MENZIES' POCKET GUIDE TO EDINBURGH AND ITS ENVIRONS (1855)
MENZIES' POCKET GUIDE TO EDINBURGH AND ITS ENVIRONS, CONTAINING
A Plan of the City, Map of the Environs, General View of Edinburgh, Views of Scott's Monument, Donaldson's Hospital and Holyrood Palace, and 80 Pages of Letterpress, fcap 8vo, in a neat Lithographed Cover. 1s.
OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.
"We have ransacked its contents in vain for omission; every single thing within the bound of Edinburgh, wherewith a long and familiar acquaintance has rendered us somewhat critical, seems fully and fairly comprehended, each in its duly proportioned limits. Some there are which are even beyond our anticipations, although proper and essential to be noticed." Brechin Advertiser.
"Of the Pocket Guide to Edinburgh we need say very little. It tells its own tale, and its title alone is sufficient to recommend it to the favour of the travelling public. One decided advantage is its comparative cheapness, and it is of a portable size, containing at the same time all the information requisite for the stranger to know." Edinburgh Evening Post.
"The Pocket Guide to Edinburgh and its Environs" is a neat thin volume, handsomely got up, and written with great cleverness and taste. It forms at once a complete street, as well as suburban guide to all the buildings and localities worthy of notice in Scott's "own romantic town." It is tastefully illustrated with beautiful engravings, of the principal structures in the city and neighbourhood, and the text is elucidated by maps and plans." North British Daily Mail.
"The book will reward any reader. To a stranger it is invaluable, and by its help he may promise himself a few das of rich enjoyment, if alive to the beauties of art, and the impressions of romantic and varied scenery." Christian News.
"We can heartily recommend it to visitors or intending visitors." Caledonian Mercury.
"Menzies' Pocket Guide to Edinburgh and its Environs' is executed in a skilful and felicitous style. It is illustrated with beautifully executed maps and engravings." Witness.
"The Guide to Edinburgh is ably written, cheap, and admirably illustrated." Glasgow Herald.
TOURISTS' POCKET GUIDE TO SCOTLAND
A General Map of Scotland, with the Railways accurately [torn page], A Plan of the City, and Map of the Environs of Edinburgh, A Plan of Glasgow, Map of the Trosachs, Eighteen Views, Fcap 8vo, 568 pages, neatly bound in cloth. 5s.
OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.
"It is, as a whole, elaborately and carefully got up." Scotsman.
"We know no guide we would prefer to it." Witness.
"With the Scottish Tourist in his hand, one might easily find his way all over Scotland without any other cicerone." Caledonian Mercury.
"With this cheap and valuable Guide Book in his hand, the tourist will be at no loss to make his way into every celebrated locality in the kingdom." Edinburgh Evening Post.
"This work is one which cannot fail to stimulate tourism." Inverness Advertiser.
"Altogether we have here a complete and fascinating tourist's guide, leaving nothing to be desired but time, and weather, and cash, to make all delightful and easy." Christian news.
"In fulness, accuracy, and lively description, this guide is all that could be wished." Dumfries Herald.
"The book is a model of its kind light and sketchy without being frivolous." Aberdeen Journal.
"No place of interest is overlooked." Montrose Review.
"It presents a succinct and bird's-eye view of everything really interesting and worth visiting." Berwick and Kelso Warder.
"This work is intensely descriptive quite an excitement." Brechin Advertiser.
"We do not know that we could recommend better guides than these publications of Mr Menzies." Edinburgh News.
"Its information is later and superior to its predecessors." Albion.
"No one can travel through Scotland with Menzies' Pocket Guide' in his hand, and fail to find out every thing that is worth seeing, - and find it out, too, without going and inch out of his way." Oxford University Gazette.
"It is really what it purports to be a Guide for Scotland.' The instructions are accurate, the descriptions of scenery is lively and fascinating" Perthshire Advertiser.
MENZIES' POCKET GUIDE TO EDINBURGH AND ITS ENVIRONS,
"Mine own romantic town." - SCOTT.
EDINBURGH: JOHN MENZIES, 61 & 63 PRINCES STREET.
"It would be wise in travellers to make it their first business in a foreign city to climb the loftiest point they can reach, so as to have the scene they have to explore laid out as in a living map beneath them. It is scarcely credible how much time is saved, and confusion of ideas obviated by this means." Miss Martineau's Retrospect of Western Travel.
EDINBURGH: MACPHERSON & SYME, PRINTERS, 12 South St David Street.
Abbey Church, or Chapel Royal - PAGE 24
Adelphi Theatre - 61
Advocates' Library - 19
Anatomical Museum - 27
Ancient and Modern Pictures - 34
Archers' Hall (Queen's Body Guard) - 54
Art Galleries - 34
Assembly Rooms and Music Hall - 49
Bank of Scotland - 15
Borough Muir - 54
Botanic Gardens and Museum of Economic Botany - 53
British Linen Company's Bank - 50
Burns' Monument - 40
Burntsfield Links - 54
Caledonian United Service Club - 52
Calton Burying-Ground - 39
Calton Hill - 41
Canongate Jail and Court-House - 22
Canongate Church, . . . . 20
Canongate Free Church - 20
Castle - 11
Cat Nick - 58
Charles II., Statue of - 18
Clarendon Crescent - 46
College - 26
Commercial Bank - 49
Corn Exchange, New - 12
County Hall - 14
County Jail and Bridewell - 39
Courts of Session, Justiciary, and Exchequer - 18
Craigmillar Castle - 58
David Deans' Cottage - 57
David Hume's Monument - 89
Dean Bridge - 45
Dean Cemetery - 46
Donaldson's Hospital - 47
Dr Dickson's Monument - 32
Duddingston Village, Church, and Lake - 58
Dugald Stewart's Monument - 41
Duke of York's Statue - 13
Duke's Walk - 58
Dunsappie - 60
Earl of Hopetoun's Statue - 50
Echoing Rock - 58
Edinburgh and Glasgow Bank - 49
Edinburgh Gas Work - 40
Edinburgh Slaughter Houses - 32
Edinburgh Subscription Library - 49
Esplanade - 13
Exchange - 20
Excursion to Habbie's How - 70
Excursion to Roslin and Hawthornden - 62
Experimental Gardens - 53
Exposition of Manufactures - 34
Free Church College - 36
Gallery of Arts - 34
Gillespie's Hospital - 55
General Post-Office - 39
George IV., Statue of - 48
George Square - 57
George Watson's Hospital - 31
Grange Cemetery - 56
Grassmarket - 12
Greyfriar's Churchyard - 15
Hare Stane (The) - 54, 71
Heriot's Hospital - 30
High Church, or Cathedral of St Giles - 15
High School - 39
Highland and Agricultural Society's Hall - 52
Highland and Agricultural Society's Museum - 15
Holyrood Palace - 22
Hope Park - 54
House of Grange - 56
Hunter's Bog - 58
Inland Revenue Office - 39
Jeffrey's Grave - 47
Jenny Geddes - 17
John Knox's House - 20
John Knox's Grave - 17
John Watson's Institution - 46
Lord Melville, Statue of - 14
Lover's Lane - 56
Materia Medica Museum - 52
Meadows - 54
Melville's Monument - 50
Merchant Maiden Hospital - 31
Montrose's Grave - 17
Moray House, Canongate - 21
Moray Place - 48
Mound - 35
Muir, Palmer, and Gerald's Monument - 39
Napier of Merchiston's Tablet - 17
Natural History Museum - 27
National Monument - 42
Naval and Military Academy - 32
Nicol Muschet's Cairn - 58
Nicolson Street Chapel - 29
Nelson's Monument - 42
Netherbow Port - 21
New Calton Burying-Ground - 40
New Club - 34
New Drive in Queen's Park - 57
Northern Club - 48
Objects of Interest in Edinburgh - 79
Observatory - 41
Office of Inland Revenue - 39
Old Calton Burying-Ground - 39
Omnibuses - 29,43
Orphan's Hospital - 46
Parliament House - 18
Philosophical Institution - 51
Physician's Hall - 52
Pitt's Statue - 48
Playfair's Monument - 41
Portobello - 60
Prince's Street - 33
Prince's Street Gardens - 35
Queen's Drive - 25,57
Queen's Park - 57
Queen Street Hall - 52
Railway, Caledonian, Terminus of - 32
Railway, Edinburgh and Glasgow, Terminus of - 35
Railway, Edin., Perth, & Dundee, or Granton, Terminus of - 35
Railway, North British, Terminus of - 35
Regent Murray's Grave - 17
Register House - 38
Royal Bank - 50
Royal College of Surgeons - 28
Royal Infirmary - 28
Royal Institution - 33
Royal Scottish Academy's Exhibitions - 34
Salisbury Crags - 58
Sampson's Ribs - 59
Scott Monument - 36
Scott or East Prince's Street Gardens - 38
Sculpture in Parliament House - 18
Sculpture in Advocate's Library - 19
Signet Library - 19
Society of Antiquaries - 49
St Andrew's Church - 49
St Anthony's Chapel - 58
St Bernard's Well - 45
St Columba's Episcopal Church - 14
St Cuthbert's Church, or West Kirk - 32
St Cuthbert's Free Church - 32
St George's Chapel - 51
St George's Church - 48
St George's Free Church - 32
St John's Episcopal Chapel - 33
St John's Free Church - 14
St Leonard's - 57
St Luke's Free Church - 52
St Margaret's Nunnery - 55
St Margaret's Chapel Reliques - 32
St Mark's Chapel - 32
St Mary's Church - 53
St Mary's Roman Catholic Chapel - 51
St Paul's Episcopal Chapel - 51
Statue of George II. - 28
Statues of Her Majesty - 22,33
Stewart's Hospital - 46
Surgical Museum - 29
Theatre Royal - 39
Torrie Collection of Art - 34
Trinity Episcopal Chapel - 45
Tron Church - 20
Union Bank - 18
Union Canal Basin - 32
Victoria Hall - 13
Views of Edinburgh - 10
Warriston Cemetery - 53
Water Reservoir - 13
Waterloo News-Rooms - 39
Wells o' Wearie - 59
West Bow - 14
Western Bank - 50
Wrights Houses - 55
Zoological Gardens 53
Borthwick Castle - 68
Braid Hill and Hermitage - 7
Carberry Hill - 6
Colinton Dell - 56
Compensation Pond - 70,73
Crawley Springs - 72
Crichton Castle - 68
Dalhousie Castle - 67
Dalkeith Palace - 66
Dreghorn House - 71
Fulford Tower - 72
Glencorse Church - 72
Habbie's How - 70
Hawthornden - 66
House of Muir - 76
Lasswade - 65
Melville Castle - 66
Morningside - 70
Musselburgh - 69
Newbattle Abbey - 67
Newhall - 76
Oxenford Castle - 69
Pinkie House - 69
Prestonhall - 58
Roslin Castle - 63
Roslin Chapel - 63
Rullion Green - 76
Silver Burn - 76
Upper Howgate - 72
Woodhouselee - 72
EDINBURGH AND ENVIRONS.
Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, and the chief town of the shire of Mid-Lothian, or county of Edinburgh, is admitted to be one of the most picturesque cities in Europe. It is situated near the mouth of the Frith of Forth, within a few hours' sail of the German Ocean. The picturesque shores of Fife are seen at a thousand advantageous points from the city, and from numerous windows of its houses. It is immediately overlooked by the rocks of Salisbury Crags, and the peak of Arthur's Seat, 822 feet above the level of the sea, east of the city. On the south-west are the hills of Braid, backed by the Pentland Hills, which fold in their embrace the southeast and south-west divisions of the city; and on the north-west is the beautiful hill of Corstorphine, wooded to the top, from which are seen some most enchanting views of Edinburgh. The city stands upon three distinct ridges, of considerable elevation. The first and highest commences at the Castle, situated 383 feet above the level of the sea, bounded on the north by Prince's Street Gardens, and on the south by the valley of the Grassmarket and Cowgate. This ridge, at one period, comprehended almost the whole of the ancient city, which was walled round. The second ridge commences from behind the Castle on the west, and is bounded on the north by the Grassmarket and Cowgate, and on the south by the valley of the Meadows. The third ridge runs along the whole length of the New Town from the west, terminates at the Calton Hill, and is bounded on the south by Prince's Street Gardens, and on the north by the Water of Leith. Strangers are much struck by the appearance of the houses towering above each other, in consequence of the inequalities of the ground. This imparts to the city an agreeable diversity of sky-line, far removed from, and greatly superior to the dull uniformity of a level country. The ramparts of the Castle, the Calton Hill, and the footpath on Salisbury Crags, will be found the best points for viewing the city and surrounding country. Thence the Old and New Town are seen in beautiful contrast to one another, the former looking like some ancient mother of a numerous and thriving progeny, placed in the chair of precedence, and surrounded by her gay and youthful family. Some of the more distant views are not less celebrated. In "Marmion," Sir Walter Scott has chosen that from Blackford Hill. We ourselves prefer the summit of Craiglockhart. But perhaps the most popular is that already hinted at, from "Rest and be thankful," a stone seat on the eastern side of the hill of Corstorphine, "placing the distant architecture of the city, with its castle, crags, and church spires, beneath the eye in minute and miniature exactness, and emerging, as it were, from the level plain, on the successive surges of the upheaved basaltic formation." [Summer Life on Land and Water. Edinburgh, J. Menzies.]
