welfare of the community, and he is an active member of the committee of the Intermediate Schools about to be erected near the Parkin Aberdare.


THIS business may claim to be among the oldest concerns of the kind in Aberdare. Its foundation dates back as far as 1830, in which year it was commenced by Mr. Evan Griffiths, the present sole proprietor coming into possession in 1850. The establishment owns a firm and well-won reputation for the general excellence of the stock, which, for variety and usefulness, has no equal in the district. The shop is of fairly large proportions, and is fitted and furnished throughout in the most appropriate manner. There are two good front windows, in which a very effective show is made. As a general and furnishing ironmonger, Mr. Daniel Griffiths has had a lifelong experience. His knowledge of all the branches is most extensive, and his purchases, which are confined to the leading markets, are characterised by sound judgment. In general ironmongery there are the thousand and one articles constituting a stock of this kind. In furnishing ironmongery there are the very latest improvements in cooking and heating ranges, fenders, fire-irons, lamps, coal wagons, cooking utensils, &c. A first-class selection of tools for various trades is always kept; also shovels, picks, nails, lead, and kindred goods. One of the features of the establishment is the fine display of hollow-ware. There is a commodious warehouse at the rear, principally used for reserve stock. Nothing could exceed the courtesy with which Mr. Griffiths conducts his transactions, while for his strict integrity he is widely known and greatly respected. The connection is a sound and far-reaching one.


THE above extensive business was originally established in 1883 in Gadley’s Road, and was continued at that address for about two years, when, in consequence of the rapid expansion of the trade, it became necessary to acquire more extended accommodation, which was secured at the site now occupied. The premises here comprise spacious show-room and office, with composing and machine rooms, providing every convenience for carrying out the work of the several departments of the business. The works are fully equipped with new and improved machinery and plant for facilitating the execution of high-class work in each branch of production, including every description of letterpress printing, bookbinding, machine ruling, and account-book making. The services of a numerous staff of skilled hands are employed in the works to meet the requirements of the extensive trade of the firm, the resources of the establishment in each department enabling them to undertake orders of any magnitude with the utmost promptitude and in the highest style of art. The business is ably organised in every detail, under the personal supervision of Mr. A. G. Creed, the principal, to whole energetic direction must be attributed the continued success and progressive development of this well-established and eminently representative commercial undertaking.


FOUNDED in the year 1881, this business stands out prominently as the leading representative of the kind in Aberdare. Added to business tact and thrift, Mr. Davies possesses the advantage of sound judgment and excellent taste in buying, evidence of this being found in every department of his well-ordered establishment. The premises occupied at once command attention, being among the architectural features of Commercial Street. The shop has a handsome double front, the windows being of plate-glass, set in a handsome brass frame, while the entrance is very attractive, having a mirrored top and tesselated bottom, with handsome show-cases all fitted and complete. These are used to make what is generally allowed to be one of the most effective and imposing displays of the kind to be found in the district, and the frontage is considered one of the handsomest in South Wales. The internal fittings and furnishings are elegant, strictly in accordance with the high-class and chaste character of the stock. Whether in hats, gloves, hosiery, or shirts, style, quality, comfort, variety, cheapness are the predominating features. Added to a splendid selection in each department, is the additional fact that infinite pains are taken to suit the requirements of each patron. Competent assistants are employed, under the personal supervision of the principal. Mr. Davies has in every way proved himself to be worthy of the high respect in which he is held.


FEW Western towns have made more satisfactory progress in modern times than the thriving parliamentary and municipal borough of Newport, in Monmouthshire. Admirably situated on the River Usk, this important port enjoys natural advantages which have contributed largely to its growth, both as a shipping centre and as a seat of various industries which derive benefit from the proximity of superior maritime facilities. These advantages in respect of transport by river and sea have been supplemented by the opening up of excellent railway communications to the west, north, and east; and all the resources thus placed at their command have been utilised by the people of Newport to the fullest extent. The business activity of this town, and of the districts immediately adjacent to it, is therefore very conspicuous, and the visitor who comes here expecting to find plenty of life and vitality in the local trades will not be disappointed.