The first point of interest to the stranger, whence he will get the best idea of the bearings of the city, is
Looking from the ramparts, on the east, towards the sea, the New Town of Edinburgh appears laid out before the view as on a map. Prince's Street, and Prince's Street Gardens lie immediately below the spectator, terminated on the left or west by the beautiful Episcopal chapel called St John's, and on the right or east by the Calton Hill, crowned with numerous and beautiful monuments. From the west end of Prince's Street the city extends to the west by Maitland Street, or Shandwick Place, and Athole and Coates Crescents, and on the south-west by the Lothian Road towards the Station of the Caledonian Railway, and the Union Canal Basin at Port Hopetoun, Let the stranger now shift his position to the south side of the ramparts, and he will see the junction from the Lothian Road to Lauriston Street and Lauriston Place, passing Heriot's Hospital, a beautiful turreted building, standing in isolated grounds, opposite to which is Watson's Hospital, surmounted with a vane in the form of a ship. The road then runs straight forward, passing the Charity Workhouse on the left, in the street called Forrest Road, in which are also situated the buildings originally intended as warehouses for the Scottish Darien Company, and also the Free Greyfriar's Church, and the fever hospital, enclosed, along with other buildings, by a small fragment of the ancient city wall. Bristo Street is next crossed, the way continuing along by Lothian Street to the University Buildings, arrived at which, the street to the right, or Nicolson Street, conducts to the village of Newington, the southern suburb of the city, - that to the left conducting by the South and North Bridges to Prince's Street; - thus nearly comprehending the circuit of the city, which, however, spreads out nearly two miles from north to south by two from east to west. The crest of Arthur's Seat on the south-east is conceived to resemble a lion couchant. Salisbury Crags bristle underneath it, like the semicircular rampart of a fortified enceinte. From the same side of the Castle or Esplanade is seen the Grassmarket, almost under the spectator's feet. Here Montrose and the Covenanters suffered in turn. The imposing facade of the New Corn Exchange, after the Italian Palazzo, or London Club-house style, from the designs of the city architect, David Cousin, Esq., now dignifies and adorns this fine market square. The interior of the Corn Exchange is worth visiting, and before the Crystal Palace of 1851 was seen, had almost afforded Edinburgh a foretaste of what light, space, and glass could effect in imparting airy elegance within doors. The densely crowded, and far too celebrated "Closes" of Edinburgh all around form no inconsiderable portion of the general picture.
The Castle, 383 feet above the level of the sea, is calculated to contain 2000 soldiers; and in the armoury are 30,000 stand of arms. From being situated so near the Borders, it underwent many sieges, and from its commanding position, previous to the invention of artillery, was considered of great strength and importance. Strangers should see the Scottish Regalia (for which purpose an order may be obtained gratis at the Council Chambers, Royal Exchange, any day before eleven o'clock), and the room in which Queen Mary gave birth to James VI. of Scotland and I. of England. Upon the rampart overlooking the New Town is placed a huge and unwieldy piece of ordnance called Mons Meg, from its having been made at Mons, in Flanders. Reliques of an ancient chapel or oratory have lately been discovered within the Castle, and identified with that of Saint Margaret, Queen of Malcolm Caen-Mohr.
It is regretted by some that the soldiers' barracks on the south-west of the rock should have been built in a style so little in keeping with the scenery and character of the place, they having much more the appearance of storehouses for corn than the abode of military men. Had they been castellated and turreted, how much would they have added to the beauty of the spot, and enhanced the richness of the landscape, when viewed from the adorning heights! Yet David Roberts, Leitch, Nasmyth, and other artists, have defended them, as adding, by their squareness of form, majesty to the general effect.
On the Esplanade is a statue in bronze of the late Duke of York by Campbell. The great Reservoir of the Edinburgh Water Company's works, capable of containing 1,800,000 gallons, and thus affording a constant service supply to the city, is situated next the Esplanade; and close beside it, in Ramsay Lane (so called from the house of Allan Ramsay the poet adjoining), is Dr Guthrie's Original Ragged School.
Proceeding in a direct line along the street, which leads here in an almost straight line to the foot of the ridge, the first edifice of importance, on the right, is
a building finished in the course of 1844, for the meetings of the General Assembly, or Convocation of the Church of Scotland. The Assembly holds its sittings, which continue for about a fortnight, in the middle of May. It is presided over by its Moderator, who is chosen annually, and the Sovereign is represented by a Commissioner, who is nominated every year by the Government, and who is usually a Scottish Nobleman. This hall is used also as one of the city Churches. The spire, esteemed the most symmetrical of its kind, with the exception of one terminating the vista of Broadway in New York, (and, we may now add, the Rev. Mr Porter's Chapel, Glasgow), is 241 feet in height, the length of the building 141 feet. On the south of the Assembly Hall is St John's Free Church, built for that celebrated preacher Dr Thomas Guthrie, from the designs of Thomas Hamilton, Esq.; St Columba's Episcopal Church; and the Assembly's Normal Seminary, all on the new west approach. Farther down on the same side, stands
THE COUNTY HALL,
situated with its back to the street called Melbourne Place, at right angles from which is Victoria Terrace, both streets being in a style of architecture totally new in this city - the Flemish - which is well suited to harmonize with the turrets and prominences of the Old Town. The County Hall, with a large fluted Ionic portico, fronts the County Square, an open space, in which a monumental statue to the late Lord Melville is about to be placed. At the southern end of the County Hall the Signet Library adjoins. St Giles' Cathedral makes the eastern side, thus forming a superb square of buildings, joined to the bridge spanning the Cowgate or Irish quarter, beyond these, called George IV. bridge, by the Advocates' Library on a low lying site. In the hall are the Sheriff Court, the Justice of Peace Court, and other public offices connected with the county of Edinburgh. They were built in 1819, after a plan by Mr A. Elliot, chiefly on the model of the temple of Erectheus at Athens. The entrance is an imitation of the Choragic monument of Thrasyllus. The front is 103 feet in length, and the side fronting the Lawnmarket 57 feet long. In the hall are several very fine portraits. On the right hand side of the line of the wide and improved opening of George IV. Bridge, running southwards from the Lawnmarket, stands
THE HIGHLAND AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY'S MUSEUM.
A fire lately destroyed the collection of models, vegetable specimens, books, &c. But the ability displayed by the curator, Charles Lawson, Esq. of Borthwick Castle, in getting up the complete and unrivalled collection of the vegetable products of Scotland, shewn at the Great Exhibition of 1851, now adopted into the National Collection of Government at Kew, proves that the whole will be replaced even more effectively, as has already been partly effected. At the head of Candlemaker Row, is the
anciently the garden of the Monastery, which, with Heriot's Hospital pleasure grounds adjoining, formed once on a time the fashionable resort of the beaux and belles of Edinburgh, and contains many interesting monuments. The tombstone on which the Covenant was signed, the tablet to George Buchanan, and the monuments of Dr Robertson, the historian, Dr Black, the chemist, the mathematician, Maclaurin, and "the Martyrs," are well worth inspecting. The churches situated in the grounds are the Old and New Greyfriars, - the former a mere shell, having been destroyed by fire in 1845. At the foot of Bank Street, is
THE BANK OF SCOTLAND,
established by act of Parliament in 1695. Opposite to the County Hall, a little farther down the High Street, is
THE HIGH CHURCH,
or Cathedral of St Giles. St Giles was the tutelary saint of Edinburgh, and the legend concerning him mentions that he was of illustrious parentage, and born in Greece. In the reign of James II. Preston of Gorton got possession of an arm-bone of the saint, which he bequeathed to this Cathedral, where it was kept amongst the treasures of the church till the Reformation. Forty altars, it is said, once stood in the church, so greatly was it esteemed as a religious establishment. James III., in 1466, erected it into a collegiate church, the Chapter of which consisted of a provost, curate, sixteen prebendaries, a master of the choir, four choristers, a sacristan, and beadle. At the Reformation, the sacred utensils were seized and sold by the magistrates, and the money, after repairing the church went to augment the funds of the incorporation. The building contains three places of worship. The division called the High Church has a gallery with a throne and canopy for the Sovereign, which is used by the Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly when attending divine service during the sitting of that body. Right and left of the throne are pews appropriated to the Magistrates of the City, who appear there on Sabbath in their robes, and the Judges of the Courts of Session and Exchequer, also in their robes. The cathedral is architecturally surmounted by an imperial crown, in which are a set of musical bells, regularly played every lawful day between the hours of one and two. The church is a beautiful Gothic building, 206 feet long, 110 in breadth at the west end, 129 in the centre, and only 76 at the east end. It stands on a considerable elevation, and the height of the spire is 161 feet. It was in this church that, in 1637, Charles I., endeavouring to establish the Episcopalian service and discipline, created such a ferment among the people, as for ever to prevent any similar attempt at making it the established religion of the country. The first attempt at introducing the liturgy was to have taken place at Easter, but was, for some cause, postponed till Sunday the 23d July 1637. It was then, and still is, in many places, a practice with the poorer part of the congregation to look upon the stair leading up to the pulpit as their own privileged possession. A story is told of a very good-natured clergyman, who, in squeezing himself through among these pious worshippers, was every Sabbath deprived of his pocket handkerchief. One day, however, his wife took the precaution to sew it to his pocket, and as he was going up to the pulpit he found a pull at it as usual, on which he quickly wheeled round, and calmly but knowingly said to the pious devotee, "Na, Jenny, the wife has sewed it in the day."
On the stairs leading to the reading-desk and pulpit sat the redoubtable virago Jenny Geddes, among many others of her class, groaning in the spirit at the defection of the times, and the introduction of Popery under the mask of Prelacy, as she and many of her tribe supposed, in which supposition the populace were confirmed by those who knew better, and who promulgated such opinions to suit their own political purposes. The service got on a certain length, but when the Dean announced the collect for the day, Jenny's wrath could be controlled no longer: she rose and exclaimed in a loud voice, "Deil colic the wame o' ye," and hurled the creepie (a short-legged stool) on which she had been sitting, at the head of the Dean, who luckily escaped the intended blow, and the whole church became a chaos of confusion.
In the ground between the church and the courthouses were interred the remains of John Knox, the Scottish Reformer (the neighbouring ground, in fact, once having been St Giles' churchyard); and within the cathedral are interred the bodies of the Regent Murray, who was shot at Linlithgow in 1570, and the great Marquis of Montrose, who was beheaded in 1650. The monumental brass commemorative of "the good Regent," with a Latin inscription from the pen of George Buchanan, was in possession of Lord James Stuart at Donibristle (the seat of the Earl of Moray), and has been handed over to the Society of Antiquaries. On the outer wall facing the High Street, is a mural tablet, pointing out the family burying-ground of Napier of Merchiston, the celebrated inventor of the logarithms.
The buildings behind the church, forming the Parliament Square, in the centre of which is an equestrian statue of Charles II., are appropriated to the Courts of Session, Justiciary, and Exchequer. On the east end of the square is the Police Office, the Union Bank, long known by the title of Sir William Forbes' Bank, and the Exchequer chambers. Farther to the right, or west, is
THE PARLIAMENT HOUSE.
This is the oldest building in the Parliament Square. The others have been built within a few years back, and the Parliament House faced anew, to harmonize with the rest. It was begun in 1632, and completed in 1640, at an expense of £11,600. It is 133 feet long, and 98 in breadth at its broadest part, considerably deeper at the back than in front, owing to the inequality of the ground, the edifice being built on the south side of the centre ridge on which the city stands. The Parliament House is divided into three divisions, the First and Second Divisions, and what is called the Outer-House. The Lord President presides in the First Division, and the Lord Justice-Clerk in the Second Division; and the Outer-House is for the Lords Ordinary, who hear the cases for the first time, and if the litigants are not satisfied with their decision, they have then recourse to one or other of the Divisions, whose decision is final, unless carried by appeal to the House of Lords. The Outer-House is the great hall in which the Scottish Parliaments were held: it is 122 feet long by 49 in breadth, with an elegant oak roof and floor. In the north end is a beautiful statue of the first Lord Melville by Sir Francis Chantrey, and, at the south end, by the same eminent artist, one of President Blair, awkwardly placed, and untastefully disposed. Opposite, a recumbent figure
of Lord President Dundas; and again, near Melville's statue, an exquisite and highly characteristic one of Duncan Forbes of Culloden, another President, by Roubilliac. Leading from the Outer-House, on the east, are the halls of the First and Second Divisions, lately fitted up in a most elegant and commodious manner. On the west side is a corridor, containing busts of Erskine, Baron Hume, the late Lord Jeffrey, &c. &c., belonging to
THE ADVOCATES' LIBRARY,
which is to connect the Outer-House with the buildings proposed to be erected at the south end of the County Hall, and to front the street leading along George IV. Bridge. The books of the library are deposited in very dark and inconvenient apartments below the Outer-House, scattered through various rooms and galleries, in some of which gas is lighted during the day. The library is a rare and choice collection, consisting of upwards of 148,000 volumes, and exceedingly rich in MSS., 2000 in number, chiefly connected with Scottish history and literature: it was founded in 1682. By the liberality of the Faculty, the library is free for literary consultation, like that of the British Museum.
The range of buildings extending between the Cathedral and the County Hall is called
THE SIGNET LIBRARY,
and belongs to the Society of Writers to the Signet, a class of legal practitioners resembling the Solicitors of London. The upper apartment of this library is a superb room, 140 feet long and 42 in breadth. In the centre of the room is a cupola, adorned by the late Mr Stothard, with paintings in oil of Apollo and the Muses, together with the historians, poets, and learned men of all ages and nations. The vestibule and stairs are adorned with portraits, busts, and vases. The collection is a very fine one, and in admirable order, consisting of about 40,000 or 50,000 volumes.
On the opposite side of the street, facing the entrance to the Parliament Square, is
THE ROYAL EXCHANGE,
built in 1761. Within the quadrangle are the City Chambers, and various offices connected with the city. In the High Street, almost opposite to the entrance to the Exchange, stood the Cross, the site of which is indicated by a circle of pavement. Here proclamations are made, and also at the Pier of Leith.
Continuing down the High Street, we come to
THE TRON CHURCH
situated on the right side of the street, which is here intersected by the North and South Bridge Streets. The Tron
Church was built in 1637; but scarcely a vestige of the original building exists, excepting a small part of the basement of the tower. The spire, from the roof upwards, is new, having been built after the great conflagration which took place, and originated in the Parliament Square in 1824; a spark carried by the wind, which was blowing pretty strongly at the time, lit upon the spire, and entirely consumed it. So great was the heat, that the bell was entirely melted, and its remains found among the ruins of the tower. The church, however, was fortunately preserved.
Proceeding down the High Street, we come to
JOHN KNOX'S HOUSE,
situate on the left, close by a public well, and newly propped up behind by a highly ornate ecclesiastical building, John Knox's Free Church. Knox's House is but little adapted to attract the attention of any one except a searcher for the curious in old houses. It is said to be the very oldest stone building in the locality, having been erected before 1539, in the days of James V. Here the Reformer resided, for a short time, in 1559, and again in 1563; here he narrowly escaped the shot of an assassin, and here it is supposed he composed the greater part, if not the whole, of his History of the Reformation. An inscription, immediately above the ground floor, in large Roman letters, but scarcely discernible, runs thus:- LVFE . GOD . ABOVE . AL . AND . YOVR . NICHTBOVR . AS YI . SELF . This house was the residence appointed by the city authorities for the Reformer, soon after the Reformation. An effigy of Knox was formerly seen on the front of the building, placed in a Presbyterian pulpit, in the attitude of addressing an audience; but it has been discovered that this device only covered a more antique sculpture, representing Moses at the burning bush, with the name of God inscribed in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. On the front of a house opposite, are medallion heads, evidently Roman, of the Emperor Severus and his consort Julia. Here stood the Old Netherbow Port.
The street now becoming narrower, assumes the name of Canongate, a burgh separate from the city, and, consequently, having a separate jurisdiction in many matters. In the Canongate the nobility resided at the time when the Palace was graced by the residence of royalty. Many of the houses of the nobility are still standing in good repair, but now very indifferently tenanted. The most conspicuous of these ancient residences is that of the Earl of Moray, having a stone balcony in front, from which, in 1650, the Marquis of Argyle had the unmanliness to witness his opponent, the great Marquis of Montrose, drawn on a hurdle to prison, a few days previous to his execution. This building is now occupied by the Normal and training schools of the Free Church. The gardens behind contain a conservatory, in which the articles of Union were partly subscribed - the other signatures being secretly adhibited in "the Union Cellar," High Street.
THE CANONGATE JAIL AND COURT-HOUSE.
On the top of the Jail is a projecting clock-turret, with the dials facing up and down the street. The Court-house adjoins, with the Cross in front. Beyond, is
THE CANONGATE CHURCH.
This church, built in the form of a cross, was founded in 1688. In the churchyard lie buried some of the chief men of worth and talent who have adorned Edinburgh; Adam Smith, Dugald Stewart, Dr Gregory, and many others. On the left, a little way from the church, is the grave of the poet Ferguson, over whose resting-place Burns erected a tombstone. The place is easily found out, the path leading to it being quite trodden, like that conducting to the Mausoleum of Burns at Dumfries.
Continuing the walk down the Canongate, a few yards further brings us to
THE PALACE OF H0LYROOD,
in front of which Mr A. H. Ritchie's beautiful portrait statue of her Majesty Queen Victoria, cut in the freestone of Redhall rock, stands upon a pedestal, finely ornamented with groups sculptured in relief.
The buildings of the Palace lay claim to no high antiquity, and never, in its present form, were the residence of royalty, except during the short visit of George IV., and on occasion of her Majesty Queen Victoria's annual progress to and from Balmoral. James V. in 1528 erected the north-west towers, which are more generally known by the name of Queen Mary's apartments, and in which she resided. In these towers are the Presence Chambers, in which the Queen had the well-known interview with John Knox, the Dressing-Room, and the small apartment adjoining it, which has a secret stair leading from the Chapel to the Palace, by which Darnley and his associates entered and murdered Rizzio; and the Bed-Chamber, in which is still the Queen's bed, and some other relics of those days. This is by far the most interesting portion of the Palace, and will ever remain so, from its associations with the unfortunate Mary. Rizzio's blood (despite Sir Walter Scott's whimsical episode of the Brummagem Bagman and his "scouring drops," in the Introduction to "The Chronicles of the Canongate"), is still shewn at the head of the stair leading to the Queen's apartments; his body was pierced with fifty-six wounds. The rooms themselves, in which the fair and unfortunate Queen dwelt and spent a good portion of her life, are well calculated to carry back the mind to the olden time, and to awaken visions of the mailed and gauntleted warrior, and of ladies gay busied in the homely occupations of the distaff and the working of tapestry. Their loneliness and desertion now strongly contrast with the brutality and the atrocious murder that was perpetrated within their bounds; and their very silence seems a continuation of that stillness which pervaded them after that scream of horror and the demoniac laugh of revenge had subsided into rest. The soldiers of Cromwell burnt a considerable part of the Palace, which, in the reign of Charles II. was rebuilt in its present form, from a plan by Sir William Bruce.
The Palace is an elegant stone edifice of a quadrangular form. The length from north to south is about 230 feet, but somewhat less from east to west. The west front consists only of two stories, surmounted by a double balustrade, and the magnificent portico in the centre is adorned with massive columns, which support a cupola, in the form of an imperial crown. The other three sides of the square are composed of three stories. The Picture Gallery, which occupies the first floor on the north side of the quadrangle, is a noble apartment, 150 feet in length, by 27 in breadth, and 18 in height. Here are held the parliamentary elections of the Scottish Representative Peers. This gallery contains a collection of the portraits of 106 Scottish kings, from the earliest times, painted chiefly by De Wit, a Flemish artist, appointed by the Duke of York, afterwards James II., who, during his residence in Scotland, enlarged and adorned the mansion of his ancestors. Some of the portraits, especially of the earlier kings, were painted from the fancy of the artist, some were taken from old coins, and others of a later date were copied from private pictures.
The Duke of Hamilton, hereditary keeper of the Palace, has apartments in it, as well as the Marquis of Breadalbane, and several other Scottish noblemen. In 1793, apartments were fitted up for the Count d'Artois (afterwards Charles X. of France), the Dukes d'Angouleme and Berri. Prince Charles Edward Stuart held his court here in 1745, and George IV. in 1822; and the whole interior recently underwent re-decoration by that eminent decorative artist Mr D. R. Hay, for the reception of her present Majesty, when several improvements were made in the walks, grounds, &c. by Mr Matheson.
The Abbey-Church, now in ruins, was founded by David I. in 1128, for canons regular of the order of St Augustine, and was long one of the richest religious establishments in Scotland. This fine specimen of Gothic architecture suffered much at different periods from barbarous hands; but in 1816 means were resorted to for preventing its farther decay; and the rubbish which had accumulated in its interior, and which almost entirely hid or obscured the monuments, was begun to be removed. A full length figure in robes, in a recumbent position, in memory of Lord Belhaven, the strenuous opposer of the Union, who died in 1739, is seen in the lower part of the tower, slightly mutilated by the fall of the roof, or by some rude hands. It is in a superior style of workmanship, and is said to have been executed by an Italian artist. In the royal vault, at the south-east corner, are deposited the remains of David II., James II., and his Queen, Mary of Gueldres (the latter transferred from Trinity College Church, at its demolition by the North British Railway Company), Prince Arthur (third son of James IV.), James V. and his Queen Magdalene, with his second son, Arthur, Duke of Albany, and Mary's consort Henry, Lord Darnley. In the chapel are also the tombs of Wishart, the preceptor and biographer of the great Montrose, and of Hepburn, last abbot of the Monastery, who married Mary to his kinsman the Earl of Bothwell. He was parson of Oldhamstocks, in East Lothian; and Colonel Belshes of Invermay, the representative of the Hepburns, still possesses the gold and silver filagree jug, of which Mary made him a present on this occasion. A restricted gratuity is paid for seeing the Palace and Chapel.
The Abbey and all within the Abbey-grounds, including the whole space on which stands Arthur's Seat and Salisbury Crags, walled all round, and known by the title of the King's, or, more recently, Queen's Park, is a sanctuary for insolvent debtors, who procure apartments in the houses adjoining the Palace. One of the finest drives about Edinburgh has been constructed round the Park - from the Duke's Walk over the shoulder of the hill of Dunsappie, through the gorge of elevated rocks called Sampson's Ribs, and back through the valley of St Margaret, at the base of Salisbury Crags. The panoramic view of sea and shore, successively seen from this circuit, are perfectly unrivalled;- comprehending the coasts of the Frith of Forth, Inchkeith, the Fife and Lothian shores, with North Berwick Law, the Bass Rock, Musselburgh, Portobello, and Leith; the nearer landscape, with the Lochend and Duddingstone sheets of water - the picturesque church, village, and villas near the latter - Craigmillar Castle, a favourite residence of Queen Mary, crowning the adjacent height - the valley of Mid-Lothian, bounded by the Moorfoot and Pentland Hills - the villa suburb of Newington, on the south, surmounted by the hill and church of Liberton; - nearer, "Auld Reekie," tossed on its wave-like site, with the scenes of Sir Walter Scott's "Heart of Mid-Lothian, or the Lily of St Leonard's," - Dumbie Dykes, David Deans' Cottage, and the defile of the Hunter's Bog; and finally, the classic monuments of the Calton Hill, and elegant architecture of the New Town of Edinburgh.
Retracing our steps from the Palace up the Canongate to the Tron Church, let the stranger take to the left by the South Bridge towards
This great building occupies the site of the Kirk of Field, the scene of the tragedy of Darnley's murder, by an explosion of gunpowder. As a place of education, it commenced about the time of the Reformation, and in 1582 was founded by King James VI. The apartments becoming too small for the concourse of students, and the whole buildings being considered mean and incommodious, on the 16th November 1789, the foundation-stone of the present University Buildings was laid by Lord Napier, a descendant of the great discoverer of the Logarithms. Want of funds, and various causes, for a long while retarded the completion of the structure, till, in 1815, a Parliamentary grant was obtained, in yearly instalments, of £10,000, till in 1822 the quadrangle may be said to have been completed. The fitting up of the Museum, Library, and various class-rooms have since been finished. Over the main entrance is placed the following inscription:- Academia Jacobi VI. Scotorum Regis, Anno post Christum Natum MDLXXXII. Instituta; annoque MDCCLXXXIX. Renovari coepta: Regnante Georgio III. Principe munificentissimo; Urbis Edinensis Praefecto Thoma Elder; Academiae Primario Gulielmo Robertson. Architecto, Roberto Adam. [Academy of James VI. King of Scots, instituted in the year 1882 after the birth of Christ; and in 1889 began to be renovated: during the reign of George III, the Most Bountiful Prince; Thomas the Elder, governor of the city of Edin; Academy Principal William Robertson. Architect, Robert Adam.] This handsome portico has been much and justly admired. The pillars, of the Doric order, 26 feet in height, are each of one solid stone. The quadrangle is 358 feet long by 255 wide.
The Museum is well worthy of a visit, having one of the finest and completest collections of birds in the world. On the first floor is a pretty good collection of animals, and some very interesting fossil remains. Up stairs are birds, minerals, shells, corals, and insects; higher up, fishes, serpents, and various natural productions. The whole are arranged in the most beautiful order, and in excellent preservation. The price of admission to the Natural History Museum is 1s.; we soon trust to see it free.
There is also an excellent Anatomical Museum, the fruits of the labours of the present Professor of Anatomy, Mr Goodsir.
The Library is most tastefully fitted up, and in admirable order, containing about 90,854 volumes, with 310 valuable and curious MSS., amongst which is the beautifully illuminated Missal of St Katherine. In the large room of the Library is placed the statue of Burns, by Flaxman. The splendid hall may be visited on an order from any of the patrons - the Town - Council of Edinburgh; the Curator alone has the power to shew the MSS., and then only on written reasons assigned by the applicant.
The University buildings, as originally designed by Mr Robert Adam, were upon a scale considered much too extensive for the funds which could be procured for their completion, it having been originally intended that the professors should have their residences within its walls, and the plan was afterwards modified by Mr W. H. Playfair, and finished under his inspection.
On the opposite side of the street, at the back of the buildings which front the College, stands
THE ROYAL INFIRMARY,
in Infirmary Street. This building was raised by the exertions of the benevolent Provost Drummond, who used every effort to accomplish his object, both by public and private subscriptions, and in August 1738 the foundation of the edifice was laid. The building consists of a centre and two wings, three stories in height. Over the main door is a statue of George II. in Roman costume. On the east side of the statue are the words "I WAS NAKED AND YE CLOTHED ME," and on the west, "I WAS SICK AND YE VISITED ME." The lobby of the house has a fine bust of the worthy Provost, by Nollekins, with the following inscription by Principal Robertson, the historian:- "George Drummond, to whom this country is indebted for all the benefits which it derives from the Royal Infirmary." A few years ago, when fever was very prevalent in the city, the Old High School, fronting the bottom of the street, was purchased for the accommodation of patients so afflicted, but has since been converted into the surgical department. And in consequence of the severe experience of want of accommodation during the recent epidemic, when temporary sheds, and even military tents from Edinburgh Castle had to be pitched in the yards, extensive fever wards have now been built in the rear, abutting upon Drummond Street.
South from the College, in Nicolson Street, stands
THE ROYAL COLLEGE Of SURGEONS.
This building was erected in 1832, from a design by Mr Playfair. The portico is supported by six fluted columns of the Ionic order, and is altogether a beautiful building, and a great ornament to the street. It has very neatly fitted up apartments, with a fine hall, hung round with the portraits of some of its most eminent members, and a museum. The museum is enriched with the valuable collection of the late Dr John Barclay, who was for many years a most successful extra-academical lecturer on anatomy in Edinburgh, and whose services and works in this department will be long remembered. There is an excellent marble bust of him at the entrance to his part of the museum, by Joseph, and remarkably like the worthy old man. Any respectable person, provided with an order from a Fellow, is permitted to visit the Museum on subscribing the album, on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Fridays, from 10 till 3, and on Saturdays from 10 till 2.
Proceeding along Nicolson Street for a few hundred, yards, on the right of the street is
NICOLSON STREET CHAPEL,
belonging to the United Presbyterian Church, dissenting from the Established Church of Scotland. This is a neat building, with nothing peculiar about it, excepting the relaxation of that rigid objection towards all ornament, inside or out of a church, long entertained by Presbyterians. It was finished in 1820, and designed by Mr Gillespie Graham.
Beyond this a little is Newington Church, opposite it Libberton Free Church, and beyond that the pleasant village of Newington, whence two or three omnibuses start during every half hour for the north-western extremities of the town at Stockbridge and Queensferry Street, at a charge of 3d.