At the same time Newport is a very creditable example of a modern town where life in its social and pleasurable, as well as in its work-a-day aspects, may be seen to advantage. The place plays the part of a metropolis to its district, and as one walks through its principal streets and notes the excellent organisation of the many large and interesting business establishments therein, one realises that the time has indeed passed away when provincial towns were content to lag a year or two in the wake of the great metropolis, and provincial merchants knew nothing better than to treat their patrons to a choice selection of the crumbs from the table of last season’s London trade. A growing spirit of independence, and a vast improvement in means of communication have changed all this; and to-day the tradesman of the counties is on a par with his brother of the metropolis in all resources of supply, and he makes full use of every means at his disposal for keeping his establishment thoroughly “up to date.” This is not less evident in Newport than in other large and progressive provincial communities, and the retail tradesmen of the town show themselves capable of meeting all the requirements of their customers as completely and as satisfactorily as they could be met in London itself. Such a state of things is noteworthy not merely as a proof of energy and enterprise in any one particular locality, but also as a testimony to the altered and improved conditions of life and business which, in these closing years of the century, are imparting to our large towns and cities all over the Kingdom an individuality of which their inhabitants have every reason to be proud. In Newport, with its large population engaged in many and varied spheres of active life, social and educational institutions are in a condition of advancement not less marked than that which distinguishes the business undertakings of the place, and the town enjoys the benefits of public-spirited local government in a degree which has done much to consolidate its prosperity and give it a position of dignity and influence among Western municipalities.

Its relations with the outer world in matters commercial are facilitated by excellent arrangements for the accommodation of a large maritime trade, and the extensive docks that have been constructed here now offer many attractions to shipping and bring a great amount of business to the port. The export trade of Newport during the six years 1884-90 showed an increase in value of over 35 per cent., and the merchandise shipped from the port during that period included a large variety of the products of the United Kingdom, as well as local manufactures to a very considerable amount.

The railway communication between Newport and the mineral districts of Wales and the English borderland has promoted the growth of the leading local industries in a marked degree, and the town has gained widespread renown in late years as a source of production for various articles of heavy hardware, such as anchors, chains, &c., while the engineering industries have prospered conspicuously, and ironfounding, shipbuilding, and ship-repairing have been carried on upon a large scale with very satisfactory results. The exportation of manufactured iron is also an important feature of the foreign trade of the port. Newport, in short, has in itself all the elements that conduce to enduring prosperity, and there is every prospect that it will occupy a position of increasing importance in years to come - a position reached and maintained chiefly by the unremitting exercise of those faculties of business aptitude of which its inhabitants have repeatedly proved themselves to be the possessors. Among Monmouthshire towns there are two others, at least, which, deserve some special mention by reason of their high standing in industrial matters.

ABERGAVENNY is one of these, and is a thriving place of about 8,000 inhabitants, well situated in the north-western part of the county, at a point where the Gavenny and the Usk unite their streams. This is just seventeen miles north of Newport, and there are good facilities of communication between the two towns. Abergavenny has large iron-works and collieries in its vicinity, and is a busy town generally, its various local trades and industries being in a prosperous condition that denotes good management.

PONTYPOOL, situated on the border of the coal and iron fields of South Wales, is a great seat of the metal-working industries, particularly in connection with the manufacture of iron and of tin-plates. Its output in these commodities is very large, and the various works established in the town and district give employment to a large number of hands.

We shall now have pleasure in placing before our readers some historical and descriptive particulars concerning prominent firms whose operations are centred in the three towns which may be regarded as fairly representing the industrial and commercial interests of Monmouthshire.



THE busy port of Newport has gained a widespread renown for its industrial enterprise, and has become particularly noted for the magnitude and importance of its undertakings in engineering and metalworking, and of these undertakings one of the most notable is that here referred to. For upwards of thirty years the Isca Foundry and Engineering Works have contributed largely to the industrial activity of Newport, and their productions have added not a little to the reputation of the town in home and foreign markets. During a long period these great works have remained under the joint control of the present managing partners, Mr. Richard Laybourne and Mr. C. W. E. Marsh. These gentlemen trade under the firm-name of the Isca Foundry and Engineering Company, and their able and energetic administration has been one of the chief secrets of the success of the concern. The works are among the finest of their kind, and cover about four acres of ground on a particularly advantageous site, owing to its proximity to the Docks and railways. Sidings from the Alexandra Docks and from the Great Western and other lines afford very superior facility of transport, and place this important concern in close communication with the whole of the United Kingdom and the outer world.

In their general plan and organisation these extensive works, with their busy brass and iron foundries, smiths’ shops, turning and fitting shops, erecting shops, forges, boiler sheds, yards, warehouses, offices, &c., displaying a completeness and sufficiency of resources speaking well for the management of the place and the progressive enterprise of its proprietors. Everything is thoroughly “up to date,” and each department is fully equipped with the best modern machinery for its particular purpose. With these facilities at their command the Company are in a position to produce the highest class of work with all possible rapidity, and the extent of their operations will be understood when we say that they employ upwards of three hundred skilled hands in addition to their large and valuable plant of labour-saving machinery. In plan and equipment, as well as in the character of the work turned out, this fine establishment is a credit to Newport and a testimony to the pra