Retracing our steps to the College, and proceeding up College Street, along Lothian Street and Teviot Row, we soon reach the picturesque old establishment for boys called
This was endowed by George Heriot, goldsmith to James VI., and opened for the admission of boys in 1659. The plan, which was given by Dr Balcanquhal, Dean of Rochester, is ascribed to Inigo Jones. The number of children admitted is 180, the fatherless sons of freemen. They must not be younger than 7, and not above 10 years of age, and generally leave at 14. If any are found advanced scholars at the termination of their studies in the hospital, and feel desirous of following some learned profession, they have an allowance of £30 for four years at the University. The revenues of the institution are upwards of £15,000 a year, arising from feus chiefly in the New Town of Edinburgh. This sum being found more than sufficient for defraying the expenses of the hospital, with a part of the residue the Governors have built schools in various parts of the city, for the education of the children of decayed and deceased burgesses, the hospital being incapable of accommodating more than the stated number. The building is about 162 feet square, having a court inside 94 feet square, which has an arcade round the north and east side 6 feet broad. In a niche on the north side of the court, above the entrance, is a statue of the founder, in the costume of his period: there is also a good painting of him in one of the apartments. The top of the building is turreted, and is altogether a beautiful fabric, with 200 windows, all differing from one another in their ornaments. The chapel of the hospital is 61 feet long by 22 feet broad, having a semicircular window, reaching from the roof to the floor, which, when lighted, has a most beautiful effect. The porter's lodge, with the balustrade and terrace round the house, were built but a few years ago. The Treasurer of the Hospital issues tickets of admission at his office in the Royal Exchange, free to any stranger.
GEORGE WATSON'S HOSPITAL,
which stands on the side of Lauriston opposite to Heriot's Hospital, was founded by George Watson, a citizen of Edinburgh. The building was erected in 1738, for the benefit of the children and grandchildren of decayed merchants of the city. About 80 boys are educated and maintained here. The building has a small spire, surmounted by a ship for a weather-vane. There is little architectural ornament about it, but it is very commodious.
A little further on, in Lauriston Place, at the foot of Archibald Place, within an enclosed field, stands the
MERCHANT MAIDEN HOSPITAL.
This building was erected in 1816, but the institution was founded in 1695, by voluntary contribution, for the education of the daughters and grand-daughters of the deceased or decayed merchants of the city. It accommodates from 90 to 100 girls, from 7 to 11 years of age, till they are 17 years old. They receive all the usual branches of education, and if they require music and drawing, their friends pay for these out of their own pockets, but they have instruments, music, and drawing materials provided for them. The building has a fine portico of four beautiful columns, but the front is somewhat obscured by its low situation, and being placed towards the Meadows, has no point of view from which it can be advantageously seen.
Following round along Lauriston Place, Lauriston Street, and by the Castle Terrace, we reach
FREE ST CUTHBERT'S CHURCH,
ST MARK'S CHAPEL,
a Unitarian place of worship, erected in 1835, in the Flemish style of architecture, which the Commissioners of Improvements have adopted for the buildings to be erected on this terrace, and which will add much to the beauty of the city. The plan was by Mr Bryce, and cost about £2100. It is a neat chapel.
A short way beyond this, in the valley, converted into an extensive burying-ground, is
ST CUTHBERT'S, OR THE WEST KIRK.
This belongs to the Established Church of Scotland. There is nothing particular about it except its spire, which is very superior to the body of the building; and a monument erected by the congregation to the memory of David Dickson, D.D., who long officiated here. The monument was designed and sculptured by Alexander Handyside Ritchie, Esq., in 1843, and is justly considered one of the most striking and effective in Scotland. The group represents the reverend gentleman blessing the child of a poor widow; the likeness of the Doctor is exceedingly correct. This church gives accommodation to the largest congregation in Edinburgh.
Continuing westward, on the other side of the Lothian Road, is the Naval and Military Academy, and St George's Free Church; and farther to the left the Terminus of the Caledonian Railway. Farther still we have the Basin of the Union Canal, connecting the city by water traffic with Glasgow. And in the street beyond the Canal Basin, on the grounds of Lochrin, the Edinburgh Slaughter-Houses, covering four acres, admirably fitted up, and fronted by a bold and appropriate facade of Egyptian style and character, by David Cousin, Esq. the city architect, distinguished by sculptured corbeils of ox heads, and caryatides of kneeling oxen.
At the top of the rising ground, at the west end of Prince's Street, is the beautiful Episcopal building of
ST JOHN'S CHAPEL.
It was built in 1818, from a plan by Mr Burn, architect. It is florid Gothic, 113 feet in length, and 62 broad. The tower is 120 feet high; the oriel window, 30 feet in height, with figures of the apostles, in stained glass, by Egginton of Birmingham, but by no means equal in colouring to the lateral windows, by Mr Ballantine of Edinburgh, who executed the stained glass of the House of Lords. It has a fine organ. The building cost about £15,000.
Following along Prince's Street, we reach
THE ROYAL INSTITUTION,
situated at the foot of the Earthen Mound. This magnificent Grecian structure was commenced in 1825, from a design by Playfair. Over the pediment fronting Prince's Street, is placed a statue of her Majesty Queen Victoria, by Mr Steell. The Queen is represented seated in the chair of state, in her royal robes, the sceptre in her right hand, and her left resting on the orb. The statue, which is larger than life, is sculptured in Binny freestone, and is reckoned a good likeness, her Majesty having honoured Mr Steell with sittings for the purpose; and altogether its execution reflects credit on the artist. Within this building the Royal Institution for the Encouragement of the Fine Arts in Scotland (now almost extinct, being superseded in its functions by the Royal Scottish Academy), the Board of Trustees for the Improvement of Manufactures and Fisheries in Scotland, and the Royal
Society, have apartments. There is also a fine Statue Gallery, consisting of casts from the antique, together with a set of casts from the Elgin marbles, for the use of the pupils of the Drawing and Life Academy, to which the public has free access. The Drawing Academy is under the inspection of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture, and young men of promise in the arts are taught the higher branches of art by eminent masters in their various departments. The Board of Trustees of Fisheries and Manufactures also occupy extensive apartments as a School of Design, to which pupils above thirteen years of age are admitted free, on exhibiting their drawings in proof of a taste for art, and receive the tuition of the government officials. Here is also meanwhile held the Annual Exhibition of Paintings by the Royal Scottish Academy, during the months of February, March, and April, when the permanent exhibition of Ancient and Modern Pictures, including the Torrie Collection, is substituted for the remainder of the year. An occasional Exposition of Scottish Manufactures, for the improvement of which premiums are offered, has also been held here.
Sir James Erskine of Torrie bequeathed a valuable collection of paintings, marbles, and bronzes, which are here deposited, and known by the title of the Torrie Collection. This, with some excellent specimens of Vandyke, Titian, &c., and modern purchases, belonging to the Scottish Academy of Painting, may be seen, gratis, every Tuesday and Friday. The Art Galleries, now erecting, however, of which the foundation was laid by H.R.H. Prince Albert in 1850, are destined to afford future accommodation to the Exhibitions of Living Artists, and to the permanent collection or National Gallery.
A few doors to the west of Hanover Street, and of the Royal Institution, is the New Club Rooms, something on the plan of the United Service Club in London. It is a handsome building, and constitutes No. 84 of Prince's Street.
On which the building of the Royal Institution stands, is a prodigious accumulation of earth, collected there chiefly from the foundations of houses built in the New Town at various periods. Permission was granted for depositing the earth in that place, called the North Loch, and which now constitutes Prince's Street Gardens, solely to accommodate the inhabitants, and not with a view at first of forming by such means a communication between the New and Old Town. As the deposition increased, the formation of a communication by such means became apparent, and consequently a systematic plan was acted upon, and in process of time was accomplished this very convenient passage between the old and new parts of the city. The mound was begun in 1783, and may be said to have been completed about 1830. It is said to contain upwards of 1,500,000 cart-loads of earth, which cost the city nothing, except the expense of smoothing and levelling it from time to time as the earth accumulated. The North Loch, where is now a beautiful garden, was once a swamp; even boats, many long years ago, are said to have sailed upon it. In 1821, by act of Parliament, the valley west of the Mound was drained and planted, and keys are now allowed the occupants of Prince's Street, and others, for the payment of £1, 1s. yearly, with liberty to walk in the grounds. A cutting and tunnel now leads through it for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, to the Terminus at the North Bridge, thus connecting it with the Termini of the Edinburgh, Perth, and Dundee, or Leith and Granton, and North British Railways. From a beautiful plan by Mr Playfair, the Mound is being further adorned with the gorgeous architecture of the New Art Galleries, half way between the Free Church College, situate at the head of the Mound, and the Royal Institution. The building is of Ionic architecture, with flat antae along the wings, and advanced porticoes at the sides and ends, with accommodation for the exhibition of the pictures, annually, of the Royal Scottish Academy, &c. At the head of the Mound, is
THE FREE CHURCH COLLEGE,
designed by Mr Playfair (who has thus completed the various architectural plateaux of the Mound), an elegant building, in the Elizabethan style, partly used for the purposes of Education, and partly accommodating the Free High Church congregation.
Continuing along Prince's Street, we reach
THE SCOTT MONUMENT,
the ascent of which is by tickets, price 6d., to be obtained at 39 Prince's Street, opposite. The foundation-stone of this very unique and superb structure, was laid on Saturday the 15th of August 1840, being the anniversary of Sir Walter Scott's birth. The Lord Provost (Sir James Forrest, Bart.) presided as Grand Master Mason, and in his address, remarked, - "This was the birth-day of Scott this the anniversary of the day when a British Sovereign revisited our long deserted palaces this, an extraordinary day in the calendar was also the birth-day of Napoleon." Sir William Rae thus emphatically alluded to the architect:- "After taking designs from several eminent artists, the Committee threw the matter open to competition, and they greatly rejoiced at having done so, as, amidst many meritorious plans, one was produced which entirely outstripped all competition, and formed a model of beauty and proportion, as is admitted by the most scientific men, who consider it as perfect in its character and details. This was the work of a native artist, whose name had never before been heard of, namely, the unassuming and meritorious Mr Kemp, whom I feel proud to mention to the meeting as one every way entitled to their confidence and good opinion." In the Foundation-Stone was deposited a plate containing the following inscription, written by the late Lord Jeffrey, besides a plate with the names of the Office-bearers of the Grand Lodge, and a Glass Jar, with Coins, Newspapers, &c.:
"THIS GRAVEN PLATE,
Deposited in the Base of a Votive Building,
On the fifteenth day of August, in the year of Christ 1840,
And never likely to see the light again
Till all the surrounding structures are crumbled to dust
By the decay of Time, or by Human or Elemental violence,
May then testify to a distant posterity, that
His Countrymen began on that day
To raise an Effigy and Architectural Monument
TO THE MEMORY OF
SIR WALTER SCOTT, BART.,
Whose admirable Writings were then allowed
To have given more delight, and suggested better feeling,
To a larger Class of Readers in every rank of Society,
Than those of any other Author, with the exception of Shakspeare alone,
And which were therefore thought likely to be remembered
Long after this Act of Gratitude
On the part of the first generation of his Admirers should be forgotten.
He was born at Edinburgh, 15th August 1771,
And died at Abbotsford, 21st September 1832.
The Foundation of the Monument was laid by the
Right Hon. Sir JAMES FORREST of Comiston, Bart.,
Lord Provost of Edinburgh,
AND GRAND MASTER MASON OF SCOTLAND:
The Sub-Committee in charge of the Work being
The Right Honourable Sir W. Rae of St Catherine's, Bart.;
Sir Thomas Dick Lauder of Fountainhall, Bart.;
Dr Thomas Hope, Professor of Chemistry;
George Forbes, Esq., Treasurer;
Thomas Thomson, Esq., Advocate;
William Burn, Esq., Architect,
With the aid and advice of
The Right Hon. Lord Viscount Melville.
James Skene, Esq. of Rubislaw, Secretary.
GEORGE M. KEMP, Architect.
JOHN STEELL, Sculptor.
IN THE FOURTH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF
VICTORIA THE FIRST."
His family, his friends, and the public, had the misfortune, however, to lose Mr Kemp before the Monument was half erected; crossing the Canal in a dark and stormy night, he unhappily fell in and was drowned. His funeral was the largest we ever witnessed, many thousands voluntarily attended to mark their sense of his worth as a friend, and his genius as an architect. That portion of the Prince's Street valley in which the Monument now stands has been converted into ornamental pleasure grounds and walks for the recreation of the inhabitants, to whom it is perfectly free, under the name of the Scott or East Prince's Street Gardens, from designs by Mr Cousin, architect, comprising terrace walks, flights of descending steps, and embankments.
Continuing along Prince's Street, towards its eastern extremity, we reach
THE REGISTER OFFICE,
situated at the opening of the North Bridge. It is a handsome building, designed by Mr Adam, begun in 1774, and partly completed soon after; but papers and records increasing, in 1822, the building was enlarged, and finished according to the original plan. No money can be borrowed or lent on heritable property, no house or estate can be purchased, and legality given to the transaction, without its being recorded in this office. A house or an estate may be burdened with debt to its full amount, but the purchaser can ascertain this to a fraction, by examining the records, before he concludes his bargain. Whatever sums may be lent on a house or estate cannot, by the law of Scotland, be recovered unless recorded here; at least the house or estate cannot be subjected to the debt. This may give some idea of the value of such an office. It is also the record office of the Court of Session, where its decrees are extracted, and writs passed under the Royal Signet. In the front of the building is now placed the bronze equestrian Statue of the Duke of Wellington, by Mr Steell.
Nearly opposite to the Register Office is
THE THEATRE ROYAL,
a neat and commodious house inside, but with nothing external to attract admiration. Beyond the Theatre, on the same side of the street, is
THE OFFICE OF INLAND REVENUE.
This is the head office for Stamps and Taxes in Scotland, with which the department of Excise is now conjoined. A little beyond this, on the same side of the street, Waterloo Place, Regent's Bridge, is
THE GENERAL POST OFFICE,
in the lobby of which is the office for money-orders; and opposite, the Waterloo Hotel and Public News Room. Further on is
THE CALTON BURYING-GROUND.
The roadway having been cut through the midst of this place of sepulture it is ascended by a flight of steps. A circular monument to David Hume, and an obelisk to the memory of Muir, Palmer, and Gerald, designated "The Martyrs' Monument," are placed in this ground, small portions of which, screened by a retaining wall with niches, occupy either side of the street. Further on is
THE COUNTY JAIL AND BRIDEWELL,
commenced in 1816, along with the bridge and adjacent buildings, all from designs by Mr A. Elliot. And a little beyond, on the opposite side, is
THE HIGH SCHOOL OF EDINBURGH,
Regent Road, a justly admired Greek structure, designed
by Mr Hamilton, and one of the finest ornaments of the city. It is composed of a centre and two wings. The wings have a basement storey, and the whole building, including the lodges, extend in length somewhat above 400 feet. The Doric columns of the centre building are above 22 feet in height: those in the corridors, right and left, are about a third shorter. The play-ground consists of nearly two acres. The business of the institution is conducted by a rector and four classical masters, one of German, one of French, and several others; and here are taught Latin, Greek, French, German, English, mathematics, arithmetic, and writing, besides many of the more ordinary and necessary branches of education. We believe a more thorough knowledge of classical learning is nowhere to be obtained. The origin of the institution is unknown; dates so far back as the year 1517, on the city records, prove its existence as a Royal Institution; but it was established by the Clergy and Town-Council in 1598 on a more comprehensive plan. The present building was begun in July 1825. The best point to view this fine building advantageously, is the Canongate churchyard, on the other side of the valley, nearly opposite to the High School. On the other side of the road is
in which was a statue of the bard by Flaxman, but which is now removed to the Library of the University, and beyond it, occupying the bank which shelves down to the north back of Canongate, is
THE NEW CALTON BURYING-GROUND,
neatly laid out, and containing many elegant monuments.
EDINBURGH GAS WORK.
This establishment is situate in the valley, and may be
readily recognised by the enormous height of its principal chimney. It (the chimney) was completed on Friday the 13th November, 1846. The height of this massive symmetrical column is 325 feet, inclusive of the stone pedestal, which is 65 feet in height, and 30 feet square. It is surmounted by a capital of cast-iron. The diameter of the chimney at its base is upwards of 26 feet, and at the summit nearly 14 feet. The bricks are a compound of ironstone and fire-clay. The design of the column is by Mr Taylor, the company's engineer.
Let the stranger now return, and ascend
THE CALTON HILL,
by the stairs opposite to the prison. The first building at the top, on the left, is the Monument to Dugald Stewart, Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh, born in 1753, died 11th June 1828. The monument was erected in 1831, by private subscription, from a design of Playfair's, after that of Lysicrates, known by the name of the Lantern of Demosthenes, at Athens.
Right above is the OLD OBSERVATORY, on the top of which is an Anemometer, placed there at the desire of the British Association, for the purpose of making observations on the Wind. Within the same inclosure is the NEW OBSERVATORY, designed by Playfair, and erected in 1818. The philosophical instruments are contained in this building. Its height above the level of the sea, as obtained from a series of levelling observations by James Jardine, Esq., engineer, is 349.16 feet. Its meridian, as ascertained by a series of observations by the late Professor Henderson, astronomer royal, is Latitude, 55o 57' 23."2 North, and its Longitude 0h 12m 43s.O of time, or 3o 10' 15" of space West of the meridian of Greenwich. At the corner of this inclosure, next to Nelson's Tower, is a Monument to the memory of Professor Playfair, who long and ably filled the chair of Natural Philosophy in the University. Playfair was born in 1749, and died 26th July 1819. The monument was erected in 1826, from a design by the Professor's nephew, Playfair the architect. To the right is the NATIONAL MONUMENT, in an unfinished state. The foundation-stone was laid on the 27th of August 1822, during the visit of George IV. to Edinburgh. It was designed to commemorate the gallant achievements of our countrymen during the Peninsular war. The model of the building is the Parthenon of Athens. Next to this is situated NELSON'S MONUMENT, erected in 1815, and 102 feet in height. Above the door is the crest of Nelson, and the stern of the San Josef, with a most elegant inscription. A charge of 1s. is made for permission to ascend to the top of the Monument, which also includes inspection of a variety of optical and scientific objects contained in the structure. In the apartments will be found the autograph of the hero, copies of addresses paid to him, and various other things connected with his name and actions. Soups, tarts, and all the agreeables for a comfortable luncheon, are here to be had within, in great perfection. The site and vicinity of this monument are tastefully disposed in shrubberies and walks, winding round the rocky knoll. The flagstaff is used for telegraphing the arrival and departure of the London steamers.
Passing along the terrace by Dugald Stewart's Monument, the stranger has the whole of the New Town of Edinburgh stretched out before him, the regularity of which is strongly contrasted with the seemingly confused masses of the Old Town. Before the spectator the most conspicuous objects are the dome of the Register Office, Melville's Column, the spire of St Andrew's Church. The vista is here terminated by the dome of St George's Church, after that of St Paul's, London. On the right, lower down the declivity, are the spires of St Mary's Church, and, farther in the distance, St Stephen's Church, the latter in the shape of a tower; in the foreground are seen the four octagonal turrets (somewhat resembling the four legs of an inverted table) of St Paul's Episcopal Chapel, and nearer still, Greenside Church.
From this point the long avenue of Leith Walk may be seen connecting Edinburgh with Leith, in almost an unbroken line, on which are a succession of omnibuses, at intervals of a quarter of an hour, and carts between the two places. Advancing still further, till the point is rounded, the whole bay, or Leith Roads, as it is commonly called, opens up before the spectator, and, in a clear day, presents a panorama acknowledged to be only inferior to the Bay of Naples. The Town of Leith lies right before the spectator; to the left is the burgh of Newhaven, and to the right the beautiful watering burgh of Portobello. From this latter point several other towns are seen, situated on the bend of the coast, as it curves round towards the Island of May on the one hand, and the Bass Rock on the other, which latter object may be distinctly recognised in the extreme distance on the right. About mid-way in the water in front is the island of Inchkeith, on which a lighthouse is erected; and up the river to the left, are various islands diversifying the face of the waters. On the opposite shore is the county of Fife, where may be seen the towns (beginning on the west or left hand) of Aberdour, Burntisland, Kinghorn, and Kirkaldy, noted for its being the place where
"Some say the Deil's dead,
And buried in Kirkaldy."
The prospect is beautifully bounded by the Fife or Lomond hills, east and west, that on the west being 1280 feet in height.
Still continuing along the walk, we come to the point which overlooks the beautiful pleasure-grounds situate behind the Royal Terrace (that on the north), and the Regent Terrace (that on the south), in which military bands of music used to perform in the summer months, and, though it is the property of the feuars of the Royal and Regent Terraces and Carleton Place, the public were permitted to enter and promenade the grounds whilst the band was performing. Turning round the corner, the High School and Burns' Monument, and tall chimney of the Edinburgh Gas Company come in view; and here also may be obtained a good bird's-eye view of Holyrood Palace, overtopped by Salisbury Crags and Arthur's Seat. Near to the base of Nelson's Monument are Bridewell and the County Prison, below the spectator; the Monument to the memory of Muir, Gerald, Palmer, Skirving, and Margarot, the Political Martyrs of 1793; the North Bridge, and Prince's Street; the spires of the Tron Church, St Giles, Victoria Hall, terminated by the buildings of the Castle, all in a line, commencing with Holyrood Palace, are now in view, among the buildings of the Old Town. Standing a few feet in advance of the base of Nelson's Monument, one of the most striking scenes in the world meets the spectator. To the right is seen Prince's Street, above a mile in length, where all is bustle and stir; this, when seen at night, after the lamps are lit, is really beautiful, the long vista of light almost seeming towards its western end to be one continued thread of illumination. To the left are seen mountains, and rocks, and cultivated fields, and sheep grazing among the solitudes of Arthur's Seat. Indeed, it will be permitted us to say, that the scenery viewed from the Calton Hill is as varied as it is unique and grand.
Having thus made a complete circuit of the city, the stranger may now traverse its streets without much difficulty. He may now proceed by Prince's Street, George Street, or Queen Street, to Charlotte Square, and from thence to the Dean Bridge, which is justly considered a very elegant structure. It was finished in 1831, from a design by Thomas Telford, Esq., and consists of four arches, 96 feet in span; is 450 feet long by 42 in breadth; and stands 120 feet above the bed of the river. This bridge, we believe, has this peculiarity, viz. that it has double arches, the upper ones, supporting the foot-pavements, being themselves supported by pilasters, based upon the mast-like piers. The view from the bridge, either up or down the ravine, or looking towards the shores of Fife, is exceedingly beautiful. Looking down, an elegant temple is seen on the right bank, called St Bernard's Well, much resorted to in the morning by invalids. The temple, which was erected by Lord Gardenstone, is adorned with a statue of Hygeia, on account of the medicinal nature of the spring, which is considerably sulphureted. Below the temple are two minor bridges; and the overhanging banks behind Moray Place, beautifully laid out, together with the sloping bank on the north, the trees that border its course, and the distant view of the Town of Leith, the island of Inchkeith, the shores of Fife, and broad basin of the Frith of Forth, commingling with the German Ocean, form indeed an enchanting scene.
On the west side of the bridge is
a Scottish Episcopalian place of worship, begun and finished in 1838, and consecrated in the month of October of that year. When viewed from the valley below, this chapel has a very picturesque appearance. Opposite the chapel, a beautiful new crescent, called Clarendon Crescent, has been erected (1852) by Mr Learmonth of Dean.
Beyond the chapel may be seen the towers of the Orphans' Hospital, the roof and upper windows of John Watson's Hospital, and the numerous turrets of Stewart's Hospital, for the education and maintenance of poor boys a successful imitation of the exquisite turreted style of George Heriot's Hospital, newly built from designs by David Rhind, Esq., and founded by Mr Daniel Stewart of the Exchequer, who died in 1814.
Close by the Orphan's Hospital, is
THE DEAN CEMETERY.
This is one of those modern improvements, so very desirable, and soothing to the feelings of relatives, which have lately sprung up around the city of Edinburgh; and its beautiful situation, and the care with which it is kept, are worthy of all praise. When the summer wind agitates the foliage, and the stream raises its murmurs even when the bleak wind of winter moans among the bare branches, and the rush of the river is heard, the calmness and serenity which broods over this sacred spot convey melancholy feelings, and forcibly recall the exquisite lines of the poetess:
Sigh not, ye winds, as passing o'er
The chambers of the dead you fly;
Weep not, ye dews, for these no more
Shall ever weep, shall ever sigh.
Why mourn the throbbing heart at rest?
How still it lies within the breast!
Why mourn, since death presents us peace,
And in the grave our sorrows cease?
The shelter'd bark, from adverse winds,
Rest, in this peaceful haven, finds;
And, when the storms of life are past,
Hope drops her anchor here at last.
The great Lord Jeffrey lies buried here. A square-built monument, of simple and severe design, by Playfair, rising on steps, near the great overhanging willows at the western wall, marks the spot. The extremity is sculptured with a remarkable medallion likeness of the Reviewer, and this simple inscription is on the south: "Francis Jeffrey, born Oct 23. 1773; died Jan. 26. 1850. Erected by the friends, MDCCCLI." On the north side is inscribed, "Charlotte Wilkes, wife of Francis Jeffrey, born May 27. 1791; died May 8. 1851."
This fine building is situated on an eminence in a park at the west end of the city, near to the Haymarket Station of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway. It is in the Elizabethan style of architecture, from a design by W. H. Playfair, Esq. Its length from east to west is 270 feet, and from south to north 257 feet, enclosing a quadrangle 176 by 154 feet. There are four square towers at each angle 92 feet in height, and four octagonal towers in the centre of the principal front 120 feet high; there are also three octagonal towers in the quadrangle, each about 90 feet high, and several smaller turrets of various heights. The interior is admirably fitted up with culinary and bathing apparatus, &c., and beautifully painted by D. R. Hay, and the chapel windows filled with magnificent stained glass by Ballantine.
James Donaldson of Broughton Hall, printer, the founder of the hospital, was long the proprietor of The Edinburgh Advertiser Newspaper, and left, in 1830, the munificent sum of £210,000 for the endowment and erection of the building, which affords accommodation for the education, clothing, and maintenance of 150 boys, and a like number of girls, including 90 deaf and dumb of both sexes, with all the necessary apartments for the male and female teachers and servants. To visit the hospital an order should be obtained from any of the directors.
Returning to Charlotte Square, in its western quadrangle, is situated
ST GEORGE'S CHURCH.
This elegant place of worship was commenced in 1811, and finished in 1814, at the cost of about £33,000. It is one of the handsomest churches in Edinburgh; its dome being a miniature resemblance of that of St Paul's.
The stranger, while in Charlotte Square, should proceed by the north corner, called Charlotte Street, passing the head of Albyn Place, and down Forres Street, into that superb dodecagon called
comprising the handsomest residences in Edinburgh. The back windows on the north command the finest panorama in the world the view seen from the Dean Bridge.
Returning to George Street, we pass the Northern Club, and following along towards its eastern termination (nearly three quarters of a mile), we first reach
THE STATUE OF PITT,
by Sir F. Chantrey. It is of bronze, ten feet in height from its pedestal, and is exceedingly like the immortal statesman.
Farther on, at the head of Hanover Street, is another of Chantrey's statues, also of bronze, of
but not to be compared to the statue of Pitt.
Between the statues of Pitt and George IV., on the right of the street, indicated by a portico and piazza in front, are
THE ASSEMBLY ROOMS AND MUSIC HALL,
with various handsome and commodious apartments.
On the opposite side of the street, at the head of North Hanover Street, is
THE EDINBURGH AND GLASGOW BANK.
And opposite to it are the apartments of
THE EDINBURGH SUBSCRIPTION LIBRARY, and of
THE SOCIETY OF SCOTTISH ANTIQUARIES,
rich in Scottish antiquities, and accessible on Tuesdays and Fridays weekly, on the order of a Fellow, which a stranger will obtain through any intelligent bookseller.
On the same side of the street, near its eastern termination, is
THE COMMERCIAL BANK,
from the designs of David Rhind, Esq., architect, with an elegant and appropriate frieze on the tympanum of the portico, designed and executed by Alexander H. Ritchie, Esq., the ingenious sculptor of the monument to the memory of Dr Dickson; and right opposite is
ST ANDREW'S CHURCH,
an oval building, with a handsome portico of four Corinthian columns, and a beautifully tapering spire, rising to the height of 168 feet, and containing an exquisite chime of eight, fine toned bells.
On the same side, a few paces further, the Standard Insurance Office exhibits a sculptured pediment of "The Ten Virgins," by John Steell, Esq.
stands in St Andrew's Square, at the east end of George Street. It is after the model of Trajan's column at Rome. Its height from the base to the statue is 136 feet; the statue is 14 feet; the whole 150 feet. The statue was sculptured by Mr Robert Forrest of Lanark, a self-taught, artist, lately deceased.
In the recess at the east side of the Square, and in front of the building occupied by the Royal Bank, is a bronze equestrian group, by Campbell, to the memory of the gallant General Sir John Hope, afterwards Earl of Hopetoun. On the east side of the square is also the banking establishment of the British Linen Company, with its magnificent facade of gorgeous fluted columns, supporting emblematical statues, sculptured by Alexander Handyside Ritchie, Esq., and representing Commerce, Agriculture, &c. &c., having altogether a bold and original effect, eclipsed only by the interior, which, with its splendid columns of polished Peterhead granite, reputed to have cost £1000 each; its busts of Scott, Watt, Burns, Napier, all the literary and scientific heroes of Scotland, by Scouler; and emblematical medallions around the interior frieze of the lanterned dome, by Ritchie, stained glass, and tessellated Roman tile pavement, certainly surpasses anything of the kind in, or, it may be, out of Edinburgh. The National Bank adjoins; and on the west side of the square stands the chateau-like office of the Western Bank of Scotland. Douglas's Hotel on the one side of the recess occupied by the Royal Bank, and the private portion of the British Linen Company's premises on the other, all correspond with the Royal Bank in the style of architecture, being the only specimens in Edinburgh of the genius of Sir William Chambers.
It may be interesting to many to mention, that the gifted statesman and orator, Lord Brougham, was born in one of the houses on the north side of the square.
Proceeding down North St Andrew's Street, we come to York Place, at the east end of which is
ST PAUL'S EPISCOPAL CHAPEL.
This beautiful place of worship was begun in 1816, and finished in 1818, at an expense of above £12,000. It was designed by A. Elliot, Esq. It is possessed of an excellent organ, and a stained glass window of Birmingham manufacture, representing the twelve apostles.
The eastern termination of York Place, or Picardy Place, reaches to Leith Walk, being intersected by Broughton Street, in which stands
ST MARY'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHAPEL,
the principal place of worship of the Roman Catholics in Edinburgh; and adjoining it,
THE ADELPHI THEATRE,
the formerly nude exterior of which has lately been much embellished. At the west end of York Place, on the south side of the street, is
ST GEORGE'S EPISCOPAL CHAPEL,
a neat and comfortable place of worship, having also a fine organ.
Following along York Place westward, we reach Queen Street, a handsome terraced place of residence, having a fine view of the bay and shores of Fife. The gardens lying between it and Abercromby Place and Heriot Row are thriving, and neatly laid out; and form in the summer evenings a great privilege for recreation to the juvenile branches of the surrounding families. In the eastern division of Queen Street, is
THE PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTION
with the adjoining edifice of
THE QUEEN STREET HALL,
primarily forming the Synod Hall of the United Presbyterian Church. The Queen Street Hall is also the scene of the principal public lectures in Edinburgh, chiefly those of the Philosophical Institution, which have been conducted by some very eminent lecturers from year to year, and attended with great success. This Institution combines, with popular lectures, a Reading-room and Library, as well as a News-room, well replenished, and well attended. Being in correspondence, for the purpose of mutual intercourse, with many kindred institutions in England and Scotland, strangers holding the tickets of these bodies have generally the entree.
THE PHYSICIANS' HALL.
This building has been recently erected, from a design by Thomas Hamilton, Esq. Over the portico are placed the figures of Esculapius and Hippocrates, and above the pediment the figure of Hygeia. They are eight feet high, and sculptured by A. H. Ritchie, Esq. The Hall contains a small museum of Materia Medica. Immediately adjoining is the Caledonian United Service Club.
ST LUKE'S FREE CHURCH,
a small but handsome facade, is thrust in betwixt the private residences in the line of the street; and farther west, opposite the Hopetoun Rooms, (within which is one of the most elegant public halls of Edinburgh, attached to Barry's British Hotel), is the
HIGHLAND AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY'S HALL.
At the foot of North Hanover Street, descending the hill, by Dundas Street, Pitt Street, following on by Tanfield Hall [* Tanfield originally the Portable Gas Company's Work is now the General Assembly Hall of the Free Church], and crossing the Water of Leith by Canonmills bridge, we soon reach Inverleith Row, a fine avenue-like approach to the town from Granton, Trinity, &c., where are situated the Caledonian Horticultural Society's Experimental Gardens (accessible by a member's order) and the Royal Botanic Gardens, both of which are well worthy of a visit. Indeed, the Botanic Gardens of Edinburgh are the finest and best managed in Europe. They consist of sixteen acres, delightfully situated, and include everything that can be required for the purpose of teaching. The houses especially the great Palm House are remarkably good, and the healthy condition of the plants deserving of all praise. They are particularly remarkable for their beautiful specimens of heaths. The Botanic Garden is under the careful and admirable management of Mr J. McNab. By means of a Government grant, a new Museum of Economic Botany has just been added, and the formation of a botanical collection commenced. The admission is free up to 5 p.m.
Close by the bridge is the entrance to the Warriston Cemetery, with its mortuary chapel, finely laid out grounds, and numerous monuments, well worthy of a visit.
Returning by the village of Canonmills, at the road diverging eastwards from Inverleith Row, at the bridge, we arrive opposite Bellevue Crescent, and St Mary's Church, with an elegant and unique spire, 186 feet high, and Corinthian portico with fine capitals, designed by Mr Thomas Brown. The line of East Claremont Street, terminating in Claremont Crescent, runs off at right angles in front; and the trees and grounds of the Zoological Gardens, Broughton Park, originally the residence of the founder of Donaldson's Hospital, bound the opposite side of the way. This Zoological Garden is now tastefully laid out, and contains a fine collection of ferae, naturae, birds, &c. of all countries. The admission is 1s. It is the occasional scene of musical promenades, fire-works, and other entertainments.
Such is a short account of the principal streets and buildings of Edinburgh; and we shall now proceed to conduct the stranger along a few of the most interesting walks and excursions in the neighbourhood of the city.
The first and nearest the city is
on the south side of the town. They are comprised in a remarkable coffin-shaped enclosure, about a mile and a half in circumference. The walks round this promenade are well sheltered with trees on each side; and the Meadows are indebted for their present state of improvement to the late Mr Hope, who practically shewed the possibility of draining and reclaiming them from a state of morass, although on a very bad level for discharging surplus water. At their east end, called "Hope Park," in the vicinity of Archers' Hall, are placed the Butts for the exercise of the Royal Company of Archers, who are the Queen's body-guard in Scotland. At the western end of the Meadows is the open space of ground the remnant of the Borough Muir on which Sir Walter Scott describes, in "Marmion," the tented troops of Scotia, as mustering for the march to Flodden. Half way betwixt the brow of the hill at Morningside and the church on the declivity, may still be seen, built into the left hand wall on the roadside (for it has been carefully preserved in recent building operations), THE HARE STANE, on which the monarch struck his standard in 1513.
The part of the muir next the Meadows is now called
BRUNTS FIELD LINKS.
Here the citizens recreate themselves with the healthful games of golf and cricket. Immediately to the west of Bruntsfield Links, at Wright's Houses, within a well-sheltered inclosure stands
This hospital was founded by the celebrated snuff-merchant of that name, who left his whole fortune to endow an hospital for the reception of about forty-five men and women, of fifty-five years and upwards. Persons bearing the founder's name, and certain other names, are entitled to be preferred. Attached to it is a free school for the education of upwards of 200 boys. The site occupied by the hospital is known to have been once the Royal Scottish demesne of "Wricht's Houses." The line of villas in continuation receives the name of Bruntsfield Place; and passing on, past a turn in the road, terminates in the gaunt old fortalice of Merchiston Castle, the birth-place and residence of Napier of Merchiston, Inventor of the Logarithms.
Following round the Links, along the walk by the wall, we reach Warrendor Park, the seat of Sir John Warrender of Lochend; a little beyond which is
ST MARGARET'S NUNNERY.
The chapels, gardens, dormitories, and other apartments, are said to be neatly kept. It is as much a place for education as a religious house, and is well supplied with young lady-boarders. The buildings were planned by J. Gillespie Graham, Esq., architect, and opened on the 16th June 1835. The parks on the estates of Greenhill and Grange, at this extremity of the Links, begin to be covered with lines of villas, amongst which, those recently built, are more especially varied and picturesque.
Continuing along the rout, and turning to the left at the bottom of the walk (the right leads along towards the healthy and pleasant village of Morningside, in which the Royal Lunatic Asylum, with extensive inclosed grounds, and accommodation for 600 patients, is situated, amidst many pleasant private abodes, the Hermitage of Braid, Blackford, the Braid and Pentland Hills, and Colinton Dell, to which there is an omnibus from Wright's Houses, a delightful walk), we, reach a place called the Land of Canaan, studded right and left with beautiful villas, gardens, and fields, and at length come to
THE HOUSE OF GRANGE,
the seat of Sir John Dick Lauder, Bart, of Fountainhall. This house was formerly the residence of Kirkcaldy, one of the murderers of Cardinal Beatoun, afterwards the champion and last adherent of the cause of Mary Queen of Scots (see his Life, by Mr James Grant). It was from this house that Lady Grange was kidnapped by the celebrated Rob Roy, and carried, first to Balquhidder, and afterwards to St Kilda. It is alleged that this outrage was perpetrated at the instigation of her husband, Lord Grange, who was one of the Lords of Session, and brother to the Earl of Mar, lest his lady should reveal to the government the secret of the insurrection then organizing, and which afterwards broke out in 1715. Here, too, Hume the historian resided, as also Dr Blair; and here died Dr Robertson, in 1793. There is a neat air of antiquity about the house, with its pepper-box turrets, and griffins over the old gateway.
Proceeding through the wicket by the west side of the house, and along what is called the Lover's Lane, partly between two stone-walls and hedge-rows, we reach
THE GRANGE CEMETERY.
It is most tastefully laid out and carefully kept. Near the centre of the north wall is the tomb of the celebrated Dr Chalmers; Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, author of "The Account of the Moray Floods," is likewise here interred. Continuing onwards, we reach the Meadows, and, advancing through Forrest Road, betwixt the sculptured unicorns, supporting the old cross banner of Scotland, at the head of the walk, or diverging into George Square between the pins on the right, thus return to the city, the whole route forming a delightful forenoon's walk.
Fine as are the views we have pointed out from the promenade on the Calton Hill, yet those we are now about to introduce to the notice of the stranger will readily be granted to be far exceeding in extent, in variety, and picturesque beauty; the ever-shifting panorama we believe to be unique in the neighbourhood of a large city. It has been pronounced by travellers to be far surpassing any thing they had ever seen.
THE QUEEN'S DRIVE,
in the Queen's Park, may be approached by the Palace, and various other parts of the city, but the routes by which we have hitherto conducted the stranger will best be terminated by this, which, it is hoped, will thus leave a grateful and lasting impression.
Going along Nicolson Street, as far as Rankeillour Street, pass to its northern extremity, then cross over the road, and at the first opening on the left enter St Leonard's Hill, by Messrs C. D. Young & Co.'s extensive iron-wire and agricultural implement works, formerly the depot of the horse railway to Dalkeith, now employing 700 workmen, on the right, and ascend the slight rising ground till a turnstile is reached beside some cottages, celebrated by Scott in "The Heart of Mid-Lothian" as the abode of Davie Deans; this is the entrance to the Queen's Park. The Queen's Drive is before you, stretching away both to the right and left, but the former is our line of march. Going along a footpath leading from the cottages for a few hundred yards, the Drive is approached. Near the top of the rising ground, diverging a little to the left from the Drive, (the spot is readily remarked by the rocks coming so close as to form something like a door or gateway to the entrance of the valley beneath), a remarkably fine view is obtained of the Frith of Forth, the Island of Inchkeith, and the distant shores of the county of Fife. This opening conducts to the Hunter's Bog, St Anthony's Chapel (in ruins, on a precipitous crag, commanding a view of the entrance to Leith Harbour, for the founders of this ecclesiastical custom-house station had of old an interest in the port dues), the Duke's Walk, at the east end of which is Nicol Muschat's Cairn, and on the left of the view the Palace of Holyrood, High School, Nelson's Monument, &c. On the opposite side of the Drive, about 50 or 60 yards from this point, looking south, are a few rocks, of no great elevation, whence is obtained a very distinct echo hence called "The Echoing Rock." The ascent from behind to the front of the precipice, called the "Cat's Nick," a breach in the face of "Salisbury Crags," affords a celebrated view of the Old and New Towns, &c.
The Drive now leads through a pretty deep cutting, at the top of which a fine view greets the stranger. The village of Duddingstone, with its lake and swans, and its church on the brink of the water, the well-known landscape painter, Thomson of Duddingstone, having long been the incumbent; Duddingstone House, among the trees to the right of the village, a seat of the Marquis of Abercorn; on the top of the hill, in front of the view, Craigmillar Castle, where Queen Mary of Scotland often resided; near it, the fortified grange of Peffermill; on the opposite side of Craigmillar, not in the view of the stranger, is a little village where the French servants of the Queen resided, still known by the name of Little France. To the right of Craigmillar Castle is the tower of Liberton Church, and on the extreme right the Pentland Hills. In the middle distance are the hills and rising grounds about and beyond Dalkeith, which, with their woods and fertile fields, look like one extensive garden. At the foot of the spectator is the healthy and pretty suburb of Newington; and eastward of the path leading from Edinburgh to Duddingstone, are some fine specimens of columnar basalt, called Sampson's Ribs. The mouth of the Dalkeith Railway tunnel occupies the site of what not long ago were Known as The Wells o' Wearie; a spring of pure water, where the inhabitants, in summer, used to wash and bleach blench their linen. These wells are now no more, a thing much to be deplored, but a poet, early lost, has thus sweetly sung of them:
THE WELLS O' WEARIE.
AIR, - "Bonnie House o' Airlie."
BY THE LATE ALEX. A. RITCHIE.
"O sweet shines the sun on auld Edinbro' toun,
And mak's her look young and cheerie;
I maun hie me awa' to spend the afternoon
At the lanesome Wells o' Wearie.
And you maun gang wi' me, my winsome Mary Grieve,
There's nought in the world to fear ye;
For I hae ask'd your minnie, and she has gien ye leave
To gang to the Wells o' Wearie.
But Mary, my love, beware ye dinna glower
At your form in the water sae clearly,
Or the Fairy will change ye into a wee wee flower,
And you'll grow by the Wells o' Wearie.
Then gang wi' me, my bonny Mary Grieve,
Nae danger will daur to come near ye.
For I hae ask'd your minnie, and she has gien ye leave
To gang to the Wells o' Wearie."
Looking towards the City, are seen the Castle, Heriot's Hospital, and Donaldson's Hospital in the extreme distance, beyond which are the Corstorphine Hills; in the middle distance, nearer to the city, Gillespie's Hospital, with the Meadows, and Bruntsfield Links. The more remote hills and fields in this direction, are in the route of the Caledonian Railway, indicated by the two sugar-loaf peaks of Craiglockhart and Dalmahoy; and on the right of these, is the course of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway, as far as the old and interesting town of Linlithgow, distant about sixteen miles from Edinburgh. We now pursue our forward course along the Drive.
At the next turn of the road, overlooking the pleasant village of Duddingstone, and its beautiful lake (about a mile in circumference), a distant view is obtained of the Frith of Forth, the towns and sands of Portobello, Musselburgh, and Prestonpans, with the smaller villages of Joppa and Fisherrow, situated between Portobello and Musselburgh, and the beautiful embayed coast, as far as North Berwick Law, the Bass Rock, Island of May, and St Abb's Head; all on the Edinburgh side of the Frith.
On going round to the bend of the Drive, leaving Duddingstone on the right, we reach a complete solitude, having the peak of Arthur's Seat on the left, and Dunsappie rock on the right, the locality in which the Rebel Army was encamped before and after the battle of Prestonpans, in September 1745. Among the rocks, on the right, are some fashioned into something like the form of a pulpit, where, years ago, and perhaps even yet, young students of divinity, and young aspirants after forensic honours addressing their Ludships, used to essay their powers of speech, and make the adjoining rocks resound with their eloquence. Next is Dunsappie Loch; and we may remark, that here is the best point for ascending the peak of Arthur's Seat, the hill being less abrupt than at any other: the ascent is worth the fatigue. Rounding the corner of the lake, the Drive descends Whinny Hill, situated on the left, towards the Palace of Holyrood, bringing into view the Palace, High School, Calton Hill, Nelson's Monument, Castle, and the north-eastern parts of the City; as also the Frith of Forth, and the distant shores of Fife. Near the Palace on the rising ground to the left, is St Anthony's Chapel and Well; the Chapel a rum. A fine old Scottish songster has thus sung in the ballad entitled "O waly, waly up yon bank":
"Now, Arthur's Seat shall be my bed,
The sheets shall ne'er be pressed by me,
Saint Anton's Well shall be my drink,
Since my true love has forsaken me.
Martinmas wind when wilt thou blaw,
An' shake the green leaves affthe tree?
O, gentle death, when wilt though come?
For o' my live I am wearie."
Thus we leave the tourist, having conducted him round one of the richest panoramic walks in the world, which we have good hope will remain "the greenest spot in memory's waste," all the days of his life.
EXCURSION TO ROSLIN AND HAWTHORNDEN.
One of the most pleasant summer excursions in the vicinity of Edinburgh, is to Roslin and Hawthornden, and it is one which no stranger should neglect. Roslin, by the coach running several times a-day, is about seven miles from Edinburgh, the road leading through the villages of Newington and Liberton, a small village on the top of the hill, with a church and castellated tower, a fine object in the distance, as seen from the city; and from which the Castle, Salisbury Crags, Arthur's Seat, and part of the Old Town of Edinburgh are beheld in beautiful picturesque effect. And by the Hawick Branch of the North British Railway the communication to Gallowshall, within a short distance of Lasswade, Loanhead and Roslin, is equally frequent. There is perhaps no place near the city which is so much frequented during the summer season as this beautiful valley. Enormous quantities of strawberries are here cultivated, and sent into Edinburgh, of a most delicious flavour, and exceedingly moderate in price. They are also to be had at the inns of Roslin and Lasswade, and in their freshest condition, with excellent cream. Campbell, in his beautiful ballad of Gilderoy, thus alludes to the valley:
Oh, Gilderoy! bethought we then
So soon, so sad to part,
When first in Roslin's lovely glen
You triumphed o'er my heart.
And certainly for the lover and the pilgrim of nature "Roslin's lovely glen" is a most fitting retreat. Mickle, in Lis "Pollio," mentions it as an Abbey:
August and hoary, o'er the sloping dale,
The gothic Abbey rears its sculptur'd towers;
Dull through the roof resounds the whistling gale;
Dark solitude among the pillars lowers.
was founded by William de St Clair of Roslin, Prince of Orkney, Duke of Oldenburgh, &c. in 1446, for a provost, six prebendaries, and two singing-boys. "This building," says Britton, "I believe, may be pronounced unique, and I am confident it will be found curious, elaborate, and singularly interesting." The florid Gothic tracery, astonishingly elaborate sculptures, profuse and beautiful ornamentation of the pillars, cornices, &c. would occupy a volume of detail. It is in considerable preservation, although it sustained a good deal of injury at the period of the Revolution of 1688. In "The Lay of the Last Minstrel," the legend of the Lady Rosabelle alludes to this "fair Chapelle."
"High o'er the pines, that with their darkening shade, Surround yon craggy bank, the castle rears
Its crumbling turrets: still its towering head
A warlike mien, a sullen grandeur wears.
So, 'midst the snow of age, a boastful air
Still on the war-worn veteran's brow attends;
Still his big brows his youthful prime declares,
Though trembling o'er the feeble crutch he bends."
The castle was built by the same nobleman who founded the chapel. In 1554 it was burned by the English under the command of the Earl of Hertford; and was taken by Monk in 1650. The more ancient parts of the castle are indicated by the huge masses of fragments. The modern part was rebuilt in 1653. What remains shews it to have been once a place of great strength, moated, and only accessible by a drawbridge. The situation is uncommonly romantic, being on a steep promontory of rock, overhanging the bed of the river, which sweeps round two sides of it, the opposite side being so flat as to be occupied by an extensive bleachfield. At the point of this peninsula the bed of the stream is contracted by a large mass of reddish sandstone, over which it falls, forming, when the river is in flood, a beautiful cascade or linn. This linn or fall is said to have given name to the place. The banks below the castle become extremely precipitous and covered with natural wood; and for more than a mile below, the stream is confined on both sides by high perpendicular rocky walls of sandstone, which, in many places, have been worn into extremely picturesque and fantastic shapes, by the action of the water. The castle is separated from the country on the land side by a deep ravine, over which the only access is by a stone bridge, which remains entire.
Roslin is celebrated in history for three successive victories obtained in one day (the 24th February 1303), by Sir Simon Fraser and Sir John Cumyn, with 10,000 men, over 30,000 English invaders, under the command of John de Segrave. It also gives the title to one of our sweetest melodies, Roslin Castle, to which Richard Hewit, amanuensis to the amiable Dr Blacklock, wrote those beautiful stanzas, "'Twas in that season of the year," &c.
The tourist, if in a cab or coach, will find it advisable to send it round to Lasswade, and to descend the valley of the Esk, by the footpath on the bank to that village; by this arrangement, he will enjoy the delightful stroll among the woods, and reach the classic groves, cliffs, and caverns of
"Roslin's towers and braes sae bonnie!
Craigs and water! woods and glen!
Roslin's banks! unpeer'd by ony,
Save the Muses' Hawthornden."
This was the residence of Drummond, the historian and poet, in the reign of James VI. and Charles I. and is now the residence of his descendant Sir James Walker Drummond, Bart. The house and old castle stand on the edge of a lofty precipice of freestone rock, at the foot of which is the river, and mid-way, in the side of the rock, are hewn out some extraordinary caverns. Tradition assigns their construction to the Pictish monarchs, and has called one the King's Gallery, another the Guard Room, and a third the King's Bed-Chamber. It seems more probable that they owe their origin to the destructive wars between the Scots and the English; and it seems to be tolerably certain that they served as a hiding-place for Sir Alexander Ramsay and his bold companions, during the contests of Bruce and Baliol. Besides the above-mentioned three caves, there is a fourth, a smaller one, called the Cypress Grove, where Drummond is said to have composed many of his poems and prose compositions. "A Cypress Grove" is the title of one of his prose writings, which he composed after his recovery from a dangerous sickness, and might have given the name to the cave. He is said to have been so much affected by the death of Charles I. that his own followed soon after. His name and fame still linger about his beautiful and classical abode, and will continue so to do for generations to come. The romantic grounds may be visited every Wednesday.
A short way farther on is the village of Lasswade, a thriving, busy, beautiful, snug retreat, in which Sir Walter Scott resided for some years after his marriage, in a small cottage which he rented, as at present does Thomas De Quincey "the English Opium Eater;" whilst Professor Wilson, the far famed Christopher North, has retired to Woodburn in the same neighbourhood. It is supposed that Sir Walter Scott had Lasswade in his eye when he drew the picture of Gandercleugh in the "Tales of my Landlord." Here also Professor Tennant, the ingenious and erudite author of "Anster Fair," taught the village school for some time before his great philological attainments were known. The tourist should visit Mr Whytock's establishment for the manufacture of Scoto-Persian carpets, an establishment which has brought the manufacture of carpets into greater perfection than in any part of the known world. Any one of them would form an excellent mattress for a regiment, they are so large, so soft, so woolly.
The tourist if desirous, can now reach Edinburgh by Railway or the Lasswade road, but it would be advisable, should time and inclination admit, first to visit some of the scenes in the neighbourhood, which are not far apart, and which will not occupy much time. The first of these is
the seat of Lord Melville, a handsome modern Gothic structure. The situation is somewhat low for extensive views from it, but it is beautifully selected, amid lofty woods and gentle declivities, with more softness than most Scottish scenes, yet still more strongly marked than the generality of English landscapes. Some influence, we believe, is however requisite to gain admission.
About a mile and a half brings us to
the seat of the Duke of Buccleuch, situated close to the town of Dalkeith. The house stands on the site of an old building of great strength, which had stood several sieges. For several centuries, it was the principal residence of the family of Morton, from whom it was purchased, in 1642, by the ancestors of the present noble proprietor. Dalkeith House was built by Anne, Duchess of Buccleuch and Monmouth, about the beginning of the last century. The park on which it stands is about 800 acres in extent, and completely surrounded by a wall of stone and lime, 8 or 9 feet high. Charles II. resided here for a short time, and entirely furnished an apartment, on the occasion of the marriage of the Duke of Monmouth with the heiress of the house. George IV. also resided here, when resident in Scotland in 1822. And Her Majesty Queen Victoria here held her first receptions in Scotland in 1843. Dalkeith House is adorned with some fine old paintings. The grounds and the gardens under that eminent horticulturist Mr Charles Mackintosh are exceedingly beautiful.
About a mile from Dalkeith is
the seat of the Marquis of Lothian. The house is modern, and built on the site of a Cistertian Abbey, founded by David I. Some curious stone relics of antiquity are still treasured around it. In the library are some beautiful and valuable illuminated MSS. which formerly belonged to the Abbey, and some fine pictures, among which are a half-length of Darnley, and a beautiful head of Mary of Guise, the mother of Queen Mary. The house is surrounded by a fine lawn, about 30 acres in extent, beautifully wooded. Several trees of enormous size are to be seen in the park, which is a favourite haunt of pick-nick parties.
The tourist should visit Dalhousie Castle, the seat of the Marquis of Dalhousie, a short way from which stood the mansion-house of "The Laird of Cockpen." Ramsay, the poet, claimed to be descended from the Dalhousie family. Some beautiful walks are to be found along the steep and woody banks of the river, among the wild and romantic scenery.
A short way beyond Dalhousie, near to the inn at Fushie Bridge, is Borthwickhall, the residence of C. Lawson, Esq.
This castle was built about the year 1430, by Sir William de Borthwick, by license of James I. of Scotland. It is one of the largest and most entire old buildings now remaining in this country, and stands with imposing grandeur in the centre of a small but beautiful valley, watered by the Gore. Its form is nearly square, being about 74 by 68 feet within the walls, which are of hewn stone within and without, and which are, near the bottom, 13 feet, and at the top 6 feet thick. From the ground to the battlements, it is 90 feet high, and, including the roof, which is arched and covered with flagstones, the whole is about 110 feet. The castle is surrounded on three sides by water and steep banks; and at equal distances from the base are square and round towers, which before the use of artillery, must have been impregnable. Queen Mary retired hither for some time with the Earl of Bothwell, before her final separation from him at Carberry. And Cromwell "bent his cannon" against it exactly at the weakest part, where there was constructed a chimney.
The tourist, by ascending the height on the east about a couple of miles, reaches
the seat of the celebrated Chancellor Crichton. This castle was levelled to the ground, during the minority of James II. by William Earl of Douglas, in consequence of some feud he had with the Chancellor; but in the reign of James IV., it having then become the property of the Hepburns, Lords of Bothwell, it was rebuilt with increased magnificence. It is now the property of William Burn Callander, Esq. of Preston Hall, and very fully described in Marmion. Crichton Church, near to the castle, was founded in 1449, by the Chancellor. It is a neat Gothic building.
The tourist may now pursue his way back to Edinburgh, either by the Hawick Railway, one of the Stations of which is at Tynehead, near Crichton Castle, another at Dalhousie, near Newbattle, another at Gallowshall by Dalkeith, or follow on by the village of Pathhead to Oxenford Castle, (the Earl of Stair) and Preston Hall both places well worthy of a visit, and thence by Carberry Hill, where Queen Mary was separated from Bothwell, and where she held her conference with Kirkcaldy of Grange, the top of the hill, being still called the Queen's Seat; and thus to Musselburgh. Here the tourist should visit Pinkie House, a fine old Gothic structure, and the adjacent grounds, which are beautiful. Pinkie House, is the title of one of the sweetest Scottish melodies, to which one Mitchell wrote the pretty words, "By Pinkie House oft let me walk." Musselburgh is only six miles from Edinburgh, its ancient Roman bridge spanning the Esk is an object of antiquarian, historical and architectural interest. The branch line of the Hawick Railway is constructed as far as the south end of the Bridge.
EXCURSION TO HABBIE'S HOW AND THE COMPENSATION POND.
It is a disputed point, whether HABBIE'S HOW, the scene of Allan Ramsay's "Gentle Shepherd," is to be found in the valley in the upper part of Glencorse Burn, above the Compensation Pond, or whether it is situated some miles further south, near Newhall, on the upper part of the South Esk. Both places form a most agreeable ramble, and we shall give a brief sketch of each.
Glencorse is much resorted to in summer by large parties, and is distant about seven miles. As there are no inns at this retreat, provisions are usually carried along with them by the picnic-parties to regale them on the green hill side, or, if the weather prove unpropitious, to retire to any hedge alehouse on the road, where a piper or fiddler usually makes his appearance, as if in anticipation, when the dance is commenced to add to the scene of enjoyment.
Following the road by Burntsfield Links, Merchiston Castle is seen to the right, the ancient residence of Napier, the inventor of the Logarithms: it is in good repair, and occupied as a Seminary for young gentlemen. A little beyond is Morningside Church, and Church Hill, the residence of the late Dr Chalmers, who died here 31st May 1847. The Hare Stone, is built in the wall on the left hand side of the road. It may be easily recognized, being a large flat stone, apparently granite, in which James IV. planted the royal standard, as he assembled his army around him, before he marched to the fatal field of Flodden, fought in 1613, in which he lost 10,000 men, and was himself slain.
Next in the village of Morningside, with its extensive and well appointed Lunatic Asylum, situate on the right of its extremity. The air here is found so salubrious, that the medical faculty recommend their more sickly patients to resort to it, and in consequence a goodly number of cottages have been built, and are in process of erection for their accommodation.
The road branches out into two parts, soon reuniting, the older whereof, on the left, now ascends the shoulder of Braid Hill, from the summit of which are obtained some fine views of the city and adjacent country; two stones inserted in the road-way near an old thorn mark the places of execution of two men for a highway robbery on a carrier committed on this spot; and, descending, the road crosses Braid Burn, a small rivulet, on the banks of which the Hermitage of Braid is perceived, sweetly embosomed among the trees on the left of the road. The new cut on the right is easier of ascent, but perhaps less in interesting.
At the top of the rising ground, a road passes to the right towards Dreghorn House, which is seen on the eminence to the westward, conspicuous from its turrets.
About two miles farther the road passes through the village of Boghall, and a mile farther, and about six from Edinburgh, on the right, is
beautifully embosomed among fine plantations, and snugly situate on the southern slope of the Pentland Hills.
The old house of Woodhouselee, from which this modern mansion derives its name, situated on the Esk, about a mile and a half above Roslin, was once the property and residence of Sir James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, which he inherited in right of his wife. The Hamiltons having espoused the cause of Queen Mary, sentence of death was passed on six of their number, after the battle of Langside, and among them was Bothwellhaugh, but they were pardoned at the intercession of John Knox. Bothwellhaugh, however, was punished by the forfeiture of his beautiful lands of Woodhouselee, which the Regent bestowed on one of his favourites, who cruelly turned Hamilton's wife from her house undressed, and exposed to the inclemency of the weather, in consequence of which she became mad, and afterwards died. Hamilton vowed revenge, not on the paltry author of his misfortunes, but upon the Regent, as the prime cause of them, and accordingly shot him in the streets of Linlithgow in 1570. The tower of Fulford, a short distance from the modern Woodhouselee, likewise a place of great antiquity, was repaired about 180 years ago from the stones of the ancient Woodhouselee, and thus gave the name to the present house.
A little further on is the village of Upper Howgate, and a little beyond is Glencorse Burn and valley on the right.
On the left, a little way down the valley, is Glencorse Church, romantically situated, and completely embosomed in wood. Betwixt the high road and the rivulet is a stone building, being the Reservoir of the
from which Edinburgh and Leith were, before the extensive accessions from the north side of the Pentlands, principally supplied with water, which is of an excellent quality, and remarkably pure. The supply is on an average 254 cubic feet per minute, and is conveyed in cast-iron pipes to the Reservoir on the Castlehill, a distance of about seven miles.
Proceeding onwards a short distance, till we reach the bridge across Glencorse Burn, we now turn to the right, and proceed up the valley for about a mile, when we arrive at the
This beautiful sheet of water, covering an area of 50 or 60 acres, was formed to compensate the mills on the Esk for the subtraction of the Crawley Springs. The height of the dam-dike was originally 75 feet; but in the dry summer of 1844 the water was entirely run off, and ten feet were lately added, in order to store up a greater supply from the surplus of the winter floods. On the drying up of the Compensation Pond in 1844 multitudes flocked to read the inscriptions on the tombstones over the graves of covenanters who had fallen at the battle of Pentland nearly two centuries before, in 1666, now revealed and in preservation at the bottom of the pond. Continuing along the margin of the pond, and proceeding about a mile farther up the valley, is the supposed site of Ramsay's delightful pastoral, "The Gentle Shepherd," or Patie and Roger.
The identity of the scene, as compared with that described in the pastoral, is thus well urged by a writer in the old Statistical Account of the parish of Glencorse:
"There is certainly a very strict coincidence between the actual scenery of this part of the country and the local circumstances mentioned in the poem. The general description of the scene, as given at the beginning of the pastoral, is, a shepherd's village and fields, some few miles from Edinburgh. The West Port, mentioned in the first scene as the road from the village to market, fixes the bearing of the country to the vicinity of the Pentland Hills. The first scene is
Beneath the south side of a craigy bield,
Where crystal springs the halesome waters yield.'
And the second is
A flowerie howm, between twa verdant braes,
A trotting burnie wimpling through the ground.'
"No description could more exactly characterise the scenery in the neighbourhood of Woodhouselee and Boghall burns. A romantic waterfall at the head of Glencorse water is termed at this day, Habbie's How. The ancient tower of Fulford, or Woodhouselee, repaired immediately after the civil wars, and formerly the mansion-house of a knight, may well countenance the supposition of Ramsay's having here fixed the imaginary residence of Sir William Worthy. After all, however, this appropriation must be allowed to be entirely conjectural, and to rest more upon the fancy pleasing itself in clothing its own pictures in the garb of reality than upon any basis of evidence. This, at least, may certainly be affirmed, that if the poet intended at all to appropriate the scenery of his pastoral further than to the general aspect of the country in the neighbourhood of the Pentland Hills, there are no actual scenes which so perfectly correspond to his description as those in the neighbourhood of Woodhouselee."
Forsyth in his "Beauties of Scotland," further remarks, "that the spot here alluded to owes, in a considerable degree, its reputation of being the scene of the Gentle Shepherd to this circumstance, that towards the upper part of the glen, a small stream of water descends into it from the west, from a precipice of rock, which is inaccessible. On each side of the waterfall, or linn, as it is called in the Scottish dialect, are two stunted birch trees, and beneath the water spreads into a small basin or pool. This arrangement corresponds with the description in the poem:"
"Gae farer up the burn to Habbie's How,
Where a' the sweets o' spring an' summer grow:
Between twa birks, out o'er a little linn,
The water fa's, and makes a singan din:
A pool, breast deep, beneath as clear as glass.
Kisses, wi' easy whirls, the bordering grass,
We'll end our washing while the morning's cool,
And, when the day grows hot, we'll to the pool,
There wash oursels its healthfu' now in May,
An' sweetly caller on sae warm a day."
The glen itself, independent of all poetical association, is no small curiosity, and is well worthy of the visit of the stranger. It is periodically resorted to by the citizens of Edinburgh, in joyous bands; and when the day is fine, no locality in the neighbourhood of any city in the world presents such a combination of rural loveliness. The larks, on every hand, fill the air with their delicious melody; the freshness of the mountain breeze, the sheep nibbling the green pastures, the lambs frisking on the brow of the sunny slopes, the rivulets glittering and gurgling along the sides of the hills and adown the valley, arouse the most torpid mind, and fill it with the most delicious emotions.
We shall now conduct the stranger to the other locality of "The Gentle Shepherd," and, as the distance is short, our observations shall be brief.
Returning to Glencorse Burn, and following along the road southwards, a short way brings us to the House of Muir, on the right; and, at a little distance beyond, on the same side, is Rullion Green, the site of a battle where the Covenanters were defeated in 1666. A couple of miles farther, we reach the village of Silver Burn, and about as many more arrive at Newhall House, in all about twelve miles south-west from Edinburgh. A guide may readily be procured to conduct to the points of interest, and the excursion will amply repay whatever fatigue it may have occasioned. The conductor will point out and actually we feel willing to believe for a time that we are upon the precise spots depicted by the poet, so faithful to his descriptions do they appear. First, we seem to behold the scene in the first act, where Patie and Roger hold their introductory colloquy:
"Beneath the south side of a craigy bield.
Where crystal springs their hailsome waters yield,
Twa' youthfu' shepherds on the gowans lay,
Tenting their flocks ae bonnie morn of May."
Next, we are taken to where Peggy and Jenny meet:
"A flowrie howm, between twa verdant braes,
Where lassies use to wash an' spread their claes;
A trotting burnie wimpling through the ground,
Its channel peebles, shining, smooth, and round."
The next scene is what we have already quoted,
"Gae farer up the burn to Habbie's How;"
but which is here more truly to the letter of the poet's description than that seen in Glencorse.
We now come to auld Mause's cottage, which is thus described:
"The open field, a cottage in a glen,
An auld wife spinnin' at the sunny end.
At a sma' distance by a blasted tree,
Wi' faulded arms, and half-rais'd looks, ye see
Bauldy his lane."
Then Bauldy, in the poem, commences his admirable soliloquy:
"What's this! I canna bear't! 'Twas waur than hell,
To be sae burnt wi' love, yet dar'na tell,"
the whole of which is excellent. David Allan, in his very graphic illustrations to the edition of "The Gentle Shepherd" (Edinburgh 1808, 4 to), has one truly excellent picture of the rustic approaching the habitation of Mause, not with "faulded arms," but at a point where he is supposed to be within view of her:
"And yonder's Mause; aye, aye, she kens fu' weel,
When ane like me comes rinnin' to the deil,
She an' her cat sit beeking in the yard;
To speak my errand, faith, amaist I'm fear'd.
But I maun do't, though I should never thrive;
They gallop fast that deils and lasses drive!"
The beautiful serenity of virtuous old age is powerfully contrasted with the sneaking selfishness of disingenuous youth, bent upon a dishonourable errand. This edition of Ramsay's pastoral is now scarce, but is well worthy of
being sought after; and in visiting these lovely scenes, which the poet had evidently in his mind, we would strongly urge upon the tourist to have the poem in his pocket, to be in readiness for reference whilst wandering among these enchanting solitudes.
'Tis sweet to roam where rural scenes abound,
Remote from all the frigid forms of life,
Its cold conventionalities and strife,
Thus to survey the hill, the vale, the sky,
And God's best work man in simplicity.
List of OBJECTS OF INTEREST IN EDINBURGH AND ENVIRONS.
College Museum, South Bridge - Daily, from 10 till 4, 1s.
Holyrood Palace, and Chapel Royal, Canongate, Daily, Gratuity.
House of John Knox, High Street, Netherbow, Daily, Gratuity.
Nelson's Monument and Observatory, Calton Hill, Daily, 1s.
Roslin Castle and Chapel (by Coach, 10 Prince's St.) Daily, Gratuity.
Scott Monument (Top), Prince's Street, Daily, from 10 till 4, 6d.
St Giles's Cathedral and Musical Bells, High St., Daily, between 1 & 2, Gratuity.
Waterloo Reading Rooms, Daily, 1d.
Zoological Cardens, Claremont Crescent, Daily, 1s.
Advocates' Library, Parliament Square, Daily, from 10 till 4.
Antiquarian Museum. George Street, Tuesdays and Fridays, from 10 till 4, by Members' Orders.
Royal Botanic Gardens and Museum, Inverleith Row, Daily, from 10 till 5.
British Linen Co.'s Bank (Interior), St Andrew Square, Daily, from 10 till 4.
Commercial Bank of Scotland (Interior), George Street, Daily, from 10 till 4.
Dean Bridge and Cemetery, Queensferry Road.
Donaldson's Hospital, Tuesdays and Fridays, from 2-and-half till 4, Director's Order.
Edinburgh Castle Queen Mary's Apartments Regalia Chapel.
Experimental Gardens and Winter Garden, Inverleith Row, Daily, Members' Orders, or from Mr W. W. Evans, Curator of the Gardens.
Exhibition of Paintings, &c., Royal Institution, Tuesdays and Fridays, Gratis.
Gallery of Sculptures, Royal Institution, every day except Saturday, 10 till 4.
Hawthornden (by Lasswade Coach, from 10 Prince's Street), Wednesday.
Heriot's Hospital, Lauriston, Orders obtained at the Treasurer's Chambers, Royal Exchange, Admission from 12 till 3, Saturday excepted.
Highland and Agricultural Society's Museum. Geo. IV. Bridge.
Parliament House, Parliament Square, Daily, from 9 till 4.
Regalia of Scotland, Castle, Orders obtained at the Council Chambers, Royal Exchange, at a quarter past 11 daily.
Register House, Prince's Street, Daily, from 9 till 4.
Royal College of Surgeons' Museum, 18 Nicolson Street, Monday, Tuesday, and Friday, from 12 till 3, Saturday, from 10 till 3, Members' Order.
Signet Library, Parliament Square, Daily, from 11 till 4.
Places where a Good View of the City and surrounding Country may be obtained.
Calton Hill. Castle Ramparts. Arthur's Seat.